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97002

INTERSTAGE COOLING IN COMPRESSORS

Giacomo Bisio and Francesco Devia Energy and Conditioning Department - University of Genoa Via all'Opera Pia 15 A - 16145 Genoa Italy Phone: 391101353.2867 - FAX: 39110131 1870

ABSTRACT Interstage cooling in air compressors presents pros and cons according to the purposes for which air is compressed and the systems up to now applied are very different among them. In the paper cases in which intercooling is made by usual exchangers are firstly considered. In these cases, either only the final pressure is useful, or both final pressure and temperature are useful. Subsequently, injection of alcohols in open-cycle gas turbines during the compression process is considered, putting in evidence theoretical and actually possible advantages, as higher efficiency and specific work. In the various cases examined, several thermodynamic parameters should be suitably chosen in order to examine the most convenient solution. NOMENCLATURE specific exergy parameter defined in this paper [kJ/kg] exergy [kJ] lost exergy [kJ] losable or reference exergy [kJ] recovered and usable exergy [kJ] specific exergy [kJ/kg] specific enthalpy [kJikg] specific "external" or shaft work [kJ/kg] mass flow rate [kgis] volume flow rate [m3 (nTp)/h] pressure [bar] environment pressure [bar] temperature [K, "C] environment temperature [K, "C] temperature at the gas turbine inlet [K, "C] used fraction [dimensionless] relative entropy production [dimensionless] o, actual entropy production [kJ/K]

orf

0
@ @'

@*

reference entropy production [kJ/K] ratio of the highest per cent consumption of fuel to the highest percent enthalpy variation in a regenerator with interstage cooling [dimensionless] exergy efficiency [dimensionless] alternative expression of exergy efficiency coinciding with the definition of isothermal efficiency for a compressor [dimensionless] exergy efficiency of a flow closed system [dimensionless]

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. A Definition of Efficiencv on the Basis of the two Laws of Thermodynamics The critical examination of the concept of efficiency has led the author to formulate some requirements for its statement based on the two laws of thermodynamics. In references (Bisio 1987 and 1989a), it has been demonstrated that only exergy efficiency can fulfil all the requirements; however, not all the formulations comply with the condition that efficiency should be suitable in principle to vary between zero (for no useful effect) and one (maximum useful effect and no entropy production). This domain is comprised within the case of no entropy production (upper limit) and the one of no useful effect (lower limit) As a reference value, o ~the entropy production correspond, ing to no useful effect is assumed; multiplied by the environment temperature To, it gives, for the selected operation domain, the maximum loss, a parameter called losable (or reference) exergy, Ex,. The actual entropy production, na,multiplied by To gives the actual exergy loss, Ex,. The ratio of the actual entropy production to the reference one is called relative entropy production,o,. The difference between the losable exergy and the lost one is the recovered exergy, Ex,.

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Exergy efficiency is the ratio of the recovered exergy to the losable one. One has that

CD

Ex,/Ex,

(EX,- Exa)/Ex,

= ( , (T~)/(T$= 0, 0 1

The recovered exergy must be actually usable in the real process; otherwise, by Ex,, one should indicate the actually usable exergy and not the total recovered exergy.
1.2. lnterstaae Refriaeration in ComDressors It is well known that compressor specific work is as lower as the fluid density is higher. Interstage cooling increases the fluid density. This refrigeration, in relation to the purposes of a compressor, is made in various ways: (a) by refrigerating interstage fluid using a surface exchanger without any employment of the recovered thermal energy; (b) by refrigerating interstage fluid using a surface exchanger with utilization of the recovered thermal energy; (c) by refrigerating interstage fluid using the evaporation of water; (d) by refrigerating interstage fluid (air) using the evaporation of methyl or ethyl alcohol. This refrigeration, even if reduces compressor work, not in all conditions is economically profitable, owing to the variation of other parameters. With reference to previous papers, pros and cons of interstage cooling are analyzed for different cases in the next sections. 2. REFRIGERATION OF INTERSTAGE FLUID USING A HEAT EXCHANGER 2.1. General Remarks Actually, in industrial applications the compressor units serve a range of different functions. In some cases both the pressure increase and the corresponding temperature rise of the compressed fluid are useful (e.g., compressed air to be used in combustion). In these cases the exergy value of the final state is quite meaningful. But often the only purpose is that of obtaining a higher fluid pressure; in fact, the corresponding temperature rise above the value To of the environment is either not useful for technical purposes, or it is lost before being used by lack of insulation. The latter occurs, for example, in a compressed air plant for pneumatic tools (Stecco and Manfrida, 1986; Bisio, 1987 and 1989a). In the latter eventuality it is obvious that interstage cooling is profitable. Refrigeration is usually applied in all the compressors of this kind, when volume flow rate and compression ratio are not to low (Sedille, 1973). In the former case a first law analysis would show the unprofitableness of intermediate cooling, since it requires a greater energy consumption. It must be noted, however, that more thermal energy is needed, while some work is spared and consequently a deeper examination is required in each case in order to obtain the best solution. One of the most interesting appliances of intermediate cooling is in the iron and steel industry and concerns the blast furnace air compressors (Heinrich and Weber, 1979; Bisio, 1989). The following parameter has been proposed for a first judgment on the suitability of interstage cooling (Bisio, 1989b):

shaft work in the considered plant without intermediate cooling; shaft work in the same plant to which two changes are applied: (a) insertion of an intermediate cooling, (b) slight lessening of the compression ratio in order to have the same regenerator final pressure; regenerator inlet air exergy without intermediate cooling; regenerator inlet air exergy with intermediate cooling; ratio of the higher per cent consumption of fuel to the higher enthalpy variation of air in the regenerator in the presence of intermediate cooling Using this parameters and other elements, it follows that the break-even point corresponds to a volume flow rate of the blast of 250,000-300,000 m3 (nTp)/h.
2.2. Numerical Results for Blast-furnace Comoressors From (Bisio, 1989b) two comparisons between blast-furnace compressors with and without intermediate cooling are reported (Table 1). TABLE 1. - COMPARISONS BETWEEN BLAST-FURNACE COMPRESSORS WITH AND WITHOUT INTERSTAGE COOLING.

C,,

Q, C,,

kJ/kg kW

12.37 3110

8.5 1 764

c,,
where:

I L', - LO,+ (exg, - exsc)0 I

The subscript numbers indicate (also with reference to Fig. 1) the various states of the air and precisely: ( 1 ) air before the first compression stage (coinciding with the environment state), (2) air after the first compression stage, (3) air before the compression second stage and after intermediate cooling, if it is present, (4) air after the compression second stage; (5) air at the Cowper stove inlet. Thermal and mechanical irreversibilities, that are out of the air flow, are not considered: indeed, these irreversibilities are sup-

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posed to be independent of the presence of intermediate cooling, even if that is not strictly true. Furthermore, in the case of intermediate cooling, the following elements are neglected: (a) refrigeration water, (b) higher electrical energy amount necessary for the Cowper regenerator burner air, (c) depreciation costs of the air-water exchanger. It must be noted that only the first element is remarkable. Consequently, if Q, is the mass flow rate, negative or slightly positive values of Q, C,, advise against the application of intermediate cooling.
3. REFRIGERATION OF INTERSTAGE FLUID BY A SURFACE EXCHANGER USING THE RECOVERED THERMAL ENERGY

tained. In addition, one can avoid the greater losses due to the set "turbine-electric generator-electric motor second compressor" with respect to the direct coupling "turbine-second compressor".
4. COOLING OF INTERSTAGE AIR USING WATER lNJECTlONS

3.1. System to compress Air usina NG (Natural Gas) ExDansion Recently, one has examined the possibility of employment of the NG pressure exergy to compress air (Gneuss, 1983; Lutge R., 1988) and, at the same time, of use of the refrigeration thermal energy of compressed air to heat NG. Generally, other low-temperature thermal energy is necessary to heat NG. In large-size plants (e.g., iron and steel works), there is usually a compressed air network, fed by one or two conveniently located air-compression stations to reduce the overall pipeline irreversibilities; it is easy to connect the recovery station to the compressed air network, In addition, in large-size works, there is a high availability of low-temperature thermal energy and studies have been carried out for actual utilization. A lay-out of a possible system is schematically presented in Fig. 2. The NG flows through the first auxiliary heater A, the first turbine B, the heat exchanger C, the second auxiliary heater D, and then the second turbine E. The air flows through the first compressor F, the heat exchanger C and then the second compressor G. The air at the exit of the second compressor G, after a possible refrigeration in the exchanger A, goes into the compressed air network so that its deficiency is in no case a cause of troubles. The refrigeration of the air at the first compressor outlet by means of the NG at the first turbine outlet reduces the work of the second compressor and supplies the necessary thermal energy to the NG. The energy obtained from the air refrigeration after the first compressor is usually not sufficient for the optimal working of the NG turbines. Thus, it is necessary to supply low-temperature heat in one or both auxiliary heaters. In particular, thermal energy of the air at the second compressor outlet may be used. 3.2. Svstem to compress Air usina BFG (Blast-furnace Gas) ExDansion It is sometimes suitable to couple the intermediate cooling between the first and second stage of air compression with the heating of cleaned BFG and at the same time to drive the second stage of air compression by a BFG expansion turbine according to the layout of Fig. 3 (Flachsenhaar et al., 1981; Caussade, 1982). Owing to safety reasons the direct heat transfer air/BFG cannot be made. Generally, suitable thermofluids are used; however, heat pipes are more valid to reduce heat transfer irreversibilities. Using the schema of Fig. 3, one can reduce and sometimes cancel the fuel consumption (at the stoves or before the turbine inlet) to compensate (from an energy point of view) the work ob-

Improvement in the performance of air compression cycles may be achieved by discrete interstage water injecting which is a stepwise approximation to an isothermal process. Of course, the larger the number of cooling stages, the closer the approximation to isothermal compression. In actuality, however, it is impractical and even unprofitable to have a large number of stage. A more direct method of achieving quasi-isothermal conditions would be a quasi-continuous cooling by the injection of a coolant from the rotating blades along the path of compression (Pinkus, 1983). The particular attraction of such an injection system in centrifugal compressors is that no special equipment is needed for the delivery and compression of the coolant. Indeed, the liquid admitted at atmospheric conditions to the rotating shaft is pumped by centrifugal force outward along channels cut in the blades or other adjacent surfaces. A large number of orifices should be used, so that their diameter is as small as possible. The orifices, barring other considerations, should be located at points of high air velocity. Droplet size is probably the most crucial parameter in a liquid injection system. Smaller particles have the highest rates of vaporization, whereas large drops are also more likely to collide with walls .
5. INTERSTAGE AIR COOLING USING ALCOHOLS 5.1. General Remarks It is well known that methanol and ethanol can be successfully used as fuels in conventional combustion chambers of open-cycle gas turbines (Brayton cycle). Direct firing of alcohols in gas turbines, although feasible and even attractive in certain respects, would not make best use of the fuels' potential (Bardon, 1982; Fortin and Bardon, 1983). Because of the low calorific values of alcohols and their very large enthalpies of evaporation, there is a considerable evaporative cooling effect which can substantially vary engine performance. If this unique combination of characteristics is used effectively, there are improvements possible which do not exist for alcane hydrocarbons. The cooling resulting from fuel evaporation tends to reduce the work of compression thereby raising power output and cycle efficiency. However, the increased quantity of gas requires additional work input for whatever further compression remains; this opposes the beneficial effect of evaporative cooling. It has been demonstrated that, for methanol and ethanol, the cooling effect dominates and there is a net benefit to fuel evaporation during a compression process. For alcane hydrocarbons, on the other hand, the overall effect is generally negative because the additional gas requires more work than is saved by the cooling. In the calculations performed by Bardon (1982) to evaluate the potential of the concept, the case considered is that which produces the greatest improvement, namely that injection of liquid fuel is made into the compressor inlet air and the following fundamental conditions are realized: (a) fuel evaporation to equilibrium before entering the compressor; (b) compression of the two-phase

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mixture of air, fuel vapor and liquid fuel droplets; (c) combustion without further fuel addition in the combustion chamber. Fortin and Bordon (1983) have examined an open-cycle gas turbine working with usual hydrocarbons and with interstage cooling of compressor using methanol vaporization. Also in this case the maximum theoretical benefit could be obtained if the alcohol would be injected upstream of the compressor, vapor/liquid equilibrium be achieved before compression began, and thereafter equilibrium be maintained during the remainder of the evaporation within the compressor. From a practical viewpoint, achieving this maximum theoretical benefit would be difficult because it requires the following conditions: (a) droplet size should be very small to made evaporation sufficiently fast to maintain equilibrium; (b) the increased mass flow of gas due to the steadily increasing quality of methanol vapor should be accounted for in the compressor design; (c) the liquid droplets should not cause serious erosion of the compressor blades. One possible measure which might eliminate all three factors at the cost of a reduced efficiency gain would be the injection between stages. In this way the following advantages might be obtained: (a) alcohol would be injected only after a sufficient compression had occurred to raise the air temperature to a level allowing rapid and complete evaporation before the remainder of the compression took place; (b) although different stages of the compression would have different mass flow, each would be constant instead of variable as in the case of continuous evaporation, allowing standard design procedures; (c) there would be no erosion of blades.
TABLE 2. COMPARISON WITH A CONVENTIONAL CYCLE OF THE PERFORMANCES OF A GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING USING CH,OH AND WITH TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE OF 1055 K.

selected so that the used fraction with evaporative intercooling would be the same as that of a conventional cycle.
TABLE 3. - COMPARISON WITH A CONVENTIONAL CYCLE OF THE TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURES OF A GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING USING CH,OH AND WITH A USED FRACTION EQUAL TO THAT OF THE CONVENTIONAL CYCLE.

l r rl l l I 0.3077 I 1 Intermediate cooling I I


Conventional cycle Conventionalcvcle

@* @*

I
I I

Tmox

I
I I

0.4620

1055.0

Lmr ' 178.7

between stages: 1-2 2 -3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9 - 10

0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077 0.3077

0.4849 0.4821 0.4794 0.4767 0.4741 0.4716 0.4691 0.4667 0.4643

908.2 923.2 938.5 954.1 969.9 986.1 1002.7 1019.6 1037.0

125.2 130.5 135.9 141.4 147.1 153.0 159.1 165.4 171.9

TABLE 4. - COMPARISON WITH A CONVENTIONAL CYCLE OF THE PERFORMANCES OF A GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING USING CH,OH AND WITH TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE OF 1350 OC.

Conventional cvcle

&
ciency @*

Used fraction q

I Exergy e f i -

Specific work L<,;,.'

519.3

I
Conventional cvcle

I Used I Exergyefl- I I f r a c t i o n q I ciency@* I


I
0.3077

Specific workLOi,'

I
I

0.4620

178.7

IIntermediate cooling I
between stages: 0.3467 0.3425 0.3372 0.3322 0.3275 0.323 1 0.3 189 0.3150 0.3 113

I
0.5302 0.5226 0.5131 0.5043 0.4961 0.4884 0.4812 0.4744 0.4680

I
215.2 211.0 205.8 201.0 196.6 192.5 188.7 185.1 181.8

5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9 - 10

Intermediate cooling between stages: 1-2 2 -3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9 - 10

0.4187 0.4 186 0.4190 0.4185 0.4171 0.4149 0.41 17 0.4086 0.4056 0.4028

0.5894 0.5892 0.5899 0.5889 0.5863 0.5820 0.5759 0.5702 0.5647 0.5596

599.3 599.0 600.1 598.5 594.9 588.7 579.9 571.6 563.8 556.5

0.3926
5.2. Numerical Results Table 2 shows used fraction, q, exergy efficiency of the only flowsystem, @*, and specific work, L', for a conventional cycle and when alcohol injection occurs between various stages of a tenstage compressor. Each case shown has the same maximum turbine inlet temperature of 1055 K which means that the fueliair ratios are slightly different in the various cases. Table 3 shows the same data for cycle calculations in which the fuel injection was

0.5413

530.5

Tables 4 and 5 show the same data of Tables 2 and 3 with reference to a conventional cycle with turbine inlet temperature of 1350 "C. This value is near to that of the up-to-date high quality applications.

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TABLE 5. - COMPARISON WITH A CONVENTIONAL CYCLE OF THE TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURES OF A GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING USING CH,OH AND WITH A USED FRACTION EQUAL TO THAT OF THE CONVENTIONAL CYCLE.

Intermediate cooling between stages:

I
0.5604 0.5582 0.5561 1157 1179

I
251.8 262.8 274.5

3-4 4-5
5-6

0.3880 0.3880 0.3880

With reference to the data of Tables 4 and 5, it is to be remarked that, in terms of used fraction and exergy efficiency, multistage injection achieves, approximately, the same performance of single point injection between stage 7 and 8. Figures 4-7 show results of calculations accomplished in order to evaluate the performances of gas turbine with single point injection after stage No. 7 (Figs. 4, 5 ) and multistage injection (Figs. 6, 7). Fuel mass flow rate and work are reported in Figs. 4 and 6 as a function of turbine inlet temperature (TmaX). Figures 5 and 7 report used fraction and exergy efficiency. in each figure, the black marks show the performances of gas turbine, without interstage cooling, working at nominal condition (T,,, =1623 K). It is worth to notice that using interstage cooling it is possible to produce an equivalent amount of work reducing turbine inlet temperature of about 70 K or increase work production of about 12% Used fraction increases of about 0.023 (from 0.388 to 0.41 17 at nominal condition. It is possible to reduce turbine inlet temperature of more than 300 K and yet yielding a slightly higher used fraction than Brayton cycle at nominal condition. Exergy efficiency increase is about 0.042 (from 0.5333 to 0.5759) and temperature reduction is more than 400 K.
6. CONCLUSION

to point out the expediency of such cooling which would not appear so in an energy analysis. The application of interstage cooling entails higher plant costs and then only a technical economical analysis can give a definitive judgment, even if suitable exergy parameters can give a first orientating idea, in particular showing the expediency of certain devices, when the plant exceeds a given power. Among interstage refrigerations using heat exchangers, the following seem deserving particular significance. (a) The refrigeration of blast-furnace compressors which however, owing to higher plant costs, appears economically expedient, for not to cold climates, only for volume flow rate equal or higher than 500,000 m3(Tpn)/h, i.e. for very large size blast furnaces. (b) The refrigeration of air after the compressor outlet coupled with the heating of a fluid before the turbine inlet. Some of these applications, that exergy analysis shows as very expedient, have been already carried out and others are being studied. The unique limit of these applications is the link that they introduce between two different plants. The above concepts may be applied in a different field. It is already well known that alcohols can be burned in open-cycle gas turbines by direct firing in the combustor; however, there is the possibility of significant improvements in thermal efficiency by modifying the way in which alcohols are used in Brayton cycle engine. Injection of the alcohol during the compression process can materially improve both thermal efficiency and specific work. To attain the maximum improvements the following main conditions are to be fulfilled: (a) injection of liquid fuel into the compressor inlet air; (b) evaporation to equilibrium before entering the compressor; (c) compression of the 2-phase mixture of air, fuel vapor and liquid fuel droplets; (d) combustion without further fuel addition in the combustion chamber. In addition, alcohols can be used for compressor interstage cooling in a gas turbine using ordinary hydrocarbons. Calculations have been made for the best case, assuming that alcohol is injected upstream of the compressor, vaporiliquid equilibrium is achieved before compression, and maintained during the remainder of the evaporation within the compressor. However, achieving the maximum benefit would be difficult for several reasons; practically, a reduced efficiency gain can be obtained by the injection between stages so that: (a) alcohol would be injected only after sufficient compression had occurred to raise the air temperature to a level allowing rapid and complete evaporation before the remainder of compression takes place; (b) although different stages of the compression would have different mass flow, each would be constant rather than variable as in the case of continuous evaporation, allowing standard design procedures; (c) there would be no erosion of blades. The only remaining serious obstacle to implementation of such a system seems the combustion chamber design to burn the lean homogeneous mixture delivered by the compressor. Probably, a catalytic combustor would be ideal.
REFERENCES

The various kinds of interstage cooling allow a saving of an energy operatively equivalent to work in different ways. In the case of blast-furnace compressor one obtains also lower losses of thermal energy in the "cold wind" main (usually not insulated). Generally, one has a greater consumption of thermal energy of lower operative value and thus only an exergy analysis is suitable

Bardon, M.F., 1982, "Modified Brayton cycles utilizing alcohol fuels", J. o Engineeringfor Power, 104,341-348. f Bisio, G., 1983, "Utilizzazione del livello exergetico connesso alla pressione del gas d'altofomo",Proceedings, XXXVIII Congress0 Nazionale ATI, Bari, 26-30 Settembre, I, 23-34.

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Bisio, G., 1987, "On a general statement for exergy efficiency",Analysis and Design o Advanced Energy Systems: Fundamentals, M.J. Moran, f R.A. Gaggioli, Eds., 45-50, The Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, Boston, December 13-18, ASME, New York. Bisio, G., 1989%"Ona general statement for efficiency", Chemical Engrneering Communicatiow 81, 177-195. Bisio, G., 1989b, "A second-law analysis on the expediency of intermediate cooling for combustion air compressors", Proceedings, Internutional Symposium on Thermodynamic Analysis and Improvement of Energy Systems, Beijing, June 5-8, Cai Ruixian, M.J. Moran, Eds., sect. Exergy

Gambini, M., and Peretto, A., 1995, "Turbine a gas a compressione frazionata per il ripotenziamento d,i impianti a vapore esistenti", Proceedings. VIII Convegno Nazronale Tecnologie e-Sistemi Energetici Complessi "SergioStecco", Bologna, 15-16 Giugno, 213-225, SGE, Padova. Gneuss, G, 1983, "Nutzung von Druckenergie durch Gasexpansionmotoren", B. W.K.,35,428432. Heinrich, P., and Weber, D., 1979, "Einfluss der Zwischenkiihlung bei Hochofenwindverdichtem auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit", Stuhl u. Eisen, 99,

Analysis, 3 17-322, International Academic Publisher, Pergamon Press, New York. Bisio, G., 1995, "Thermodynamic analysis of the use of pressure exergy of natural gas", Energy - 7he International Journal, 20, 161-167. Caussade, B., 1982, "Rtcuperation de I'hergie pneumatique des gas de geulard", Revue de Me'tallurgie, Janvier, 1-1 1. Fkhsenhaar, E., Griebenow, H., Krafft, W., and Reinitzhuber, F., 1981, "Erfahrungen mit einer Gichtgasentspannungsturbine", Stahl u. Eisen, 101,405- 409. Fortin, J.A.C., and Bardon, M.F., 1983, "Gas turbine compressor interstage cooling using methano1"J. of Engineering for Power, 105, 859864.

1028-1038. Irimie, I.I., Irimie, S., and Tulbure, I., 1996,"Considerations to improve the recovery of the thermic component of the compressed air for compressor stations", Proceedings, IECEC 96, Washington, DC, August 11-16,4,2291-2298,IEEE, Piscataway, NJ. Liitge, R., 1988, "Uberlegungen zur Drucklufterzeugung mit einem Gasexpansionmotor", Gaswdrme International, 37, 269-272. Pinkus, 0.. 1983, "Liquid particle dynamics and rate of evaporation in the rotating field of centrifugal compressors", .ofhgrneeringfor Power, I
105, 80-87.

Sedille, M., 1973, Ventilateurs et Compresseurs Centrijuges et Axiuw, 2, Eyrolles Editeur, Masson et Cie Editeurs, Paris. Stecco, S . , and Manfrida, G., 1986, "Exergy analysis of compression and expansion processes", Energy, 11, 573-577.

c .

--

IT

FIG. 1 . LAY-OUT OF A SYSTEM TO COMPRESS AND HEAT OF COMBUSTION AIR FOR A BLAST FURNACE: (A) turbine. (B) steam inlet, ( C ) steam outlet, (D) first stage of air compressor, (E) interstage cooler, (F) second stage of air compressor, (G) air inlet into compressor, (H) air outlet from compressor ("cold wind"), (I) water inlet into interstage cooler, (J) water outlet from cooler, (K) blast furnace, (L) regenerator stoves, (M) "cold wind"), (N) "hot wind"), (0)"cold wind" by-pass, (P) by-pass regulation valve, (Q) temperature recorder, (R) controller device for regulation valve, (S) combustion air for stoves, (T) fuel gas, (U) waste gas.

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FIG. 2 . LAYOUT OF A SYSTEM FOR AIR COMPRESSION BY MEANS OF NG EXPANSION. Each one of the two turbines is mechanically connected to one compressor; (A) first auxiliary heater, (B) first turbine, (C) NG/air heat exchanger, (D) second auxiliary heater, (E) second turbine, (F) first compressor, (G) second compressor. (H) regulation valve: (0) state of inlet air; ( 5 ) state of inlet NG.

FIG. 3 . LAYOUT OF A SYSTEM FOR AIR COMPRESSION ("COLD WIND") BY MEANS OF BFG EXPANSION: (A) first compressor, (B) air/BFG heat exchanger. (C) second compressor. (D) wet cleaner, (E) auxiliary heater, (F) turbine, (G) "septum" valve; (0) state of inlet air: ( 5 ) state of inlet BFG.

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1600 1400
n

0.08
0.07

0.6

0.6

5
f

U l

0.5
1200 1000 0.06
0.05

0.5
0.4

.m

'c:
0 .c
0

0.4

8
al
C
Q)

800
600 400 200 0
800 1000 1200 1400 1600

0.04

$
0
Y

a l .-

& 0.3
Q al

0.3

E
3

m
E

*
E? 0

0.03
0.02 0.01
0

0.2
0.1

0.2

1
W

Interstage cooling Brayton Cycle

0.1

Cycle max. temperature F]


FIG. 4. INJECTION AFTER STAGE 7: work and fuel mass f l o w rate vs turbine inlet temperature (Tmax).

0 + 0 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Cycle max. temperature

m]

FIG. 5 . INJECTION AFTER STAGE 7: used fraction and exergy efficiency vs turbine inlet temperature (Tmax).

1600 1400
n

I 0*08 lnterstage cooling


0.07 0.06

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

5
x

0)

1200 1000

2 5

'c:

s
L

.m

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02

E
f

C
I -

0.4

0.4

0
0

5
a l
C

800
600 400 200

3
0

CI

.0.3

C P ,

m t: 0.3
U

Q)

3 0.2
nterstage cooling 0.1

a l

s
0.2

P 0

0.01

0.1

0 0 800 1000 1200 1400 1600


Cycle max. temperature [K]
FIG. 6. MULTISTAGE INJECTION: work and fuel mass flow rate vs turbine inlet temperature (Tmax).

0
800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Cycle may. temperature [K]

FIG. 7. MULTISTAGE INJECTION: used fraction and exergy efficiency vs turbine inlet temperature (Tmax).

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