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The "Qur'an Of Uthman" At The Turk ve Islam Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic

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ve Isla m Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic Page 1 of 5 The “Qur' ā n
ve Isla m Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic Page 1 of 5 The “Qur' ā n

The “Qur'ān Of ʿUthmān” At The Türk ve İslam Eserleri Müzesi (Turkish and Islamic Art Museum), Istanbul, Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra

Islamic Awareness

Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)
Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)
Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)
Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)
Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)

(a)

Turkey, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)

(c)

From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)

(b)

From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra Islamic Awareness (a) (c) (b) (d)

(d)

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The "Qur'an Of Uthman" At The Turk ve Islam Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic

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ve Isla m Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic Page 2 of 5 (e) Figures: (a) Folio

(e)

Figures: (a) Folio 4a showing sūrah al-Baqarah - part of verse 30 to part of verse 34. (b) Folio 317b showing sūrah Fāṭir - verse 44 to the end, and sūrah Yāsīn - from the beginning until part of verse 7. (c) Folio 419a showing sūrah al-Muddathir - part of verse 31 to part of verse 56. (d) Folio 432b showing sūrah al-Ḍuḥa - part of verse 4 to end. Sūrah al-Sharh - from the beginning until the end. Sūrah Tīn - from the beginning until end of verse 3. (e) Folio 439 say "Katabah ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān fī sanat thalathyn".

Date

Late 1st century / early 2nd century of hijra. Two folios (183b, 439) of this manuscript were published by alāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid. [1] A facsimile edition of this manuscript was prepared by Dr. Tayyar Altikulaç in the year 2007. [2] A folio of this manuscript was also published recently by Seracettin Şahin. [3]

Interestingly, on the last folio (no. 439) of the manuscript is written in kufic script “katabahu ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān fī sanat thalathyn” (“ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān wrote in the year 30 AH”). However, the script and ornamentation negates this possibility. Dr. Altikulaç considers this manuscript to be from second half of 1st century or first half of 2nd century hijra. [4] He thinks that it is a Basran muꜞ᷉af which does not fully confirm with any of 7 or 10 mutawatir readings in terms of dotting or vowelization. It was written, therefore, before the standardization and spread of famous readings. Likewise, alāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid did not consider this manuscript to be from the time of caliph ʿUthmān and dates it to second half of 1st century hijra. According to him, this manuscript is the "earliest muꜞ᷉af we have seen". [5]

The dating of this manuscript to late 1st century / early 2nd century of hijra is also supported by the fact that the script in this manuscript has interesting similarities to that of codex Mixt. 917, which is also dated to similar time period.

Accession Number

TIEM Inv. No. 457 (‘Türk ve İslam Eserleri Müzesi Inv. No. 457’) .

Size & Folios

Total number of folios: 439. Only 17 folios are missing out of which 14 folios are restored by a later hand, by Dāwūd bin ʿAlī al-Kaylānī on 3rd December, 1437 CE. These folios are 1, 38, 91, 120, 139, 222, 299, 308, 408, 415, 427, 436, 437, 438. The other three missing folios are the ones after folio nos. 9, 215, 406. Size: 32 cm x 23 cms. Written area: 22 cm x 16 cm. Thickness: 13 cm.

History Of The Manuscript

Very little information is available. Transferred from the Aya Sofiya library to the Türk ve İslam Eserleri Müzesi on 30th March, 1912 CE. It was here the manuscript was given the accession no. 457. Remains there till date. Its origins and when it arrived at the Aya Sofia library is unknown. On the first folio, a waqf seal of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmoud I (1730-1754 CE) is present.

Script & Ornamentation

Kufic.

The manuscript is written on gazelle skin. On the other hand, the folios restored in 1437 CE are made of paper.

There are 15 lines per folio except three folios, viz., f. 184a has 16 lines; f. 405a has 14 lines; f. 406a has 13 lines and f. 406b has 14 lines. The folios restored in 1437 CE folios have between 7 and 10 lines per page. The verse endings are marked by a set of diagonal dashes; every fifth verse is marked with a golden ‘d’ shaped character. Every tenth verse is marked with a patterned circular gold medallion connected by blue, green, and red dots [Figures (c) and (d)]. The consonants are frequently differentiated by dashes. The beginning of the sūrah, number of verses and whether Makki or Madani are indicated in gold [Figures (b) and (d)]. It appears that this sūrah separator along with the marking of every fifth verse was done by a different (later?) hand.

On the last folio (no. 439) of the manuscript is written in kufic script “katabahu ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān fī sanat thalathyn”. This statement is enclosed inside a highly ornate rectangular box with a semicircle jutting out from its left hand side [Figure (e)]. This appears to be a floor design of a mosque with mihrab.

There are good number of other Qur'ans [such as the ones at St. Petersburg, Istanbul, two in Cairo (al-Hussein mosque and Dār al-Kutub) and Samarqand] having at times turned up in different parts of the Islamic world, almost all purporting to show the traces of the blood of the third caliph ʿUthmān upon certain pages, and thus the genuine ʿUthmānic Qur'an, the imām, which he was reading at the time of his death. Taking into account the palaeographic

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11-Nov-11

The "Qur'an Of Uthman" At The Turk ve Islam Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic

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considerations, this Qur'an does not belong to time of the third caliph ʿUthmān.

Contents

The contents of the manuscript, as tabulated below, are gathered from the facsimile edition.

Folios

Qur'anic Sūrah

Image Publication

Comments

1b

al-Fātiah

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 1b is written in a later hand.

1b -34a

al-Baqarah

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 1b is written in a later hand.

34a - 54a

āl-ʿImrān

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 38a, 38b are written in a later hand.

54a - 75b

al-Nisā

Altikulaç, 2007

-

75b - 91b

al-Mā'idah

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 91a, 91b are written in a later hand.

91b - 108a

al-Anʿām

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 91b is written in a later hand.

108a - 127a

al-Aʿrāf

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 120a, 120b are written in a later hand.

127a - 134a

al-Anfāl

Altikulaç, 2007

-

134a - 148b

Tawbah

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 139a, 139b are written in a later hand.

148b - 159a

Yūnus

Altikulaç, 2007

-

159a - 169b

Hūd

Altikulaç, 2007

-

169b - 179b

Yūsuf

Altikulaç, 2007

-

179b - 183b

al-Rʿad

Altikulaç, 2007; Al-Munajjid, 1972 ( f.

 

183b)

-

184a - 188b

Ibrāhīm

Altikulaç, 2007

-

188b - 192a

al-ijr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

192a - 202a

al-Nahl

Altikulaç, 2007

-

202a - 211b

al-Isrāʾ

Altikulaç, 2007

-

211a - 218b

al-Kahf

Altikulaç, 2007

-

218b - 223b

Maryam

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 222a, 222b are written in a later hand.

223b - 231a

Ṭāhā

Altikulaç, 2007

-

231a - 237b

al-Anbiyā

Altikulaç, 2007

-

237b - 244b

al-ajj

Altikulaç, 2007

-

244b - 250b

al-Muʾminūn

Altikulaç, 2007

-

250b - 258a

al-Nūr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

258a - 263b

al-Furqān

Altikulaç, 2007

-

263b - 271a

al-Shuʿarā

Altikulaç, 2007

-

271a - 277b

al-Naml

Altikulaç, 2007

-

277b - 285b

al-Qaa

Altikulaç, 2007

-

285b - 291a

al-ʿAnkabūt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

291a - 296a

al-Rūm

Altikulaç, 2007

-

296a - 299a

Luqmān

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 299a is written in a later hand.

299a - 301a

al-Sajdah

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 299a, 299b are written in a later hand.

301a - 308b

al-Azāb

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 308a, 308b are written in a later hand.

308b - 313b

Sabʾ

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 308b is written in a later hand.

313b - 317b

Fāṭir

Altikulaç, 2007

-

317b - 321b

Yāsīn

Altikulaç, 2007

-

321b - 326b

al-Ṣāffāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

326b - 331a

Ṣād

Altikulaç, 2007

-

331a - 337b

al-Zumar

Altikulaç, 2007

-

337b - 344b

Ghāfir

Altikulaç, 2007

-

344b - 349a

Fussilat

Altikulaç, 2007

-

349a - 353b

al-Shūra

Altikulaç, 2007

-

353b - 358b

al-Zukhruf

Altikulaç, 2007

-

358b - 360b

al-Dukhān

Altikulaç, 2007

-

360b - 363a

al-Jāthiya

Altikulaç, 2007

-

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The "Qur'an Of Uthman" At The Turk ve Islam Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic

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363a - 367a

al-Aqāf

Altikulaç, 2007

-

367a - 370a

Muammad

Altikulaç, 2007

-

370a - 373b

al-Fata

Altikulaç, 2007

-

373b - 375b

al-ujurāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

375b - 377b

Qāf

Altikulaç, 2007

-

377b - 379b

al-Dhāriyāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

379b - 381b

al-Ṭūr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

381b - 383b

al-Najm

Altikulaç, 2007

-

383b - 385b

al-Qamar

Altikulaç, 2007

-

385b - 388a

al-Ramān

Altikulaç, 2007

-

388a - 390a

al-Wāqiʿah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

390a - 393b

al-adid

Altikulaç, 2007

-

393b - 396a

al-Mujādilah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

396a - 398b

al-ashr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

399a - 400b

al-Mumtainah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

400b - 402a

al-aff

Altikulaç, 2007

-

402a - 403a

al-Jumuʿah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

403a - 404a

al-Munāfiqūn

Altikulaç, 2007

-

404a - 406a

al-Taghābūn

Altikulaç, 2007

-

406a - 407b

al-Talāq

Altikulaç, 2007

-

408a - 409a

al-Tahrīm

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 408a, 408b are written in a later hand.

409a - 410a

al-Mulk

Altikulaç, 2007

-

410a - 411b

al-Qalam

Altikulaç, 2007

-

411b - 413a

al-aqqah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

413a - 414a

al-Maʿārij

Altikulaç, 2007

-

414a - 415b

Nūḥ

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 415a, 415b are written in a later hand.

415b - 417a

al-Jinn

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 415b is written in a later hand

417a - 418a

al-Muzzammil

Altikulaç, 2007

-

418a - 419b

al-Muddathir

Altikulaç, 2007

-

419b - 420a

al-Qiyāmah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

420a - 421b

al-Insān

Altikulaç, 2007

-

421b - 422b

al-Mursalāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

422b - 423b

al-Nabāʾ

Altikulaç, 2007

-

423b - 424b

al-Nāziʿāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

424b - 425a

al-ʿAbasa

Altikulaç, 2007

-

425a - 426a

al-Takwīr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

426a - 426b

al-Intifār

Altikulaç, 2007

-

426b - 427b

al-Mutaffifīn

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 427a, 427b are written in a later hand.

427b - 428a

al-Inshiqāq

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 427b is written in a later hand.

428a - 428b

al-Burūj

Altikulaç, 2007

-

428b - 429a

al-Tāriq

Altikulaç, 2007

-

429a - 429b

al-ʿAlā

Altikulaç, 2007

-

429b - 430a

al-Ghāshīyah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

430a - 431a

al-Fajr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

431a - 431b

al-Balad

Altikulaç, 2007

-

431b

al-Shams

Altikulaç, 2007

-

431b - 432a

al-Layl

Altikulaç, 2007

-

432a - 432b

al-ua

Altikulaç, 2007

-

432b

al-Shar

Altikulaç, 2007

-

432b - 433a

al-Tīn

Altikulaç, 2007

-

433a - 433b

al-ʿAlaq

Altikulaç, 2007

-

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The "Qur'an Of Uthman" At The Turk ve Islam Eserleri Muzesi (Turkish and Islamic

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433b

al-Qadr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

433b - 434a

al-Bayyinah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

434a - 434b

al-Zalzalah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

434b

al-ʿAdiyāt

Altikulaç, 2007

-

434b - 435a

al-Qāriʿah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

435a

al-Takāthur

Altikulaç, 2007

-

435a - 435b

al-ʿAsr

Altikulaç, 2007

-

435b

al-Humazah

Altikulaç, 2007

-

435b - 436a

al-Fīl

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 436a is written in a later hand.

436b

al-Quraysh

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 436b is written in a later hand.

436b

al-Māʿun

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 436b is written in a later hand.

437a

al-Kawthar

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 437a is written in a later hand.

437a

al-Kafirūn

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 437a is written in a later hand.

437a - 437b

al-Nar

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folios 437a and 437b are written in a later hand.

437b

al-Masad

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 437b is written in a later hand.

437b

al-Ikhlās

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 437b is written in a later hand.

438a

al-Falaq

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 438a is written in a later hand.

438a

al-Nās

Altikulaç, 2007

Missing folio 438a is written in a later hand.

Location

Türk ve İslam Eserleri Müzesi (Turkish and Islamic Art Museum), Istanbul, Turkey.

( Turkish and Islamic Art Museum ), Istanbul, Turkey. References [1] S. al-Munajjid, Dir ā s

References

[1] S. al-Munajjid, Dirāsāt fī Tārīkh al-Khatt al-ʿArabī Mundhu Bidayatihi ilā Nihayat al-ʿAsr al-Umawi (French Title: Etudes De Paleographie Arabe), 1972, Dār al- Kitāb al-Jadid: Beirut (Lebanon), pp. 56-57, Figs. 26 and 27.

[2] T. Altikulaç, Hz. Osman’a Nisbet Edilen Mushaf- I Şerîf (Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi Nüshas ı), 2007, Volumes I and II, İslam Araşt ırmalar ı Merkezi (İSAM):

Istanbul (Turkey).

[3] S. Şahin, The Museum Of Turkish And Islamic Arts - Thirteen Centuries Of Glory From The Umayyads To The Ottomans, 2009, Blue Dome Press: New York (NY),

p. 23 (description), pp. 24-25 (picture).

[4] T. Altikulaç, Hz. Osman’a Nisbet Edilen Mushaf- I Şerîf (Türk ve İslâm Eserleri Müzesi Nüshas ı), 2007, op. cit., pp. 106-107 (Volume I, Turkish section), pp. 120- 121 (Volume I, Arabic section).

[5] S. al-Munajjid, Dirāsāt fī Tārīkh al-Khatt al-ʿArabī Mundhu Bidayatihi ilā Nihayat al-ʿAsr al-Umawi (French Title: Etudes De Paleographie Arabe), 1972, op. cit.,

p. 55.

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With the exception for those images which have passed into the public domain, the use of these images for commercial purposes is expressly prohibited without the consent of the copyright holder.

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