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COMPLEMENTARY HELP FOR THE ENGLISH COURSE

PARTS OF SPEECH In grammar, to understand the structure of a sentence, it is divided into eight classes or eight parts of speech. And the very beginning of knowledge of grammar is to know the parts of speech. The parts of speech are: NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES ADVERBS PRONOUNS PREPOSITIONS CONJUNGTIONS INTERJECTIONS or EXCLAMATIONS

I.- NOUNS.
A noun is the name of any object, place, animal, thing or person. There are four kinds of nouns: a.-) COMMON NOUNS: Are the names of objects, creatures or animals. We also say common nouns are the names of classes of objects and the names are common to all of these objects. Examples: pen, ink, paper, house, machinery, ship, picture, star, ball. b.-) PROPER NOUNS: The names of persons and places: and some times the specific names of animals, ships, buildings, and so on. We also say that a proper noun is the special name of one particular object. Example: James, Mary, February, Buckingham Palace, Washington, New York, Bogot, Peter. Etc c.-) COLLECTIVE NOUNS: Are the names of collections or group of things. One noun referring to a number of individuals collected together as a group: example: a heard of cattle, a flack of birds, a crowd of people, army of soldiers, a fleet of ships, a pack of cards, a choir of angels. d.-) ABSTRACT NOUNS: Are names which do not exist except as qualities of persons or things. The name of some qualities or nonmaterial thing. Example; height, beauty, breadth, redness, charity, invisibility. Nouns have Number, Gender, and Case. Number tells us about whether the noun is singular (one object) or plural (more than one object).

Singular Plural House Houses Gender tells us whether the noun is masculine, feminine, neuter or common (either masculine or feminine). Masculine Feminine Man Woman Neuter Common chair child

GENDER Gender is the classification of nouns according to the sex. 1. Names of Males are of the masculine Gender: man, lion. 2. Names of Females are of the Feminine Gender: woman, lioness. 3. Names that can be used of Male or Female are of the Common Gender: child, fowl. 4. Names of things without life are of the Neuter Gender: table, spade. Case shows us the relationship of the noun to the rest of the sentence.

PLURAL OF NOUNS 1. Most English nouns form the plural by adding an s to the singular form. Cat- Cats; pen - pens; book - books 2. Some nouns ending in f or fe change the f into ve before adding the s or es in the plural. Calf, calves Knife, Knives loaf, loaves Half, halves leaf leaves thief, thieves 3. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant change the y into I before adding es. Lady, ladies cry, cries fly, flies When the -y is preceded by a vowel, add -s only: Boy, boys day, days donkey, donkeys

4. Most nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add -es to the singular to form the pluralCargo, cargoes hero, heroes tomato, tomatoes Echo, echoes potato, potatoes volcano, volcanoes 5. Nouns which end in a hissing sound usually add es in the plural. Box, boxes Larch, larches dish, dishes fish, fishes loss, losses wish, wishes

Church, churches glass, glasses

bush, bushes

6. Some nouns form the plural by changing the vowel sound of the word. Foot, feet Goose, geese man, men mouse, mice tooth, teeth woman, women

7. Some nouns have the same for the plural as they have for the singular. Deer, deer sheep, sheep Salmon, salmon swine, swine 8. Compound nouns usually change the most important word into the plural. Brother in law, brothers in law Vice chairman, vice chairmen Court martial, courts martial 9. Some nouns have an irregular plural form. Child, children Ox, oxen penny, pence (also pennies) brother, brethren

HELPING LIST OF WORDS (NOUNS) BY GENDER Masculine Baron Boy Bridegroom Duke Lord Lion Prince Hero Wizard Patron Priest Feminine baroness girl bride duchess lady lioness princess heroine witch patroness priestess Masculine host husband Jew king poet emperor fianc widower Mayor Prophet Master Feminine hostess wife Jewess queen poetess empress fiance widow Mayoress Prophetess mistress

II. - PRONOUNS
A PRONOUN is a word that stands instead of a noun. Or also we say that a pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Kinds of Pronouns Pronouns are classified as fallows: A.)- PERSONAL PRONOUN B.)- POSSESIVE PRONOUN

C.)- DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN D.)- RELATIVE PRONPOUN E.)- REFLEXIVE PRONOUN F.)- INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN G.)- DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN H.)- INDEFINAITE PRONOUN I.)- EMPHASIZING PRONOUN PERSONAL PRONOUNS: The personal pronouns are: I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY I have a name you have a book he has a name she has a name it has a name we have our home you have two cars they have some cows

POSSESIVE PRONOUN The possessive Pronoun stands instead of the noun. The possessive pronouns are. Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS The demonstrative pronouns are: THIS THAT THESE THOSE THE FORMER: Is used for the first of two THE LATER: Is used for the second of two SUCH: Is used predicatively to mean so great or of that kind.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS The Relative Pronouns are WHO (nominative), WHOM (objective), WHOSE (possessive), WHICH, THAT, WHAT, and occasionally AS and BUT. They have the same the same form for singular or plural. The relative pronoun stands instead of a noun and also joins sentences. The noun to which it refers is called its ANTECEDENT. WHO, WHOM and WHOSE are used of persons. Example: The man who spoke was mi father The man whom you saw was my brother He is a writer whose style is most attractive. WHICH, as a relative pronoun is used only of THINGS or ANIMALS example? The current, which is very rapid, make the river dangerous. My dog, which was lost, has been found. THAT is used for persons or things. Example: My brother that is in Bogot has sent me a letter. This is the house that Jack built. THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN The Reflexive Pronouns are: SINGULAR Myself himself Thyself herself Yourself itself Oneself PLURAL ourselves yourselves themselves

The reflexive pronouns show that the action performed by the doer passes back to him; so the subject and the object of the sentence are the same person. THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN The interrogative Pronouns are: Who, whose, which and what. They are used to ask questions. Who and whose are used for persons, e.g. Who are you? Whose is this book? Which is selective; it can be used for persons or things when one or more out of as number is referred to, e.g. Which of these words is the right one to use? Which of these men did you see? What is general in meaning, e.g. What did he say?. What are you doing?

THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN The distributive pronouns are each, either, and neither. They are very similar to the distributive adjectives. The difference is that when they stand instead of the noun, they are pronoun; when they qualify the nouns they are adjectives, Each of the men received a reward. (Pronoun) Each man received a reward. (Adjective) THE INDEFINAITE PRONOUN The indefinite Pronouns are: all, some, any, one, they, something, nobody, etc. They refer to things or people in a vague or general way. All, some, any, one, can also be used as adjectives.

III. - VERBS
A VERB is a doing word. A verb expresses an action or a state. Is a word by which we make a statement or ask a question. A verb is one which has person, number, and tens. A verb is a word with which we can make an assertion (statement). What is asserted is either an ACTION or a STATE. Example: I hit the ball He is asleep . (Action) . (State)

SUBJECTS and PREDICATES The person or thing about which we make the statement is called the SUBJECT of the verb, and what we say (or predicate) about the subject is called the PREDICATE. A Predicate must contain a verb; in fact the verb is often referred to as the predicate of a subject. SUBJECT The clouds Nelson That you are late My brother PREDICATE moved across the sky. was a great sailor is not my fault, open the door

A verb agrees with its subjects in number and person. 1. - Number .. Singular or Plural 2. - Person . First, second, or third 3. - Tense .. Present, past or future

4. - Voice .Active or passive. 5. - Mood infinitive, indicative, imperative or subjunctive. 1. - NUMBER Refers to the number of people or thing that make up the subject of a verb, either one (singular) or more than one (plural). A verb agrees with it subject in number: that is if the subject is singular, the verb must be in singular, and if the subject is plural the verb must be plural. Example: James runs fast. (Singular) John and James come home. (Plural) The voters elected him. (Plural) 2. - PERSON The Person speaking is the first person (I, We), the person spoken to is in the second person (you), and the person or object spoken about is in the third person (he, she, it, and they). A verb agrees with its subject in number and person. Example: James runs fast (third person singular) You are not working (second person singular) We cannot come (first person plural) 3. TENSE Tense shows the time at which the action of the verb takes place. Action may take place in the present, the past or the future, and may be simple, continuous or perfect (that is, completed) example: Simple Present I work Past I worked Future I shall work Continuous Perfect I am working I have worked I was working I had worked I shall be working

4. VOICE Voice tells us whether the subject does the action or suffers the action. A verb is in the active voice when the subject when the subject performs the action and in the passive voice when the subject has the action done to it. I chose the book. (Active) He and John carried the bag. (Active) The book was chosen by me. (Passive) The bag was carried by them. (Passive) 5. MOOD Mood is the way in which the verb describes different kinds or moods of action. There are four moods: Infinitive, Indicative, Imperative, and Subjunctive.

a. INFINITIVE. The infinitive is the form of the verb before it is applied. Is the form of the verb which denotes actions or states without reference to number, person or case. In English it generally occurs or use with to before it. To work, to run, to play. The infinitive has three functions. It may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. We hope to pass. (Noun- infinitive, object of the verb hope) This is an occasion to remember. (Adjective infinitive). Qualifying the noun occasion We played to win. (Adverb infinitive- modifying the verb played) The infinitive can form part of a phrase and may then take an object or a complement. Example: He worked to make money. He wanted to be rich. (Object) (Complement)

b. - The indicative is used for: Making statements, and called the affirmative. The sun is shining Making negative statements, and called the negative. The sun is not shining. Asking questions, and called the interrogative.. Where is his house? Asking negative questions, and called the interrogative negative. How tall you have grown! c. - The imperative mood is used for giving orders or commands. The subject is omitted but understood. Imperative affirmative: Run! Imperative negative: Do not run d. - The subjunctive is used to express: (I) a wish example: I wish I were rich (II) A doubt, example: I question if that boy be speaking the truth. (III) An unlikely event, example: If he were king. CONJUGATION OF VERBS Verbs are regularly conjugated in present, past and past participle.

LIST OF REGULAR VERBS Present Awake Abide Arise Awake Be Bear Become Beat Begin Behold Bend Bid Bind Bite Bleed Blow Break Breed Bring Build Burn Burst Buy Cast Catch Choose Cling Come Clothe Cost Creep Crow Cut Deal Do Dig Draw Dream Dream Drink Drive Dwell Eat Fall Feed Past awoke abode arose awoke was bore became beat began beheld bent bade, bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung came clothed cost crept crew, crowed cut dealt did dug drew dreamt dreamed drank drove dwelt ate fell fed Past Participle awoke or awaked abode arisen awoke been borne, born become beaten begun beheld bent bidden, bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung came clothed cost crept crowed cut dealt done dug drawn dreamt dreamed drunk, drunken driven dwelt eaten fallen fed

Present Feel Fight Find Flee Fling Fly Forbid Forget Forgive Forsake Freeze Get Give Go Grind Grow Hang Have Hide Hit Hear Hold Hurt Keep Kneel Know Knit Lay Lead Lean Leap Learn Leave Lend Lie Let Light Lose Make Mean Meet Mistake Mow Outdo Overcome Overdo Overdraw Overhear Partake

Past felt fought found fled flung flew forbade forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung, hanged had hid hit heard held hurt kept knelt knew knit, knitted laid led leant, leaned leapt learnt, learned left lent lay let lit, or lighted lost made meant met mistook mowed outdid overcame overdid overdrew overheard partook

Past Participle felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got, gotten given gone ground grown hung, hanged had hidden, hid hit heard held hurt kept knelt known knit, knitted laid led leant, leaned leapt learnt, learned left lent lain let lit, or lighted lost made meant met mistook mowed outdid overcame overdid overdrew overheard partook

Present Pay Put Read Rid Ride Ring Rise Rot Run Saw Say See Seek Sell Send Set Sew Shake Shave Shear Shed Shine Shoe Shoot Show Shrink Shrive Shut Sing Sink Sit Slay Sleep Slide Sling Slink Slit Smell Smite Speak Sow Speed Spell Spend Spill Spin Spit Split

Past paid put read rid rode rang rose rotted ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shaved sheared shed shone shod shot showed shrank shrove shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smote spoke sowed sped spell spent spilt span, or spun spat split

Past Participle paid put read rid ridden rung risen rotted. Rotten run sawn said seen sought sold sent set sewn shaken shaved, shaven sheared, shorn shed shone shod (To shoe the horse) shot shown shrunk, shrunken shriven shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smitten (golpear) spoken sown sped spell spent spilt spun spat split

Present Past Spoil spoilt, spoiled Spread spread Spring sprang Stand stood Stave stove, or staved Steal stole Stick stock Sting stung Stink stank Strew strewed Stride strode Strike struck String strung Strive strove Swear swore Sweep swept Swell swelled Swim swam Swing swung Take took Teach taught Tear tore Tell told Think thought Thrive throve, thrived Throw threw Thrust thrust Tread trod Undergo underwent Underlie underlay Understand understood Undertake undertook Wake woke Ware wore Weave wove Weep wept Win won Wind wound Withdraw withdrew Withhold withheld Withstand withstood Wring wrung Write wrote

Past Participle spoilt, spoiled spread sprung stood stove, or staved stolen stuck stung stank strewn stridden struck, stricken strung striven sworn swept swelled or swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven, thrived thrown thrust trodden undergone underlain understood undertaken waked worn woven wept won wound withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written

The Participle = Participio The Participle is a VERBAL ADJECTIVE and is the form of the verb that is used:

a. - To help to form a tense, example: I am speaking. He had written. B.- As an adjective qualifying a noun or its equivalent, example: the singing bird; the broken bottles; being tired of work, the men went home. THE GERUND The gerund is a VERBAL NOUN ending in ing. A gerund is a word ending in ing which is made from a verb but is used as a noun. Example: Swimming keeps you fit. Seeing is believing. When is necessary a gerund can have some of the qualities of a verb. For example: It can take an object: He likes eating pineapple We can use gerunds in the fallowing ways: a. - As the object of a verb: I like playing football b. - After a preposition: He is good at drawing people c. - As the subject of a verb: smoking is bad for you d. - After certain verbs: This shirt needs repairing

IV. - ADJECTIVES
An adjective is a word which describes or qualifies a Noun or a Pronoun. It adds to its meaning, but limits its application. Example: the new book, the black sheep. An adjective tells us more about a noun. Example: a purple tie. It gives us more additional information about the tie. Kinds of Adjectives We can mention the fallowing kinds of adjectives: ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY: Which show what kind; e.g. a brave boy; a German student. ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY: Which tell how many or how much. These may be : a) Definite, e.g. one, two, etc b) Indefinite, e.g. all, some, several, half, no POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES: which show possession, ex: My, her, its, our, their, etc.

DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE: which show that the persons or things denoted by the noun are taken singly or in separate lots, e.g each, every, either,

Each is used for one of two, or one of many number exciding two, e.g each one of the two boys gained a prize. DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES: These adjectives show what kind of noun, by describing quality or state. E.g. A brave soldier. A hot day. The blue sea A large town A lazy boy A lovely flower QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVES: These show how much or how many are referred to. In this group, you may find: a. - Indefinite numerals. Tell us of number or quantity without saying exactly what the number is. All, some, enough, none, many, few, several, sundry (diversos) b. - Definite numerals. Tell us an exact number. E.g. One, two, three first, second, Twofold, double, Four, etc. Third, fourth, threefold, triple, Fifth, etc. Treble, etc. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES. These introduce a question. Which train must I take? What money shall I require? DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES. These adjectives show what that the things referred to are to be taken separately. The boys and girls each brought a pen and a pencil. The prisoner would answer neither question. Let every body speak for him self. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES. These adjectives show that a thing is possessed or owned by a particular person. Singular Plural my thy his, her, its our your their

First person Second person Third person

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. These adjectives point out the person or thing referred to. This, that, yonder, certain, another, other. Do this work Who is that man? Go into yonder field A certain man spoke to me

I will come another day I prefer the other shirt I will not put up with such treatment. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES There are three degrees of comparison COMPARATIVE, and SUPERLATIVE of adjectives: POSITIVE,

An adjective in its first form is in the positive degree: Warm, large, frightful COMPARATIVE. When we are comparing two things. The adjective is in the comparative degree. It is formed: a. - by adding -er to the positive, e.g. clear, clearer; warm, warmer; large, larger; big, bigger. b. By using more with the positive degree. e.g more beautiful;

SUPERLATIVE. When we are comparing more than two things, the adjective is in the superlative degree. a. - by adding -est.; clear, clearest; war, warmest; large, largest b. - by using most. Beautiful, most beautiful; benevolent, most benevolent. For adjectives of more than two syllables, we use the word more before the adjective to form the comparative, and most to form the superlative. Positive Beautiful Benevolent Comparative Superlative more beautiful most beautiful more benevolent most benevolent SOME IRREGULAR COMPARISON There are some exceptions in forming the comparative and superlative in adjectives. Please take a look of the fallowing adjectives below. Positive Good Bad Far Little Much Many Late Late FORMING ADJECTIVE Adjectives can be formed by adding -y to some words. Comparative better worse farther less more more later latter Superlative Best worst farthest least most most latest last

Rust Storm

Rusty Stormy

Greed Dirt

Greedy Dirty

Wealth Filth

Wealthy Filthy

Adjectives can also be formed by using the suffix able, ible, adding them to verbs or nouns, example. Adapt adaptable rely reliable Debate debatable use usable Pay payable fashion fashionable Like likeable advise advisable Define indefinable

V. ADVERBS
Adverbs are words that describe or attach themselves to a verb. Adverbs tell HOW, WHEN, and WHERE a thing is done and so are called Adverbs of Manner, Time and Place. Adverbs also describe or modify other parts of speech, as Adjectives and adverbs. An adverb can modify, or add to the meaning of , a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs have three uses: a. - To modify a verb: He reads quickly. b. - To modify an adjective: The work was very hard; an extremely sad case. c. - To modify another adverb: He spoke very slowly

Adverbs can be:


1. - Of Time, saying when the action happened. He visits his mother weekly 2. - Of place, saying where the action happened Let him lie there. 3. - Of manner, saying how the action happened. The boys ran quickly 4. - Of degree, saying how much, The girl was nearly late for school. 5. - Interrogative, asking when, where, how. Where have you put my fountain pen? 6. - Of cause or consequence: therefore, so, consequently. Such words are sometimes clearly adverbs qualifying a verb. He worked hard and so deserved to succeed. MAKING ADVERBS.

Most Adverbs end in ly, ily, ically, although there are many which do not. Example: Here, there, seldom, almost, sometime, very, well, worse, often, etc, do not take the endings mentioned above. Exercise Form Adverbs from the words given below: Punctual Skilful Entire Logic punctually skillfully entirely logically efficient tragic day democratic efficiently tragically daily democratically

The place of the adverbs


1. The adverb is generally placed before adjectives, other adverbs and past participles, e.g., He was very clever, and was exceedingly well educated 2. With a transitive verb, it generally comes after the object, e.g. he banged the door noisily But if the object is an infinitive, it may come before, e.g. They kindly asked me to stay at their house 3. The adverbs never, often, always, seldom, sometimes, usually precede the principal verb, e.g. I always Do that; I have often done that, They will never Do that; But with the verb To Be, they fallow the verb, e.g. He is never at home. 4. Adverbs of DEFINITE TIME, e.g. yesterday, today, tomorrow, are placed at the end of the sentence; or if we wish to emphasize the time, t the beginning, e.g. I went to his house yesterday, or yesterday I went to his house. 5. If an adverb of time and an adverb of place are used together the latter precedes the former, e.g. we went there yesterday.

VI, - THE PREPOSITION


A preposition is a word which is used with a noun or pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence. We also say that a preposition is a word which is used to show the way in which other words are connected. Prepositions may be single words such as: by, from, over under, or they may be more complex and composed of several words such as: apart from, in front of, in spite of, instead of.

Where are Prepositions used?


Prepositions are usually fallowed by a noun or a pronoun, a verb with ing or a wh- clause. In the fallowing sentences, in is a preposition: Write your name in the book This tea is too sweet; there is too much sugar in it There is absolutely no point in complaining Im very interesting in what you have just said

Prepositions are not used in front of infinitives or clauses beginning with that: I was astonished at the news He was astonished by the news

What do prepositions mean?


In English we make frequent use of prepositions to express basic relationships between words. They can be relationships of time and place, reason, manner, means, and reaction. Examples: Reason Manner Means I did it because of my father/ for my mother/ out of duty She spoke with a smile/ in a soft voice I came by bus/ on foot/ in a taxi

A particular preposition can often be used to express more than one kind of relationship, for example by. Time Place Means by next week by the window by working very hard

Principal prepositions,
The fallowing are some of the principal prepositions with sentences to illustrate their use: ABOUT He looked about him She tolled me every thing about the case I shall see you about six oclock. This melon is about the biggest in the farm The children quarrel about the food Is Peter anywhere about? He is honest about it ABOVE He is above cheating The price of this car is above ten thousand dollars Sara lives on the floor above Peter The above examples ACROSS Please go across the road Peter mother came across him at the moll The horse is trying to go across the river Lorna lives across the road AFTER I have had one trouble after another

He came after diner The boy was called after his grand father He is after something Charles will go after lunch Brenda is sick; look after her I will go home after the game She finished her home work after all AGAINTS Its no use running your head against a stone wall I do it against my will We vote against staying late Smoking in the room is against the law I have warned you against this danger AHEAD Tom is ahead of Carl Lorna will get ahead in her English class Please drive with care. There is danger ahead on the corner When you ride your bike, look ahead to see where you are going He drove the car full speed ahead ALONG You walk along the road Francis says he can get along with you There are many houses all along the road side He knew it all along The launch is along -side AROUND They are always hanging around the streets corner He likes to travel around the country I wrap the towel around my waist AT There are many ways to use the preposition at(Place): He is at home now (Time). He came on Saturday at 4 oclock in the after noon. (Verbs of motion). We arrived at Victoria station. (Verbs of emotion) He was amused at me I am at work The teacher is at school We come at once He will start at once playing basket ball. The bank will lend money at any rate The oranges were sold at fifty pesos each. These apples are soled at one thousand pesos each OTHER IMPORTANT PREPOSITIONS There are many other prepositions used in English:

Away, back, before, behind, below, between, beyond, by, down, except, for, forth, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, opposite, out, over, per, round, through, to, together, towards, under, up, with, without, etc. All the above words are preposition, and are frequently used in English.

VII. - THE CONJUNCTION


A conjunction is a word that joins words or sentences together. Conjunctions are words which join together two or more similar parts of speech, or two or more phrases or clauses. Here are some examples: Joining similar parts of speech; I will eat fruit or fish or bread. Joining phrases: He laughed and he danced and he sang. There are two kinds of conjunctions: 1. Coordinating conjunctions, which join together equivalent parts of speech, phrases, or clauses, as in the above examples. The coordinating conjunctions can join sentences by replacing full stops, question marks and exclamation marks. The main coordinating conjunctions are: And, but, or, either, neither, for, yet, moreover. 2. Subordinating conjunctions, which introduce a clause of less importance than the main clause. Common subordinating conjunctions are: If, unless, as, because, since, although, after, before, except, that, though, toll, until, while, whether, than, as well as, as soon as, (etc), seeing that, in order that, so as, and yet. Examples I shall speak the truth, though the heavens fall. As you are here, we may as well discuss our plans. This is the worst accident that has happened since the railway was constructed. I will do the work if I have time. He said that he could go 3. Some conjunctions are used in pairs and are known as correlative conjunctions. Money can be both a blessing and accurse. We must choose either bus or taxi to go home. As the twig bends, so the tree grows. Not only are they heavy but they are also bulky. Whether they leave or stay, the result will be the same.

VII. - INTERJECTIONS
The interjection is used to express some sudden feeling, but does not enter into the construction of the sentence. These are words which are thrown in to express a feeling or an attitude but which do not form an essential part of the grammatical structure of the sentence. The most usual interjections or exclamations are; O! Oh! Ah! What! Well done! Dear me! Good heavens! Wow! Sh! Bravo! Ha! Hush! Hooray! Hurrah! Etc, Please note the exclamation mark after the interjections.

SENTENCES
Now that the parts of speech have been specified above, now we can think about forming sentences and to learn more in grammar. When we want to express our thoughts we use a group of words. A group of words that makes complete sense is a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. It must contain a finite verb. It is used for three purposes: To make a statement, to make a question, and to express a wish or command. Statement: The drug pusher was arrested while drinking in the bar. John can speak French. The boy will do the work. That is Marys bicycle. Question: Is your taxi discomposed? Is that Marys bicycle? Can John speak French? Will the boy do the work? Have you had your lesson? Command: Catch that man! Be quiet! Please come here Come here please Jane, answer the question Please close the door Commands, questions and statements can be structured as simple or compound or complex sentences.

SIMPLE SENTENCES
A simple sentence has just one finite ver. A finite verb is a verb that has a subject. Catch that man. (You catch that man.)

The drug pusher was arrested while drinking in the bar. A long sequence of simple sentences would be very monotonous but if they are used sensitively they can be very effective. ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES To analyze a sentence is to break it up into its separate parts and to show how those parts are related to one another. Every sentence is made up of two parts. (1) What we speak about. (2) What we say about it. What we speak about is the SUBJECT.. The word or group of words that we speak about in a sentence is called the subject. The subject is the doer of the action. What we say about it is the Subject is the PREDICATE. The predicate of a sentence is the word or group of words that tells us something about the subject. Birds fly In this sentence we speak about birds, and, therefore, birds is the SUBJECT. We say they fly, therefore, fly is the PREDICATE. The SUBJECT consists of NAMING WORD. The PREDICATE consists of DOING WORDS. There is generally a noun or a pronoun in the subject. There is always a verb in the predicate. TABULAR ANALYSIS SUBJECT Birds PREDICATE Fly

Some beautiful birds fly in and out of our barn SUBJECT Some beautiful birds PREDICATE Fly in and out of our barn

The farmers son is a very big boy. SUBJECT The farmers son PREDICATE Is very big

Note. When there are more nouns than one in a sentence, we must be perfectly clear which noun is the subject. COMPOUND SENTENCES Two or more simple sentences joined by coordinating conjunctions form a compound sentence. If a sentence contains two or more principal clauses, it is called a compound sentence A sentence that is made of two or more simple sentences joined by a conjunction, or conjunctions, is called a compound sentence. Examples: The boy opened the door and walked into the room John works hard but Richard is lazy Shall I write to him or will you telephone? John went to the bakers shop for a loaf and Ellen helped her mother in the house but Margaret sat listening to the radio. Each of the sentences in a compound sentence makes complete sense by it self, but we dont always repeat the subject of the first sentence. For example; the boy or he is left out of the second part in the sentence: The boy opened the door and walked in the room. The sentences in a compound sentence are all of the same importance. The joined sentences of a compound sentence are sometimes called coordinating clauses. The coordinated clauses of a compound sentence could stand by themselves (sometime with the subject supplied). The boy opened the door. He walked into the room. Exercises (to do home works)

RULES Rule 1.- A verb must be of the same Person and Number as its Nominative. The man sings. I am. She is. We are.

EXERCISE Correct the following: The hills was covered with snow We was in the garden at the time. Some streets is very dark A man with his dog were at the door. There is five books here, not four There were a man here asking for you. Rule 2.- Two or more Singular Nominatives connected by And, require a verb in plural. Example: James and Mary often sing together. EXERCISE Correct the Following sentences The Captain and the mate was washed overboard. You and he was in the same class. These men and I am going to the meeting. The man and his wife was taking a walk. Rule 3. - Two or more Singular Nominatives connected by OR or NOR require a verb in singular. Note.- If the nominatives differ in person, then the verb agrees with the nearest one. If one Nominative is plural, then the verb is plural. Exercise Correct the following sentences: Either my brother or I has regularly visited him. The King or his collaborators has betrayed the people. Either Robert or William have taken it. Neither the Captain nor the crew was saved. Either George or the gardener have pulled the flowers.

Each, every, either, neither, everyone, every body, nobody, no one, take a singular verb. Example.- Every body loves a sailor No one tells me the truth. Rule 4.- The verb To Be require same case after it as it has before. Example. It was she who was to blame. Correct the following: It was him you saw at the window. You new quite well it was me

Whether was it her or her sister who sang? If I were him I would not reply. I believe it was her that caused the trouble. Do you know whom I was broke the jug?

Rule 5.- The Past Participle is used after the verbs, Have and Be. Exercise Correct the following: She has tore her new book He has went away an hour ago They have did it again The pipe were froze last week You should have came sooner He has drank all the milk RULE 6.- Two negatives must not be used to express the same thing. Example: I do not want no more tea, The correct way should be: I do not want any more tea. EXERCISE Correct the following: She could not speak no louder We have never seen none of them since. The hens have not had no more meat today. After the accident he couldnt remember nothing. We never saw no food for two days. .

WORD BUILDING
A word in its simplest form is called a ROOT or PRIMARY WORD, as black, board, saw, dust, bed, room. Now if we combine two of those primary words we get a COMPOUND WORD, blackboard, sawdust, and bedroom. Nouns EXERCISE a. - Form compound Nouns from the following words:House, wives, foot, ball, table, cloth, life, belt, door, tomb, out, boot, black, stone, gentle, grand, man, mother, father, water, maid, shed, song, school, servant, bird, master, milk, motor, pick, tooth, cart, cup, pot, tea, egg, light, post, sky, lamp, yard, time, church, piece, car. b. - Make sentences using these compounds. Give some additional examples.

Adjectives

Adjectives may be formed by combining two words: Example:.- Lion-hearted, everlasting. EXERCISE: Form compound Adjectives from the following words: Head, world, in, strong, wide, land, hot, lasting, purse, white, ever, proud, making, health, money, skill, giving, fashioned, full, blue, right, red, spectacled, well, up, ill, old, deserved, hill. Make sentences using these compounds. Give additional examples.

Verbs
Form compound Verbs from the following words:Take, full, flow, over, fill, wit, out, draw, strip, hold, under, with, bid, say, up, mine, for, gain, run, wash, safe, white, guard, stand. Make sentences using these compounds. Give additional examples.

FORMATION OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND VERBS FROM EACH OTHER,


Words are formed from each other in three ways:1. - By a CHANGE IN THE WORD ITSELF, as grieve, grief. 2. - BY A PREFEX, as come, income. 3. - BY a SUFFIX, as wise, wisdom. Note:- Prefix is a syllable placed before a word. Suffix is a syllable placed after a word.

NOUNS FORMED FROM NOUNS


1. - By a change in the word NOUN Arc Bank Dale 2. - By a Prefix NOUN Cycle Rest Justice Noon 3. - By a Suffix. NOUN NOUN NOUN arch bench dell NOUN bi-cycle un-rest in-justice after-noon

Physic Peasant Hero Pilgrim

physic-ian peasant- ry hero-ism pilgrim-age

EXERCISE Form Nouns from the following nouns:- Day, eagle, farm, infant, slave, engine, drug, friend, coat, sense, stream, king, coal, surgeon, workman, knight, neighbor, music, cash, bank, patriot, refuge, ice, part, flower, shade.

NOUNS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES


By a suffix. ADJECTIVE Apt Absent Content Merry Obedient Sincere Decent EXERCISE a.- Form Nouns from the following Adjectives:- Strong, secure, vacant, young, happy, rude, kind, transparent, royal, warm, feeble, wide, free, true, private, deep, brilliant, long, just, innocent, hard, rapid, weak. NOUN aptitude absent-ee content-ment merriment obedience sincerity decency

NOUNS FORMED FROM VERBS


1.- By a change in the word. VERB NOUN Advise advice Choose choice 2.- By a prefix VERB Cry Fit 3. - By a suffix. VERB School Extend Spin NOUN scholar extension spinster VERB govern please move NOUN govern-or pleasure movement NOUN out-cry miss fit VERB look set NOUN out-look on set VERB sell feed NOUN sale food

EXRECISE Form Nouns from the following Verbs:- Feed, sail, explain, judge, excel, repent, study, attend, preside, serve, abound, amuse, depart, agree, rebel, conquer, manage, beg, occupy. Oppress, invent, inspect, create, prove, move, let, sing, come, act. Make sentences containing these new nouns.

ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM NOUNS


1. - By a change in the word. NOUN Heat 2.- By a prefix. NOUN Door 3.- By a suffix. NOUN Voice Peril Wealth ADJECTIVE hot ADJECTIVE out- door ADJECTIVE voice-less perilous wealthy NOUN gold skill autumn ADJECTIVE gold- den skillful autumn-al NOUN pride ADJECTIVE proud

EXERCISE Form Adjectives from the following Nouns:- Home, victory, joy, mountain, people, anxiety, glory, fool, horror, ocean, guilt, toil, affection, courage, single, circle, splendor, majesty, honour, wool, wool, poet, health, war, fate, leather, nation, voice. Make sentences containing the new formed adjectives.

ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES


1.- By a prefix. ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE Happy un- happy Agreeable un- agreeable 2.- By a suffix. ADJECTIVE Many EXERCISE ADJECTIVE secure responsible ADJECTIVE un- secure ir - responsible

ADJECTIVE mani- fold

Make adjectives from the following adjectives:Capable, legal, glad, ripe, blue, wise, honest, pure, regular, possible, noble, true, agreeable, proper, holy, fair, safe, passable, religious. b. - Make sentences containing the new formed adjectives.

ADJECTIVES FORMED FROM VERBS


By a suffix VERB Forget Tire ADJECTIVE forget-full tire-some

EXERCISE a) Form adjectives from the following verbs:- Read, allow, eat, move, meddle, elect. b) Ma sentences containing the new formed adjectives.

VERBS FORMED FROM NOUNS


In forming verbs from nouns, there are three ways to form verbs. 1.) By a change in the word. NOUN VERB Glass glaze Drop drip Cloth clothe Knot knit 2.) By a Prefix. NOUN Roll Frost By a Suffix NOUN Length Magnet VERB en-roll de-frost VERB length-en magnet-ise

3.-)

EXERCISE a) Form Verbs from the following Nouns:- frost, life, gold, knee, game, roll, head, blood, knot, strength, danger, camp, prison.

b) Make sentences containing the new formed verbs from noun.

VERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES


Verbs can be formed from adjectives in the following ways: 1.- By a change in the word. ADJECTIVE VERB Full fill Hale heal 2.- By a prefix. ADJECTIVE Fine Able Dim Large 3.- By a suffix ADJECTIVE Simple Clear Dark Civil VERB re-fine enable be-dim en-large VERB simplify clarify darken civilize

EXERCISE a) Form Verbs from the following adjectives:- pure, light, dark, calm, large, numb, fine, full, clear, fertile, simple, just, rich, dim, feeble. b) Make sentences with the new verbs formed from adjectives.

VERBS FORMED FROM VERBS


Verbs can be formed from verbs, by three ways: 1.- By a change in the word. VERB VERB Sit set Wake watch 2.- By a Prefix VERB Bid Spell 3. - By a Suffix VERB Beat Shove VERB for-bid misspell VERB batter shuffle

EXERCISE a) Form Verbs from the following Verbs:- Rise, tie, do, believe, chat, lead, behave, sprinkle, fall b) Make sentences containing the new formed verbs. Prepared by: Hidalgo May Garcia Tutor

Bibliography
This document has been prepared consulting several text books, as followed: The Students English Companion G. Hielden Huges Collins London and Glasgow The students Companion Caribbean Edition Wilfred D. Best Longman Caribbean Port of Spain Trinidad & Tobago Brighter Grammar Book 1, 2 and 3 New edition, C.E. Eckersley Longman Editors. U.K. A Guide To better Grammar Angela Burt Stanley Thornes (Publishers) ltd. Lechamton, U.K. The Basic Grammar Robert Gibson Robert Gibson & Sons, Glasgow, Ltd. Scotland, U.K. Good English By George W. Davidson Chambers, Edinburgh, New York