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Les prpositions associes aux verbes


> La gographie Le mouvement vers une ville, un tat, un pays, ou un continent, s'exprime par la prposition "to" ; la prsence dans une ville, un tat, etc., s'exprime par la prposition "in" ; le mouvement partir d'une ville, un tat, etc., s'exprime par la prposition "from" (si le verbe exige une prposition) : When are you going to Canada. (Quand vastu au Canada ?) He went to Asia last year. (L'anne dernire il est all en Asie.) I spent three years in London. (J'ai pass trois ans Londres.) She was born in Normandy. (Elle est ne en Normandie.) He comes from Mexico. (Il vient du Mexique.) > Les moyens de transport En rgle gnrale, la prposition "by" est utilise pour dcrire comment on a voyag ; les prpositions "in" et "on" dcrivent la prsence dans un vhicule. Dans le cas d'un vhicule places limites (une voiture, un hlicoptre), la prposition "in" est de rigueur : I came by bike. (Je suis venu vlo.) Traveling by plane is my favorite. (Je prfre voyager en avion.) I was already on (in) the train when he arrived. (J'tais dj dans le train quand il est arriv.) She is waiting for me in the car. (Elle m'attend dans la voiture.) > Le temps Pour dsigner une heure, on utilise la prposition "at" : Let's meet at six o'clock. (Retrouvonsnous six heures.) They arrived at 4:45. (Ils sont arrivs cinq heures moins le quart.) Pour les dates ou les jours de la semaine, on utilise "on" : His birthday is on Monday. (Son anniversaire est lundi.) It happened on March 3, 1997. (Cela est arriv le 3 mars 1997.) Pour les mois, on utilise "in" : My birthday is in September. (Mon anniversaire est en septembre.) We will begin work in August. (Nous nous mettrons au travail en aot.) Pour exprimer la dure, on utilise "for"; la prposition "in" sert exprimer le temps que prendra une activit donne : I am going away for a few days. (Je pars pour quelques jours.) He worked with them for three years. (Il a travaill chez eux pendant trois ans.) I can read that book in a day. (Je peux lire ce livrel en un jour.) > "TO" et les COI (complments d'objets indirects) La prposition "to" prcdant un objet indirect disparatra devant un nom (ou pronom) quand celuici prcde un objet direct. ("To" sera retenu lorsque l'objet indirect suit l'objet direct.) Exemples : She gave John the ticket. (Elle a donn le billet John.) Mais : She gave the ticket to John. (Elle a donn le billet John.) He sent her a letter. (Il lui a envoy une lettre.) Mais : He sent a letter to her. (Il lui a envoy une lettre.) Ou : He sent it to her. (Il la lui a envoye.)

TEST Complter avec la bonne prposition.


1. Yesterday, I was in New York: I come _____________ New York. 2. I think I'll arrive _________________ eight pm _____________ April, 25th. 3. My parents gave this record _____________ my sister. 4. I will be in Spain _____________ a few days. 5. I live _____________ Paris. 6. I'll move _____________ Italy next year. REPONSES 1. from | 2. at on | 3. to | 4. for | 5. in | 6. to

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Les dmonstratifs This That These Those


> "this" est utilis pour un objet/une chose/une personne qui est prt de l'nonciateur (celui qui parle) Exemple: This book is the best book on Earth. Ce livre est le meilleur livre du monde (il le tient dans sa main).

> Pluriel : "these" Exemple: These books are the best books on Earth. Ces livres sont les meilleurs livres du monde.

> "that" est utilis pour un objet/une chose/une personne qui est LOIN de l'nonciateur (celui qui parle) Exemple: That car over there is mine. Cette voiture, lbas, est la mienne (il la pointe du doigt).

> Pluriel : those Exemple: Those cars over there are ours. Ces voitures, lbas, sont les ntres.

> "there" = "il y a..." S'accorde avec le nom qui suit et non avec "There". Exemple: There is (There's) a table next to the window. > Pluriel: "there are" Exemple: There are many of my friends at the party tonight.

EXERCISE:
Compltez avec l'un des dmonstratifs cidessus:

John: Could you please give me ________ (1) record on the table over there? Mike: Do you want ____________ (2) record here? John: Yes, ________ (3) record. Mike: Here you are. Oh, could you give me ________ (4) pens on the table over there? John: _________ (5) ? Sure, here you are.
REPONSES

1. that | 2. this | 3. that | 4. those | 5. These

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Article dfini "THE" ou article zro? "Quand ne fautil pas mettre THE?"

1. Gnralits L'article dfini"the" (invariable) dsigne une personne, un endroit, un vnement, une chose... dont on a dj parl ou qui est clairement dfini dans la tte de l'interlocuteur ("c'est celuici et pas un autre"): Here's the book I bought. The cat is on the roof. He said he would bring the money.

2. Omission de l'article dfini On doit omettre cet article dans les cas suivants: 2.1 Devant des noms abstraits ou des noms reprsentant des choses en gnral. On l'omet galement souvent aprs les verbes exprimant des opinions ou des preferences: Truth is the highest good. I don't like animals. Cats are nicer than dogs. Time flies. She likes coffee, but she hates tea.

2.2 Devant les jours de la semaine et les dates: On Tuesdays museums are closed. On Saturdays I sleep in. I was born on June 16, 1980. 2.3 Devant les noms de pays, tats, villes, et rgions: France is seventeen times smaller than the United States. California is larger than Brittany. Exception: Certains noms incluent obligatoirement l'article dfini, comme: The Hague, the United States (of America) 2.4. Devant des titres ou des noms indiquant une profession: President Mitterrand completed two terms. We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. She met with Doctor Schmidt.

EXERCISE:
TEST: Ajoutez l'article dfini THE dans les phrases, quand cela est ncessaire.
1) I've just seen ________ latest movie by Spielberg. 2) ________ freedom is the best thing on Earth. 3) ________ Prince Charles will be a good King. 4) ________ boy sitting there is called John. 5) I really like ________ Queen Elizabeth III. 6) I don't like ________ vegetables. 7) On ________ Sundays, I sleep all day long. 8) ________ house we've just visited is the most expensive. 9) ________ life is so boring! 10) ________ Spain is a very nice country!

ANSWERS 1. the | 2. X | 3. X | 4. The | 5. X | 6. X | 7. X | 8. The | 9. X | 10. X

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Le superlatif
Gnralits Quand on compare deux choses, c'est le comparatif qu'on utilise, mais pour faire une comparaison dans un groupe plus nombreux, c'est le superlatif qu'il faut employer. Le superlatif dsigne les extrmes : le meilleur, le premier, le pire, le dernier, etc. Le superlatif fonctionne comme le comparatif, ces exceptions prs : Alors que le terme "more" ou la terminaison "er" signale le comparatif, c'est "most" ou la terminaison "est" qui dsigneront le superlatif : He is the most efficient worker we have. (C'est l'employ le plus efficace que nous ayons.) That is the poorest family in the neighborhood. (C'est la famille la plus pauvre du quartier.) Le terme comparatif (adjectif ou adverbe) sera prcd de l'article dfini : He works the fastest of any student I know. (De tous les tudiants que je connais, il travaille le plus vite.) She is the tallest woman in town. (C'est la femme la plus grande de tout le village.) la diffrence du comparatif, le superlatif n'est pas suivi de "than" : on met plutt "of" ou "in", suivi du contexte de la comparaison (quoique ce contexte soit quelquefois implicite) :

It's the best day of my life! (C'est le plus beau jour de ma vie !) She works the best of (in) the whole class. (Elle travaille mieux que tous les autres de la classe.) She's the one who arrived first. (C'est elle qui est arrive la premire.)
Formes irrgulires : Dans les superlatifs de supriorit les adjectifs monosyllabes (et plusieurs adjectifs courants deux syllabes) prennent la terminaison "est", se dispensant alors de l'adverbe "most". (Pourtant, ces adjectifs fonctionneront comme les autres dans les superlatifs d'infriorit, utilisant "less".) young > the youngest tall > the tallest old > the oldest

Si l'adjectif se termine en "y", le "y" se changera en "i" : heavy > the heaviest early > the earliest busy > the busiest healthy > the healthiest chilly > the chilliest Si l'adjectif se termine en "e", on n'ajoute que le "st" : wise > the wisest large > the largest simple > the simplest late > the latest

Si l'adjectif se termine en "voyelle simple + consonne", on double la consonne et ajoute "est" : red > the reddest big > the biggest thin > the thinnest hot > the hottest

Quelques adjectifs trs courants ont des formes irrgulires : good > the best bad > the worst far > the farthest Quelques adjectifs n'existent que dans leur forme superlative : the first the last

EXERCISE: Compltez les phrases par un comparatif ou un superlatif de supriorit. Attention au sens.
a. Canada is (big) ______________ than France but China is (populous) ______________country in the world. | b. We stayed at (cheap) ______________hotel in the town but my cousins campsite was (cheap) ______________than our hotel. | c. January is generally (bad) ______________than December but February is (cold) ______________ month. | d. English is (easy) ______________ than German. | e. Chinese is (difficult) ______________ language. | f. Heathrow is one of (busy) ______________ airports in Europe. | g. My father thinks that the Beatles were (good) ______________than the Rolling Stones, but in my opinion, U2 is (great) ______________ band.

REPONSES Canada is (big) bigger than France but China is (populous) the most populous country in the world. | b. We stayed at (cheap) the cheapest hotel in the town but my cousins campsite was (cheap) cheaper than our hotel. | c. January is generally (bad) worse than December but February is (cold) the coldest month. | d. English is (easy) easier than German. | e. Chinese is (difficult) the most difficult language. | f. Heathrow is one of (busy) the busiest airports in Europe. | g. My father thinks that the Beatles were (good) better than the Rolling Stones, but in my opinion, U2 is (great) the greatest band.

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SUGGERER QUELQUE CHOSE A QUELQU'UN / FAIRE UNE PROPOSITION


4 faons de proposer vos amis de faire quelque chose ensemble: 1) WHAT ABOUT/HOW ABOUT . + Base verbale + ING What about going to the pictures tonight? How about going to the pictures tonight? Et si on allait au cinma ce soir?

2) WHY + Ngation Why don't we go to the swimmingpool tomorrow? Pourquoi ne pas aller la piscine demain?

3) IMPERATIVE: Let's + Base verbale Let's go to the restaurant now! Allons au restaurant tout de suite!

4) COULD We could visit Paris next week. Nous pourrions visiter Paris la semaine prochaine.

EXERCISES:
Mettre ces lments dans le bon ordre pour reconstituer une phrase: 1. tea / have / 's / let / cup / a / of 2. a / car / about / buying / huge / what / ? 3. don't / why / we / together / cinema / to / the / ? / go 4. could / take / we / train / the / Madrid / to REPONSES Let's have a cup of tea. What about buying a huge car? Why don't we to the cinema together? We could take the train to Madrid.

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SOME, ANY, NO et leurs composs


Comment traduire DU (pain), DE LA (viande), DES (frites)? Grce SOME, ANY ou NO ! Mais attention leurs emplois ! SOME: dans les phrases affirmatives Example: I have some friends.

ANY: dans les phrases ngatives ou les questions Example: Do you have any cheese? He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.

EXCEPTION! "some" est utilise dans les questions quand on propose ou quand on demande quelque chose dont on est sr que la rponse sera positive. Examples: Would you like some bread? (offer) Could I have some water? (request)

LES COMPOSES
SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE, SOMETHING: dans les phrases affirmatives (rgle qui s'applique SOME). Quelqu'un, quelque part, quelque chose. Example: He lives somewhere near here.

ANYBODY, ANYWHERE, ANYTHING: Mme sens, mais en suivant la rgle qui s'applique ANY Examples: Do you know anything about that boy? She doesn't have anywhere to go.

NOTHING: rien Example: This show is very boring! There's nothing interesting!

EXERCISES:
1) A / AN, SOME or ANY? 1. I've got __________ cookbook. / 2. There is __________ water in the fridge. / 3. There isn't __________ whisky left in the bottle. / 4. There was__________ bottle of whisky on the shelf. / 5. She wants to eat __________ apple. / 6. Have we got __________ chips?

2) SOMETHING, ANYTHING OR NOTHING ? 1. He's hungry, but there's __________ to eat in the fridge! 2. I don't want to eat__________ 3. I can see __________ under the table. What is it? 4. "Pardon? What did you say?" "__________ " 5. Is there__________ interesting to watch on TV tonight?

ANSWERS: Exercise 1) 1: a | 2: some | 3: any | 4: a | 5: an | 6. any Exercise 2) 1: nothing | 2: anything | 3: something | 4: Nothing! | 5: anything

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Les relatives dfinissantes ||| les relatives non dfinissantes


> Les relatives non dfinissantes Rappel du cours . Elles fournissent des informations intressantes, supplmentaires, mais en aucun cas indispensables la comprhension de la phrase. Exemple: Mrs. Jackson, who is very intelligent, lives on the corner. "Mrs Johnson lives on the corner" est une information intressante. Grce la relative, on apprend une autre information intressante (mais pas indispensable). NB: La relative est encadre par des virgules!

> Les relatives dfinissantes Leurs informations sont essentielles la comprhension de la phrase. Si vous les enlevez, la phrase a un sens diffrent ou plus de sens du tout. Exemple:The woman who lives in apartment No. 34 has been arrested. Quelle femme? La femme qui habite dans l'appartement 34, pas une autre. Une relative dfinissante dfinit clairement de qui/de quoi on est en train de parler. NB: IL NE FAUT PAS UTILISER DE VIRGULES! Les relatives non dfinissantes

Personne Sujet who, that , that Objet (also: who, whom) Possession whose

Objet/Neutre which, that , that (also: which) whose, of which

Exemples: >Sujet: Example: Children who (that) play with fire are in great danger of harm. The man who bought all the books by Hemingway has died. Lequel choisir? which/who OU that? > who and which: anglais crit > that: anglais oral >Objet: Exemple: That's the boy ( , that, who, whom) I invited to the party. There's the house (, that, which) I'd like to buy. >Possession: Exemple: He's the man whose car was stolen last week. They were sure to visit the town whose location (OR the location of which) was little known.

EXERCISE: Choisissez le bon pronom relatif:


1. It is the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I've just read. 2. She is the girl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sat next to me in the bus. 3. They are the people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . helped me. 4. This is the dog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scared me. Construire une relative dfinissante partir de ces 2 phrases: 5. A robot is a machine. It can replace human workers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6. A vet is a doctor. He treats animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 7. Pets are animals. They are kept at home as companions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 8. A robot is a machine. It looks like a human being. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPONSES: 1. / that / which 2. that / who 3. that / who 4. that / which 5. A robot is a machine which/that can replace human workers. 6. A vet is a doctor who/that treats animals. 7. Pets are animals that/which are kept at home as companions. 8. A robot is a machine which/that looks like a human being.

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Les propositions relatives non dfinissantes

Personne Sujet Complment Possession who who, whom whose

Objet, animal = neutre which which whose, of which

Exemples: >> SUJET: Frank Zappa, who was one of the most creative artists in rock 'n roll, came from California.

>> COMPLEMENT: Frank invited Janet, who (whom) he had met in Japan, to the party. Peter brought his favorite antique book, which he had found at a flee market, to show his friends.

>> POSSESSION: Olympia, whose name is taken from the Greek, is the capitol of Washington State. The singer, whose most recent recording has had much success, is signing autographs. The artist, whose name he could not remember, was one of the best he had ever seen.

>> NOTE: On peut utiliser ", which" pour reprendre toute une proposition. Exemple: He came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a tshirt, which was a stupid thing to do.

EXERCISE:
TEST Compltez ces phrases avec le bon pronom relatif: 1. The girl, _____________ is sitting on the bench, is called Sarah. 2. The dog, _____________ John has just bought, is very clever. 3. The actor, _____________ films are very famous, is very happy. Construisez une seule phrase partir de ces 2 phrases: 4. Peter has met his girlfriend. She is a journalist. 5. His house is located near London. It very large. 6. Peter has just bought a car. He has found it abroad..

REPONSES 1. who 2. which 3. whose 4. Peter has met his girlfriend, who is a journalist. 5. His house, which is located near London, is very large. 6. Peter has just bought a car, which he has found abroad.

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Les pronoms interrogatifs (2)

> When? (quand?) I bought a new car yesterday. When did you buy a new car? > Where? (o?) I went to Paris. Where did you go to? > How much + Singular / How many + Plural (combien?) I ate two apples. How many apples did you eat? > Why? (pourquoi?) I went to the hospital because I was ill Why did you go the hospital? > Which (lequel?) quand on doit faire un choix entre deux choses proches: Which film do you want to see? "Impossible Mission" or "Pretty Woman"? Here are two pizzas. Which one do you prefer?

EXERCISE: Posez une question sur les mots souligns.


1. I saw that movie in a big cinema. 2. I will see my girlfriend next summer. 3. I would like to buy three bottles of milk. 4. I love this film because I love Tom Cruise. 5. Sandra stole my keys! 6. I ate a big cake. 7. I spoke to Sarah.

REPONSES 1. Where did you see that movie? 2. When will your see your girlfriend? 3. How many bottles of milk would you like to buy? 4. Why do you love this film? 5. Who stole your keys? 6. What did you eat? 7. Who did you speak to? To whom did you speak?

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Les pronoms interrogatifs (I)

Ils sont utiliss pour demander qui a fait quoi, qui, pourquoi, avec quoi, etc. On choisit le pronom en fonction de sa fonction, comme dans ce tableau: sujet grammatical personne chose who what objet whom what objet d'une prposition whom what

> sujet (personne) : who + question Who did this painting? Who wants to get an ice cream? > sujet (chose) : what + question What interests you? What is good in this restaurant? > objet direct (personne) : whom + question Whom did you see in France? Whom are you going to meet at this reception? > objet direct (chose) : what + question What do you want to do this evening? What are you preparing? > objet d'une prposition (personne) : prposition + whom + question About whom are you thinking? With whom did you go out? Note: En anglais oral, on place souvent la prposition en fin de phrase, ce qui implique qu'on utilise "who" la place de de "whom". Who are you thinking about? Who did you go out with?

EXERCISE: Posez une question sur les mots souligns.


1. Peter bought a big car yesterday. 2. I ate an apple a few hours ago. 3. I met Sandra in Paris. 4. Watching movies is very interesting.

REPONSES 1. Who bought a big car yesterday? 2. What did you eat a few hours ago? 3. Whom did you meet in Paris? 4. What is very interesting?

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Les pronoms rflchis

> Les formes correspondent aux formes du pronom sujet : Pronom personnel I you he she it we you they Pronom rflchi myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

> Pour donner un sens rflchi un verbe, le pronom rflchi doit suivre le verbe (et, s'il s'agit d'un verbe intransitif, aprs toute prposition). S'il y a plus d'un verbe dans une phrase, le pronom rflchi suit le verbe auquel il s'applique : I told myself it would never happen. (Je me suis dit que cela ne se passerait jamais.) She talks to herself all the time. (Elle se parle ellemme tout le temps.) Look at yourself in that mirror! (Regardezvous dans cette glace !) I would like to give myself a raise. (J'aimerais bien m'offrir une augmentation de salaire.)

> la fin d'une phrase on peut ajouter le pronom rflchi afin de mettre l'accent sur le sujet de la phrase : I would rather do that myself. (J'aimerais mieux le faire moimme.) Can you talk to him yourself? (Pourriezvous lui parler vousmme ?)

EXERCISE:
Complter avec des pronoms rflchis: 1) The door opens ________________ when someone comes near it. 2) Look at your umbrella! You should buy ________________ a new one. 3) There was so much noise, I couldn't make ________________ heard. 4) " Who taught you Latin?" || " I taught ________________ ." 5) They lost the match and were ashamed of ________________ .

REPONSES 1) itself | 2) yourself | 3) myself | 4) myself | 5) themselves

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Le prtrit en BE + ING

Un temps bien difficile manipuler, qui cause beaucoup de problmes aux francophones, car il entre en concurrence avec le prtrit simple. Rvisions: le prtrit simple. Action passe, date, termine, courte.

Le prtrit en BE+ING: Emploi: il exprime une action en progression dans le pass, une action qui tait en train de se drouler quand une autre action s'est enclenche. Syntaxe: auxiliaire BE au prtrit (was/were) + Base Verbale (l'infinitif sans TO) + ING Exemples: Were they playing football when you saw them yesterday? (sens: les enfants taientils en train de jouer au football hier, au moment o vous les avez vus ?) Rponses: Yes, they were playing football when I saw them yesterday. = Yes, they were. No, they weren't playing football when I saw them yesterday. = No, they werent.

EXERCISE
Choisir le bon temps (prtrit simple ou prtrit en ING?) I _____________ (1: have) a bath yesterday when the phone _____________ (2: ring). "That must be my mother," I _____________ (3: think). As I _____________ (4: get) out of the bath, I _____________ (5: put) my foot on my watch and I _____________ (6: break) it. The phone _____________ (7: still/ring). I _____________ (8: run) out of the bathroom and I _____________ (9: hit) my head on the door. It _____________ (10: hurt) terribly and I _____________ (11: want) to sit down for a moment, but the phone _____________ (12: still/ring). "Please wait a minute, mother," I _____________ (13: think). The cats _____________ (14: sit) at the top of the stairs. I _____________ (15: not/see) them and I _____________ (16: fall). At the bottom of the stairs I _____________ (17: get up). My right leg _____________ (18: hurt) more than my head. The phone _____________ (19: still/ring). At last I _____________ (20: answer) it. It _____________ (21: be) my mother. "Hello, dear. Is evrything all right?" she _____________ (22: say).

REPONSES

1: was having | 2: rang | 3: thought | 4: was getting | 5: put | 6: broke | 7: was still ringing | 8: ran | 9: hit | 10: hurt | 11: wanted | 12: was still ringing | 13: thought | 14: were sitting | 15: didn't see | 16: fell | 17: got up | 18: was hurting | 19: was still ringing [ 20: answered | 21: was | 22: said

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Le prtrit en ING
Le prtrit en BE+ING > Le prtrit en BE + ING est une version du pass qui insiste sur le fait qu'une action tait en train de se drouler au moment dont on parle. Il est compos de l'auxiliaire "to be" au prtrit, suivi du verbe en ING: I was working. (Je travaillais [tais en train de travailler] quand tu as tlphon.) He was eating his dinner when the phone rang. (Il dnait [tait en train de dner] quand le tlphone a sonn.) The cat was meowing last night while we tried to sleep. (Le chat miaulait [tait en train de miauler] cette nuit pendant que nous essayions de dormir.)

> Normalement, si une ide peut tre exprime en franais par la formule "tre (au pass) + en train de + verbe", le pass progressif sera prfrable au prsent simple. Par consquent, les verbes dsignant les croyances, les motions, la possession, etc. doivent tre au prtrit simple: I thought that was right. (Je croyais que c'tait vrai.) ["J'tais en train de croire" serait anormal.] Cheryl owned her own house. (Chryl possdait sa propre maison.) ["Chryl tait en train de possder sa propre maison" serait anormal.]

> Attention: Ne pas utiliser le pass progressif pour exprimer les actions habituelles dans le pass.
TEST

Complter avec le verbe au prtrit simple ou au prtrit progressif. 1. I ___________________ (do) my homework when Peter ___________________ (arrive). 2. When ___________________ (go) to the disco, we ___________________ (see) a car accident. 3. When they ___________________ (sleep), they ___________________ (hear) a big noise.
REPONSES 1. I was doing my homework when Peter arrived. 2. When we were going to the disco, we saw a car accident. 3. When they were sleeping, they heard a big noise.

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Le prsent simple
What time do you wake up? I wake up at 9.30 am

Principaux emplois: vrits permanentes, actions rptitives/habituelles; sentiments Syntaxe: Ajoutez un S la 3me personne du singulier. Si le verbe se termine par un y prcd d'une consonne, le y se change en ies

Exemple: I wake up You wake up He/She/It wakeS up We wake up You wake up They wake up

Ngation: Utilisez DON'T ou DOESN'T (3me forme du singulier) I don't wake up at 9.30 am She doesn't wake up at 9.30 am Question: Utilisez DON'T ou DOESN'T (3me forme du singulier) Do you wake up at 9.30? Does she wake up at 9.30?

Rponses: Do you wake up at 9.30 ? Rponses longues: Rponses courtes: Yes, I wake up at 9.30 Yes, I do. No, I don't wake up at 9.30 No, I don't.

EXERCISE: Mettre les verbes au prsent simple


1. The cinema _______________ (close) at 7 pm. 2. The _______________ (not/think) that you should buy this dress. 3. We usually _______________ (take) a taxi to go to work. 4. How often _______________ (you go) to the swimmingpool? 5. Courses _______________ (begin) the third of September. 6. When _______________ (he arrive) home in the evenings? 7. They _______________ (not/live) in Washington, they _______________ (live) in New York. 8. We usually _______________ (take) a taxi to go to work. 9. He _______________ (get up) early on Mondays. 10. I _______________ (not/believe) in witches. 11. The Sun's rays _______________ (take) eight minutes to reach the Earth.

REPONSES 1. closes 2. do not think = don't think 3. take 4. do you go 5. begin 6. when does he arrive home? 7. don't live | live 8. take 9. gets up 10. don't believe 11. take

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Les verbes prpositionnels


> Les verbes prpositionnels simples En plus des verbes gnralement suivis d'une prposition devant un objet, il existe en anglais bon nombre de verbes prpositionnels. Ce sont des verbes qui peuvent changer radicalement de sens selon la prposition utilise. Ces emplois peuvent tre trs idiomatiques, et le sens exprim par une mme prposition varie de verbe en verbe. Il serait impossible de rpertorier ici tous les verbes prpositionnels, mais en voici quelques exemples. (Au cas o il y aurait plus d'une dfinition, les dfinitions plutt littrales prcdent les sens figurs.)

to speak parler to speak up parler fort, se faire entendre to speak down (to someone) se montrer condescendant (envers quelqu'un) to speak for (someone) parler la place de (quelqu'un), soutenir (quelqu'un) to put poser, mettre to put away ranger to put down poser, abaisser, dnigrer to put out sortir (quelque chose) to put on mettre (vtements, etc.), taquiner (quelqu'un) to put off enlever to turn tourner to turn on allumer to turn off teindre to turn around se retourner to turn up mettre plus fort (son, lumire) to turn down baisser (son, lumire), refuser to turn out devenir, finir par tre to turn red, white, etc. rougir, blanchir, etc.
Lorsque la phrase comporte un substantif comme objet, l'objet suivra la prposition. Si l'objet est remplac par un pronom, celuici prcdera la prposition :

He turned on the television. (Il a allum le tlviseur.) He turned it on. (Il l'a allum.) She put away her books. (Elle a rang ses livres.) She put them away. (Elle les a rangs.)
> Les verbes prpositionnels composs Il existe aussi un grand nombre de verbes prpositionnels qui comprennent une double prposition :

to put up with (something, someone) supporter (quelqu'un, quelque chose) to go out with sortir avec to go off on (a digression, an adventure) se lancer dans (une digression, une aventure) to run away from fuir
Lorsque le verbe comporte une double prposition, l'objet suivra les deux prpositions, qu'il s'agisse d'un substantif ou d'un pronom :

How can you put up with him? (Comment pouvezvous le supporter ?) Bill should not go out with Monica. (Bill ne devrait pas sortir avec Monica.) TEST Complter chaque verbe prpositionnel avec la bonne prposition.
1. I need to turn ___________ my hifi system to listen to the radio. 2. "Stop it now! You are too noisy! Turn ____________ your music!" 3. I'm going to have a rest. I take ________ my clothes. 4. "Put _________ your gun! I know you're not going to shoot me!" 5. The prisoner tries to run __________ _____________ the prison.

REPONSES 1. on | 2. down / off | 3. off | 4. down | 5. away from

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Les prpositions

Dans leur emploi le plus simple, les prpositions servent indiquer la position (dans le temps ou dans l'espace) d'une chose par rapport une autre chose : I put the book on the table. (Je pose le livre sur la table.) She arrived before the others. (Elle est arrive avant les autres.) He came toward me. (Il est venu vers moi.) La liste des prpositions est longue. Voici les plus courantes : to () at () of (de) from (de) on (sur, ) under (sous) over (audessus de) underneath (audessous de) before (temps : avant) before (espace : devant) after (aprs) in front of (devant) behind (derrire) for (pour, afin de) toward (vers) against (contre) around (autour) close to (prs de) far from (loin de) next to ( ct de) facing (en face de, face ) with respect to (visvis de, par rapport ) in the midst of (au milieu de)

EXERCISE:
Compltez avec la bonne prposition (chaque prposition ne peut tre utilise qu'une fois): over before till under near opposite to 1) He lives _____________ London. 2) The helicopter flew _____________ the house. 3) I'll be back _____________ 10. Don't worry! 4) The bus stop is _____________ the cinema. 5) I waited _____________ 11. 6) he drove from Boston _____________ Miami. 7) They slept _____________ a tree.
REPONSES 1. near | 2. over | 3. before | 4. opposite | 5. till | 6. to | 7. under

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Le present perfect

Principaux emplois: 1) Actions passes qui ont des consquences sur le prsent. Paul has eaten all the cookies. Quand l'action s'estelle passe? Dans le pass: il y a quelques minutes/hier. Quelle consquence atelle sur le prsent? Paul a mang tous les gteaux; il n'en reste plus pour moi.

2) Actions qui ont commenc dans le pass et qui sont encore en progression au moment o l'on parle. Paul has lived in London for 10 years. Quand l'action atelle commenc? Il y a dix ans. Estelle termine? Non, Paul habite toujours Londres. Cela fait 10 ans qu'il y habite.

SYNTAXE: HAVE (ou HAS la 3e personne du singulier) + PARTICIPE PASSE I have done my homework. She has done her homework (verbe: do)

NEGATION: I have not done my homework. = I haven't done my homework. She has not done her homework. = She hasn't done her homework.

QUESTION: Have you done your homework? Yes, I have. / No, I haven't.

TEST
Conjuguer les verbes au present perfect: 1. Peter _____________ (steal) my trainers! 2. I ________________ (buy) this magazine. 3. We ______________ (write) three pages this afternoon. 4. _________________ (ever/you/be) to London? 5. I ________________ (finish) my work yet.

ANSWERS 1. Paul has stolen my trainers! 2. I have bought this magazine. 3. We have written three pages this afternoon. 4. Have you ever been to London? 5. I have not finshed my work yet. I haven't finished my work yet.

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Les adjectifs et les pronoms possessifs


Whose car is it ? I think it's Sarah's. Yes, it's her car. No, it isn't: hers is much smaller. A qui est cette voiture? Je pense que c'est celle de Sarah. Oui, c'est sa voiture. Non, la sienne est bien plus petite

Adjectifs (mon, ton son, ma, ta, sa, notre, votre, leur)
I my

Pronoms (le mien, le tien, le sien, le ntre, le vtre, le leur)


mine

you

your

yours

he she it

his her its

his hers its own

we

our

ours

you

your

yours

they

their

theirs

EXEMPLES: Is it your house? No, it isn't mine. It's Sally's car. Yes, it is MY house. It's mine!

TEST

Compltez comme dans l'exemple: Exemple: Sally's house > her house > hers Sam's bike > > . Fabiola's car > . > . Bill's phone number > . > . The Johnsons' dog > . > . My dog's kennel > . > .

REPONSES Sam's bike > his bike > his Fabiola's car > her car > hers Bill's phone number > his phone number > his The Johnsons' dog > their dog > theirs My dog's kennel > its kennel > its own

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Le pluriel des noms

> En rgle gnrale, la forme plurielle du nom est construite en ajoutant un "s" la forme singulire: shoe > shoes book > books river > rivers > Les mots se terminant en "s" ou "z" prendront gnralement la terminaison "es" : bus > buses kiss > kisses > Les mots se terminant en "y" prendront gnralement la terminaison "ies" : party > parties supply > supplies > Certains mots sont irrguliers au pluriel : one man > two men one woman > two women one person > two people one foot > two feet one mouse > two mice one goose > two geese one tooth > two teeth one wife > two wives one child > two children one knife > two knives one thief > two thieves one dwarf > two dwarves (ou: dwarfs) one potato > two potatoes one leaf > two leaves one life > two lives one loaf > two loaves one half > two halves > Certains mots rarissimes ne changent pas du tout au pluriel : one moose > two moose one sheep > two sheep one aircraft > two aircraft > Les mots d'origine latine ou grecque qui ont retenu une terminaison antique se conformeront gnralement la forme plurielle de leur langue d'emprunt : one alumnus > two alumni one syllabus > two syllabi one alumna > two alumnae one alga > many algae one criterion > many criteria one forum > many fora (ou : forums) one thesis > two theses one hypothesis > two hypotheses one phenomenon > two phenomena one cactus > two cacti (ou : cactuses) one diagnosis > two diagnoses one oasis > two oases one analysis > two analyses

EXERCISE:
Retrouver le pluriel de ces noms, sans regarder la liste cidessus: table, child, thief, mouse, woman, potato, tooth, alga, goose, wife, sheep, life

REPONSES
>tables, children, thieves, mice, women, potatoes, teeth, algae, geese, wives, sheep, lives

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Le plusqueparfait (pluperfect)
> Le plusqueparfait est form grce au prtrit de l'auxiliaire "to have", suivi du participe pass du verbe principal : He had always wanted to travel in Africa. (Il avait toujours voulu voyager en Afrique.) She had already left when Philippe arrived. (Elle tait dj partie quand Philippe est arriv.) I bought the book that Corinne had recommended to me. (J'ai achet le roman que Corinne m'avait recommand.) L'emploi

> Le plusqueparfait met l'accent sur le fait qu'une action s'est droule avant une autre action passe. On trouvera communment des adverbes, tel "already", qui renforcent cette impression. She learned to love the dog that had bitten her. (Elle a appris aimer le chien qui l'avait mordue.) When I got home, I had already heard the bad news. (Quand je suis rentr, j'avais dj appris la mauvaise nouvelle.) The children ate all the cookies that their father had bought. (Les enfants ont mang tous les gteaux que leur pre avait achets.)

> On utilise le plusqueparfait souvent dans des phrases hypothtiques avec "if", en conjonction avec le conditionnel pass : I would not have come if I had known he was ill. (Je ne serais pas venue si j'avais su qu'il tait malade.)

> On utilise le plusqueparfait avec l'adverbe "just" pour indiquer un pass immdiat dans un contexte pass : He had just eaten lunch when I arrived. (Il venait de djeuner quand je suis arrive.)

TEST
Complter avec le verbe, conjugu au plusqueparfait: 1. I went to Paris two days ago. I ___________________ (already / to be) to Europe several years before. 2. I ate the apple I _________________ (to buy) in the supermarket. 3. _________________ you _________________ (to do) your homework when your friend arrived? > Rponse: Yes, I _________________. > Rponse: No, I _________________.

REPONSES

1. I had already been to Paris 2. I had bought 3. Had you done your homework > Yes, I had. / No, I

hadn't.

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Le prsent en be + ing
autrefois appel "prsent continu"/"prsent progressif" Regardez cette image:

What are they doing? (Que sontils en train de faire?) They are playing football. (Ils jouent au football). Principal emploi: action en cours au moment o l'on parle. Syntaxe: Auxiliaire BE (conjugu au prsent) + Verbe en ing Exemple: I am playing football. You are playing football. He/She/It is playing football. We are playing football. You are playing football. They are playing football.

Ngation: I am not playing football, you are not playing football... Question: Am I playing football? Are you playing football? Is he playing football? ... Rponses:

Are they playing football?


Rponses longues: Yes, they're playing football. Rponse courte: Yes, they are. TEST Mettre le verbe au prsent en BE + ING
1. They ........................ (study) at the moment. 2. She ........................ TV. 3. What ........................ (you/read) at the moment? 4. I ........................ (cook) dinner tonight. Would you like to come? 5. It ........................ (work). I think it's broken. 6. He ........................ (learn) German for his job. REPONSES 1. are studying | 2. She is watching TV. | 3. What are you reading at the moment? | 4. I am cooking | 5. It is not working | 6. He is learning

No, they aren't playing football. No, they aren't.

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Le conditionnel pass

> On exprime le conditionnel pass en utilisant le modal "would" devant un infinitif pass (= "have" + participe pass). Cette construction sert parler d'occasions manques et d'hypothses passes: She told me that she would have liked to come and see us. (Elle m'a dit qu'elle aurait voulu venir nous voir.) In your position, I would have done the same thing. (A votre place, j'aurais fait la mme chose.)

> On le trouve souvent dans des constructions hypothtiques avec "if". Lorsque "if" est suivi du plusqueparfait on s'attend au conditionnel pass dans la deuxime proposition : If you had told me the truth, I would have believed you. (Si tu m'avais dit la vrit, je t'aurais crue.) If he had worked harder, he'd have received a better grade. (S'il avait travaill plus dur, il aurait reu une meilleure note.)

> Notez : Dans certaines rgions des EtatsUnis, on entend le conditionnel pass dans les deux propositions d'une phrase hypothtique : If you would have told me he was going to win, I wouldn't have believed you. (Vous m'auriez dit qu'il allait gagner, je ne vous aurais pas cru.)

EXERCISE:
Complter ces phrases avec le verbe conjugu au bon temps (conditionnel pass + structure hypothtique le cas chant): 1. If you ________________ (study) hard, you ________________ (pass) your exam. 2. He told me that he ________________ (like) to come to the USA with us. 3. If he ________________ (work) all day long, he ________________ (be) happy to go to the pictures with you.

REPONSES (exemples de rponses; il y a d'autres rponses)

1. If you had studied hard, you would have passed your exam. 2. He told me that he would have liked to come to the USA with us.3. If he hadn't worked all day long, he would have been happy to go to the pictures with you.

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La voix passive

Principal emploi: Mettre en valeur la personne ou la chose sur laquelle sexerce une action. Cest laction (et ses consquences) qui est alors la plus importante, et non lauteur de laction Syntaxe: Sujet + BE (conjugu au temps de la voix active) + Participe pass Important:

Si vous avez besoin dindiquer qui fait laction, utilisez BY

America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.

Exemples: * Prsent (be+ing) Peter is eating an apple. >An apple is being eaten by Peter. * Prsent simple: They make shoes in this factory. >Shoes are made in this factory. * Prtrit: th th They built this bridge in the 13 century. >This bridge was built in the 13 century. etc.

EXERCISE:
> Transformer les phrases actives en phrases la voix passive.

1. They built the house in two months. > aide: The house....................................... 2. We will carry the luggage upstairs. 3. Everyday John feeds the cat. 4. They have not caught the murderer yet. 5. The fog caused the accident. The police called the ambulance. The insurance will cover the damage.

CORRECTION 1) The house was built in two months. 2)The luggage will be carried upstairs. 3) Everyday the cat is fed by John. 4) The murder has not been caught yet. 5) The accident was caused by the fog. The ambulance was called by the police. The damage will be covered by the insurance.

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Les structures ngatives


Tout le monde connat la construction ngative avec "not". D'autres constructions ngatives sont nanmoins possibles. Puisque l'anglais ne permet pas le cumul des formes ngatives, la plupart de ces constructions changent lgrement si le mot "not" est utilis dans la mme phrase : No more / not... any more (= ne... plus) I want no more of your money / I don't want any more of your money. (Je ne veux plus de ton argent.) No one / not... anyone (= ne... personne) No one called tonight. (Personne n'a appel ce soir.) I don't want to see anyone tonight. (Je ne veux voir personne ce soir.) Never / not... ever (= ne... jamais) She never wants to see him again. (Elle ne veut plus jamais le revoir.) She doesn't ever want to see him again. (Elle ne veut plus jamais le revoir.) Nothing / not... anything (= ne... rien) He does nothing at all. (Il ne fait rien du tout.) Can't you do anything right? (Ne peuxtu rien faire comme il faut ?) Nowhere / not... anywhere (= ne... nulle part) Where are you going? Nowhere. (O vastu ? Nulle part.) I don't want to go anywhere. (Je ne veux aller nulle part.) Not a single / not... a single (= ne... aucun) Not a single letter arrived today. (Aucune lettre n'est arrive aujourd'hui.) He doesn't have a single idea what we're doing. (Il n'a aucune ide de ce que nous faisons.) Neither... nor... (= ni... ni...) We neither ate nor drank during the ceremony. (Nous n'avons ni mang ni bu pendant la crmonie.) I like neither tomatoes nor zucchini. (Je n'aime ni les tomates, ni les courgettes.) Only (= ne... que) qui se place avant l'lment qu'on limite : She only has seven dollars. (Elle n'a que sept dollars.) We were only playing. (Nous ne faisions que jouer.) They were the only ones to come. (Il n'y avait qu'eux qui sont venus.)

EXERCISE: Remettre les mots dans le bon ordre pour reconstituer une phrase correcte:
1. all at he bought hasn't anything 2. like meat I nor neither vegetables. 3. anywhere we don't go to want

REPONSES 1. He hasn't bought anything at all. 2. I like neither vegetables nor meat. 3. We don't want to go anywhere.

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Les nationalits

PAYS Africa America Argentina Austria Autralia Bangladesh Belgium Brazil Britain Cambodia Chile China Colombia Croatia the Czech Republic Denmark England Finland France Germany Greece Holland Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Jamaica Japan African

ADJECTIFS an African an American an Argentinian an Austrian an Australian a Bangladeshi a Belgian a Brazilian

NOMS

American Argentinian Austrian Australian Bangladesh(i) Belgian Brazilian British Cambodian Chilean Chinese Colombian Croatian Czech Danish English Finnish French German Greek Dutch Hungarian Icelandic Indian Indonesian Iranian Iraqi Irish Israeli Jamaican Japanese

a Briton/Britisher a Cambodian a Chilean a Chinese a Colombian a Croat a Czech a Dane an Englishman/Englishwoman a Finn a Frenchman/Frenchwoman a German a Greek a Dutchman/Dutchwoman a Hungarian an Icelander an Indian an Indonesian an Iranian an Iraqi an Irishman/Irishwoman an Israeli a Jamaican a Japanese

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TEST Construire des phrases compltes, comme dans l'exemple:


Example: He lives in Edinburgh. He's from Scotland. He is Scottish. He is a Scot. 1. He lives in Paris. 2. He lives in Washington. 3. She lives in Cardiff. 4. He lives in Amsterdam. 5. He lives in Brussels.

ANSWERS 1. He lives in Paris. He is from France. He is French. He is a Frenchman. 2. He lives in Washington. He is from America. He is American. He is an American. 3. She lives in Cardiff. She is from Wales. She is Welsh. She is a Welshwoman. 4. He lives in Amsterdam. He is from Holland. He is Dutch. He is a Dutchman. 5. He lives in Brussels. He is from Belgium. He is Belgian. He is a Belgian.

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Les verbes irrguliers


Voici une liste des 50 verbes connatre pour arriver survivre dans un pays anglophone, avec un petit exercice pour tester vos connaissances. Base verbale Prtrit Participe Pass Traduction be was/were been tre bear bore born supporter become became become devenir begin began begun commencer bet bet bet parier bite bit bitten mordre blow blew blown souffler break broke broken casser bring brought brought apporter build built built construire burn burnt burnt brler buy bought bought acheter catch caught caught attraper choose chose chosen choisir come came come venir cost cost cost coter cut cut cut couper do did done faire draw drew drawn dessiner dream dreamt dreamt rver drink drank drunk boire drive drove driven conduire eat ate eaten manger fall fell fallen tomber feel felt felt ressentir fight fought fought se battre find found found trouver fly flew flown voler forget forgot forgotten oublier forgive forgave forgiven pardoner get got got obtenir, recevoir give gave given donner go went gone aller have had had avoir hear heard heard entendre keep kept kept garder leave left left quitter know knew known savoir lose lost lost perdre make made made fabriquer meet met met rencontrer read read read lire ring rang rung sonner say said said dire see saw seen voir sit sat sat tre assis sleep slept slept dormir swim swam swum nager take took taken prendre think thought thought penser write wrote written crire

EXERCISE:
Pour ajouter un peu de piment l'exercice, on donne ici uniquement l'une des 4 formes. Il faut retrouver les 3 autres. 1. give ?? ?? ?? 2. ?? drew ?? ?? 3. ?? ?? begun ?? 4. ?? ?? ?? rencontrer 5. fly ?? ?? ?? 6. ?? sat ?? ?? 7. ?? ?? brought ?? 8. ?? ?? ?? crire 9. build ?? ?? ?? 10. ?? ?? ?? nager CORRECTION 1. give gave given donner | 2. draw drew drawn dessiner | 3. begin began begun commencer | 4. meet met met rencontrer 5. fly flew flown voler | 6. sit sat sat tre assis | 7. bring brought brought apporter | 8. write wrote written crire 9. build built built construire | 10. swim swam swum nager

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L'impratif
> L'impratif sert commander. Il est form partir de la base verbale (=l'infinitif du verbe sans"to"). Les formes sont identiques aux 2mes personnes du singulier et du pluriel. > A la premire personne du pluriel on prcde l'impratif de "let's" (ou : "let us") : Speak! (Parlez !) Finish your homework! (Finis tes devoirs !) Let's eat! (Mangeons !) Close the door! (Fermez la porte !) > On forme l'impratif ngatif en prcdant l'impratif de "don't" (ou : "do not") ; la premire personne du pluriel on le prcde de "let's not" (ou : "let us not") : Let's not forget who helped us. (N'oublions pas qui nous a aids.) Don't leave me! (Ne me quittez pas !) > L'impratif n'affecte pas l'ordre des lments du complment de la phrase.

TEST Mettre la forme imprative: 1) you / go to the supermarket 2) we / have a drink 3) you / not to smoke 4) we / not to take the car

REPONSES

1. Go to the supermarket! | 2. Let's have a drink! | 3. Don't smoke! | 4. Let's not take the car. (We'll go there by bus).

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Le participe prsent / le grondif


> Formation On formule le participe prsent en ajoutant "ing" l'infinitif (en supprimant, le cas chant, tout "e" muet final) to sing > singing to talk > talking to bake > baking to be > being to have > having

> Emploi Le participe prsent peut donner lieu des adjectifs : That's an interesting book. (C'est un livre intressant.)

Le participe prsent peut donner lieu des noms indiquant une activit (ces noms verbaux s'appellent des grondifs). Swimming is good exercise. (La natation vous met en forme.) Traveling is fun. (Les voyages sont amusants.)

Le participe prsent peut avoir une force verbale devant des noms, des adverbes et des participes passs : Thinking myself lost, I gave up all hope. (Me croyant perdu, j'ai abandonn tout espoir.) Washing clothes is not my idea of a job. (Faire la lessive n'est pas mon ide d'un mtier.) Looking ahead is important. (Il est important de penser l'avenir.)

Le participe prsent s'emploie avec "while" ou "by" pour exprimer une ide de simultanit ("while") ou de causalit ("by") : He finished dinner while watching television. (Il a fini son dner en regardant la tlvision.) By using a dictionary he could find all the words. (En consultant un dictionnaire il a pu trouver tous les mots.) While speaking on the phone, she doodled. (En parlant au tlphone, elle a fait un dessin.) By calling the police you saved my life! (En appelant la police tu m'as sauv la vie! )

Le participe prsent s'emploie avec le participe pass : Having spent all his money, he returned home. (Ayant dpens tout son argent, il est rentr.) Having told herself that she would be too late, she accelerated. (S'tant dit qu'elle serait trop tard, elle a acclr.)

TEST A) Mettre ces verbes au grondif: 1. to give | 2. to walk | 3. to sit | 4. to help B) Transformer ces phrases en utilisant BY ou WHILE suivi d'un participe prsent. Utilisez l'un de ces verbes: to look, to watch, to work 1. He passed his exam __________________ very hard. 2. He did his homework __________________ TV. 3. They found the way to our house __________________ at their map.
REPONSES A) 1. giving | 2. walking | 3. sitting (mme rgle que pour le prsent en ING: verbe d'une syllabe se terminant par ConsonneVoyelleConsonne > doublement de la consonne finale) | 4. helping B) 1. by working hard (il a russi son examen en travaillant dur) | 2. while watching TV | 3. by looking at their map

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Le genre des noms


1) Rgle gnrale: En anglais le nom se modifie peu. En rgle gnrale, il n'a pas de genre particulier (et ne ncessite donc aucun accord avec les adjectifs ou les articles appartenant au groupe nominal). My poor little dog died. (Ma pauvre petite chienne est morte.)

2) Nanmoins, certains noms surtout ceux qui dsignent les personnes peuvent avoir deux formes pour indiquer le masculin et le fminin : man woman gentleman lady actor actress uncle aunt father mother

De mme que certains noms indiquant les animaux mles ou femelles: a buck, a doe (un cerf, une biche) a ram, a ewe (un blier, une brebis) a bull, a cow (un taureau, une vache) a stallion, a mare (un talon, une jument)

Sinon, s'il faut prciser, on utilise "male" et "female": a female cat (une chatte) a male giraffe (une girafe mle)

3) Pronoms personnels Notez : Si le genre est connu, on se rfrera la personne ou l'animal concern par le pronom "he" ou "she" (ou "him" ou "her"). Si le genre reste inconnu, on substitue gnralement le pronom "he" dans le cas des personnes, "it" pour les animaux. Rares sont les objets ayant un genre : on attribuera quelquefois une voiture ou un bateau le pronom "she".

4) Exceptions Certains noms (surtout des noms de mtier) sont traditionnellement relis aux hommes ou aux femmes, auquel cas on signale les exceptions cette tradition en ajoutant "woman" (ou "lady") ou "male" : They are in a group of male dancers. (Ils font partie d'une troupe de danseurs.) My wife prefers to see a woman doctor. (Ma femme prfre aller chez une femme mdecin.)

TEST Trouver la forme au fminin de ces noms: bull, cat, man, doctor, buck, uncle, actor, father

REPONSES cow, female cat, woman, woman doctor, doe, aunt, actress, mother

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Le futur
"Parler d'actions qui vont se drouler dans l'avenir" >> WILL: prvisions (John won't win the race; the weather will be very bad tomorrow.) vnements planifis (the show will start at 10 tonight). promesses: I will help you to do your homework tonight. (WILL contient une ide de "volont: "je veux le faire". Will you marry me? Yes, I will!) Syntaxe: S + WILL + base verbale Will you help me? I will help you. > You will help you / He will help you / We will help you / You will help you / They will help you.

>> GOING TO: vnements planifis (qui sont proches du moment o l'on parle et qui ont t dcids AVANT ce mme moment). Syntaxe: S + BE (au prsent) + GOING TO + base verbale Are you going to buy a car tomorrow? I am going to buy a car tomorrow morning. > You are going to buy a car / She is going to buy a car / We are going to buy a car / You are going to buy a car / They are going to buy a car

EXERCISES:
1) Mettre ces mots dans le bon ordre pour reconstituer une phrase: a) to / New York / I / tomorrow / fly / am / to / going b) she / records / will / to / bring / the / her / party c) am / married / I / get / going / to d) later / guitar / the / play / will / you e) they / eat / to / going / are 2) Mettre ces verbes au futur: a) I've just finished my homework so I ________ (to play) video games. b) She ________ (to give) a concert at the Town Hall next Saturday night. c) They are hungry; they ________ (to have) a snack. d) You ________ (not to use) the phone, are you?

REPONSES: 1 a. I am going to fly to New York tomorrow. b. She will bring her records to the party. c. I am going to get married. d. You will play the guitar later. e. They are going to eat.

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Le style direct et le style indirect

Quand on reproduit textuellement les propos d'un autre, il s'agit du discours direct. On le dsigne gnralement par des guillemets :

Philippe said, "I'll come if I have the time." (Philippe a dit, " Je viendrai si j'ai le temps ".) My roommate said, "Clean the place up, or get out of here!" (Mon camarade de chambre a dit, " Fais le mnage, ou dcampe ! ")
Lorsqu'on rcrit la phrase afin d'viter une citation, il s'agit du discours indirect. Le discours indirect entrane certains changements : >On n'utilise pas de guillemets : discours direct : He told me, "You're stupid" (Il m'a dit, " Tu es bte. ") discours indirect : He told me that I was stupid. (Il m'a dit que j'tais bte.)

>Quand le verbe dans la phrase rapporte est conjugu, on la prcde gnralement de "that". (Notez : dans le discours direct franais, on emploie obigatoirement le mot "que" devant un verbe conjugu ; en anglais l'emploi du mot quivalent, "that" est facultatif.) :

She said that she would be late. (Elle a dit qu'elle arriverait en retard.) OU : She said she would be late. (Elle a dit qu'elle arriverait en retard.) They informed us that the plane was delayed. (Ils nous ont expliqu que l'avion a t retard.) OU : They informed us the plane was delayed. (Ils nous ont expliqu que l'avion a t retard.)
>Lorsqu'on met une forme imprative au discours indirect, on utilise gnralement une construction infinitive : discours direct : He told me, "Write to me." (Il m'a dit, " Ecrismoi. ") discours indirect : He told me to write him. (Il m'a dit de lui crire.) direct discourse: I told them, "Get out of here!" (Je leur ai dit, " Allezvousen ! ") discours indirect : I told them to get out of here.(Je leur ai dit de partir.)

>Quand on met un propos au discours indirect, il faut vrifier que les temps des verbes refltent le changement de contexte. discours direct : She said, "I will be on time." (Elle a dit, " Je serai l'heure. ") discours indirect : She said she would be on time. (Elle a dit qu'elle serait l'heure.) discours direct : When he called he said, "I am at the airport" (Quand il a tlphon, il a dit, " Je suis l'aroport. ") discours indirect : When he called he said he was at the airport. (Quand il a tlphon, il a dit qu'il tait l'aroport.)

Gnralement, on dit qu'on va un cran dans le pass: prsent > prtrit | prtrit > plu perfect (HAD + part pass) | WILL > WOULD etc.

EXERCISE:
Mettre au style indirect:

1. Sarah said, "I am ill." 2. Paul told me, "Go to the cinema and buy two tickets". 3. Thierry explained to us, "I went to Spain during my holidays". 4. John said, "I will buy a new computer soon". 5. My father told me, "Do your homework!" REPONSES 1. Sarah said (that) she was ill. 2. Paul told me to go to the cinema and buy two tickets. 3. Thierry explained to us (that) he had gone to Spain during his holidays. 4. John said (that) he would buy a new computer soon. 5. My father told me to do my homework.

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Le conditionnel

On exprime le conditionnel en utilisant le modal "would" suivi de la base verbale du verbe (l'infinitif sans "to"). Le conditionnel s'emploie surtout dans trois contextes :

1) Pour indiquer la politesse : I would like the menu, please. (Je voudrais la carte, s'il vous plat.) Would you have a couple of minutes for me? (Auriezvous deux minutes me consacrer ?)

2) Pour exprimer le "futur du pass" : She said she would come to the party. (Elle a dit qu'elle viendrait la fte.) I thought he would arrive before me. (Je pensais qu'il arriverait avant moi.)

3) Dans des constructions hypothtiques avec "if". Lorsque "if" est suivi du prtrit ou du subjonctif, on s'attend au conditionnel dans la deuxime proposition : If I had the time, I would do my homework. (Si j'avais le temps, je ferais mes devoirs.) If you told me the truth, I would believe you. (Si tu me disais la vrit, je te croirais.)

Le "if" de la phrase hypothtique peut tre implicite : In your position (= if I were you), I wouldn't stay here. (A ta place, je ne resterais pas ici!)

TEST

Mettre les mots dans le bon ordre pour reconstituer une phrase contenant un verbe au conditionnel: 1. rich / would / If / buy / a / house / were / big / I 2. said / like / come / She / would / not / to / she 3. could / I / big / would / if / give / you / a / ring / I 1. If I were rich, I would buy a big house. 2. She said she would not like to come. 3. I would give you a big ring if I could.
REPONSES

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Le comparatif
Rgle: On utilise le comparatif pour comparer 2 choses et mettre en valeur la supriorit, l'infriorit ou l'galit d'un terme par rapport un autre.

Adjectifs courts ( 1 2 syllabes) supriorit (plus... que) galit (aussi... que) infriorit (moins... que) ADJ + ER than fast > X is faster than Y.

Adjectifs longs (3+ syllabes) MORE + ADJ than expensive > X is more expensive than Y. as ADJ as big > X is as big as Y.

less ADJ than beautiful > X is less beautiful than Y.

Exemples: Jean is taller than Catherine. Philippe is less tall than Jean. Lela is as tall as Jean. young > younger ; tall > taller ; old > older NOTES: > Si l'adjectif se termine par "y", le "y" se transforme en "i": heavy > heavier early > earlier busy > busier healthy > healthier chilly > chillier > Si l'adjectif se termine dj par "e", on ne rajoute que "r": wise > wiser large > larger simple > simpler late > later > Si l'adjectif se termine par ConsonneVoyelleConsonne, on redouble la consonne finale: big > bigger thin > thinner hot > hotter > Comparatifs irrguliers, apprendre par coeur: good > better bad > worse far > farther

EXERCISE:
Comparez ces 2 voitures fictives en utilisant les adjectifs cidessous:

MERCEDES (big car) $200,000

Mini (small car) $10,000

1. expensive, 2. cheap, 3. powerful, 4. large, 5. comfortable, 6. fast REPONSES (exemples de rponses; il y a d'autres rponses) 1. The Mercedes is more expensive than the Mini. 2. The Mini is cheaper than the Mercedes. 3. The Mercedes is more powerful than the Mini. 4. The Mercedes is larger than the Mini. The Mini is not as large as the Mercedes. 5. The Mercedes is more comfortable than the Mini. The Mini is less comfortable than the Mercedes.6. The Mercedes is faster than the Mini.

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Les constructions causatives


ou: Comment exprimer "faire faire quelque chose quelqu'un"

Une leon assez complique, qui pose bien des problmes aux francophones. Le but est d'essayer de parler d'une action qu'on ne fait pas soimme, mais qu'on fait faire quelqu'un d'autre. Pour s'en sortir, il faut se demander si on prcise dans la phrase l'agent (celui qui accomplit l'action) ou si on le prcise pas. Tout devient alors plus simple.

> ON NE PRECISE PAS L'AGENT. On utilise le verbe "to have" selon le modle suivant : to have (conjugu) + objet (nom ou pronom) + verbe principal (participe pass) : We'll have a monument erected on this site. (Nous ferons riger un monument sur ce site.) I had my hair cut. (Je me suis fait couper les cheveux.)

> ON PRECISE L'AGENT. On utilise la base verbale (l'infinitif sans "to") au lieu du participe pass. Tout objet indirect (nom ou pronom) se mettra entre le verbe "to have" et l'infinitif, l'objet direct tant renvoy la fin de la proposition : The professor had his students write an essay. (Le professeur a fait crire une dissertation ses tudiants.) I had him do it. (Je le lui ai fait faire.)

> Remarque : Dans la langue parle, le verbe "to get" peut remplacer "to have" auquel cas on ajoute la prposition "to" l'infinitif : We'll get a monument erected on this site. (Nous ferons riger un monument sur ce site.) The professor got his students to write an essay. (Le professeur a fait crire un essai ses tudiants.)

> Quand on veut suggrer qu'il y a un changement de temprament, c'est la construction "to make + objet direct + adjectif" qui l'exprime : That letter made her sad. (Cette lettre l'a rendu triste.) He makes me furious! (Il me rend furieux !)

EXERCISE:
Construire des phrases selon le modle suivant: He went to the hairdresser's (His father...) > His father had him go to the hairdresser's. (le sujet entre parenthses est l'origine de l'action)

1. He stayed in bed. (The nurse...) 2. He will apologize to you (I...) 3. He admitted that he was wrong. (We...)

REPONSES
1. The nurse had him stay in bed. 2. I will get him to apologize to you. 3. We had him admit that he was wrong.

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Le futur parfait et le futur progressif


Tout le monde connat le futur. Nous l'avons d'ailleurs revu ensemble: will/shall + base verbale. Il y a nanmoins deux autres variantes qui sont un peu moins connues, mais qui sont nanmoins utilises, surtout dans l'anglais crit.

> Le futur parfait Plutt rare en anglais, le futur parfait sert exprimer une action future qui prcde une heure ou un vnement donns, ou une autre action future. On le formule en ajoutant le modal "will" l'auxiliaire "have", qui prcde le participe pass : She will have finished before eight o'clock. (Elle aura fini avant huit heures.) Tomorrow morning they will all have left. (Demain matin ils seront tous partis.) They will already have finished eating by the time we get there. (Ils auront dj fini de manger quand nous arriverons.)

On peut souvent utiliser le prsent simple la place du "future perfect", mais on perd alors une nuance: le prsent simple ne permet pas d'insister sur le fait que la 1re action est accomplie. Tomorrow morning they will all leave. (le "future perfect" aurait soulign qu'ils seraient dj partis avant demain matin) They will finish eating by the time we get there. (Ils vont peuttre terminer au moment o nous arriverons. Le future perfect aurait insist sur le fait qu'ils auraient fini avant que nous n'arrivions.)

> Le futur progressif Le futur progressif sert exprimer qu'une action sera en train de se passer un moment donn. On le formule en mettant le prsent progressif au futur : will be + participe prsent. I will be waiting for you at six o'clock. (Je vous attendrai six heures.) He will be eating by the time you arrive. (Il sera en train de dner quand vous arriverez.)

Astuce : Comment distinguer entre le futur progressif et le futur simple ? S'il est possible de traduire la phrase en utilisant "tre en train de", c'est le futur progressif qu'il faut. Le futur progressif insiste sur le fait que l'action sera en progression un moment donn. Le prsent simple suggre simplement que l'action est faite. Regardez ces 2 phrases grammaticalement correctes: I will be finishing my homework at 10:00. (Je terminerai peuttre mon travail 10h05 ou 10h15, je serai en train de le terminer) I will finish my homework at 10:00. (Je le terminerai 10h pile.)

TEST
Remettre les mots dans le bon ordre pour reconstituer une phrase. Attention: il y a un mot en trop, supprimer. 1. you / going / present / will / to / party / their / be ? 2. be / I / cake / tomorrow / leaving / will 3. she / 9 pm / have / will / by / been / ready / bed 4. midnight / eat / will / they / before / left / have / already

REPONSES 1. Will you be going to their party? (present) 2. I will be leaving tomorrow. (cake) 3. She will have been ready by 9 pm. (bed) 4. They will already have left before midnight. (eat)

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Les adverbes
I) La Formation A. La plupart des adverbes sont forms partir de l'adjectif. Il suffit d'ajouter la terminaison "ly" la forme adjectivale : intelligent > intelligently slow > slowly precise > precisely B. Si l'adjectif se termine par "le", on supprime le "e" et ajoute un "y" :simple > simply subtle > subtly C. L'adjectif "good" a une forme adverbiale irrgulire : good > well

Quelques adverbes ont la mme forme que l'adjectif : high, low, hard, better, fast D. Les adverbes temporels et spatiaux ne correspondent, en gnral, aucun adjectif. Il en va de mme pour les adverbes de quantit : yesterday (hier), today (aujourd'hui), tomorrow (demain), early (tt), soon (bientt), late (tard), here (ici), there (lbas), less (moins), more (plus), as (aussi), very (trs), much (beaucoup de), a lot of (beaucoup de), little of (peu de)

II) La position A. Lorsque un adverbe modifie un verbe, on le trouvera gnralement la fin du complment (mais avant toute proposition prpositionnelle ou subordonne) : He writes poorly. (Il crit mal.) She pronounced that word well.. (Elle a bien prononc ce mot.) Joseph worked diligently. (Joseph a travaill diligemment.) They worked hard before coming home. (Ils ont travaill dur avant de rentrer.) Exceptions : certains adverbes signalant l'opinion de l'interlocuteur, tels "probably", "undoubtedly", "surely", "certainly", etc., se mettront au dbut de la phrase, ou bien entre le verbe modal (ou le verbe auxiliaire) et le verbe principal : We are probably going to spend the summer in Corsica. (Nous allons probablement passer l't en Corse.) Certainly we would never do that! (Il est certain que nous ne ferions jamais cela !) We will undoubtedly see a dirty political campaign this year. (Nous verrons sans doute une sale campagne politique cette anne.) B. Les adverbes temporels et spatiaux se mettent gnralement la fin de la phrase, mais on peut les mettre au dbut de la phrase lorsque le complment s'avre long et encombr : I saw her yesterday. (Je l'ai vue hier.) We're going to the beach today. (Aujourd'hui nous allons la plage.) She went to bed very early. (Elle s'est couche trs tt.) Tomorrow we will try to get up early to prepare for our trip. (Demain nous essaierons de nous lever tt afin de faire les prparatifs du voyage.) C. Les adverbes modifiant un adjectif, ou un autre verbe, se mettront devant cet adjectif ou adverbe : She was very happy to see you. (Elle a t trs contente de te voir.) It was a brilliantly staged performance. (La mise en scne de cette reprsentation fut brillante.)

EXERCISE:
A) Trouvez les adverbes forms partir de ces adjectifs: bad, clear, different, sad, simple, calm

B) Insrez ces adverbes dans les phrases: 1. I like this wine. (very much) | 2. We will go to the cinema tonight. (probably) | 3. I lost my temper. (nearly)

REPONSES
A . badly, clearly, differently, sadly, simply, calmly B. 1. I like this wine very much. 2. We will probably go to the cinema tonight. 3. I nearly lost my temper.

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Ordre des adjectifs


Dans quel ordre placer ses adjectifs lorsqu'il y en a plusieurs dans une mme phrase? Il suffit de respecter l'ordre cidessous. Attention: les phrases contenant 4 adjectifs ou plus sont trs maladroites et elles devraient tre divises en plusieurs phrases.

1) Opinion >> an interesting movie, an exciting journey

2) Dimensions >> a large house, a big car

3) Age >> an old boat, a young boy

4) Forme >> an oval carpet, a round table

5) Couleur >> a grey raincoat, a green door

6) Origines >> French bread, a Japanese town

7) Matriau >> a plastic bottle, a wooden treasure

EXEMPLES: >A wonderful old Italian clock. (opinion age origine) >A big square blue box. (dimension forme couleur) >A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion couleur matriau) >Some slim new French trousers. (dimension age origine)

TEST
Construire un groupe nominal partir de ces lments: 1. book >> interesting small Spanish 2. house >> beautiful modern small 3. cap >> cotton funny green 4. picture >> modern ugly rectangular

REPONSES 1. An interesting small Spanish book. 2. A beautiful small modern house. 3. A funny green cotton cap. 4. An ugly modern rectangular picture.

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Les adjectifs: formes & emploi


> Forme L'adjectif anglais est invariable ; il ne s'accorde avec le nom ni en genre ni en nombre : a blue car (une voiture bleue) the great outdoors (la grande nature) a group of young women (une bande de jeunes filles) Cela dit, certains adjectifs ont un sens plutt fminin ou masculin. Ainsi, on dit qu'une femme est "beautiful" (belle), tandis qu'un homme est "handsome" (beau). Les adjectifs de religion et de nationalit (ou d'identit rgionale) commencent par une majuscule, qu'il s'agisse d'une personne ou d'une chose : She is an American student. (C'est une tudiante amricaine.) They go to a Catholic school. (Ils vont l'cole catholique.) They enjoy Breton music. (Ils aiment la musique bretonne.)

> Emploi Dans un groupe nominal, l'adjectif, quelques rares exceptions prs, se place devant le nom qu'il modifie. Lorsque deux adjectifs (ou plus) prcdent un nom, ils peuvent tre relis par la conjonction "and", ou par une simple virgule. (Dans une srie de trois adjectifs ou plus, on prcde le dernier de la conjonction "and" : I like short novels. (J'aime les romans courts.) That fellow will be a competent worker. (Ce type sera un ouvrier habile.) She writes long and flowery letters. (Elle crit de longues lettres fleuries.) He works long, hard hours. (Il fait des journes longues et dures) She had a mean, old, and overbearing stepmother. (Elle avait une martre vieille, vilaine, et dominatrice.)

Un adjectif en postposition marquera le plus souvent une phrase relative (quoique le pronom relatif puisse tre implicite): He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. (C'est un homme qui tait toujours content d'aider les autres.) She is a woman (who is) true to herself. (C'est une femme qui reste fidle ses principes.)

EXERCISE:
Compltez cette phrase avec un groupe nominal constitu d'un article, d'un nom et d'un adjectif: Peter has ... adjectifs: elegant / short / brown / long / little / blue / warm / curly articles: a / an / (nothing) noms: coat / gloves / beard / eyes

REPONSES (exemples de rponses; il y a d'autres rponses)

an elegant / warm coat brown / short gloves curly / little beard blue

eyes an elegant, warm, blue coat