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vk.com/id120140527 2011
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Contents
ESSENTIAL COURSE.................................................... 5
Unit o n e ......................................................................... 5
Unit two ........................................................................ 29
Unit t h r e e ...................................................................... 54
Unit f o u r ........................................................................ 84
Unit five ........................................................................ 107
Unit six ......................................................................... 140
Unit seven ..................................................................... 168
Unit ei g h t ...................................................................... 201
GRAMMAR EXERCISES............................................... 226
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ESSENTIAL COURSE
UNITONE M
Exercise 1, p. 7
Possible variants
1. This is more like a word for word translation than a liter
ary one. 2. It is more like a fable than a fairy tale. 3. The fabric
looks more like cotton than viscose. 4. Ann looks more like
a schoolgirl than a college student. 5. With this hairdo she looks
more like a boy than a girl. 6. We walked round the village for
an hour or so. 7 . 1stayed with my friends for a fortnight or so.
8.1lived in the town for three years or so. 9 . 1am not through
with the book yet. Ive read only 50 pages or so. 10. Since every
one is present, I think it is an excellent/wonderful/splendid
opportunity to announce that fane and I have just got engaged.
11. We are through with our work. Isnt it a wonderful opportu
nity to go to some nice bar and cut loose? (
). 12. Weve been looking for her house for more than an
hour. I should/would never have thought that her place would
be so difficult to find. 13. There seems to be no end to dirty
clothes. I should never have thought that one man could soil so
many shirts, vests and underpants in so short a time. 14. The
more we listened to him, the more he convinced us that his
course of action was just the ticket ( . ,
). 15. The more John looked at her, the less he liked what he
saw. 16. The more I think about her decision, the less I agree
with it. 17. The more indignant Andrew became, the more he
stuttered. 18. The longer we waited, the more impatient we felt.
19- Wholl go to the bakers? There is no bread left. 20. Im going
to the stationers. There is no paper left. 21. Why go shopping? -
We have nofood left. 22. We neednt hurry. There is plenty of time
left. 23. Hurry up. We have no time left. 24. Why not put the table
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near the window? - There seems to be no room left. 25. Where
will you put the bookcase? There seems to be no very little space
left in room.
Exercise 2, p. 8
Possible variants
1. I should/would never have thought that looking after
a child was so tiresome. 2.1 should/would never have thought that
writing a summary of this article might cost so much effort.
3.1 should/would never have thought that scrubbing a sooty
saucepan clean might turn out to be such a trying job. 4. The
harder he worked, the bigger wages he earned. 5. The more he
thought over the problem, the less he knew what to do. 6. The
more we stayed at the Holiday Inn, the more we liked the place.
7. That won't do. You shouldnt be so careless. 8. That won't do.
Youll have to do everything all over again. 9. That won't do. You
treat the matter too lightly. 10. That won't do. Your answer is
wrong.
Exercise 3, p. 8
Possible variants
1. If only the weather were better! - Oh, yes! Then we would
go on a walking tour for a week or so. 2. In two days Ill finish my
exams. - Oh, thank God! It will be a splendid opportunity to go
away on holiday and swim in the nice warm sea and bake in the
sun fo r hours on end. 3.1shant be through with my work before
the weekend, Im afraid. - That won't/will never do. You'll have to
finish it by Thursday at the latest, or you'll be fired. 4. How long
will the job take? - How should I know? I would never have
thought that writing a book about my adventures in Africa would
be so difficult. (How should I know? The more I work, the more
work there seems to be left.) 5. Were going there on Friday. - Then
we must hurry! There's very little time left. 6. She may come yet.
Lets wait a bit. - That wont do. Weve already been waiting for
two hours or so. 7. He says it was your fault. - Oh, does he? I should
never have thought that he would tell such a blatant lie! (I would
never have thought him capable o f such a barefaced lie!) 8. How
long shall I stay here? - Why, until you are well again, my dear.
I suppose your recovery will take ten days or so.
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Exercise 5, pp. 8-9
A. In spring on our way back to Moscow we happened to
pass (by) a small town. It was more like a big village than a town,
all its houses were smothered in roses and it seemed to us so
lovely that we couldnt help stopping there (couldnt keep from
stopping there/couldnt help but stop there). I should never
have thought that a walk round (about/around) a small provin
cial town could be such a pleasure. We walked around the town
for 3 hours or so, and the more we looked at that fairy-like nook,
the more we admired it. But there wasnt much time left/there
was very little time left, and we had to hurry to Moscow.
B. Last year my wife and I had to take a holiday in winter. We
decided that it was a splendid opportunity to redecorate/reno
vate our flat. After two days work it looked more like a ware
house full of broken furniture than a flat. That wont do (That
will never do), my wife said. Wed better hire house painters
and have it repainted (have it redecorated).
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
Exercise 1, p. 16
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. gossip n 1) ( .) , ;
( ), ( ), , ;
( )
a gossip column - ( ,
')
a gossip writer -
Dont believe all the gossip you hear. - He
.
2) ( ) , ; ,

the town gossips - ( )
to gossip vi (over/about smth.) - 1) - .;
2) , - .
to spread rumours -
Arent you ashamed of gossiping over his affairs? -
?
2. wind [w aind] (wound [w aund]) vt/i 1) ,
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to wind the handle - ;
2) , ,
to wind wool -
3) ,
The path winds through the wood. -
.
4) ( . .); 5) to wind up - ( );
- .
Its time he could wind up his speech. -
.
to wind smb. round ones little finger - - .
(N.B. - .
)
3. peel vt/i 1) (oranges, apples, potatoes, bananas etc.)
, ( , , ,
. .); 2) ( . off) , , ,

The skin peels off the nose or face when a person gets sun
burnt. - ,
.
The wallpaper is peeling off. - ,
peel - , ,
orange (potato) peel - ( )
candied peel - , ,
. .
4. scrape vt/i - 1) , ; ,

I scraped the skin off the vegetables. -
.
2) ,
She scraped the door (down) before painting it again. -

. (
.)
scraped his boots clean before coming into the house. -
, .
3) (on, against)
a chair scraping on the floor - ,
scraped his chair against the wall. -
.
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4) ( )
scraped his knee when he fell. - , .
5) -
She just scraped through the examination - -
.
to scrape a living - ;
to scrape up/together - - ( , )
5. steady adj - 1) , ,
a steady foundation - ,

to make a chair or table steady - (
)
The chair is steady enough. - .
syn. firm - ,
firm ground -
firm foundation - ,
firm steps -
firm muscles -
2) ,
a steady person - ,

3) , , ,
steady wind -
steady rain - ( )
steady growth -
steady increase -
steady progress - ,

steadily - ,
It has been raining steadily since morning. -
.
to steady vt/i - , ,
; , ,

With an effort he steadied the boat. - ,
( ).
The boat soon steadied again. -
/ .
6. mess - , , , ; ;
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to be in a mess - 1) , ; 2)
, ; 3) , ;
The room was in a mess. - ,
to make a mess o f smth. - ( ) ,
, ( ), ;
Youve made a mess of the job. - . (
.)
to get into a mess -
( ), ;
Youll get into a mess if you are not more careful. -
, .
7. crack vt/i 1) ;
A vase may crack if washed in boiling water. -
, .
Youve cracked the window. - .
.
2) ,
to crack a whip -
His rifle cracked and the deer fell dead. -
, .
to crack a joke - ( )
crack - ; ; , ( ),
( )
a wide (small) crack - ( ) ( ,
)
a loud (sudden) crack - ( )
The walls are covered with cracks. - .
I heard a crack as if of a branch. - -
, .
8. contribute vt/i - 1) , ( . .),
to contribute time - ;
2) ( . .); ,
,
The development of friendly ties with other countries con
tributes to mutual understanding of their peoples. -

.
3) ( , )
to contribute articles to a wall-newspaper -

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to contribute a poem to a newspaper -

contribution (to) - 1) , (
. .); 2) ( .)
Montmorency brought a dead water-rat as his contribution
to the dinner. -
( )
( ).
9. spirit - 1) , ; 2) ,
, ; 3) , , ;
, ,
the spirit of the army -
the spirit of the times (age) - ( )
the spirit of the law -
to take smth. in the right (wrong) spirit - -
. ( ., ) ( )
to show a proper spirit -
Thats the right spirit! - !
He found himself in conflict with the spirit of the time. -
,
.
4) , , , , , ,

Put a little more spirit into your work. -
.
spoke with spirit. - .
5) spirits -
to be in high (low) spirits - ( ,
)
His spirits rose (fell or sank). -
( ).
to raise smb.s spirits - - .
to be out o f spirits - ;
You seem to be out of spirits today. - , ,
.
10. taste - 1)
The doctor prescribed her some pills with a bitter taste. -
, .
I dont care for this bread, it has a very bitter taste. -
, .
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I dislike the taste of olives. - .
2) ,
You may choose any flowers to your taste here. -
.
There is no accounting for tastes. (Tastes differ.) -
. ( .)
3) ,
The room was furnished in good taste. -
.
They say she dresses in poor taste. - ,
.
I was ashamed of you, your jokes were in very bad taste. -
, ( )
.
taste vt/i - 1) , ; ,

There we found some strange foods and made up our minds
to taste them all. -
.
Can you distinguish types of apples by tasting them? -
?
I have a bad cold and cannot taste anything. -
, ( ) .
2)
This orange tastes bitter. -
( ).
3) , ,
There she tasted the joys of privacy. -
.
tasteful adj - 1) ; 2)

a tasteful person -
a tasteful work of art -

tasteless adj 1) , ; 2) ,
; ;
The potatoes were tasteless without salt. -
.
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WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES
in early June -
to put up at some place - - .
( . .)
to roam the woods/through the woods (about a place) -
( / / )
to get settled -
odds and ends - 1) , , , ;
2) , ,
to be the size of smth. - - .

the rest of the evening -
half a dozen, half a peck* of peas, half a pork pie, half a tin of
salmon - , ,
,
to stir smth. up - , ,
- .
to add smth. to smth. - , - . - .
to empty smth. into a pot - ( ) - .

to thicken the gravy -
with an earnest and thoughtful air -

to be on the safe side -
Exercise 4, p. 14
1. In early May the village is really fairy-like with all its
houses smothered in roses. 2. Id like to put up at this small
inn for a week or so. 3. The whole day we roamed (about)
the countryside, and in the evening we had a nice rest. 4. It
turned out to be quite late when at last we got settled.
5.1never saw such a thing as a stew for getting rid of all the
odds and ends of food. 6. Choose the books you need and
take the rest to the library. 7. This is a rare edition: the book
is the size o f a matchbox, but the print is very clear. 8. We
have half a tin of potted pork left, lets add it to the stew
(lets empty it into the stew). 9- Add some more oatmeal
to the porridge and stir it up thoroughly with a spoon.
' a peck = 2 gallons = 8,81 litres
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10. He may have forgotten about our arrangement, le ts ( ;ill
him to be on the safe side.
Exercise 5, pp. 14-15
1.1 would love to go to the south in early June, when every
thing is smothered in flowers, and roam (about) the mountains.
2. We decided that in St. Petersburg we would put up at :i hotel
and stay there for a week or so. 3. We got settled quickly, and it
turned out that we had plenty/a lot of time till evening. 4. When
we had got settled at last, we were so tired that none of us want
ed to go anywhere. 5. These odds and ends of paper are hardly
any use. (I dont think these odds and ends of paper are any use.)
6. I would/should never have thought that one could make
a dress of/out of/from these odds and ends of fabric. 7. My room
is the size of yours/the same size as yours, but somehow (but
for some reason) it looks smaller. 8. Ive read only half the article,
but it seems to me that it has little to do with the subject youre
interested in. 9. The train arrives only in half an hour, lets roam
(about) the town. 10. Ellen stirred up the salad, tasted it and
decided to add another half a jar of pickled cucumbers. 11. This
tinned/canned/potted meat is good. Empty half a tin/can into
the stew. 12. Add some more flour to the gravy to thicken it.
13. He cracks jokes/makes jokes/jokes with such an earnest
and thoughtful air, that one cant help laughing/that one cant
keep from laughing. 14. To be on the safe side we had better not
touch on/upon this matter/question today.
Exercise 8, p. 15
to roam (about), a place; for an hour or so; to put up some
where for the night; to have plenty of time; a splendid opportu
nity; a fascinating idea; to make a fire; quite an undertaking; to
turn out; to be the size of smth.; steadily; absurd; to overhaul; to
pick out; to thicken the gravy; to be on the safe side; hackneyed
things; not to matter
Exercise 9, p. 15
- a fairy-like nook;
- to be smothered in roses;
- a veritable picture of
a country inn;
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- village politics;
* - quaint rooms;
- latticed windows;
- a slap-up supper;
- in the way of cooking;
- to gather wood;
- light-heartedness
Exercise 10, pp. 15-16
1. to gossip over village politics - to talk about the details of
other village inhabitants' behaviour and private lives, often
including information that is not true. 2. to try a good slap-up
supper - to try to cook a splendid supper. 3. Our light-hearted-
ness was gone. - We no longer felt cheerful/Our cheerfulness was
gone./We no longer felt care-free. 4. Then we struck. - Then we
went on strike./Then we said that we wouldn't scrape the potatoes
any more./Then we refused to work any more. 5. We should
require the rest of the evening for scraping ourselves. - We
should need the remainder of the evening for getting rid of the
potato scrapings that cover us from head to toe. 6. We overhauled
the hampers. - We carefully/thoroughly examined the contents of
the hampers. 7. All the odds and ends and the remnants. - All the
leftovers. 8. Every little helped. - Every amount of food however
insignificant might be o f some use. 9- George stood for precedent.
- George stood for using the existing customs and former deci
sions as a guide to the present action. 10. He would rather be on
the safe side and not try experiments. - He would rather not take
chances/not take risks. (He ivould rather play it safe and not try
experiments.)
Exercise 1, p. 16 - see above.
Exercise 2, p. 16
A. 1.
, , . 2. ,
. 3. -
, -
. 4. ? - -
: quaint - unusual and attractive, especially in an old-
fashioned way:
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. 5. , > -
. 6. .
. 7.
. 8.
-
, ! 9-
, ,
, .
10. ,
,
. 11.
. 12. ! - ,
, ,
. 13- :
, - ,
. 14.
, . 15.
,
. 16. ,
, . 17. /
,
,
. 18.
. 19.
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- ! 20. , ,
.
21. / -
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.
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, ( , ).
2.
. 3-
, . 4.
, - . - ,
. 5.
, . 6. -

. 7. -
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8. . 9.
,
. 10. .
. 11. ,
,
. 12. ,
. 13.
, , ,
( , ,
). 14.
,
. 15. - ,
, . 16.
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: . 18.
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. 19.
. 20. :
- ? 21.
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( ). 22.
, -
, - -
, 23.
. 24.
,
.
Exercise 3, . 18
. 1. The Browns were glad to drop of an evening for a cock
tail and some gossip. 2. He chuckled at the thought of how suc
cessfully they had deceived the gossips. 3. Ann wound Tom
round her little finger. 4. Its time he wound up his speech. 5. She
hates peeling potatoes. 6. Put the towel round your shoulders or
youll burn and your skin will peel (off). 7. The silly boy is always
getting into a mess/into scrapes. 8. Scrape the soles of your shoes
thoroughly/Scrape the mud off the soles of your shoes before
you go into the cottage. 9. It took the boys much time and effort
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to sc rape up/scrape together the money they needed. 10. He is
;i steady young man. 11. He turned out to be a steady worker.
I2. He was not bad-looking and had a good steady job. 13. The
table was unsteady, as one of its legs was broken. 14. The rain is
pouring down steadily.
B. 1. After he had finished packing, the room was in a mess.
2. But for your carelessness you wouldnt have got into
a mess/scrape. 3. But even he must have known that he had
made a mess of the job. 4. There is a crack in the vase. 5. Hes
fond of cracking jokes. 6. Poor as they were, the workers were
ready to contribute to their common cause. 7. He regularly con
tributes poems to our newspaper. 8. He came to lunch in partic
ularly high spirits. 9. He did the job with such spirit that he
accomplished a shining success. 10. After supper everyone was
in high spirits/Supper raised everyones spirits. 11. When he is ill
he does not taste food for days. 12. The soup tastes of onions.
13. There is no accounting for tastes. 14. What do you know of
his tastes? 15. After our quarrel even my favourite dish seemed
tasteless/tasted awful.
Exercise 4, pp. 18-20
A. 1. Charles had planned to see Arthur Brown in Hall and on
the side pick up the latest rumours. 2. You meet other boats there
and rumours, often groundless about the people living or work
ing on the river are exchanged. 3. He had mentioned that
Georges behaviour and private life were being much talked
about. 4. He gave people the latest rumours about othersaffairs
in the same way that he gave them drinks. 5. Bess was a person
who habitually spread rumours of an intimate nature and noth
ing could make her mend her ways. 6. Bant marvelled how
quickly rumours of an intimate nature traveled/circulated. 7. At
last the town busybodies stopped prattling about her private life.
8. Next day, while he was at its last office bringing to an end its
last tattered affairs, I telephoned Mrs. Skelton. 9. Dont you see
that she can make anyone do whatever she likes? 10. The paint
on the wall was coming off in thin strips, and a banister leg was
loose. 11. The wallpaper came off in long, broad ribbons.
12. Sitting down and taking off her gloves, Jane took a mirror
out of her bag and looked at herself. 13- It was a most difficult
job to remove all the rust (by firmly pushing something edged
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across the surface again and again). 14. The lazy boy was lucky to
squeeze through the examination: he got a very low grade but it
allowed him to pass. 15. John had managed with difficulty to
save enough money to pay for his first year at college. 16. I ran
the risk of getting into some unpleasant situations. 17. If you
dont take care, your friend will get you into serious trouble
some day, said Carrie. 18. My father and I picked all the change
out of our pockets and managed to collect enough to pay for
a breakfast at a diner. 19. Be careful!/Look out!/Watch out! There
is a broken step here. 20. He often visited their home. 21. He said
in a shaky/faltering voice, I understand, Mrs. Evans.
22. Caroline repeated the ejaculation, but this time her voice
shook a little. 23. The snow was falling continuously/non-stop
out of a tawny sky. 24. He clutched at her to keep from falling.
25. He is a staunch fighter for peace. 26. No, said Mary in a firm
voice, he never comes here. 27. He moved forward in the dark
ness with faltering steps. 28. Im a bit of a Don Juan, my dear, you
need someone more serious and dependable. 29 He has got
a character and a regular job, and hes no fool. 30. Im not
going, was his invariable answer (he always answered) to all her
threats and requests. 31. He kept losing weight.
. 1. Youve bungled the job/youve blown it. I wish you had
refused to do it. 2. Why did you leave all the dirty dishes and rem
nants/leftovers of food on the table? 3. Nothing to do but clean
up the broken eggs - and such nice eggs they were. 4. Now
weve got to clean everything up, he said. All I hope is that it
doesnt take too long. 5.1imagined how badly he would do the
job - it was inevitable that he would botch it up/blow it. 6. It is
very difficult for foreigners to pronounce this word properly.
7. He is a person not easily understood or overcome or influ
enced. 8. He is fond of making jokes, but they are not to my lik
ing. 9. A winded horse, a broken bow and a foe forcibly turned
friend cannot be relied upon. ( ,
-
). 10. If one pours some liquid into a vessel that has an
opening, however thin, caused by breaking, it will leak out.
11. He made some invaluable scientific discoveries. 12. Mr.
Winfield listened and soon understood that he was expected to
take part in the conversation. 13. M. Sholokhov wrote quite a lot
of world-class fiction. 14. My own earliest boating recollection is
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I
I of five of us paying three pence apiece (three pence each) tak
ing a boat on the lake. 15. This is not the right attitude i<>begin
some new work with. (This is not the right frame of mind to
begin some new work in.) 16. We found him alone, spent and
depressed. 17. He immediately cheered up when the door swung
open and he saw Saundra on the threshold. 18. Despite all her
troubles she too seemed to be enjoying the occasion. 19. Can
you feel the flavour of pepper in this soup? 20.1dont think that
I ever ate pumpkin pie as good as hers. 21. His likes and dislikes
did not seem to have changed. 22. The house was handsome, he
admitted, but it wasnt to his liking/but it wasnt the sort of
house he could like. 23. Your understanding of brandy, Doctor,
is much better than your understanding of music, said Chris.
24. After that, having taken a liking to the water/having taken to
the water, I did a good deal of rafting.
Exercise 5, p. 20
peel - scrape
1. New potatoes are nice to the taste but I hate scraping
them. 2. Ive boiled potatoes in their jackets/skins, will you
scrape/peel them?
steady - firm
1. The chair was not steady because one of its legs was bro
ken. 2. The oak-tree stood firm in the earth. 3. Mr. Convoy was
a steady customer at the bookshop. 4. His decision was firm.
crack - break
1. The cup was/had cracked, but the pieces still held togeth
er. 2. The ice cracked and then broke under his feet. 3- Brittle
things break easily.
taste - flavour
1. The peach has a peculiarly fine flavour. 2. The fruit looked
tempting, but it turned out to have an unpleasant taste. 3-1like
the lemon flavour of the sweets.
Exercise 6, p. 20
- to gossip; to talk gossip;
- to wind (up) a watch (a clock);
- to wind wool;
- . - to scrape ones elbow on/against
smth.;
- to work steadily;
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- . - to make a contribution to smth., to
contribute to smth.;
- the spirit of the times (age);
- to work with spirit;
- to taste bitter, to have a bitter taste;
- . - to lead smb. down the gar
den path, to take smb. for a ride, to lead smb. a (pretty) dance, to
put/slip one over/on smb.
(of ladies only in the meaning of - . -
to wind/twist/wrap smb. round ones little finger)
Example: . -
The terrorists put one over the authorities.
- to get into trouble (into a mess/a scrape);
- . - to be mixed up in
smth.;
- tastes differ/there is no accounting for
tastes;
- in good taste, tastefully
Exercise 7, p. 20-22
A. 1. To be on the safe side dont talk about these affairs,
some people are fond of gossiping about/over others affairs.
2. I think/To my mind/In my opinion/I believe/It seems to me
there arent many gossips in our block of flats (Brit)/apart-
ment hous (us), we are lucky/we are in luck, said Anne. 3. I
would never have thought that Jane would circulate
gossip/would gossip, Kate said. Just dont listen to her, Dotty
answered. 4. Lets go/climb up this winding staircase to the top
of the tower. 5. What are you doing? It wont do. (It will never
do.) How can one wind off wool like this/in this way? 6. No
one could take a man for a ride/Nobody could lead a man
down the garden path like little Polly. 7. Put all these odds and
ends (all these little things) in a bag and wind a (piece of)
rope/string round/around it several times. 8. Dont peel the
bark off the birch-tree, youll hurt it. 9. You shouldnt lie in the
sun so long, your skin will peel (off), and anyway it does more
harm than good. 10. Why are you peeling the potatoes? For
salad its better to boil them unpeeled/without peeling/in
their jackets/skins. 11. Kate sometimes managed to find a tem
porary job but she still couldnt scrape a living. 12. Something
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has stuck to my sole and I cant scrape it off, it must be tar. 13.
Look out! Dont scrape your arm against/on the nail. 14. Dont
scrape your fork on your plate, please, I hate this sound. 15. He
just scraped through the examinations but I think he has real
ized that one shouldnt waste so much time. 16. Its quite a
decent holiday centre but we had very bad luck with the
weather (but the weather was really nasty): it rained steadily
from morning till night. 17. At that moment I couldnt help
admiring/couldnt help but admire/couldnt resist
admiring/couldnt keep from admiring her self-control. With
a steady hand she threaded the needle and went on sewing as
though nothing had happened. 18. He seemed quite a steady
young man. 19. Lets put something under the leg of the table
to steady it.
B. 1. Johns room was in a dreadful/terrible/horrible mess
but when his sister took advantage of his absence to tidy it up a
bit he got very angry and said that he couldnt find anything
there any more/any longer. 2. You have made a mess of the
whole job/messed up the whole job/blown the whole job
again. Arent you ashamed of not caring at all/being indifferent
to everything? 3. She made a mess o f my plans/upset/frustrat
ed/foiled my plans by keeping me waiting for four hours. 4. We
heard a twig crack. Someone was approaching (us)/was com
ing. 5. How careless you are! Mothers favorite vase has/is
cracked: how could you wash it with/in boiling water? 6. Now
it is dangerous/unsafe to cross the river because of the cracks in
the ice. 7. The paint on the window-sill has/is cracked. We will
have to scrape it off before repainting. 8. Regular training con
tributed to his success in the competition. 9. He refused to con
tribute his poems to our wall-newspaper and now there is no
time to ask somebody else to do it. 10. The American
painter/artist Rockwell Kent has contributed some of his works
to the Pushkin Museum/ Museums collection of pictures. 11.
He spoke with such spirit that he left nobody cold/nobody
remained indifferent. 12. As soon as you tell him about it his
spirits will rise. 13- You have taken the criticism in the right spir
it, just as I expected. 14.1remember that there is half a bottle of
strawberry juice left somewhere. It tastes like nothing else on
earth. (Its taste is beyond compare/is incomparable.) 15. At
first/ Initially/In the beginning the taste of this unfamiliar fruit
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seemed unpleasant to us, but then/later we got used to slak
ing/quenching our thirst with it. 16. All of us/We all knew her to
be a woman of taste. 17.1 dont like the taste of carrots. Dont
put them into the salad, please. 18. This shop has such a choice
of goods that you are sure to find something to your taste. 19.
He likes to crack/make jokes/to joke, but many of his jokes are
in bad taste. 20. What a nuisance/How annoying! The cucum
bers taste bitter/have a bitter taste.
Exercise 8, p. 22
1. Gossip. 2. Peel. 3. Contribution. 4. Taste. 5. A gossip.
6. We call such a person steady. 7. He/She can wind/wrap/
twist anyone round his/her little finger. 8. It is in a mess.
9 . 1would try to steady it. 10. I taste it. 11. I have to scrape it
out/to scrape the burnt porridge off its bottom/to scrape it
clean. 12. One must scrape up/together enough money to
pay the tuition. 13. It is sure to crack. 14. If all goes well, my
spirits rise/ are high, and if things go from bad to worse they
sink/fall (they are low).
Exercise 9, p. 22
1. What are you talking about? Im not a gossip. (Im no gos
sip.) 2. I know that its in a mess but how could I help it? Ive
slipped and fallen right into the mud. 3. You couldnt be more
wrong. He made a big contribution. (He contributed a lot to
our success.) 4. Yes, I know I should have worked with more
spirit, but honest to goodness I just couldnt: I was feeling dog-
tired. 5. Im out of spirits. 6.1 guess thats because I was in very
low spirits. My girlfriend had just dumped me. (I know I made
a mess of my answer but it was because my next door neigh
bours horrid music had kept me awake all night.) 7. Oh, dear
God! It looks a mess! You must demand compensation. 8. Wed
better add some water to it and stir it all up. 9- Dont you know
her? Shes the kind of woman to wind any man round her little
finger. 10. Its rotten. It tastes bitter. 11. Oh no, not he. He only
just scraped through them. 12. The one whose shirt is in a
mess. See that large gravy stain? And lipstick all over the collar?
13. Oh yes, he was though he just scraped through the
entrance exams. 14. Thats metal scraping on glass. Disgusting,
isnt it?
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Exercise 13, p. 23
1. Stand in front of me, youll see better then, there will be
nothing in the way o f you view. 2. Frankly speaking, I dont see
anything in that idea. 3. She is always in trouble because of/on
account of her son. He cant resist bad influence. 4 . 1can never
talk easily to/with him, we have nothing in common. 5. Astitch
in time saves nine. (Proverb) 6. A bird in the hand is worth two
in the bush (Proverb). 7. There were not many people at the
meeting, about 10 or 12 in number, I should think. 8. Our prepa
ration had to be made in secret, which required caution. 9. We
are in sight of land now and will soon be in port. 10. The matter
in itself is not important, in fact I was going to take no notice of
it, but he had acted in such a way that I must take it into consid
eration. In any case it cant affect you. 11.1shall take these plates
away now and bring the pudding in. 12. Come to our village in
a month or so. Youll see then how beautiful it is in early June, all
the houses smothered in roses and not a cloud in the sky.
Exercise 14, pp. 23-24
1. Such a teacher is hard to find, he is one in a thousand.
2.1was in the very midst of the crowd and couldnt come up to
you. 3. If I were you/in your place I would wait a little, its in your
interest (s). 4. Who has taken (got/picked) out the mail/the
post today? One newspaper is missing, the father said in indig
nation/indignantly. 5. The bus conductor helped the/an old
woman to get on. 6. Jim opened the door and let in the dog wet
with rain. 7. You are in low spirits today, arent you? - Yes, Im
feeling somewhat depressed/blue, Id rather stay at home and
read. 8. John helped his wife off with her coat and into the arm
chair by the fireplace. 9- Dont you know that one should not
write a test in pencil? 10. We got off the train and set out in
search of a hotel. 11. Speak in a whisper. Anne seems to have fall
en asleep. 12. George cut off a slice of bread, buttered it and
started eating. 13. This student is sure of his knowledge and is
showing off a little. 14. The paint wont come off the coat, I cant
scrape it off. 15. Do you know how he is getting on with the
book he is writing? - I havent seen him for a long time, we
dont get along. - But why? I believe you are finding fault with
him. For all his shortcomings/drawbacks/faults he is a very
decent man.
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CHANGING PATTERNS OF LEISURE
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. Choosing a route. Packing. - .
:
hike - . ,
, ;
to go on a hike - ;
to go hiking - 1) ; 2) ;
hiker - , ,
, ;
picnic - ;
walking tour - . hike;
walker - 1) . hiker; 2) (good, bad, excellent etc. walker);
to travel (to go) on foot - ( ) ;
to wander [w and ] - ;
to roam - ;
route [ru:t] - , ,
to choose a route - ;
to discuss plans - ;
to plan a trip - / / ;
guide-book - ;
light (hand) luggage - ( );
heavy luggage - ;
rucksack - ;
knapsack - ;
hamper - ,
;
basket - ;
to pack clothes (supplies,,cooking utensils, etc.) into a ruck
sack - ( ) ( ,
. .) ;
to pack a rucksack - ;
damp-proof - , ;
sleeping-bag - ;
the spirit of the journey - ;
to be open to all impressions -
;
an inveterate [in'vet(9)rit] anti-picnicker - (
) .
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2. Nature. Weather - . :
landscape - , , ;
scenery - , , ;
countryside - 1) ; 2) ,
, ( );
hilly or level countryside -
( );
picturesque - ;
vegetation - ;
grove - ;
slope - ;
steep hill - ;
meditative ['m d itativ] silence of the morning -
, (
);
to wind [w a in d] - , , (
, . .);
winding - , , (
, . .);
the weather forecast - ;
to forecast (forecast/forecasted) the weather -
;
constant (steady) rain (wind) - (
);
dull (wet, damp, cloudy, foggy, windy) weather (day) -
( , , , , )
(- );
it is pouring - ;
to drizzle - ( );
it is beginning to drizzle - ;
fog - ;
thick fog - ;
mist - ( ) , ;
to be (to get) wet through - ( );
the things are damp - ;
the things are soaked - ;
the wind rises - ; drives the clouds
away - ; brings rain -
; drops - ;
its a hot, stuffy day - ;
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the heat is stifling, inbearable - ,
; ;
there is hardly a breath of air -
; ;
not a leaf is stirring - ;
its 30 (degrees) above (zero) in the shade -
( ) ( ) ;
its a day to tempt anyone out -
, .
3. Meals - :
meals in the open air - ;
cooking utensils [juftensalz] - ;
frying-pan - ;
saucepan - ;
pot - ;
kettle - 1) ( ); 2) ;
tea-pot - ;
to get a kettle to boil - ;
tin - ;
tinned food - ;
tin opener - ;
pocket knife - ;
gas-burner - ;
water-container - ;
eggs and bacon - ;
scrambled eggs - 1) - ; 2) ;
plain, nourishing breakfast - , ;
to peel potatoes - ( );
to scrape potatoes - (
);
to stir - , ;
to mix - ;
to crack - , ( . .);
to squash [skwoj] - 1) ( ),
), ; 2) ;
to smash - ;
to clean (to scrape out) a frying-pan - ( -
) ;
to spill - ( );
odds and ends - ( . .), ;
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flavour - ; ( , . .),
;
good stuff - ( . .);
like nothing else on earth - ;
to make a fire - ( );
to put out the fire - ( );
to light a gas-stove - ;
to settle oneself for a meal - ( ),
;
to squat [skwot] down to supper - ,
;
burnt and unappetizing-looking mess - ,
;
to give smb. a good appetite - - . ( )
;
to wash up - .
4. Sleep - :
to camp out - ;
to sleep out - ;
a picnic site - ( );
to fix (to pitch) a tent - ;
to strike a tent - ;
sleeping-bag - ;
to be fast asleep - ;
not to sleep a wink - ;
torch - ( ) .
5. Bathing and Boating -
:
to look down at the river and shiver - ( )
( ) ;
to throw water over oneself - ;
a tremendous splash - 1) ; 2)
;
to dive - ;
to swim - ;
to have a swim - , ;
to run ones boat into a quiet nook -
;
to hire a boat - ;
to get upset - ( . .);
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to row [ w ] up (down) the river (stream) -
( ) ( );
to steer - 1) , ; 2) ,
;
bow [bau] - ( , . .);
stern - ;
canoe [ ' : ] - , ;
rowing-boat - ;
motor-boat - ;
yacht [ : t] - ;
to land - ( ) ;
to get out - ( , . .);
to scull - 1) ; 2)
;
to tow [tau] - ;
to punt - 1) , ; 2)
;
raft [ra:ft] - ;
to raft - ( ) ,
;
strong current - ;
a refreshing bathe - .
UNIT TWO
Exercise 1, p. 38
Possible variants
1. It was a silly rather than a witty remark. 2. The officer is
stubborn rather than stupid. 3. The family suffered for lack of
money. 4. If 1were invited to the concert, I would dress in my very
best (I would dress appropriately for the occasion). 5. What you
need is courage. 6. The article has nothing to do with art. 7. She is
known for her complete lack of taste. 8. What you need is to go
and see for yourself. 9. She is an experienced secretary rather
than a good office manager. 10. Your remark has nothing to do
with the problem under discussion. 11. She should be interested
in tennis rather than volleyball. 12. He spoke ungraciously rather
than amiably. 13. She is poor and always feels a lack of
money/funds. 14. If Pete had many friends, he wouldn't say that
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he was lonely. 15. What he needs is discretion. 16. My low spirits
have nothing to do with Adams arrival. 17. I liked Maurice in
away until I got to know him. 18. The children were noisy for
lack of discipline. 19. I f he said this dress was tasteless, I would say
he was right.
Exercise 2, p. 38
1. He has nothing to do with their accommodation. 2 . 1think
the room was damp rather than cold. 3. The girl said she liked
hiking in a way. 4 . 1can understand her explanation rather than
accept it. 5. If I were you, I wouldnt have made an appointment
with the lady. 6. The girl was clumsy rather than plain. 7 . 1have
nothing to do with the papers. 8. He showed a lack of words
with which to express his thanks. 9. I think what the group
needs is some extra help. 10. He is boring rather than amusing.
11. She has nothing to do with the Browns.. 12. Everybody
knows about her lack of wisdom. 13- What she needs/requires is
a good rest. 14. The familys lack of money (The lack of money in
the family) did not prevent the good-natured March girls from
leading interesting lives. (Despite the lack of funds in the family
the good-natured March girls managed to lead interesting lives.)
15. What I need is for you, Jo, to tell me everything.
Exercise 3, p. 38
1. He is rather wise than sly (cunning). (He is rather a wise
man than a sly/cunning one.) 2. To be sure/Surely/Of course
your proposals are important/significant/meaningful in a way,
but they have nothing to do with the essence of the matter/the
crux of the matter/the main point. 3. His speech is characterized
by lack of tact. (His speech lacks tact.) 4. If it is not stifling hot (If
there is no suffocating/stifling heat), we will set out on a jour
ney/on our journey as early as tomorrow morning. 5. What you
need is a complete lack of gossip. 6. It has nothing to do with me.
7. We agree that it is an acceptable solution to/of the problem
rather than a sensible way out. 8. This artist is talented in a way
but I dont like his pictures. 9- A lack of time prevented the young
scientist from completing the experiment. 10. Your remarks
have nothing to do with the essence of her work. 11. What they
need is a calm, reliable person to head the department. 12. If you
hadnt put so much salt into the water, the cucumbers wouldnt
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taste bitter. 13.1would describe/characterize him as an experi
enced rather than a talented teacher. 14. The familys lack of
money did not prevent her from going through college/from
obtaining higher education (formal).
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY NOTES
Exercise 1, p. 49
1. point n - 1) , , , as
the point of a pin (needle, pen, pencil, stick) -
( , , , );
the point of a knife (a weapon) - ( );
the point of a tool - ( ) ;
2) ;
4.6 (four point six) - ;
3) , , , ;
The point is that it is no ordinary case. -
, . ( ,
.)
I dont see your point. - ,
( ).
Youve missed the whole point. - ,
to the point - ( , . .);
to come to the point - ( );
I wish he would come to the point. -
11 .
to speak (to stick, to keep, to be) to the point - no
;
Your answer is not to the point. -
( ).
to be off/beside the point -
, , ;
Your answer is off the point. -
(1 ie ).
to make a point of doing smth. - - . ,
( , - .,
- . , -
- .
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He made a point of reading English every day. - Oi i
- .
4) , ;
to agree (or disagree) on some points - (
) ( ).
We disagreed on several points. -
.
5) , , ;
ones weak point - - . , ;
ones strong point - - . ;
Singing is not his strong point. - .
6) , ;
Whats your point in coming? -
?
There is no (not much) point in doing that. -
. ( .)
His remarks lack point. - .
7) ( )-,
a turning point in ones life - - .
;
At this point in his reflection he paused. -
.
When it came to the point, he refused to help. -
( ),
.
to be on the point of doing smth. -
- . (e )-,
was on the point of leaving. - .
( / - .)
8) . , ( ) ;
boiling (freezing, melting) point - /
( , / );
9) , ;
scored 23 points. - 23 ( ).
10) , , ;
a point of view - ;
My point of view is different. - .
to point vt/i - 1) , ( , . .)
pointed to a large building. -
.
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2) to point out - ,
- .
The teacher pointed out several mistakes in the composition
(to the student). - ( )
.
pointless - , ;
pointless questions, remarks - ,

2. dream - 1) , ;
to have bad dreams - ;
to awake from a dream - ;
I had a funny dream last night. -
( ) .
2) , ;
She had dreams of being an actress. -
.
to dream vi - 1) , , ; (of)
. . . , ;
Dont waste your time dreaming. - He
.
I never dreamt of suspecting him. -
.
2) , ;
often dreams. - ( ).
Stop dreaming and get on with your work. -
( ) .
dreamy adj - 1) , ,
; 2) , ; 3) , ;
dreamy eyes - ;
John lay listening to the dreamy music. - ,
.
dreamer adj - ,
3- mix vt/i - , ;
Mix the eggs with milk before you fry them. -
, .
Oil and water will not mix. - ,
to mix up - ;
Dont mix up these two words. - He .
She mixes up these two sounds. -
.
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to be mixed up in smth. - - ;
I wont be mixed up in this affair. -
.
mixer 1) ; 2) ( . good
mixer);
is a good (bad) mixer. - ( ),
mixed adj - 1) , ;
mixed school - ;
mixed feelings - ( ) (-
);
We were a mixed company. -
./ , .
2) , , ;
Everything has got mixed in my head. -
. ( .)
You are getting mixed. - - .
4. suspicion - ;
to arouse suspicion - ;
His manner aroused suspicion. -
.
above suspicion - ;
is above suspicion - ,
on suspicion - ;
was arrested on suspicion of murder. -
.
under suspicion - ;
is under suspicion. - ,
suspicious adj - 1) ,
;
a suspicious-looking man was seen in the street. -
.
2) , ;
to be (to feel) suspicious of smb. about smth. -
- . - .;
to get suspicious of smb. about smth. - - .
- .;
The people were at first suspicious of the newcomer. -
( )
/ ( )
.
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to suspect v t 1) ;
to suspect smb. of smth. - - . - .;
was suspected of theft. - .
2) , ; , ;
I suspected that he was insincere. - / ,
.
5) conscious adj - 1) , ;
to be conscious of ones mistakes (guilt, faults, danger) -
( ,
);
to be conscious of smb.s presence (a pain, etc.) -
- . ( . .);
syn. aware
ant. unconscious, unaware - ( ) ,
;
2) ; ;
Man is a conscious being. - - .
spoke with conscious superiority. -
.
3) ;
The old man was conscious to the last. -
.
ant. unconscious - ,
;
She lay unconscious until the doctor gave her an injec
tion. - ,
.
self-conscious - , ;
She is too self-conscious to feel at ease among strangers. -
,
( );
consciousness - 1) ;
to lose consciousness - = to faint;
The blow caused him to lose consciousness. -
i .
to recover (regain) consciousness = to come to -
, ;
He did not recover (regain) consciousness until two hours
al ter the accident. -
( ).
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6. interfere vi - 1) (in) ( );
to interfere in a matter (in an argument, in ones affairs) -
- . ( , - . );
2) (with) , ;
to interfere with ones independence - - .
;
Dont interfere with me. - He / .
Something always interferes. - -
- .
I hope Im not interfering? - ,
/ ?
interfering adj - , ,
;
interfering people - ;
interference - ; ( );
7. constant - 1) , ;
constant complaints - ( ) ;
suffered from constant sleeplessness. -
;
2) , , ;
has been constant in his devotion to scientific studies. -
.
syn. permanent
ant. temporary - ;
constantly adv - ,
8. resist vt 1) , ;
to resist the enemy - ;
to resist an attack - ,
;
to resist authority (police) -
( );
2) , , ( - .);
to resist temptation - ;
could resist no longer. - .
She cant resist chocolates. - ,
.
couldnt resist her suggestion (will, charm, fascina
tion). -
( , ,
).
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one cannot resist doing smth. - - .
...
She couldnt resist making jokes about his boldness. -
/ ,
resistance - 1) , ;
to break down the enemys resistance -
/ ;
to make/offer no (little) resistance -
( );
2) , - ;
;
wrinkle-resistant fabric - ;
An aircraft has to overcome the resistance of the air. -
( )
.
She baked the pie in a heat-resistant dish. -
.
the line o f least resistance -
;
At the beginning of his career Andrew Manson never fol
lowed the line of least resistance. -
( )
;
irresistible - , ; ;
On this hot day the sea was irresistible. -
.
9. reflect vt/i - 1) ;
The mirror reflected her face. - .
2) ;
His behavior reflects his upbringing. - -
.
His success reflects credit on his trainer. -
.
3) , ;
The old man reflected on his past. / -
.
I must reflect on what answer to make. -
. , ,
reflection - 1) ;
Ihe reflection of light - ;
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2) , ;
was lost in reflection. -
.
on reflection - ; ;
On reflection he agreed with our plan. - ,
.
3) , ;
We waited to hear his reflections on the books merits. -
,
.
10. to admire - 1) ;
2) ;
to admire smb.s presence of mind (smb. for his courage) -
- ( -
);
to admire a picture (a statue, etc.) - /
( . .)
admirable - ;
I think it would be an admirable opportunity. - ,
/
.
admiration - , ;
to have (to feel) admiration for smb. - -
;
to win (to arouse) smb.s admiration - ( )
- .
WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES
to suffer from - ;
as a result - , ;
to have great difficulty with smb./smth. -
- , - ;
to resemble smb./smth. - ( )
- / - ;
to be smb.s cup of tea - - ;
to come in contact with smb. - (
) - , - ;
to raise a problem - ;
to have impact on smb. - -
;
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to make oneself clear - (
. .);
to react to smth. - - ;
to influence smb., to have influence on smb. -
- , - ;
to (in) some degree - - (
);
to succeed in smth. - - ,
- ;
to succeed in doing smth. - - .
Exercise 4, p. 46
1. She gave the impression that she was on the point of
changing her course of action and coming in contact with Miss
Tant. 2. Nobody could consider Ogden Street very attractive but
her words always had a powerful impact on me. 3. Jo opened her
lips to say something rude, but checked herself to/in some
degree. 4. At last he succeeded. 5. She reacted to this absurd
protest with/by giving) a little peal of laughter. 6. He made him
self clear, My dear young lady, I dont believe you can read
a map. 7. He suffers from constant headaches. 8. Major Dunker
doesnt think that poetry is his cup of tea. 9- He reacted to
Walters remark in a very amusing way. 10. Professor Dulwicks
lectures always have a great impact on his audience. 11. The
object resembles a lopsided vase. 12. Mrs. Oakroyd says she has
difficulty with her children. 13. Louisa always acted as Nellie
wanted, the latter had great influence on her. 14. Hard workers
always succeed. 15. The impact/influence his speech had on the
audience was quite unexpected. 16. Perhaps curiosity might
have conquered resentment to/in some degree. 17. He replied
simply but with great dignity and made himself quite clear about
his decision. 18. A committee is to be set up to investigate the
impact/the influence of television on children (the impact/the
influence television has on children/to investigate how televi
sion influences children). 19. The group succeeded in their
undertaking/succeeded in accomplishing their purpose.
Exercise 5, p. 46
1. This student is extremely shy. She may have (She will prob-
.ibly have) difficulty (in) coming in contact with the group.
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(Perhaps it will be difficult for her to come in contact with the
group.) 2. Her explanations can be believed to/in some degree.
3. He has succeeded in life. 4. Joe has always had a great influence
on her. 5. The carpets have suffered from/have been damaged by
the damp/dampness. 6. Your story resembles the plot of a film
Ive seen recently. 7. The large stockpiles/accumulation of
nuclear weapons in the contemporary world raise(s) the
extremely important problem of destroying them as soon/quick
ly as possible (of their quickest destruction). 8. The transition of
the secondary school to compulsory eleven-year education rais
es diverse/various problems before teachers. 9. As a result of their
discussion Mr. Mason will get all the necessary information.
10. The director had great difficulty with the new company.
11. What do you think of/about classical music? Its not my
cup of tea. I prefer jazz. 12. Scientists hope that in the twenty-
first century the inhabitants of the Earth will be able to come in
contact with other civilizations. 13. The abundance/number of
rivers and lakes has a great impact/influence of the microclimate
of an area. 14. Mr. Mansverse reacted to his brothers
remark/rebuke with dignity. 15. He made himself quite clear.
16. His group is studying the influence/impact this substance has
on micro-organisms. 17. The shape of these vegetables resembles
pears (These vegetables resemble pears in shape). What are they?
Exercise 9, P- 47
1.1 lived in my own private world and had very few ways of
communicating with the real world. 2.1felt that writing was not
the sort of thing I liked (that writing wasnt really my line).
3. Always I feel something is missing. 4. The fact that I often
failed to understand what the film was all about (the message of
the film) lessened its impact on my emotions. 5.1headed/was in
charge of/managed the theatre. 6. Bergman thinks his films con
tain all-important ideas, but what are they and why? 7. Music is
not based on reason/Music cannot be rationalized. 8. She is any
thing but a dreamer/She has her feet firmly on the ground. 9.1feel
that the complete elimination of language in that picture was nei
ther reasonable nor right. 10. Some people have criticized your
films for being too like theatre performances. 11.1have always
felt insecure with the crew, the cameras, the sound equipment -
everything./The technical side of making a film has always been
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extremely difficult for me. 12. I suddenly felt sure that I knew
how to do my job well.
Exercise 2, p. 49
A. 1. He ,
. 2.
, , ,
. 3.
,

. 4. ? -
. - . 5. ,
- ,
, . 6.
, .
7. ,
,
. 8. -
. - .
(>. ,
Ilero . 10. ,
11 , ,
. 11. .
11. , .
I3. , , -
<> , ,
Iie . 14. -
, ,
. 15.
| >1. . , - . 16. -
I1 ,
. 17.
' >, , ? 18.
, . 19.
\ , - ,
ta . 20. ,
I | ici , , -
< | 1 , . 21. ,
ri I . 22.
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, .
. 23. ,
- . 24.

. 25.
. 26. : , ,
,
. 27. ,
,
. 28.

. 29. ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
. 1.
, ,
. 2. - ,
, . 3.

. 4. ,

? 5. .
6. ,
. 7. ,
, . 8.
.
9. ,
. 10. ; ,
. 11. ,
,
:
(
).
12. ,
. 13.
,
. 14.
. 15. ,
, - . 16.
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. 17.
, ,

. 18.
, - .
19. ,
. 20.
. 21. - ,
.
Exercise 3, . 51
A. 1.1dont quite see your point. 2. Ive made a point of get
ting up early every day, and Im none the worse for it. 3- There
seems no point in prolonging this interview. 4. Hes on the point
of going, youd better speak to him right now. 5. He pointed to
the statue on which lay patches of snow. 6. He couldnt live with
out his work, it would make life pointless. 7. Dont waste time
dreaming about impossible things. 8. She wouldnt even dream
of doing such a thing. 9- He is a dreamer and lives in a world of
fantasy. 10. What dreams did you have last night? 11. Dont get
mixed up in the affair. 12. We can sometimes mix business with
pleasure. 13. He is a bad mixer. 14. Of course, Ive mixed up the
two songs. 15. It was odd, what a mixture of motives 1had. 16. As
for him I think he is above suspicion. 17. Every eye was turned
upon Bosinney; all waited with a strange suspicious look for his
answer. 18. Still suspicion and distrust was in the air, and there
was much talk. 19.1am conscious of having done wrong (I am
conscious that I have done wrong). 20. The blow caused him to
lose consciousness. 21. He is too self-conscious. 22. Emil was
conscious of a new emptiness in his life.
B. 1. Dont interfere in this, Frank, that is entirely my affair.
2. Theres something interfering with the telephone connection.
3. Maxim always tries to interfere in my activity. 4. Her constant
migging irritated Robert. 5. He is my constant friend. 6 . 1resisted
an impulse to move back. 7. The resistance against the occupy
ing forces was getting stronger. 8. On reflection I found it neces
sary to warn her. 9. The pavements were damp and they reflect
ed yellow light. 10. He roused himself unwillingly from his
reflections upon the past experiences and rose to his feet.
I I. Rudolf couldnt resist the temptation and didnt feel mean
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about it afterwards. 12. She is a woman long accustomed to
admiration. 13. Doesnt she look glorious? said a young man at
the ball-room door, admiring the girls beauty.
Exercise 4, p. 52
A. 1. Thats hardly what really matters at the moment.
2. Youre tired out or you would get my meaning at once. 3. You
havent understood the meaning of the story (the most impor
tant thing in the story). 4. His comments are always relevant.
5. Has he made it a rule to always pretend not to notice me?
6. Try and view (see) it as she views (sees) it. 7. But with all her
education, learning was never Kates forte (learning was never
something Kate could rightfully boast of), she got on perfectly
well without it. 8. It was no use arguing (Arguing was useless), so
I gave in. 9. We saw that Robert was about to break down (that
Robert was at the end of his tether). 10. At the critical moment
he proved to be unreliable. 11. Ill show a turn when one is
required. 12. It makes no sense to worry about it now. 13. Goring
stared after him, barely able to resist the urge to catch him (feel
ing an almost irresistible desire to catch him). 14.1myself might
have painted the portrait. The sad dark eyes gazed unwavering
ly back at me (gazed back at me all the time), seeming to share
or at least to be conscious of my foolish boyish dreams. 15. It all
seemed unreal as though it were happening to someone else.
16. Even Paul now seemed to her to exist only in her imagina
tion. 17. Space travel used to be just a fantastic imagining, some
thing never to be realized. 18. She felt both joy and anxiety. 19. At
the unexpected question everything got confused/jumbled in
my head. 20. If anything happens, mind that he isnt involved in
that (that he has nothing to do with that). 21.1 still was looking
forward to meeting her and hated her guts for having jilted me
so heartlessly (When I thought of seeing her I was torn between
eagerness and apprehension). 22. He had a way with people (He
was very outgoing/very sociable/very communicative) and soon
made friends with everybody. 23.1cant help thinking that when
Im not with you you hardly ever remember me. 25. As the door
shut behind him, he looked about him with fierce startled eyes,
like one who fears that there are traps everywhere. 26. She went
on talking, quite unaware that she had said the wrong thing.
27. He knows perfectly well what is going on at the office. 28.
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She knows about her shortcomings, and is thinking about them
all the time which makes her awkward and shy.
B . l . I know Bella well enough to know that she wouldnt put
up with anyones trying to prevent her from what she wants to
do (to hinder her liberty of action). 2. If people try to meddle in
your affairs and put obstacles in your way, its because you like it.
3. We wanted the best when we tried to intervene (when we put
our oar in), but it was rather a pity. 4. He was tired of his wifes
ceaseless/unceasing carping/nagging/complaints. 5. I am mad
at her/angry with her for her continual absence (because shes
absent all the time). 6. He was too tired to bear/stand/endure
the pain without flinching. 7. As soon as Finn suggested this idea
it seemed to all of us extremely enticing. 8. A good advertise
ment should not arouse in the public a desire to do just the
opposite (should not arouse resentment in the public). 9. The
urge to go and order a new dress was so strong and overwhelm
ing that she just couldnt help it. 10. After she had thought it over
she felt sure that you had done the right thing. 11. But then,
I thought, he might have been perfectly sincere. 12. The sun was
setting red behind the pine trees, the evening sky was mirrored
in the pools. 13. I must think carefully about what answer to
give. 14. After thinking for a moment he realized that she was
right. 15. Thats fine, he mumbled, enraptured. 16. And I dare
say Ill make him an excellent wife as wives go. 17.1am delight
ed with your ease in answering such a question.
Exercise 5, p. 53
- to miss the point;
- to keep/stick/speak to the point;
- to be on the
point of accepting the proposal/suggestion;
- dreamer;
- bad dream; nightmare;
- to dream about/of smth.; to see smth. in
a dream;
- to dream about/of becoming
painter;
- - to be mixed up/
involved in smth.;
- good mixer;
- to mix up/confuse the addresses;
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- to mix flour with sugar;
- on suspicion;
- to suspect smb. of stealing;
- above suspicion;
- suspicious character/man;
- to regain/to recover conscious
ness; to come round; to come to;
- to interfere in other peoples
affairs (in the affairs of others);
- to interfere with the work;
- permanent/steady/regular job;
- constant success;
- constant headaches;
- the line of least
resistance;
- to resist (the) temptation;
- irresistible charm;
- on reflection;
- an admirable nurse;
- to admire the wise doctor;
- to feel admiration
for the actors.
Exercise 6, p. 53
A . 1 . 1am sorry I cant spare you much time. Could you come
to the point straight/right away please? 2. Tom sighed with relief.
I should never have thought that we would agree on all the
points, he said. 3-1am afraid there isnt much point in having
these old shoes tnended/fixed/repaired. They will be none the
better for it/that wont make them any better. 4. When it came
to the point Ruth didnt stir a finger to help us. 5.1would like to
point out some weak points in your article to you. 6. The dream
was so unusual that I woke up. 7. I dreamed that I was in the
country again. 8. Yesterday I saw you in a dream again. 9.1 would
never dream of asking such question before strangers/outsiders.
10. She was dreaming all day/She was dreamy all day. 11.1was
listening to his story about the expedition with mixed feelings
of fear and admiration. 12. Why are you mixing up their sur
names all the time? They arent alike at all. 13- Take butter, eggs,
milk and candied peel and mix them properly/well. 14. First one
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must mix starch with cold water and then add boiling water.
15. To my mind the advantages of mixed schools are quite obvi
ous. 16. They have got a good flat, but the first thing that leaps to
the eye/strikes the eye is the mixture of two quite different
tastes. 17. Do you have any reasons/grounds for suspecting me
of lying/telling lies? 18. When Clyde was arrested on suspicion of
murder, he still hoped that he would be able to conceal his ter
rible crime. 19. The porter/janitor claimed that he hadnt seen
any suspicions characters. 20. Gray knew that it would be
months before any suspicions arose. 21. He may be a good spe
cialist, but really, his manner of speaking with conscious superi
ority is extremely unpleasant. 22. Unaware/Unconscious of the
impending danger the geologists continued their hard journey.
23. The boy stammers/stutters a little; he is very self-conscious
because of it and doesnt dare to utter a single word before
strangers. 24. The doctor bent over the unconscious patient.
After a while the patient regained/recovered conscious
ness/came round/came to, opened his eyes and asked, Where
am I? 25. The doctor said that she has nothing serious, she must
have lost consciousness/fainted because of the stuffy air/the
stuffiness.
B. 1. We shouldnt allow entertainment to interfere/let
entertainment interfere with work. 2. I was on the point of
telling her (I felt a strong urge to tell her) not to interfere in my
affairs. 3. Unfortunately your elder sister is always interfering in
our disputes/arguments. 4 . 1will go to the country tomorrow if
i x >thing interferes. 5. This interferes with my plans. 6. 1think you
.lie interfering with my independence. 7. The constant chatter
<>l the children annoyed the old woman. 8. Im so tired/How
t i red I am of your constant complaints. 9. Its very important for
,i person to have a constant friend close by. 10. The detachment
lias repelled/resisted the attack but hasnt gained superiority
i >ver the enemy yet. 11. The enemy couldnt resist any more (any
It >nger)/could no longer offer/make any resistance. 12. Modern
planes/aircraft can easily overcome the resistance of the air.
I VThe pain was so bad/sharp that the patient/the sick man
couldnt resist (couldnt help) crying out/screaming/yelling.
I l l would strongly advise you to make an effort and resist her
influence, 15. Andrew felt that he could hardly resist laugh
ing/resist laughter (Andrew felt an irresistible desire to
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laugh). 16. Who could have resisted (could resist) such a temp
tation? 17. I must admit/confess that there is some irresistible
charm in this womans singing. 18. The bright lights of the elec
tric signs reflected in the dark water of the river. 19- Reflecting
on last nights adventure Freddy felt admiration for/admired
his friend who had displayed such presence of mind.
20. Everybody felt awkward when the boy interfered in the con
versation. 21. He believes that it will interfere with his career.
22. Unfortunately I couldnt give you her permanent address.
23. The tourists were standing before an/the ancient cathedral,
admiring the beauty of its cupolas/domes. 24. One cant help but
admire/cant resist admiring people who achieve/accom-
plish/gain their goals/purposes in spite of the difficulties. 25.1am
sure that Maria will make/become an admirable wife and a lov
ing mother.
Exercise 7, p. 54
1. They can resist an attack. 2. He cant resist watching television
from noon to night/He cant resist the temptation of watching tel
evision all day. 3- You should mix them. 4. A dreamer. 5. A mixed
school. 6. He is always interfering in things which are no concern
of his. 7. A good mixer. 8. Admiration. 9. She cant resist chocolates.
10. To be mixed up in an unpleasant affair. 11. He/She mixes them
up. 12. She is irresistible. 13. An admirer ( ). 14. You
should mix them. 15. He or she is a constant reader. 16. We expect
that he will reflect a little before giving it. 17.1would say that I sus
pect him. 18. To point out smth. (to smb.) 19. Self-conscious.
Exercise 8, p. 55
1. She cant resist tasty food. 2. Everyone would like to have
a constant friend. 3. He is the kind of man who always takes the
line of least resistance. 4. Yes, it should be mixed with water.
5.1found her irresistible and never suspected that such a charm
ing girl could be so deceitful. 6. You are always mixing them up,
arent you? 7. Im dreaming. 8 . 1just cant resist it, Im so sleepy/
I just cant resist sleep, Im so drowsy. 9.1couldnt resist the temp
tation. 10. I cant explain it but I just cant resist laughing.
11.1think you shouldnt. I dont want to get mixed up in this affair.
12. I was detained in a supermarket on suspicion of shoplifting
but fortunately the misunderstanding was soon cleared up.
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Exercise 12, p. 56
1. He was a man with no future before him. 2. Nobody dared
speak about it before him. 3- Like his father before him, he had
an eye for a face. 4. He knelt before her. 5.1was angry with him
at the time, but I have forgiven him long since. 6. Ill give you a
cup of tea before I explain to you what has happened. 7. He said
he had never met the girl before/since (before - ; since
- ). 8. He left in 1950 and has not been heard of since.
9. They came to London in 1937, and have been there ever
since. 10. Since we have no money, we cannot buy it. 11. She
hasnt been home since her marriage.
Exercise 13, p. 56
1. Soon/Presently he saw a road before him. 2. He got up and
stood/stopped before the picture/painting. 3.1have an appoint
ment for 10.15, you are before me. 4. He knelt before her. 5. You
wanted to humiliate me before everybody. 6. A lot has changed
for the better since we met. 7. The picture/painting was dam
aged by the fire and hasnt been restored since. 8. How long is it
since you last had your hair cut?/Since what time havent you
had your hair cut? 9 . 1wanted to tell her about everything, but
the next day she left and I havent seen her since. 10. Its a week
since I made inquiries. There has been no reply so far.
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
MAN AND THE MOVIES
TOPICAL VOCABILARY
1. Cinema. - .
cinema (house) - ;
open-air theatre - ,
;
cinema with continuous performance - ,
,
/ ;
drive-in-theatre - , ,
| ' ;
film/movie/(motion) picture - ( -) ;
to go to the cinema (a movie, the movies, the pictures) -
;
49
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normal screen - ;
wide (large, broad) screen) - ;
the first (second) showing (performance, programme)
begins a t ... (ends a t ...) - ( )
... ( ...);
colour poster - ;
the box office - ( );
to book tickets - .
2. Films. - .
documentary (film) - ;
educational film - ;
popular scientific film - - ;
feature film - ;
science fiction film - - ;
animated cartoon - ;
adventure film - ;
musical - ;
puppet film - ;
action film - ;
thriller - ;
comedy - ;
horror film - , ;
crime film - ( );
Western - ;
childrens film - ;
theatrical film - 1) ,
; 2) - ;
wide screen film - ;
colour film - ;
black-and-white film - - ;
mute film - ;
sound film - ;
dubbed film - ;
full-length (short-length) film - (
) ;
short - . ;
;
two (three) part film - ( )
;
wartime epic - ;
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newsreel - , ;
serial -
;
series - ,
;
X film - ;
star-studded film - ;
the screen version (adaptation) of a novel -
.
3. Parts o f films. - :
scene - ( ,
);
outdoor (indoor) scene - ,
( );
the opening scene - ;
the final scene - ;
crowd scene - , ;
an episode - 1) ; 2) ( );
still - - ;
shot - ;
long shot - , ( ) ;
close-up - ;
caption - , ;
subtitle - ;
flash-back(s) - (- ) (- ),
(- ) (- )>>.
4. Cinema work. - :
to shoot (produce, make) a film - ;
to make a screen version (adaptation) of a novel -
;
to screen/film a novel (play, story) -
( , );
to adapt a novel for the screen - ;
to play (act) on the screen - ;
to release a picture - ( );
to come out (about a film) - ( );
to go into production -
( ), ( );
to remake a film - ( );
to reissue a film - ;
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to be dubbed in Russian -
;
to present a film in Russian -
;
co-production (joint production)- ;
directed by... - - - ;
scenery and costumes b y ... - -
- ;
the songs set to music by... - - .
5. Cinema workers. - :
producer - ;
film director - ;
art director - - ;
camera-man - ;
script-writer - ;
animator - - ;
costume designer - .
6. Cinema-goers. - :
film/cinema goers - ;
audience - , ;
film fans - ;
to watch the film (the screen) - (
);
to watch smb. acting on the screen - -
;
to see a film - .
7. Actors and acting. - :
the cast - ;
comedian - , ;
an actor of great promise - ;
leading actor - , ;
star - ;
to play the main (leading, title, key) role -
;
to play a small (supporting, minor) role -
( );
to co-star - 1) ( ) ; 2)
;
to portray a character - ;
;
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to give a convincing (memorable, captivating, warm, bril
liant, superb) portrayal of - ( / -
/ / ) - ;
to give a magnificent performance as ... (in) -
- ( - );
to take (gain) the best actress (actor) award -
( ) ;
to create a true-to-life image -
( );
to make the most of the role - ;
to bring to life on the screen - ;
a typical N. role - , -
( .);
to outshine everybody else - ;
a new N. film - -
( .);
to star in a role - ;
to be miscast (ill-chosen) - ;
was miscast as Othello. -
./ ./
.
to be cast to advantage - -
.
8. Effect. Impression. - :
the film deals with (depicts, presents, tells of) -
;
the message of the film - ;
to win universal acclaim - ;
to praise unreservedly - ;
to leave a deep and lasting impression on -
;
to appeal so much to the audience -
;
to be (make) a hit with the public -
;
a delightful, amusing comedy - ,
;
entertaining film - ;
powerful film - ;
gripping/absorbing film - ;
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vividly dramatic film - ;
technically brilliant film - ,
;
sad film - ;
depressing film - , ;
slow-moving film -
;
dragged-out film - ;
to mar a film - ;
to leave smb. cold - - ;
empty of serious content - ;
a flop - 1) , ; 2) ;
a good film, not without flaws - ,
;
a run-of-the-mill film - ;
not a film to everyones taste - , (
;
not an easy film to watch - ,
;
obscure and complex ideas - .
&: u n i t t h r e e i
Exercise 1, p. 70
Possible variants
1. Its up to the typist who has made all those mistakes to
retype the article. 2. Its up to Dad who drives to work and back
to do the shopping. 3- Its up to Nelly who has broken that antique
dish to explain the circumstances to the host. 4. Helen felt shy
and did not want to be alone with him. 5. The answer sounds
strange. 6. It smells auful/delicious/queer, doesnt it? 7. The
cucumbers taste bitter. 8. The child felt awful/sick all night. 9. Her
feeling of liking/dislike for the unknown girl was increasing. 10.
It was next to impossible to hide his love/affection for the chil
dren. 11. She felt great love for her parents. 12. Her passion/bent
fo r reading is well known. 13. How dare you tell me such things?
14.1dare say* he will touch upon the subject. 15. The child did-
' I dare say - / .
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n t dare to open his mouth. 16. They have shown some disre
spect if not contemptfor the authority.
Exercise 2. p. 70
1. You couldnt help feeling admiration for her slim figure,
bright eyes and soft voice. 2. Its up to you to go and see for your
self. 3. The children felt frustrated when they understood that
they were despised by their leader. 4. The stuff smelt terrible.
5. Everybody knows about my little daughters love of cartoons
and puppet films. 6. How dare you ask for more? 7.1dared to tell
him that he would change his mind. 8. The music sounds quite
familiar. 9. This tune sounds very nice. 10. All the children knew
about Johns devotion to his pets and felt respect for this feeling.
11.1 felt angry and upset when I accidentally met him. 12. How
dare you deny the fact? 13. Its up to you to decide.
Exercise 3, p. 71
1. How dare you laugh at the old woman? 2. She has been
feeling bad since Monday. 3. His love of books is well known in
the group. 4. How wonderful/delicious the roses smell! 5. The
child didnt dare to ask the teacher his question. 6. The feeling of
deep respect for her guardian overwhelmed Judy/Judy was
overwhelmed by a deep respect for her guardian. 7. Your words
sounded rather silly. 8. Mary felt angry and upset when she heard
(lie little girls explanation. 9. How dare you speak to me like
i hat/in this way? 10. (On) that autumn morning she felt very
well and in high spirits. 11. Its up to you to show the city to your
friend. 12. They felt cold, hungry and very tired. 13-1think its up
io the children to make it up. 14. Elena has always displayed/
showed an amazing affection for her sister. 15. Her eyes showed
.ill the contempt she felt for the young man.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
bloody, bleeding - , (Brit).
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
1. school - 1) ;
nursery school - ;
primary school - ;
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secondary school - ;
boarding school - - ;
compulsory school age - ,
;
The school leaving age has been raised to 16. - ,
,
16 .
Most schools in England take football seriously. -
.
2) ( article) , ( ),
;
was very bright at school. -
.
It was nearly time for school. -
.
left school when he was fifteen. - (
) , .
3) , ;
The school will have a holiday tomorrow. -
/ .
4) ; , ;
, - ;
a ballet school - ;
a law school - ;
London School of Economics - (
) ;
5) , ;
the Dutch school of painting -
;
Note:
learnt to read before he went to school. -
( ).
Mother and Mrs. Darnes had been at school together. -
.
schooling - ; ;
Schooling is compulsory in Russia. -
.
scholarship - ;
has won a scholarship to Cambridge. -
.
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2. advantage - 1) ;
The advantages of a good education are great. -
( .
The shallowness of the seas round the British Isles is in some
ways an advantage. - ,
, .
to have (gain, win, give smb.) an advantage over smb. -
( , - ) -
;
It has the advantage of being modern (cheap, etc.) -
, ( . .)/
11 , ( . .).
has the advantage of being young. - -
11icctbo .
2) ; , ( - );
to take advantage of smth. - ) - -
i>; - ;
) - ;
to take advantage of an opportunity (of smb.s weakness,
ignorance, absence, etc.) - ( -
, - ,
II . .);
Jack took advantage of the opportunity to speak to Gwendolen. -
, -
.
to advantage - , , ;
to be seen to advantage - ;
to be heard to advantage -
(> / ;
to show smth. to advantage - -
, ;
to exhibit smth. to advantage - / / -
- , ;
The picture is seen to (better) advantage from a distance. -
.
ant. disadvantage - 1) , ; 2) ,
iici | .
3. admit vt/i - 1) , ;
The woman opened the door and admitted me into the
I nise. - .
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Children are not admitted. - .
2) ( , . .);
to be admitted to an institute (school, party) -
( , );
Only one hundred boys are admitted to the school every
year. -
.
3) ;
The theatre admits only 200 persons. -
( ) 200 .
4) , ;
to admit ones mistake (fault) -
( );
to admit that one is wrong - , ;
You must admit that the task is difficult. -
, .
ant. deny - ;
I deny that the statement is true. - ,
.
admission - 1) , ; 2) ( ,
. .);
admission is free - / ;
admission by ticket - ;
to apply for admission to an institute (party) -
( );
Admission to the school is by examination only. -
.
3) ;
admission of guilt - ;
The accused refused to make an admission of his guilt. -
.
4. waste vt/i - 1) , ,
, ( . .);
to waste ones time - ;
to waste ones energy - ;
to waste ones money - ;
to waste ones work - ,
;
All his efforts were wasted. -
( ).
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waste n - , ;
2) ; ;
Its a waste of time to wait any longer. - -
.
Theres too much waste in the house. -
/
.
to lay waste - , ;
to lay waste a country, a city, a village - ,
, ;
waste adj - 1) , , ;
2) ; ; ;
waste paper - ; ;
waste (paper) basket - ;
waste effort - ;
wasteful - , ;
a wasteful man - , ;
wasteful habits - ;
wasteful process - ( ) ,
;
5. back vi/t - 1) ; -
< ; , , ;
Montmorency would growl and back at a rapid pace. - M o h -
( > .
2) ; ;
to back smb. or smb.s proposals (plans, etc.) -
K< - - ( . .);
back - 1) ;
to stand with ones back to the window -
( ;
to turn ones back to (the audience, the window, etc.) - no-
( , . .);
Turn your back to me, Ill put your collar straight. -
, .
to turn ones back on smb. - - ,
i - ( .), - -
<) < ;
11 was mean of you to turn your back on her when she need-
t I your help. -
, .
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t o d o smth. beh in d smb.s ba ck - - -
;
You ou gh t n ot t o cr it icize h er beh in d h er back. -
( ) ( ).
2) , ;
;
t h e ba ck o f t h e hou s e - ;
t h e ba ck o f on e s h ea d - ;
t h e ba ck o f t h e ch a ir - ;
at t h e ba ck o f on e s min d - ;
a ba ck seat - ;
a ba ck s t r eet - ( ) ;
a ba ck vowe l - ;
ba ck t eet h (r ows , et c. ) - ( . .);
ba c k adv - , ; ;
t o go ba ck - , (
);
t o ru n ba ck - ;
t o be ba ck - ( );
t o come ba ck - ( )-,
t o go ba ck on on e s wor d - ;
On e ca n n ot r ely on a p er s on wh o goes ba ck on his wor d. -
, .
t o keep smt h . ba c k fr o m s mb. - -
- ;
You n eed n t k eep this n ews ba ck fr om him. -
.
ba c k fr o m - , ;
Th e h ou s e s t ood ba ck fr om t h e road. -
.
ba c k a n d fo r t h - - , ;
t o wa lk (r u n , fly) ba ck a n d for t h - ( , )
- ;
ba c k br e a k i n g - ;
ba ckbr ea kin g wor k - ( ,
) ;
b a c k bo n e - 1) , ; 2 ) , ;
t o t h e b a ck b on e (fig.) - ,
, ;
is Russian t o t he backbone. - .
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ba c k gr ou n d - 1) ;
on (a ga in s t ) t h e ba ckgr ou n d o f smt h. - - ;
Th e wh it e h ou s e s t ood ou t on t h e ba ckgr ou n d o f t h e gr een
I rees. - .
on (a ga in s t ) a wh it e (bla ck, r ed ) ba ckgr ou n d -
( , ) ;
2) ;
in t h e ba ckgr ou n d (for egr ou n d ) o f a pict u r e -
( ) ;
t o k eep (stay, r ema in, b e) in t h e b a ckgr ou n d -
( ) ;
She is ver y s hy a n d a lwa ys keeps in t h e ba ckgr ou n d. -
<> .
3) ) ; ; ;
) ;
; ; ;
I ;
Tell me you r ba ckgr ou n d. - ,
ba c k wa r d - ;
ba ckwa r d dis t r ict - ;
ba ckwa r d ch ild -
;
ba ckwa r d p eop le - ( );
ba c k wa r d (s ) - , ( );
Can you s pell t h e wor d backwar ds ? -
( )?
6. r e qu i r e vt - , ;
t o r equ ir e ext r a h elp -
;
Th e ma t t er r equ ires gr ea t care. -
| .
did all t hat wa s r equ ir ed o f him. - ,
I .
syn. d e m a n d - ( ) ;
Th e p olicema n d ema n d ed his name. -
, .
Th e st rikers dema n d ed immedia t e pa ymen t . -
, .
r e qu i r e m e n t - 1) ; 2) , ;
Ihe r equ ir emen t o f t h e la w - ;
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t o meet t h e r equ ir emen t s o f t h e p eop le -
( );
Wh a t are t h e r equ ir emen t s for en t er in g t his inst it ut e? -
?
7. r e fe r e n c e - 1) ; ( - , -
), ( - , - );
You s h ou ld ma ke r efer en ce t o a dict ion a r y. -
.
Th e b ook is fu ll o f r efer en ces t o pla ces I k n ow well. -
, .
2 ) , ;
Th e cler k has excellen t r efer en ces fr om for m er employer s . -

.
3 ) ; ;
dislikes h is t or y books t ha t are cr owd ed wit h r efer en ces t o
ea r lier au t horit ies . - ,
.
r e fe r vt/ i - 1) , ( ,
. .);
I wa s r efer r ed t o t h e ma na ger . -
.
r e fe r t o smt h., s mb. - 1) - , - ,
- , - ;
2 ) , - , - ;
Don t r efer t o this ma t t er again. - ,
( ).
Does t hat r ema r k r efer t o me? -
?
r e fe r t o smt h . - 3) ,
;
Th e s pea ker oft en r efer r ed t o his n ot es . -
.
8. t e m p e r - , , ;
a per s on o f even (plea s a n t , fiery, et c.) t emp er -
( , . .) ;
t o h a ve an even (s weet , u ncert ain, et c.) t emp er -
( , . .) ;
qu ick t emp er - ;
h ot -t emp er ed - , ;
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good-t emper ed - , ;
ba d -t emp er ed - , ;
2) , ;
t o b e in a good (ba d, calm, fr iendly, et c.) t emp er -
( , , )
, ;
t o be in a for givin g t emper - ;
3) , , ;
, ;
t o lose on e s t e m p e r - , ,
, ;
t o c on t r ol (t o k e e p ) on e s t e m p e r - ,
;
t o get (t o fly) in t o a t e m pe r a bou t smt h . - -
- ;
t o be in a t e m p e r - , ;
I wa s su rprised, bu t I did n ot los e my t emper . - ,
.
Th er e is n ot h in g t o fly in t o a t emper abou t . - -
.
J os eph s a w that she wa s figh t in g t o k eep h er t emper . -
, .
9- d i s p la y vt - 1) , ,
;
t o dis pla y pict u r es (p a in t in gs ) in a ga ller y -
;
t o dis pla y good s in a s h op -win d ow -
;
2) , , ;
t o dis pla y cou r a ge (h er ois m, a n xiet y) -
( , );
t o dis pla y con t emp t for on es feelin gs -
- ;
t o dis pla y n o en t h u s ias m - ;
dis pla y - 1) , ; ; 2 )
, ;
a dis pla y o f cou r a ge - ;
a dis pla y o f ba d t emp er - ;
a fa s h ion dis pla y - ;
3) ;
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t o ma ke a dis pla y o f on e s a ffect ion -
;
Th er e wa s a fin e dis pla y o f flower s at t h e exh ib it ion . -
.
10. decen t adj - 1) , ;
d ecen t clot h es - ;
d ecen t con d it ion s - ;
d ecen t mar ks - ( ) ;
2 ) , , ( ) ;
d ecen t fe llow - , ;
d ecen t con d u ct - ;
d ecen t b ook (film ) - (- );
(- );
dec e n c y - 1) , ;
2) ; ;
does n t k n ow t he mea n in g o f shame or common decency. -
,
.
Ha ve t he decen cy t o admit it. - .
Wo r d Com bin a t i on s a n d Ph r a se s
t o t ake (s om e ) pains t o d o smth. - ( )
, - ;
t o h a ve a p r et t y good idea o f -
- ;
r ea s on a bly fa ir - ;
t o ma ke com m en t on - ;
t o ma ke n o com m en t on - - ,
- ;
in fa ct - , , ;
t o set smb. a task - - ;
t o feel fru st r at ed* -
- , ;
t o pla y in t o s mbs. ha nds - - ,
- ;
u t t er dis r es pect - , -
.
Frus trated is n o t a s yn o n ym o f upset o r worried. It m e a n s annoyed/ upset
a n d impatient because y ou are feeling helpless under the circumstances.
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Exe r cis e 4, p. 78
1. She h a d a p r et t y good idea o f t h e kin d o f p er s on Lydia
was. 2. Th e b oy t ook (gr ea t ) pa in s t o ma ke his mot h er bu y h im
a pu ppy. 3. She ma de n o commen t . 4. J ulia felt fr u s t r a t ed
becau s e h er pa r en t s h ea lt h wa s fa ilin g a n d t h er e wa s n ot h in g
s he cou ld d o a bou t it. 5. Th e ma n a ger set a task t o J oh n / s et
J oh n a task. 6. You r a ct ion s p la yed in t o Ka t ies hands. 7. Th e
t ea ch er felt fr u s t r a t ed beca u s e t h er e wa s n ot h in g h e cou ld d o
t o h elp his pu pils. 8. Th e su ms a re r a t h er difficu lt , bu t t h e pu pils
h a ve a p r et t y good idea o f h ow t o cop e wit h t h em. 9. Th e you n g
mot h er felt fr u s t r a t ed beca u s e s he t h ou gh t h er ba by wa s d evel
op in g t oo s lowly. 10. Pa mela a lwa ys pla ys in t o h er fr ien ds
hands. 11. She is t oo dis cr eet t o s h ow h er u t t er dis r es pect for
t h e fellow. 12. Th e d oc t or ma de n o com m en t on t h e a cciden t .
1 3 . 1 h a ve a p r et t y good idea o f h er pla n s for t h e fu t u re. 14. In
fa ct we h a d a ver y plea s a n t voya ge. 15. She feels fr u s t r a t ed
a bou t t h e pa in t in gs . 16. 1felt fr u s t r a t ed beca u s e I k n ew I wou ld
nt be a ble t o keep t h em t ha t wa y 17. J a n e Pu cell felt fr u s t r a t ed
becau se s he cou ld n t d o a n yt h in g a bou t t h e t en s e a t mos ph er e
in t h e class.
Exe r cis e 5, p- 78
1. Get t in g a n gr y wit h you / Get t in g ma d at you (To get
:in gr y wit h you ) is p la yin g (t o p la y) in t o you r h an ds . 2 . 1wa s
s et a ver y d ifficu lt task, a n d I h a d t o p e r for m it. 3- We ca n bu y
i his s u it e o f fu r n it u r e, it is exp en s ive, bu t r ea s on a b ly so.
I. Th e you n g t ea ch er felt fr u s t r a t ed beca u s e n ot all t h e pu pils
o f his clas s cou ld r ea d expr es s ively. 5. I ca n t sa y t h a t I lik ed
i his p er for m a n ce, in fa ct I wa s b or ed t o dea t h . 6. For t u n e
I>layed in t o ou r h a n ds , a n d we fou n d wh a t we h a d b een look -
in g for . 7. Sh e a lwa ys wor r ies a b ou t h er s on wh en h e goes
.iway. 8. Mr. Pot t er ma d e n o com m en t on t h e s peech . 9 - 1 h a ve
i p r et t y go o d idea wh y s h e vis it s me ever y week . 1 0 . 1 h a ve a
t lcep a n d s in cer e r es p ect for you , bu t m y u t t er d is r es pect for
vo u r b r ot h er ma kes ou r fr ien d s h ip impos s ible. 11. In fa ct h e
sci us a task. 12. You n eed n t wor r y (fe e l fr u s t r a t ed ) a bou t t his
ne ws. 13. Her u t t er d is r es p ect d id n ot ma k e t h in gs a n y ea s ier
l o r t h e fa m ily (d id n t ma k e t h e fa m ilys life a n y ea s ier ).
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Exer cise 9, P- 79
1. Each Fr ida y mor n in g all t h e pu pils o f t h e s ch ool s pen t t he
les s on wh ich immedia t ely p r eced ed t h e r eces s in wr it in g an
a ccou n t o f t h e even t s o f t h eir s ch ool week in clu din g commen t s
a n d crit icism. 2.... h e wou ld t oler a t e n o a t t empt s on t h e pa r t o f
t h e t eachers t o in flu en ce t h e con t en t o f t h e pu pils week ly
r eviews . 3. Ever yon e a n d ever yt h in g wa s op en t o cr it icis m/ cou ld
b e qu es t ion ed a n d cr it icized. 4. It does good t o b ot h pu pils a n d
t eacher . 5. It wou ld ma ke n o s ense t o b e a n gr y wit h t h em for
d r a win g a t t en t ion t o such t h in gs / Th er e wou ld be n o p oin t in
get t in g a n gr y wit h t h em for ca llin g a t t en t ion t o su ch t hings. 6....
t h e wis e t ea ch er will s ee t h e d ir ect ion in wh ich t he in t eres t s o f
ea ch pu pil a n d t h e class as a wh ole are ch a n gin g. 7 . 1wa n t ed ver y
mu ch t o d is cover wh a t t h ey t h ou gh t o f me/ h ow t h ey look ed on
me (I wa s ea ger t o fin d ou t h ow t h ey viewed me). 8.... t h ey p r ob
a bly t h ou gh t t hat I wou ld s oon qu it a n d lea ve t h em just as t he
ma n y t ea ch er s wh o h a d t a u gh t t h em befor e. 9. On ly my own
effor t s cou ld even t u a lly ma ke t h em r es pect a n d ob ey me/ On ly
t h r ou gh my own effor t s cou ld I fin d a wa y t o r ea ch t hem.
10.... I wa s n ot u p t o t he ma r k/ I h a d n ot ma n a ged t o r ea ch t he
n eces s a r y st andard. 11. ... an effor t t o give t h e ch ildr en s ome
t h in g t hat wou ld ar ou s e t h eir in t er es t a n d s t imu la t e t h eir minds.
12. ... as a t t en t ively as a bir d wa t ch er wa t ch es a r are bird. 13. ...
illu s t ra t ion s fr om t h e fa milia r t h ings o f t h eir da ily life. 14. ... it
wa s as t h ou gh t h er e wa s a s ecr et a gr eema n t t o s h ow n o in t er es t
in wh a t I t au ght t h em (t o be b or ed by wh a t ever I t old t h em),
a n d all my a t t empt s t o t reat t h em wit h ou t cer emon y o f for ma l
it y fa iled pa t h et ica lly. 15.... I bor e it t r yin g t o look as s elf-con fi
d en t as poss ible. 16.... it wa s a s ign t hat t h ey wer e a bou t / r ea dy t o
go over t o t h e t h ir d st age o f t h eir con du ct . 17.... ever yt h in g t h ey
s a id or did s h owed t h at t h ey wer e wicked.
Exer cise 2, p. 81
A. 1. 2.

. 3-
. 4.
. 5. ,
. 6. , -
. 7. ,
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-
, ,
. 8. ,
,
? 9- , , -

. 10.
. 11.
. 12.
. 13-

, . 14.
, ,
/
. 15. , ,
, ,
. 16.
. 17. ,
. 18. ,
,
. 19-
. 20. , . 21.

. 22. . 23.
, , - -
-
. 24.
. 25. ? -
, , .
. , ?
I > , . 26.
, . 27.
? - , . 28.
,
,
, , ,
. 29.
,
- . 30.
, .
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. 1.
- . 2.
, -
. 3- , ,
,
. 4.
,
. 5.
,
. 6. , ?
7. / , .
8. ,
. 9. ,
. 10. -
,
, .
11. ,
. 12. ,
. 13. , -
. 14. , ,
, ( )
. 15.
. 16.
/ . 17.
,
,
. 18.
, . 19.
, ,
. 20.
. 21.
, ,
. 22.
( ,
). 23.
, ( ) -
. 24. , ,
( ) . 25.
,
. 26. ,
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,
.
Exe r cis e 3, . 83
A. 1. At t welve h e h a d t o d r op ou t of/ lea ve s ch ool a n d t o go
t o wor k as a Wes t er n Un ion mes s en ger boy. 2. Ar e s ch ools a ny
bet t er in Aust ralia? 3. All t h e s ch ool t u r n ed ou t t o welcom e t he
celebrit y. 4. She has a n ice voice, bu t s h e h a s n t h a d a n y s ch ool
ing. 5. I h a d an a dva n t a ge wh ich I d id n t wa n t t o lose. 6. He
kn ows h ow t o s h ow his k n owled ge t o a dva n t a ge. 7. Th e b oy wa s
per mit t ed t o sit u p for a fe w hou rs, bu t h e n ever u s ed t h e p r ivi
lege t o a dva n t a ge. 8. I won d er at you r ca pa cit y for a dmit t in g/
a ck n owfed gin g fact s n o ma t t er h ow u n plea s a n t t h ey ma y be.
9. Ma n y over s ea st u dent s wer e a dmit t ed t o t h e Un iver s it y last
year. 10. She wa s s h or t -s igh t ed, bu t h a t ed t o a dmit it. 11.1 a dmit
I t ook s ever a l t h in gs fr om my u n cles dr a wer , bu t I wo n t h a ve it
ca lled a t heft . 12. Th e d oor op en ed t o a dmit a t all man. 13. She
a bs olu t ely believes his ver s ion a n d will a dmit n o ot h er . 14. Per cy
is a lwa ys s o ca r efu l in m on ey mat t ers. He hat es was t e. 15. He wa s
wa s t in g (a wa y) s o qu ickly t hat h e con s t a n t ly s eemed t o n eed
a s ma ller size. 16. Th e nat u ral m et h od o f lea r n in g a la n gu a ge is
a dmir a ble for in fa nt s a n d a wa s t e o f t ime a n d effor t for ot h er
people. 17. 1 d on t see h ow you exp ect t o get you r s t r en gt h ba ck
i! you d on t t a ke/ admit s omet h in g n ou r is h in g in t o t h e system.
18. You kn ow, Th oma s , I d on t like discu s sing h er beh in d h er
back.
B. 1. Th is kin d o f wor k r equ ires a lot o f t ime. 2. He said t h ey
did n ot r equ ir e docu men t s . 3. Let s h op e t hat n o su ch t er r ible
s acr ifice will be r equ ir ed o f you . 4. Th er e is n o art, n o skill
r equ ir ed for t hat s or t o f t hing. 5. All t h e equ ip men t r equ ir ed for
exper imen t s wa s simple. 6. I s oon lea r n ed t ha t my s er vices
wou ld be r equ ir ed on t h e s t age this even in g. 7. Th e cler k had
excellen t r efer en ces . 8 . 1 wa s r efer r ed t o t h e ma na ger . 9. Don t
r efer t o t h e ma t t er again. 10. Does this r ema r k r efer t o me?
I I. Im sure she d id n t mea n it, she said it in a t emper . 12. Ive
i ever s een h er fly/ get in t o a t emper / los e h er t emper . 13. She is a
woma n o f a gen t le t emp er (Sh e is s weet -t emp er ed ). 14. You
\v<mid n ever h a ve said su ch an absu rd t h in g if you h ad n ot los t
vou r t emp er (h a d n ot been in a t emper ). 15. I wa s used t o his
i h i [bursts, bu t st ill 1 h a d t o ma ke an effor t t o k eep / con t r ol my
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t emper . 16. Depa r t men t s t or es dis pla y t h eir good s in t h e win
dows . 17. She ma n a ged n ot t o dis pla y h er emot ion s wh en she
wa s t old o f h er s on s illness. 18. He wa s a lways ver y d ecen t t o me.
19. Pu t on s ome d ecen t clot h es b efor e you go out. 20. He ga ve us
qu it e a decen t din ner . 21. Her e I wa s look in g for wa r d t o a d ecen t
n igh t s sleep.
Exer cise 4, p. 84
A. 1. He b elon gs t o a n ew t r en d in lin gu is t ics / His idea s are in
k eep in g wit h a n ew t h eor y in lingu ist ics. 2. I h a ve k n own it
s in ce I wa s a ch ild/ a t een a ger . 3. Eviden t ly t h e b oy wa s bea t en
eit h er by his s ch oolma t es or b y s omeon e h e met on t h e wa y
h om e fr om s ch ool. 4. At eigh t een An d r ew fou n d h ims elf a lon e,
a fir s t -yea r s t u den t at St. An d r ew Univers it y. Th e Un iver s it y ga ve
h im for t y pou n ds a year, a n d t hat wa s his on ly s ou r ce o f
in come. 5. Aft er din n er t h er e is a p er iod o f r ecr ea t ion b efor e
a ft er n oon classes, 6. Wh en (h e wa s ) a ch ild h e wa s a ba d
pu pil/ h is t ea ch er s wer e dis s a t is fied wit h his pr ogr es s / h is t ea ch
er s d id n t t h in k mu ch o f h im a n d as a ru le ga ve h im ba d marks.
7. Rains a r r iva l cr ea t ed a stir. Th e eyes o f all t h e t ea ch er s a n d
pu pils wer e t u r n ed a wa y fr om t h e cr icket field. 8 . 1 wa s in a b et
t er p os it ion o f cou rs e, beca u s e 1 k n ew ever yb od y t h er e/ Of
cou r se, I h a d t h e a dva n t a ge o f k n owin g ever yb od y t h er e/ I wa s
on e-u p, o f cou r s e, beca u s e I k n ew ever yb od y t here. 9- Th ey
p r ofit ed b y ou r dis a dva n t a ges a n d d id it wit h r ema r ka ble s peed.
10. It wa s ob viou s t ha t s he wa s fa r b et t er t h a n t h e ot h er t ea ch
ers/ t hat she ou t s h on e t h e ot h er t eachers. 11. Beca u s e on e ma n
a gr ees t ha t we (t h ey, you ) h a ve been d efea t ed (Beca u s e on e
ma n a ck n owled ges defea t / h a vin g been d efea t ed / b ein g d efea t
ed, it d oes n t mea n t hat ever yb od y els e does . 12. Sam wa s t a ken
in t o his ma s t er s con fid en ce. 13.1t r ied t o s pa re you . In all fa ir
ness you mu st a ck n owled ge t ha t I did. 14. Th e fascist s deva s t a t
ed/ r a va ged/ des t r oyed ma n y t own s a n d villa ges . 15. Too mu ch
s t u ff is t h r own a wa y in t h e hou se. 16 . Ca r olin e h a d foolis h ly
s pen t / s qu a n der ed h er life on b ein g h op eles s ly d e vot e d t o
a ma n wh o d id n ot des er ve it. 17. She look ed at t h e gir l a n d
k n ew well t h a t a r gu men t or r ea s on wou ld be los t on h er / t hat
t h er e wou ld be n o p oin t in u sing a r gu men t o f reason. 18. He is
Russian t o t h e cor e/ He is ever y in ch a Ru ssian/ He is Russian
t h r ou gh a n d t h r ou gh . 19- He said h e wou ld h elp us bu t d id n t
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d o a n yt h in g/ b u t d id n t lift a fin ger / b u t d id n t k eep his
wor d / bu t b r ok e his pr omis e/ bu t we n t ba ck on his wor d .
2 0 . 1 will k eep my wor d (p r om is e )/ 1 shall n ot br ea k my wor d
(p r om is e). 21. Ca n you say t h e a lph a bet n ot fr om A t o 2 bu t vice
versa? 22. Wh y d id you say t h e a lph a bet n ot fr om A t o 2 bu t
fr om 2 t o A? 23. Wh y did you h old ba ck/ con cea l t h e fact ?
2 4 . 1 h op e you will s u ppor t my plan . 25. She a lwa ys tries/ She
a lwa ys does h er bes t n ot t o a t t r a ct a t t en t ion .
B. 1. We n eed ext r a h elp, I t h in k. 2. Ha ven t I d on e all t hat
wa s d ema n d ed o f me/ a ll t h a t I wa s s u pp os ed (e xp e c t e d ) t o
do? 3- Ever yon e mu s t ob e y t h e law. 4. Im su re d ocu men t s mu s t
be p r od u ced t her e. 5. An ywa y you n eed n t s ee/ don t n eed t o
s ee t h em again. 6. She h a d an in fin it e ca p a cit y for p a t ien ce
wh en p a t ien ce wa s n eeded. 7. It wou ld t a ke t wo h ou r s t o
a s s emble ever ybody. 8. Th e n eigh b ou r h ea r d t h e lit t le gir l ca ll
t h e wom a n m ot h er / addr es s t h e wom a n as m ot h er . 9. Wh a t
1h a ve t o sa y con cer n s a ll o f you . 10. His t or ia n s da t e t h e fa ll o f
Rome t o/ fr om 410 A.D./ His t or ia n s say t h a t Rome fell in 410.
11. He b elieved t h e ca u s e o f his depr es s ion s wa s t h e illn ess h e
had h a d wh en h e wa s a ch ild/ He a s cr ibed/ pu t d own his
depr es s ion s t o his ch ild h ood illness. 12. All t h e part s are c on
n ect ed t o ea ch ot h er . 13. You ca n give t h e la n d lor d my r es pect ,
if you like, a n d t ell h im I h op e h e d oes n t fly o ff t h e h a n dle as
oft en as h e u s ed to. 14. Am on g t h e excellen t a n d d ecid ed ch a r
a ct er is t ics o f Gen er a l Fes mon d s wife, gen t len es s wa s less ob vi
ous t h a n t h e rest. 15. If Ch a r les h a d in h er it ed a n y o f t h e qu a li-
i ies o f t h e s tern, fea rles s, ir a s cible s old ier wh o h a d b een his
lather... 16. You r you n ger s on s h ows (u p ) gr ea t in t elligen ce.
17. He p r ou d ly s h owed / d emon s t r a t ed t h e va r iega t ed s mear s
<)(' pa in t on his h ea vy dr es s in g gown . 18. Th e old ma n wa s insa-
i ia bly cu r iou s a bou t t h e ga ller ies a n d t h e pa in t er s wh o exh ib
it ed in t h em. 19- He is qu it e a n ice fellow. 20. He has a lwa ys
been n ice t o me. 21. Sa lvia h a d n ot t h e d elica cy t o s h ow even
a momen t o f h es it a t ion .
Exer cise 5, p. 85
s chool(s ) - s chooling
1. Nu r s er y s c h ools ar e for t h os e wh o h a ven t yet r ea ch ed
compu ls or y s c h ool age. 2. Compu ls or y s c h oolin g is divid ed
mio a pr ima r y a n d s econ d a iy stage. 3. Compu t er s a n d micr o
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elect r on ics ca n assist in s et t in g u n ifor m s c h ool tests. 4. Wh en
does compu ls or y s c h oolin g begin in England?
admit - accept
1. Plea s e a c c e p t my mos t a ffect ion a t e t h a n ks a n d gr a t i
t u de for you r con s t a n t a s s is t a n ce a n d s in cer e in t er es t in my
ever y n eed. 2. Ac cor d in g t o t h e Un iver s it ies Cen t r a l Cou n cil
on Ad mis s ion t h e Un iver s it ies a dm it / a c c e pt s ign ifica n t ly
m or e over s ea s s t u den t s . 3. To t h eir u t t er a s t on is h men t t h e
p ict u r e wa s a c c e p t e d for t h e s h ow. 4. Th e res u lt s o f his t h e o
r et ica l in ves t iga t ion s wer e a c c e p t e d as a va lu a b le con t r ib u
t ion .
require - demand
1. Tea ch er s r e qu i r e / d e m a n d dis cip lin e. 2. Th e t ea ch er
d e m a n d e d t h at t h e pu pil s h ou ld st ay at s ch ool a ft er classes.
3 . Th e s t rikers d e m a n d e d a rise. 4. An s wer qu es t ion s t hat
r e q u i r e s h or t answers.
anger - temper
1. Her eyes gr ew s t ea dy wit h an ger , like old J olyon s wh en
his will wa s cr os sed. 2. An d r ew r edden ed. But ma kin g a gr ea t
effor t , h e con qu er ed his a n ge r / t e mpe r a n d his pride. 3. She wa s
d et er min ed n ot t o los e h er t emper . 4. Th e gr ea t es t r emed y for
a n ge r is delay.
decent - discreet (a n d t h eir d er iva t ives )
1. Th er e wa s a discr eet t ap at t he d oor . 2 . 1d id n t h a ve a n y
t h in g t o d o wit h h im apart fr om wor k. He wa s always dec e n t t o
me. 3. Im n ot goin g t o let dis c r e t ion s poil a r oma n t ic story.
4. Car rie des per a t ely n eed ed dec en t clot h es . 5. Ive been a fr a id
t hat h e a n d Ma r ga r et will d o s omet h in g in dis cr e et a n d br in g
dis gr a ce u pon t h e family.
Exer cise 6, p. 86
A.
- s econ da r y s ch ool;
- s ch olar ;
- s ch oolin g;
- t o win a s ch ola rs hip;
- t o go t o s ch ool/ t o b e at s ch ool;
- ba llet s ch ool;
- t he Du t ch s ch ool o f painting;
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- - boa r din g s ch ool;
- t o h a ve an a dva n t a ge over smb.,
smth.;
- - t o t a ke a dva n t a ge o f smth.;
- t o a dva n t a ge;
- t o a dmit (t o);
- t o a dmit t o an in s t it u t e/ t o college;
- t o a dmit , t o a ckn owled ge, t o con fes s ;
- t o agr ee;
- t o a d mit / a ck n owled ge on e s mis
take, t o con fes s a fault;
- a dmis s ion (is ) b y t icket;
- a dmis s ion , p r ice o f a dmis s ion ;
- t o a p ply for
a dmis s ion t o an in s t it u t e/ college;
- a dmis s ion o f gu ilt ;
- t o wa s t e (a wa y);
- t o la y wa s t e;
- wa s t ela n d;
- t o wa s t e wor ds , t o wa s t e (o n e s )
breath;
- a wa s t efu l per s on , a was t rel;
( ) - t o turn on e s ba ck to;
( ) - t o t u r n o n e s
l>;ick on ;
- - - t o d o smt h.
beh in d s mb.s back;
- at t h e ba ck o f on e s min d;
- t h e ba ck o f on e s head;
i - t o go ba ck on on e s wor d;
- - t o keep / h old smt h. back;
- t o t h e ba ckbon e;
<> - t o k eep (stay, r emain , b e) in t h e ba ck-
< nind;
- t ell me you r ba ckgr ou n d.
M.
- t o meet t h e r equ ir emen t s ;
- t o meet (s a t is fy) t h e dema nds ;
, - let t er s r equ ir in g an a ns wer;
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- r efer en ce;
- r efer en ce book;
- - t o r efer t o smth., t o h a ve
r efer en ce t o smth.;
- - t o r efer t o smb.;
- - t o r efer t o smth.;
- t o keep/ con t r ol on es t emper ;
- fier y t emper s ;
- t emper ; qu ick/ h ot t emper ;
- t o be in a good t emper
(m ood ), t o be in h igh spirits;
- t o b e in a t emper ;
- t o get / fly in t o a t emper ; t o los e on es t emper ;
- t o dis pla y pict u res / pa in t in gs ;
- t o dis pla y goods ;
- t o dis pla y cou r a ge;
- t o ma ke a dis pla y o f smth., t o ma ke
a s h ow o f smth.;
- d ecen t con dit ion s ;
- d ecen t beh a vior ;
- decen t dinn er.
Exer cise 7, p. 86
A. Pr ofes s or Wh it e is a d is t in gu is h ed / a n ou t s t a n d in g
s ch ola r . His vis it t o ou r s ch ool is a gr ea t h on ou r ./ It is a gr ea t
h on ou r for ou r s ch ool t h a t h e has vis it ed us. 2. Ive k n own
h im for a lon g t ime. We we r e at s ch ool t oget h er . 3. Th e gir l
wo n a s ch ola r s h ip a n d wa s a b le t o s t u dy a r t in It aly. 4. Sch ool
s t a rt s at 8.30. 5. Th er e will b e n o s ch ool t omor r ow. / Th e
s ch ool will h a ve a h olid a y t om or r ow. 6. Th e b oy has a cou gh ,
s o I h a ven t let h im go t o s ch ool. / Ive k ep t h im ou t o f s ch ool.
7. She has a gr ea t a d va n t a ge over t h e ot h er s t u den t s : s he
s pea ks En glis h at h ome. 8. He has t h e a d va n t a ge o f k n owin g
a ll t h e s t u den t s wit h ou t excep t ion . 9. Do you r ea lly t h in k t h a t
I w o n t t a ke a d va n t a ge o f t h is op p or t u n it y? 10. Th e dr es s wa s
ext r e m e ly s im p le bu t it s h owed / s et o ff h er lovely figu r e t o
a dva n t a ge. 11. Sh e is t oo p r ou d t o a ccep t / t a k e m on e y fr om
us, bu t s h e w o n t a d mit it. 12. How ma n y s t u den t s wer e
a d m it t ed t o t h e in s t it u t e t h is yea r ? 13. We wer e n ot a d mit t ed
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in t o t h e h a ll/ h ou s e beca u s e/ a s t h e p er for m a n ce/ s h ow h a d
a lr ea d y begu n . 14. Don t for ge t t h a t t od a y t h e a d mis s ion t o
t h e clu b is b y t ic k e t on ly. 15. Th e s t a d iu m a d m i t s /
h olds / s ea t s t h ir t een t h ou s a n d s p ect a t or s (a n a u d ien ce o f
t h ir t een t h ou s a n d/ a t h ir t een -t h ou s a n d a u d ien ce). 16. Wh a t
a p it y t h a t s o m u ch e ffo r t h a s b een wa s t ed . 17. For
a m om en t / Mom en t a r ily I felt a wk wa r d , I t h ou gh t t h a t h e wa s
goin g t o t ell me (wa s a b ou t t o t ell m e ) t h a t I wa s wa s t in g
(m y) p r eciou s t ime on ch a t t er in g (ch a t t in g/ t a lk in g) over / on
t h e p h on e. 18. Some p e op le wa t ch TV for h ou r s , bu t t o my
min d/ bu t I t h in k it s a wa s t e o f t ime, Nich ola s said. For me
t h er e is n ot h in g lik e a go o d b ook . 19. Alt h ou gh s h e wa s ver y
t ir ed s h e wa s p lea s a n t ly a wa r e/ it wa s p lea s a n t for h er t o be
a wa r e t h a t t h e d a y h a d n t b een wa s t ed. 20. You mu st t ell me
t h e t ru t h. It s t h e on ly wa y i f you wa n t me t o ba ck you (u p ).
21. A ma n (A p e r s on ) wh o goes ba ck on h is (t h e ir ) wor d ca n t
in s pir e con fid en ce. 22. Don t you t h in k t h a t it will b e b et t er
n ot t o k eep / h old a n yt h in g ba ck fr om me? 23. Th eir cou n t r y
h ou s e has t h e a d va n t a ge o f s t a n d in g ba ck fr om t h e r oa d.
24. Look h ow b ea u t ifu l t his p in e is a ga in s t / on t h e b a ck
gr ou n d o f t h e even in g sky. 25. I ca n t ma k e ou t / u n der s t a n d
wh a t it is ove r t h er e, in t h e b a ck gr ou n d o f t h e pict u r e.
26. Th e wor k in t h e old m in e wa s h ea vy/ h a r d a n d b a ck
br ea kin g. 27. My r oom wa s in / at t h e ba ck o f t h e h ou s e.
B. 1. Th e a r t icle is qu it e d e c e n t / good (is p r et t y good / is
qu it e good / is n t b a d ) bu t it r equ ir es m or e exa mples . 2. Eliza
was a wa r e/ con s ciou s t h a t s oon t h ey wou ld n ot r equ ir e h er
s er vices a n y mor e/ a n y lon ger . 3. Th er e is on ly on e let t er left ,
b u t it d oes n ot r equ ir e a n a n s wer . 4. In ou r cou n t r y (In t his
eou n t r y*) ever yt h in g is b ein g d on e t o s a t is fy/ meet t h e gr o w
ing r equ ir emen t s o f t h e p op u la t ion . 5. He r efu s ed/ d eclin ed /
mi n ed d own ou r in vit a t ion s , s a yin g t h a t his a t t en d a n ce wa s
r equ ir ed els ewh er e. 6. On e (We/ I) s h ou ld fin d ou t in a dva n ce/
Th e Ru s s ia n w o r d c o m b i n a t i o n is o ft e n t r a n s la t e d in t o
I'i i^ lis h a s in t h is c o u n t r y. H o w e v e r o n e m u s t b e a r in m in d t h a t t h is
I ih r a s e c a n b e u s e d w i t h r e fe r e n c e t o o n e s o w n c o u n t r y o n l y o n it s t e r r i-
i<>ry. Th u s , i f a n Am e r ic a n s a ys in t h is c o u n t r y w h e n in Ru s s ia h e m e a n s
"t n Ru s s ia , n o t in t h e USA, a n d w h e n a Ru s s ia n u s es t h is p h r a s e in t h e
I ISA it m e a n s in t h e USA.
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ea r ly/ befor eh a n d / in good t ime t h e r equ ir emen t s for a dmis
s ion t o t his in s t it u t e (wh a t is r equ ir ed t o b e a d mit t ed t o t his
in s t it u t e). 7. If you h a d d on e a ll t h a t wa s r equ ir ed o f you , you
wou ld n t b e in t r ou ble/ in a mess/ in a s cr a pe/ in a (t igh t ) fix
n ow. 8. In his r ep or t t h e s cien t is t ma d e s ever a l r efer en ces t o
t h e la t es t exp er imen t s . 9. She p r od u ced / s h owed / p r es en t ed
e xc e lle n t r efer en ces . 10. I wa s r e fe r r e d t o t h e e d it or
beca u s e/ a s h e h a d a ll t h e n eces s a r y r efer en ce books . 11. Ill
ma ke dis cr eet in qu ir ies , bu t I d on t t h in k t h at h e r efer r ed
t o/ ma de r efer en ce t o you r let t er s . 12. You r u n cle has a h ot /
qu ick t emper . He will b r ook n o in t er fer en ce. 13- Do/ Ca n you
r ea lly t h in k t h a t I will ba ck (u p ) t his a bs u r d/ r idicu lou s /
p r ep os t er ou s s c h e m e / ve n t u r e / u n d e r t a k in g/ c on t r iva n c e ?
14. St ella, wh a t s t h e ma t t er wit h you ? You s h ou ld n t los e you r
t em p er even t h ou gh you a r e los in g t h e ga me. It is r idicu lou s .
15. Wa lt er has ma de a p oin t o f n ot ma k in g (h a s ma de it a ru le
n ot t o ma k e) imp or t a n t d ecis ion s wh en h e is in a t emper .
16. Sin ce t h e ve r y da y wh en Ca r r ie fir s t s a w t h e dr es s / gown
d is p la yed in t h e s h op win d o w s h e h a d b een d r ea m in g
of/ a b ou t b u yin g it. 17. J a mes s eld om dis p la yed a n y s ign s o f
n er vou s n es s / of b ein g n er vou s / of excit emen t . 18. I a dmit /
a ck n owled ge t h a t you d is p la yed cou r a ge wh en you s t a yed in
t h e for es t a lon e. 19- It wa s ver y d is cr eet o f you / it wa s ver y dis
cr eet on you r pa r t t o s pa r e us t h e n eces s it y t o meet t his
u n plea s a n t man. 20. An ywa y/ An yh ow/ In a n y even t / in a n y
ca s e h e wa s d ecen t t o me/ h e t r ea t ed me d ecen t ly in pu blic.
Exer cise 8, p. 87
A. 1. You h a ve an a dva n t a ge over me: you k n ow t wo lan-
guages./ You h a ve t h e a dva n t a ge o f k n owin g t wo for eign la n
gu ages. 2. He/ She has been a dmit t ed t o t h e inst it ut e. 3- He has
won a s ch ola r s h ip t o university. 4. Th er e is t oo mu ch wa s t e in
t h e house. 5. He/ Sh e has gon e ba ck on his/ her wor d (h a s br oken
h is / h er wor d . ) 6. Th is p ict u r e is d is p la yed t o a dva n t a ge.
7. Ia d mit / a ck n owled ge t ha t Im wr on g/ I a dmit / a ckn owledge
my mist ake. 8. Tell me you r ba ckgr ou n d. 9. Im a fr a id Ive wa s t ed
t h e da y/ t he da y has been wa s t ed.
B. 1 . 1 t h in k I r equ ir e ext r a help. 2 . 1dema n d ext r a h elp. 3. He
has got / flown in t o a t emp er again. 4. He/ Sh e is a decen t per son.
5. He/ She dis pla ys (s ign s o f) anxiet y. 6. Th e s pea ker r efer s t o his
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n ot es. 7. He speaks d ecen t English./ His English is r ea s on a bly
good . 8. Th is s t u dent has an excellen t r efer en ce fr om his s u per
vis or on s ch ool pr a ct ice.
Exe r cis e 9, p- 88
1. Sure, h e wa s r efer r in g t o t h em all t h e t ime. 2. Th is s ch ool-
lea ver s h ou ld a p p ly for a dmis s ion t o u n iver s it y (t o college).
3. All t h e good s in it are dis pla yed in s u ch a wa y t h a t it is ver y
eas y t o fin d wh a t ever you a re look in g for. 4. Oh , h e is a ver y
d ecen t fellow. 5. She is ver y qu ick -t emp er ed / h ot -t emp er ed .
(Sh e has a t emper ./ Sh e has qu it e a t emper / Sh e has a qu ick
(h o t ) t emp er . ) 6. Well, I a dmit t ha t we ma y h a ve mis s ed s ome
point s . (No, 1t h in k fu r t h er in ves t iga t ion / in qu ir y is r equ ir ed.)
7. Becau s e s he pr omis ed t o len d An n a s ma r t lea t h er ja cket a n d
(h en wen t ba ck on h er wor d . 8. A per s on wh o has con s u mp t ion
wa st es a wa y ver y qu ickly./ It s a wa s t in g disease. 9- Oh , yes, s h e is
ver y wa s t efu l. 10. No, I s h ou ld say mor e exa mp les a re r equ ir ed.
11. How ca n you b elieve t ha t I cou ld discu ss you b eh in d you r
back? 12. Oh , yes, h e has d on e it qu it e decen t ly. 13. She has had
decen t t ea ch er s an d bes ides s he has a lwa ys b een d oin g a lot o f
wor k on h er own . (Sh e has h a d t h e a dva n t a ge o f goin g t o
s ch ool in Br it a in .) 14. She d oes n t h a ve a n y r efer en ces ./ I d on t
like h er ba ckgr ou n d.
Exer cise 13, p. 89
1. Thu s , o f t h e t en old For s yt es t wen t y- on e you n g For s yt es
h ad b een bor n . 2. Th e bla ckber r ies t a s t ed o f rain. 3. I d id n t
lu iy t h e p ia n o t o be s on a t ed ou t o f my h ou s e o f an even in g.
( ,
, . ) 4. You ar e o f
Ihe fe w wh o will be equ a l t o it. ( ,
. ) 5. I wa s h my h a n ds o f it.
( ./ . ) 6. Tom d ecid ed t hat h e
<<hi Id be in d ep en d en t o f Becky. 7. Veget a r ia n s live on ve ge t a
bles, fr u it a n d nuts. 8. He p la n t ed t h e a p p le-t r ees on / t o t h e
led a n d t h e p ea r -t r ees on / t o t h e r igh t o f t h e pat h. 9- Th e
lie use wa s on fire. 10. Th er e a re good s fo r s a le in all t he s h op-
wmd ows . You a re ver y s low, wh y d on t you h u r r y up a bit?
I l l lelp me o n / o ff wit h my coa t . 12. Th e ga r a ge wa s bu ilt o n
a <<mven ien t site. 13.1 s t u mbled o n s om et h in g soft . 14. Th er e
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wa s n o ob ject ion o n t h e pa r t o f t h e own e r o f t h e car. 15. On
t h e on e h a n d I wa s, o f cou r s e, gla d; o n t h e ot h er I wa s a lit t le
fr igh t en ed . 16. Th e d oc t or wa s o n t h e p oin t o f lea vin g. 17. On
r eflect ion I ga ve u p t h e idea. 18. He wa s a r r es t ed o n s u s picion
o f mu r der . 19. Th e gh a s t ly s t or y ma d e my h a ir s t a n d o n end.
( . )
20. Com e on ! Let s lock t h e t r u n k t o b e o n t h e s a fe side.
21. Th e qu es t ion wa s n t even t ou ch ed on / u pon .
Exe r cis e 14, p. 89
1. Th er e are s hops on bot h sides o f t he street. 2. On get t in g his
t elegr a m I wen t t o/ st art ed for/ s et ou t for t he r a ilwa y s t at ion at
on ce. 3- Up on my wor d, I didn t d o it. 4. Tr y as I wou ld / No ma t t er
h ow hard I t r ied/ However h ar d I t r ied (on ) that even in g I cou ld
n t con cen t r a t e/ focu s on t h e a ct or s per for ma n ce. 5. Hold on t o
t h e railing/ banist er, it s ver y s lipper y here. 6. Go on, Im all ears
(Im lis t en in g t o you ver y ca r efu lly). 7. Can you mea n / Do you r ea l
ly mea n that you h a ve n ever been on a h ike befor e? 8. On a wa r m
Sept ember da y t h e ch ildr en ca me t o s ch ool for t he first time.
9. Come on, s h ow me wh a t you h a ve in you r basket. 10. An n e suf
fer ed a lot wh en h er relat ives and fr ien ds t u rn ed t h eir backs on
her. 11. J oh n liked it wh en Ma r y pu t on a blou s e o f an evenin g.
12. Such a t ea ch er is hard t o find, h e is on e in a t hou sand. 13. Th e
villa ge was t o t h e n or t h o f t h e river. 14. He has always t ried t o
ma ke a business ma n ou t o f me. 15. It wa s foolis h / s t u pid o f
h im/ foolis h / s t u pid on his pa rt even t o t h in k a bou t her.
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION

( )

1. :
ma in t a in ed (s t a t e) s ch ool - ;
, ;
cou n t y s ch ool - , - ;
;
volu n t a r y s ch ool - , - :
;
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n u r sery s ch ool - ;
pr ima r y s ch ool - ;
in fa n t s ch ool -
; ( 5
7 ,
ju n ior s ch ool - 7
11 ;
s econ da r y s ch ool - ;
gr a mma r s ch ool - ;
mod er n s ch ool -
( 11 16 ;
} ) ;
t ech n ica l s ch ool - (

11 16 18 ;
);
comp r eh en s ive s ch ool - (
;
13-15 ; -
)-,
t wo-t ier [t is ] s ch ool - ;
mid dle s ch ool - , 9
13 ;
u pper s ch ool Brit (h igh s ch ool US) -
;
mixed (co-ed u ca t ion a l) s ch ool -
, ;
s in gle-s ex s ch ool - ;
s pecia l s ch ool - (
);
in d ep en den t (fee-pa yin g, pr iva t e) s ch ool - ;
p r e-p r ep a r a t or y s ch ool - 5
8 (
)-,
pr epa r a t or y s ch ool - 1) Brit
( -
/ / )-, 2) US
( );
pu blic s ch ool - ,
( .
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)-, 2) (
);
s ixt h for m college - (
16 ,
;
; com p r eh en
s ive s ch ool);
t er t ia r y college -
16 ( ;
[poly technic]

[s ixth form]
[further education]).
2. :
compu ls or y edu ca t ion - ;
pr e-s ch ool edu ca t ion - ;
pr ima r y edu ca t ion - ;
s econ da r y edu ca t ion - ;
fu r t h er edu ca t ion - (
, ; -
; ) [
] [ ];
h igh er edu ca t ion - .
3. :
a dmin is t r a t ion - , ;
s ch oolin g - / ( . .);
fu ll-t ime edu ca t ion - ,
;
pa r t -t ime edu ca t ion - ,
;
t r ipa r t it e s ys t em - (
: ,
);
cla s s -divided a n d s elect ive s ys t em o f edu ca t ion -
, ( )
;
t o sustain in equ a lit y o f op p or t u n it y -
( ) ;
t o go comp r eh en s ive - Brit
;
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t h e Depa r t men t o f Edu ca t ion a n d Scien ce - Brit
;
Loca l Edu ca t ion Au t h or it ies (LEAs ) -
;
t o be r es pon s ible for t h e n a t ion a l edu ca t ion p olicy -
;
t o ru n a s ch ool - / ;
t o pr es cr ibe cu rr icu la or t ext b ook s - / -
;
t h e p r ovis ion o f s ch ools - ;
t o p r ovid e ma in t a in ed s ch ool ed u ca t ion -
, .
4. :
Hea d Tea ch er / Hea dma s t er , Pr in cipa l - ;
Assist ant Pr in cipa l - ;
Act in g Hea d Tea ch er - ( . .)
;
s t a ff - , ;
gover n in g b od y - ;
t o h a ve r es pon s ibilit y - ;
t o em p loy t ea ch er s - ;
t o p r ovid e a n d ma in t a in bu ildin gs -
11 ;
t o s u p ply equ ip m en t - ,
( ' ;
t o p r ovid e gr a n t s - 1)
(( .
); 2) ,
( .
);
a p p oin t men t a n d dismiss al o f s t a ff -
, .
5. ( . .):
>a dmit - ( . .)-,
|<>a lloca t e - 1) , ; 2 )
, , ;
>a pply for a dmis s ion - ;
s elect ive pr oced u r e - ;
in t elligen ce tests - ;
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su bst it ut e for t h e a bolis h ed 11+exa ms -
11 ,
;
t o meas u r e in bor n a bilit ies -
;
t o h a ve a t ime limit - ;
t o coa ch for - ;
ca t ch men t area - ( ) , ;
wit h ou t a n y r efer en ce t o t h e ch ild s a bilit y or a pt it u de -
;
t o t r ans fer (p r om ot e ) fr om on e class t o a n ot h er -
( ) .
6. ( ):
br oa d cu r r icu lu m - ;
a ca demic cou r s e - ;
n on -a ca d emic cou r s e - ;
voca t ion a l bias - - ;
fou n d a t ion cou r s e - ,
, ,

;
fou n da t ion s u bject s - , fou n d a t ion
cou r se;
t o meet s pecia l in t er est s -
, ;
com m on cu r r icu lu m - ;
s implified cu r r icu lu m - ;
edu ca t ion wit h a pract ical slant for lower -a t t a in in g pupils -
;
t o en cou r a ge t o d o smt h. - ,
- .;
t h e t h r ee Rs - , (r ea din g,
wr it in g a n d r it h met ic);
su bject t ea ch in g - ;
s pecialist t ea ch er - ;
r emedia l t ea ch in g - .
7. :
GCSE (e xa m ) (Gen er a l Cer t ifica t e o f Secon da r y Edu ca t ion ) -

;
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t o sit for an exa m - , ;
A level exa m -
(
);
Common En t r a n ce Exa m -
( [preparatory
s chool]
[public school/ );
t o s et a n d ma r k a t ask -
;
t o h a n d t h e pa per s ou t - ;
exa min in g boa r d - ;
gr a des - , ;
pass gr a de - , ;
resits a n d r et a kes - ;
u nsu ccess fu l pu pil - ( ) ;
t o r epea t t h e yea r - ;
t o pass an exa m - ;
t o keep u p wit h t he gr ou p - ;
t o fa ll beh in d - .
8. :
cor p or a l pu n is h men t - ;
d et en t ion (a ft er s ch ool or du r in g t h e din n er h ou r ) - -
(
);
lines - , -
! I - . );
exclu s ion fr om n or ma l r ou t in e -
I > ;
exclu s ion fr om pr ivileges (los s o f p r ivilege) - -
/ ;
( Elect ion o f lit t er - ;
s u s pen s ion fr om s ch ool -
IIIKi > ;
wiih dr a wa l fr om les s on s - ;
s ei I in g ext r a wor k - ;
pul lin g on r ep or t - ;
id lin g t h e pa r en t s - -
< . . .
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UNITFOUR
SPEECH PATTERNS
Exer cis e 2, p. 108
1. Wh y wou ld h e com e b ot h er in g you wit h ou t b ein g in vit ed?
2. She dis a ppea r ed in t o t h e kit ch en wit h ou t n ot icin g t h e girl.
3. Now J oh n plays t h e pia n o bet t er t h an ever. 4. Ma r y speaks
English bet t er t h a n ever . 5. Wh y wou ld h e t h r ow aside su ch an
oppor t u n it y? 6. Wh y wou ld I go t o t h e t r ou ble o f look in g a ft er
him? 7. She wa s clever en ou gh t o get wh a t she wa n t ed. 8. He was
a n ice kid, old en ou gh t o get his dr iver s licens e. 9- Th e b oy
s cr ea med wit h la u gh t er wh en h e t ook a r ide on a mer r y-go-
r ou n d. 10. Ka t e (Ka t es ch eek s ) flu s h ed wit h pleasure.
Exer cise 3, p - 109
1. Th e b oy wen t t o t h e s ka t in g-r in k wit h ou t t ellin g his m ot h
er. 2. He ca me wit h ou t bein g/ h a vin g been in vit ed a n d wa s feelin g
a wkwa r d. 3. In t his comp et it ion h e h a d mor e a dva nt a ges over his
rivals t han ever. 4. He wa n t ed t o t r a vel/ t o set ou t on a t ravel mor e
t h a n ever. 5. Wh y wou ld/ s h ou ld I a ccept h er invit a t ion ? I dis like
h er ver y mu ch. 6. Wh y wou ld Tom s pa re you r feelings ? You wer e
t act less you rself. 7. Th e fa mily feu d wa s d eep en ou gh t o br ea k all
t h e ties b et ween t hem. 8. She wa s r es olu t e (d et er min ed ) en ou gh
t o go on wor k in g/ t o con t in u e wor kin g/ t o con t in u e t o wor k/ t o
keep on wor kin g. 9. Th e bu shes wer e as t h ick as a brush. 10.1dis
like this dis h as mu ch as you (d o). 1l. Sh e look ed as pr et t y as a
pict u r e fr om a n illust rat ed ma gazin e. 12. Sit t in g b efor e (in fr on t
o f) a TV set t h e ch ildr en s cr ea med wit h lau ght er. 13. An n e cr ied
ou t wit h excit emen t wh en she s a w a n en velop e in t he ma il
box/ pilla r -box/ pos t box. 14. How h e mu st h a ve a dmir ed this p ic
t u re/ paint ing! 15. How difficu lt / h a r d it mu st h a ve been t o r ow
agains t t h e cu r rent / u ps t ream!
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. s t a n d vt/ i - 1) ;
t o st and s till - ) , ;
) ;
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t o s t a n d s t r a igh t (m ot ion le s s ) - (
);
t o s t a n d wit h on e s ba ck t o smb. - - . ;
t o s t an d in on e s ligh t - ) - . ;
) - . ;
t o s t an d lea n in g a ga in s t smth. - , - .;
t o s t a nd in a lin e - ) ; )
( );
t o s t a n d on e n d - ;
His ha ir s t ood on end. - ,
t o s t a n d ou t - ;
Th e gr een r o of s t ood ou t agains t t h e clea r sky. -
.
His wor k st ands ou t fr om t hat o f t h e ot hers . -
( ) .
t o s t a n d u p fo r s mb. (s m t h . ) - - . ( - . ),
- . ( - . );
Geor ge s t ood u p for pr eceden t . - ,
.
it s t an ds t o r e a s on - ;
It st ands t o r ea s on t hat we mu st d o t h e job as well as pos s i
ble. - ,
| > .
2) , , - .
Mon t mor en cy cou ld n t s t a n d Geor ges music. - -
<u .
I ca n n ot s t a nd h ea t (pa in , his jokes , t h e clima t e, et c.) -
iti.n ( , , . .).
t o s t a n d on e s gr o u n d - ,
| , ;
liver yb od y wa s agains t h im, but h e s t ood his gr ou n d. - Bee
( ) , .
3) , ;
The a gr eemen t stands. - .
I) - . ;
st a nd t rea t - ;
) , - ., - . ;
IMy- ., - . (t o s t a n d by smb. , s mt h . );
We mu st s t an d by ea ch ot h er . -
| >\ ( ).
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6 ) ( );
st ands 6 foot in height . - .
t o s t a n d fo r smt h . - , - .;
.P. st ands for Memb er o f Par lamen t . - M.P.
.
2. h at e vt - , ;
My cat h a t es dogs . - .
I h a t e t r ou blin g (t o t r ou b le) you. -
.
h at e - , , ;
wa s filled wit h h a t e for his enemy. -
.
h a t e fu l adj - 1) , ,
, ;
2) , ;
h a t efu l cr ime - ( ) );
h a t efu l gla n ces - , ;
h a t efu l lie - ;
h a t r e d - , , ;
look ed at me wit h h a t r ed in his eyes. -
.
3. s mile vi/ t - 1) ;
n ever smiles. - .
Wh a t are you s milin g at? - ?
Fort u ne has always s miled on (u p on ) him. - ( )
./ .
2) ;
t o s mile a wa y vexa t ion (gr ie f) -
( );
is n ot a ma n t o s mile a wa y vexa t ion . -
, , .
s mile 1) ;
Th er e wa s a plea s a n t (cr u el, ir on ica l, e t c ) s mile on h er face. -
( , . .)
.
t o be a ll s mile s - ( )
, ( , );
Th e lit t le b oys fa ce wa s a ll s miles wh en h e s a w his n ew toy. -
,
.
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2) p i , ;
t o en joy t h e s miles o f for t u n e -
.
4. pat vi/ t - 1) ; , ;
;
t o pa t a d og - ;
Amy p a t t ed h er s h ou lder wit h wa r mt h . -
.
She p a t t ed t h e b ook s in t o a n ea t pile. -
, .
p a t t ed his foot lis t en in g t o t h e music. - ,
.
pa t - , , ;
ga ve me a fr ien d ly pa t on t h e s hou lder . -
/ .
5. t ake vi/ t - 1) ; , ;
t o t a ke a p er s on s h a n d - ;
t o t a ke h old o f smt h. = t o get / ca t ch / s eize h old o f smt h. -
) , , - .; ) ,
- ., - .;
t o t ake a ma n pr is on er - ;
2 ) , , ; ;
t ook t h e h ou s e for a year. - .
Wh o look t h e first pr ize? -
( )?
I s h a ll t a k e a h olid a y t om or r ow. -
(> .
wa s t a kin g . - .
You mu st t a ke you r ch a n ce. -
( ).
3 ) , ; ; ; -
, ;
Take t hese let ter s t o t he post . - .
Hes a lwa ys t a kin g ot h er p eop les ideas. - -
t . .
I ) , ;
t o t ake a gu es t h ome - ;
S) , ( -
* ( )',
lo t ake pr id e in on es wor k - ;
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t o t a ke an in t er es t in polit ics - ;
6 ) ; ; ( >, . .);
t ook a d eep breat h. - .
7 ) , ; , ;
I t ook h im t o be an h on es t man. - ,
./ .
Do you t a ke my mea n in g? - ,
?
We ma y t a ke it for gr a n t ed. -
.
8 ) ( )-, ( );
Ta ke ca r e wh a t you say. - .
Did h e t a ke a n y n ot ice o f you ? -
?
has t a ken a dis like t o me. - .
She t ook h er lit t le br ot h er t o task. -
( ) ./
.
t ook gr ea t pains t o h elp me. -
.
t o t ake a ft e r - , (
) ;
Wh om d o you t ake a ft er in you r family? -
?
t o t ake d o wn - 1) , ( ),
( - . )-,
t o t ake d own an old bu ildin g - ;
2 ) ( - .);
Th e pos t mis t r es s bega n t o t ake d own t h e message. -
.
t o t ake i n - 1) ( ), - .
, - . ;
t o t ake in lodger s - ;
2) ;
t o t ake in a dress - ;
3) ( - . ) . . . ,
. .;
t o t a ke in a lect u r e - ;
4 ) ( - .);
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5) , ( - .);
t o be t a ken in wh en bu yin g a wa t ch -
;
t o t ake o f f - 1) ( . .);
t o t ake o ff on e s hat, coa t - , ( ,
);
2 ) ( ) ;
Th e pla n e t ook o ff fr om Cr oyd on a ir por t . -
.
3) , ; ;
Ta ke you r s elf off. - , . ( . .);
t o t ake ove r - ;
; ( , . .);
( ) - . ;
Wh en will you be r ea dy t o t a ke over ? -
( )?
t o t ake t o - 1) , ( - .
- . ); 2) ( - . );
t ook t o ga r den in g wh en h e r et ired. -
11 .
t o t a k e u p - 1) ( - . ,
);
Th e wor k t akes u p t oo mu ch t ime. -
.
2) ( ); ,
( . .);
Th e bus s t op p ed t o t a ke u p passengers. - -
, .
A s p on ge t akes u p wa t er . - .
3) - .;
- . ( ), ( );
( - .);
| <>t ake u p on e s s t or y - ;
t o t ake u p wi t h - , ( - .,
. );
She had t a ken up la t ely wit h J une. -
in >| .
(>. level 7 7 - 1 ) ; 2) ,
;
.| 1 >ve (b e lo w) sea level - ( ) ;
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t h e level o f k n owled ge (d e velop m en t ) -
( );
low (h igh , a ver a ge, cu ltu ral, in t ellect u a l, econ omic, s cien t if
ic) level - ( , , ,
, , ) ;
t o be on a le ve l wi t h smt h . (s m b. ) -
( ) - . ( - . );
Th e wa t er in t h e r iver wa s on a level wit h t h e banks. -
.
His k n owled ge is qu it e on a level wit h a fou r t h -yea r st u
d en t s. -
.
on t he le ve l - 1) ; 2) , ;
Is h e on t h e level? - ?
le vel adj - 1) , , ;
level r oa d - / ;
level gr ou n d - ;
2 ) , , ;
t o s pea k in a level voice - ;
;
has a level h ea d (is level-h ea d ed ). -
/ / / .
t o level vt - \ ) , , ;
2 ) , ;
t o level a bu ildin g - ;
t o level a villa ge (a cit y) - ( )
;
Th e Ger ma n fascists levelled ma n y villa ges t o t h e gr ou n d. -
-
.
2 ) ;
( ); , ( . .);
Th e h u n t er levelled his gu n at t h e beast. -
( ) .
7. r e gu la r adj - 1) , ,
, ;
r egu lar h a bit s - ;
;
t o k eep r egu la r h ou rs - ( )
;
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2 ) ;
has n o r egu la r wor k. - .
3) , ;
r egu la r fea t u r es - ;
a r egu la r figu r e - ;
4 ) , ;
5) . , ;
a r egu la r d oct or - ;
t h e r egu la r a r my - ;
\ 6) - . , ;
a r egu la r rascal - ; ;
r e gu la r ly adv - 1) , ;
a ga r den r egu la r ly la id ou t - ;
2) , ;
has been pr a ct is in g r egu la r ly for t h e last t wo weeks . -
11 / -
.
8. s c r e a m vi/ t - 1) , ,
;
t o s cr ea m in a n ger - ;
2 ) , ;
t o s cr ea m wit h la u gh t er - , -
;
Th e ba by s cr ea med all night . - .
Th e pa r r ot s creams bu t does n ot talk. - ,
in- .
3) : ,
, , ;
Th e jets s cr ea med over h ea d. - ( ) -
M1I .
s c r e am - , , ;
Th e s ou n d o f t h e s cr eams wa s lou d en ou gh for h im t o hear. -
ll( >i , .
a (p e r fe c t ) s c r e a m - , ,
. .
Reginald, you are n ow t h e h ea d o f t h e family. - I kn ow,
I ill. Isnt it a screa m? - , -
i-. , - . - , ?
>. fit vi/ t - 1) , ; 2 ) ,
II| 1 ' ;
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Th is coa t does n ot fit me. - ( /
/ ) / .
Th e key d oes n t fit t h e lock. -
.
3) , ; ,
(for );
t o fit on es elf for on es n ew du t ies -
;
t o fit a pla n k in a floor - ;
t o fit smt h . o n - 1) - .; 2) - .
;
I am goin g t o t h e t a ilor t o h a ve my coa t fit t ed on. -
, .
t o fit i n (wit h ) - , , ;
How will my a r r a n gemen t s for t h e h olida ys fit in wit h
you rs? -
( )?/
?
fit adj - 1) , ( ) ,
(for );
Th e ma n is n ot fit for t h e pos it ion . -
.
We must d ecid e on a fit t ime a n d place. -
( ) .
2 ) predic. , ;
Do as you t h in k fit. - / ,
.
d id n t t h in k fit t o d o wh a t I su ggest ed. -
.
3) , , ;
, (for );
I h op e you ar e feelin g qu it e fit. - ,
/ .
has been ill a n d is fit for n ot h in g. - ,
.
10. love vt - 1) ;
t o love on e s par ent s, on e s cou n t r y -
, ;
You ou gh t t o love ch ildr en t o b ecome a t eacher. -
, .
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2 ) ( - .), ( - . ,
t o love com for t (golf, s ea -ba t h in g) -
( , );
She loves t o h a ve (loves h a vin g) a lot o f dogs r ou n d her. -
( ) , /
.
Will you com e wit h me? - I s h ou ld love t o. -
? - ,
lpve n - , ;
a love o f lea r n in g - ;
love o f on e s cou n t r y - , ;
u n r equ it ed [An r a 'kw aited] love - ;
t o give (s e n d ) on e s love t o smb. - - . ;
n ot t o be h a d fo r love o r m on e y - ,
1111 , ;
t o be i n love (wi t h s m b. ) - ( - . );
Lea n der wa s in love wit h Her o. - -
<> [ .
("Mu ch Ad o a bou t Not h in g)].
t o fa ll i n love (wi t h s m b. ) - ( - . );
WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES
t o b e t h r ou gh wit h - , ( - . ), -
( ( - . ), ( - . ),
( - . );
t o give smb. a test in - - . ( ) ;
- . ;
t o t a ke smt h. a pa rt - - . ( );
t o pu t smt h. t oget h er - ( - . , -
>| >< . .), , ;
in t ime - ( );
t o r ea d smt h. over s mb.s s h ou lder - - .
it.* . ;
t o look at s mt h over smb.s s h ou lder - -
- . ;
t>look at s mt h over on e s s h ou lder - -
Ipe i l. - . ;
tn get / be a dju s t ed t o - , -
/ ;
iinc m or e (o f) - / ( - );
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n ext t o - 1) , (
- . - . 2 )
, ( , . .) (
, . . 3) (n ext t o
impos s ib le - ; n ext t o n ot h in g -
);
t o flash smt h. on a s cr een - - . .
Exer cise 4, p. 116
1. It ma y t ake a wh ile t o get / t o be t h r ou gh wit h that pile o f
wor k on Saturday. 2. Im t h r ou gh wit h this fellow. 3. Th e t ea ch er
ga ve us a test in English. 4. He gives t h e class a test in t h eir h ome
wor k. 5. It s mu ch easier t o t ake t he r ecor der apart t han t o pu t it
t oget h er. 6. Th e d in in g-r oom wa s empt y excep t for t h e t able n ext
t o ours. 7. She pu t d own t h e b ox o f p owd er a nd look ed at me over
h er shou lder. 8. A pia n o s t ool s h ou ld be adju st ed t o t he h eigh t o f
t he player. 9 -1wa s su rprised that t h ey r et u r n ed in n o time. 10. Th e i
mech a n ica l t ea ch er fla s h ed a n ew pict u r e on t h e screen.
Exe r cis e 5, p. 116
1. He wa s gla d t o be t h r ou gh wit h his affairs/ his business.
2. Toda y Im givin g my class a test in English lit erat u re. 3- He
wis h ed h e h a d n t t r ied (He wa s s or r y h e h a d t r ied ) t o
r epa ir / men d/ fix t h e r a zor (elect r ic r a zor / s h a ver ) h ims elf. (He
wis h ed h e h a d n t u n d er t a k en t o r ep a ir / men d / fix t h e
r a zor / elect r ic s h a ver h ims elf.) It wa s ea s ier t o t a ke (it ) apart
t han t o pu t (it ) t oget h er . 4. Ch ildr en s omet imes t ake t oys apart
t o s ee h ow t h ey wor k. 5 . 1look ed over my s h ou lder a n d s a w t he
d og r u n n in g a ft er me. 6. Im sure t ha t you k n ow t h e ma n wh o sat
n ext t o you . 7. His eyes got a dju s t ed t o t h e da r k/ t h e darkness. 8.
Pleas e (I b eg you / I en t r ea t you / I bes eech you ), t ell me s ome
mor e a bou t her. 9 . 1 look ed over my s h ou lder at t h e b oy again.
10. Th e mech a n ica l t ea ch er fla s h ed a n ew t as k/ as s ign ment on
t h e screen.
Exe r cis e 8, p. 117 !
t o wr it e a bou t smth. in on e s diary; t o b e t h r ou gh wit h smth.;
t o t ake smt h. apart ; wh a t a was t e; she wa s doin g/ h a d b een doing
wor s e a n d wor s e; in n o t ime; t o look at smb. wit h s u per ior eyesj
t o be hurt; t o be/ get adju st ed; a b ook t u cked ben ea t h his arm; tc
h elp on e a n ot h er on t h e h omewor k ; t o a dd fra ct ion s ; a test.
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Exer cis e 9, p. 117
1. On t h e pa ge, at t h e t op o f wh ich wa s wr it t en t h e dat e: Ma y
17, 2157. 2.... it wa s a wfu lly fu n n y t o r ea d wor d s t ha t wer e just
pr in t ed t h er e in s t ea d o f m ovin g as t h ey a lways did. 3. Wh en you
finis h t he b ook , you just pu t it in t o t h e wa s t e bas ket / you just dis
pos e o f it, I t hink. 4. Wh a t ca n be wr it t en a bou t classes? 5. Th e
par t Ma r gie h a t ed mos t wa s t h e n a r r ow open in g, wh er e s he had
t o pu t h om e a s s ign men t s a n d t est papers. 6. ... t h e mech a n ica l
t ea ch er ca lcu la t ed t h e ma r k ver y fa s t / ver y qu ick ly 7 . 1 gu ess t he
geogr a p h y pa r t wa s a dju st ed a lit t le t oo qu ick (wa s a dju st ed in
su ch a wa y as t o be in comp r eh en s ib le t o an a ver a ge s t u den t ).
8. As a ma t t er o f fa ct / in fact all in all h er pr ogr es s is good
en ou gh . 9.... a t ea ch er has t o be gea r ed t o t h e min d/ h a s t o be
a da pt ed t o t h e mind/ h as t o be s u it ed for / ha s t o fit t h e min d o f
ea ch b oy or gir l h e t eaches. 10. Th ey wer en t even h a lfwa y
t hrou gh.
Exe r cis e 2, p. 118
A. 1. . 2.
, . 3.
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. 4. / ,
. 5. ,
. 6.
i <> , . 7.
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. 8.
11 > . 9.
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I() ( ) . 11.
i in . 12.
, . 13. ,
i . 14.
( ). 15.
: .| . 16. . 17.
. 18. -
| 11 . 19- . ,
, - ./ . 20.
. 2 1 .
, . 22.
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, . 23. ,
. 24.
, - . 25.
, . 26.
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/ . 28.
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.
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). 12.
, . 13. ,
...,
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Exe r cis e 3, p. 120
A. 1 . 1 h a t e/ ca n t s t a n d t h e girl. 2. Ou r pr eviou s a r r a n gemen t
stands. 3 . 1 s t an d my gr ou n d n o ma t t er wh a t is said. 4 . 1 wou ld
h a t e a n y o f you i f you mis t r ea t an animal. 5. His ca r efu l con cea l
men t o f su ch h a t e/ h a t r ed wa s a ch a r a ct er is t ic fea t u r e o f a ma n
o f his ir on self-rest ra int . 6 . 1ha t e/ I ca n t s t an d p eop le wh o lau gh
at me. 7. She as ked me n o fu r t h er qu es t ion s bu t pa t t ed Ros a lin d
a ffect ion a t ely on t h e s hou lder. 8. She s t oop ed t o pa t h er dog.
9. She has t a ken t o ga r den in g. It is h er pa s t ime n ow. 10. 1t ook t o
h im at first sight . 11. Don t you t r y t his ga me on me, you won t
t ake me in. 12. Th e n ews wa s s o over wh elmin g, I cou ld n t t a ke it
in at on ce. 13- Th e pla n e wa s t a kin g o ff wh en h e got t o t h e air
por t. 14. Th es e s ma ll h ou ses are t o be t a ken d own / t o b e levelled
t o ma ke r oom for a n ew b ig bu ildin g. 15. He t ook t o cyclin g t he
15 miles t o Wa llin gt on . 16. She d id n ot t a ke t o livin g in t h e cou n -
ir y as mu ch as I h op ed sh e wou ld. 17 . 1 d r op p ed/ ga ve u p med i
cin e a nd t ook u p physics.
B. 1. At last h e bega n t o speak, his voice level a n d cold. 2. Th e
wa t er r os e u n t il it wa s on a level wit h t h e r iver banks. 3. His level
h ea d ed c om m on s en s e wa s a lwa ys s oot h in g. 4. She wen t
upstairs t o a ccomplis h h er r egu la r wor k. 5. Toda y at t h e r egu lar
m eet in g t h e qu es t ion o f you r fu t u r e wa s b r ou gh t up.
(). A momen t la t er t h ey h ea r d t wo p eop le s cr ea min g wit h pa in
ir om down s t a ir s . 7. Th e bir d ga ve a s cr ea m/ s cr ea med as if t o
wa r n its ma t e o f dan ger. 8. Th e r in g fit t ed t h e t h ir d fin ger o f her
right h a n d (t o p er fect ion ). 9- Was t h e boa t fit t o pu t t o sea?
10. He is n ot fit t o wip e t h e s h oes o f Mon iqu es fat her. 11. Th e
In x)k is ou t o f pr in t a n d is n ot t o be h a d (a n d I ca n t get it ) for
l<>ve or mon ey.
Exer cise 4, p. 121
A. 1. Her h eigh t is five foot t wo (five feet and t wo inches ).
The a r r a n gemen t r ema in s u n a lt er ed (u n ch a n ged )/ h old s /
Ik >lils good. 3. Wh os goin g t o pa y t he bill/ foot the bill? 4. P.O.
means pos t -office./ P.O. is an a b b r evia t ion for p os t -office.
^ Prop/ Lean t h e la dder against t he wall. 6. He left t h e t rain on
dim truing wh en t he t emper a t u r e was over a h u n dred in t he
Mi.uk-. 7. Th ey k n ew t h ey wou ld defen d ea ch ot h er in scrapes.
MI tut Muriel, even if all t h ou gh t h er wr on g, ha d t aken h er deci-
hi an d st u ck t o h er op in ion (s t u ck t o h er gu n s)/ a n d wou ld n t
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ch a n ge h er mind. 9 . 1dislike t h e wa y she treats h er sister. 10. For
t h e first t ime in h er life she felt t hat she cou ldn t st and a woma n .
11. Su zanne likes thrills, bu t she det est s bein g u n comfor t a ble.
12. She h a d t he kin d o f bea u t y t hat lasts for a lon g t ime a n d wh en
she wa s plea s ed or amu s ed h er mou t h t u r n ed u p at t h e en ds and
h er eyes br igh t en ed/ lit u p in a wa y t hat wa s impos s ible t o for get .
13. His mou t h t u r ned u p at t h e en ds as befit t ed a p olit e ma n a n d
fr oze in t hat pos it ion . 1 4 . 1s t ood u p straight, fixin g my (t ou s led)
hair. 15. She s t opped abru pt ly a n d t a pped me ligh t ly on t h e arm.
16. Not h in g s h ou ld be a llowed t o s t an d in t h e wa y o f justice.
17. She wa s t h e kin d o f you n g wom a n wh o h a r dly n eeded p r ot ec
t ion. 18. So Eliza bet h cr it icized/ r epr oa ch ed/ s colded h er s elf ver y
s ever ely and, o f course, r at her over d id it. 19- Eden believes in using
as mu ch t ime as it s necessary t o comp let e wh a t h e is d oin g a n d in
ga t h er in g ot h er p eop les opin ion s . 20. You go ba ck t o that s ch ool
a n d fin d ou t wh et h er you ca n con t in u e/ r es u me wh er e you left off.
21. An d in deed it look ed as t h ou gh she t r ied h ar d/ did h er bes t / did
all s he cou ld/ did ever yt h in g in h er p ower / ma d e ever y
effor t / t ook gr e a t p a in s / wen t ou t o f h er wa y n ot t o be a lon e
wit h him. 22. 1 in t en ded t o give u p t h e s cien t ific ca r eer a nd devot e
mys elf t o wr it in g novels. 23. He ga zed at Mrs. Sept imu s Small wh o
look ed like/ r es embled (b or e a s t r on g r es embla n ce t o) J ames -
lon g an d thin. 24. He det a in ed h er aft er office hou rs/ aft er t he
wor k in g da y wa s over t o wr it e at his dict a t ion . 25. Wh a t d o you
t h in k I am? A comp let e fool? 26. Mich a el look ed h im u p and
down / eyed h im fr om h ea d t o foot . 27. All wom en like t o h a ve
a t t en t ion pa id t o t hem, t o be in vit ed t o restaurants, s h ows etc.,
given a good time... 28. I fou n d that she h a d been a bs olu t ely
su re/ cert ain/ had been pos it ive that my wife a n d I did n t get
along...
B. 1. Th e b ed wa s s o h igh t h a t as I sat by its s ide my fa ce
wa s on t h e s a me level as his/ at t h e s a me h eigh t as his. 2. Th e
old t r a mp s t ea mer ch u gged gen t ly a n d a lmos t n ois eles s ly over
t h e ca lm sea. 3. A ma n s t ep p ed ou t fr om b eh in d on e o f t h e lor
r ies a n d a imed a r ifle/ r a is ed a r ifle a n d t ook aim. 4. Tim ot h ys
eyes left t h e fly a n d t u r n ed on his vis it or . / Timot h y s t op p ed
look in g at t h e fly a n d fixe d his ga ze on / a n d s t a r ed at t h e vis i
t or . 5. She ch a n ged t h e s u b ject / t h eme/ t op ic o f t h e con ver s a
t ion t o a less da n ger ou s on e. 6. Pa s on look e d at h im wit h
a s t ea dy ga ze. 7. Th e t a bles wer e o f t h e s a me/ of equ a l h eight .
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8. Do you wa n t me t o s t a rt s h ou t in g/ yellin g? s h e a s ked
a n grily. 9- It s ver y fu n n y t h e wa y t h e gir ls in his o ffic e h a ve
fa llen in love wit h h im. 10. An yon e has a r igh t t o s h ou t a n d
yell if h e d oes n ot get t h e p os it ion wh e n h e is s u it ed for it.
1 1.1s h ou ld like t o fit on t h is dress. - Well, Ma da me, s t ep in t o
I h e r oom wh er e t h e cu s t omer s t r y on clot h es t o s ee i f t h ey ar e
Ih e r igh t s ize a n d c olou r a n d cut. 12. He t r ied a h a lf- d ozen
keys b e for e h e wa s a ble t o op en t h e lock / b efor e h e fou n d t h e
r igh t on e. 13. Sir Reu ben h a d t h e p la ce fu r n is h ed as a b ed
r oom. 14. I h a ve pu t mos t o f t h e b r ok en pa r t s t oget h er bu t
I ca n t fin d a p la ce for t h is p iece. 15. J a n e en joys you r t a kin g
h er for a r id e in you r car.
Exer cis e 5, p. 122
A. 1. St ep a side, plea s e, you a r e s t a n d in g in m y ligh t .
2 . 1s h ou ld/ wou ld n ever h a ve t h ou gh t t h a t t his s h y-look in g
ma n (t h a t t his ma n s o t imid in a p p ea r a n ce) wou ld s t a n d u p for
his r igh t s s o firmly. 3. It s ta nds t o r ea s on t h a t t hes e ch a n ges are
icmp or a r y a n d we will go ba ck t o t h e usual r ou t in e wh en ou r
boss r ecover s / get s well a n d t akes u p/ r es u mes wor k. 4. He is
loo ill t o go a n ywh er e: h e wo n t (b e a ble t o ) st and/ h e wo n t
s u r vive t h e t rip. 5. I wa s s u r e t ha t I wa s r igh t a n d d ecid ed t o
si a n d my gr ou n d. 6 . 1d on t u n der s t a n d wh a t t h es e let t er s st and
lor. 7. Su ch t h in gs s h ou ld/ mu s t b e said t o on e s fa ce a n d n ot
beh in d on e s back./ Such t h in gs s h ou ld/ mu s t be said wh en you
are s t a n din g fa ce t o fa ce a n d n ot beh in d on e s back. 8. He ca n t
si a n d fuss/ fussing. 9 - 1will h a t e Eddie t ill I die. My in d iffer en ce
io h er has t u r n ed t o/ in t o h a t r ed/ ha t e. 11. She gr eet ed h im/ s aid
h ello t o h im wit h a fr ien d ly s mile. 12. Th e ch ild s fa ce wa s all
smiles wh en h e s a w t h e Ne w Yea r s tree. 13. Gr eg, you a re such
a com for t t o me! his sist er s aid s milin g t h r ou gh (h e r ) tears.
I 1.1 wa s a n n oyed/ vexed/ ir r it a t ed by t h e r a in pat t in g/ t appin g
<>n t h e r oof. 15. He kept / con t in u ed / wen t on pa t t in g h er gen t ly
on t h e s h ou lder (p a t t in g h er s h ou lder gen t ly) [s t r okin g h er
t en der ly on t h e s h ou lder ], wa it in g for h er t o ca lm d own / wa it
ing t ill s he ca lmed down . 16. He pa t t ed t h e b ooks in t o a n ea t
pile. 17. Mrs. Rols on t ook lea ve a n d wen t a wa y/ off (s a id good -
hvc a n d left / t ook o ff) s o as n ot t o miss t h e t rain. 18. He t ook
lircat p r i d e in his classs pr ogr es s / wa s ver y pr ou d o f his classs
| in >gress in English. 19. Th e fr ien ds t ook gr ea t pain s t o cook an
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Ir is h stew. 20. Wh e n t h e n a n n y/ t h e nu rse s a w h ow dir t y t h e b oy
wa s / h ow dir t y t h e b oy h a d got / wh a t a mes s t h e b oy wa s
in / h ow dir t y t h e b oy h a d ma d e h ims elf, s he t ook h i m t o
t a s k / r ep r ima n d ed h im er os s ly/ a n gr ily/ s ever ely (s h e ga ve h im
a good dr es s in g-d own / t a lk in g t o/ t ellin g off). 21. Th e ch ildr en
t ook it fo r gr a n t ed t h a t t h eir fa t h er mu s t love a n d
pa mper / s poil/ in du lge/ pet t h em. 2 2 . 1 t ook you for you r sister.
You a re a like as t wins . 23. She d ecid ed t o st art a n ew life a n d
t ook u p pa in t in g. 24. Ever y da y a ft er h e h a d t a lked t o t h e cu s
t omer s / clien t s s h e t ook d ict a t ion fr om h im in s h or t h a n d/ s h e
t ook d own in s h or t h a n d wh a t h e said/ she ma d e/ t ook s h or t
h a n d n ot es at his dict a t ion .
. 1. If we fin d t h e wou n d ed ma n in t h e h ou s e I will b elieve
t h a t t h e old ma n is on t h e level a n d wa s t ellin g/ s pea k in g t h e
t ru t h. 2. For miles a n d miles a r ou n d it wa s t h e on ly le ve l/ fla t
pla ce. 3. Wh e n An n e bega n t o s pea k, h er voic e wa s level a n d
cold. 4. Tom s n a t ch ed t h e gu n ou t o f his h a n d a n d levelled it
at Sa n d er s / a n d a im ed (i t ) at Sa n der s / a n d t r a in ed it on
Sander s. 5. J a n es level/ s t r a igh t eyeb r ows k n it t ed wh en she
fr own ed . 6. He a lwa ys k ep t r egu la r h ou r s / He h a d r egu la r
h a bit s a n d d id n t oft e n go t o t own . 7. Wh y d on t you fin d
a r e gu l a r / s t ea dy job? 8. Th e s c r e a m (Th e s h r ill h oot ) o f t h e
owl r ea ch ed a n in cr ed ib ly h igh pit ch , d r op p ed a n d fa d ed
a wa y/ d ied d own in t h e n igh t . 9- Ru t h cu t o ff a p iece o f s ilver
p a p er t o fit t h e s ize o f t h e b ook a n d b ega n wr a p p in g it. 10. She
d id n t h a ve a dres s fit for t h e occa s ion . 11. Th e wea t h er is s o
ba d t h a t it is n ot fit for wa lks . 12. Tom is ver y s ocia b le/ com
mu n ica t ive/ ou t goin g/ is a ver y good m ixer a n d ca n fit in
wit h / ca n fit in t o a n y comp a n y. 13. Her b la ck h a ir fit t ed/
m a t ch ed h er r ou n d fa ce a n d s la n t in g eyes. 14. She has/ is gon e
t o fit on a n e w dr ess a n d it will b e a lon g t ime b efor e she
com es b a ck / a n d wo n t c om e ba ck s oon . 15. Ka t e, will you join
us? - Th a n k s , Id love to. 1 6 . 1wa s h ea d ove r h eels in love wit h
h im as t h e s a yin g goes / a s t h ey say.
Exe r c is e 6, p. 122.
( ) - it st ands t o r ea s on (t h a t );
- t o s t a n d u p for;
( , ) - t o st and t h e test
[(t h e ) pa in , (t h e ) heat ];
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- t o s t a nd t reat;
- . - t o st and for smth.;
- I h a t e t o bot h er /
t r ou ble/ dis t u rb you ;
- h a t efu l look/ s t a r e/ gla n ce;
- h a t e fu l (h ein ou s ) cr ime;
( ) - for
t u n e alwa ys s miles on / u pon him;
- t o be all smiles;
- t o t a ke (s mb. ) pr is on er ;
- t o t ake (win ) t h e firs t pr ize;
- t o t a ke a (t h e ) risk, t o t a ke a ch a n ce (
- t o t a ke ch a nces / r isks);
- . - t o t ake p r i d e in smt h . (t o be pr ou d o f
smth., t o p r id e on es elf on s mt h .);
- t o t ake gr e a t p a i n s (t o d o on es
best, t o ma ke ever y effor t , t o t r y h a r d);
- t o t ake a nap;
- t o t a ke smt h. for
gr a n t ed;
- t o t a ke aback;
( ) - a b ove (b e lo w) sea level;
- t h e a ver a ge level;
... - on a level with..., level with...;
- on t h e level;
- a level road;
- a level voice;
( ) - t o
h a ve a le ve l h e a d , t o be le ve l-h e a d e d , (t o b e well- b a l-
. in ced );
i - t o level/ aim a rifle;
- r egu la r feat ures;
- a r e gu la r (s t ea d y/ p er ma n en t ) job;
- t o s c r e a m wi t h la u gh t e r (t o
l.iugh on e s h ea d o ff);
- a (p e r fe c t ) s cr eam;
t o fit on (t o t ry on );
- t o fit a pla n k in a floor ;
... - t o fit in with...;
- a fit t ime a n d pla ce;
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( ) - Id (I wou ld ) love to;
- t o s en d/ give on es love;
- n ot for love or mon ey.
Exer cise 10, p. 123
1. My sist er wa s ver y ill a n d I h a d t o sit u p all n igh t wit h her.
2. Th is lit t le s t r ea m n ever dr ies up. 3. You h a ve wor k ed ver y well
s o far, k eep it up. 4. You h a ve got t h e s t or y all mixed up.
5 . 1br u s h ed u p my r ecollect ion s o f t h e ma p o f England. 6. Ill
clea r u p this mess. 7. A h ea vy s n owfa ll h eld u p t h e trains fr om
t h e Nor t h . 8 . 1ca me d o wn t o t h e cou n t r y cot t a ge for t he we e k
end. 9. Th ey wen t u p / d own t h e s qu ea kin g stair. 10. A r ed t r a ct or
cr a wled u p a n d d o wn a la r ge field. 11. Don t t u rn u p t h e cor n er s
o f t h e pa ges o f you r books .
Exer cise 11, p. 124
1. At five o clock I wa s a lr ea dy u p a n d wit h ou t los in g/ wa s t in g
t ime bega n wor k in g/ got d own t o wor k. 2. Ha n g u p you r coa t
h er e a n d Ill s h ow you t h e wa y t o his r oom. 3-1h a ve p ick ed u p a
h a n dker ch ief. Is it you r s (b y a n y ch a n ce)? 4. Her pa r en t s d ied
wh en s he wa s a lit t le girl, a n d she wa s br ou gh t up by an
au nt / a nd is wa s h er au nt wh o br ou gh t h er up. 5. Th e b oy t u r n ed
t h e b ox u ps ide d own , a n d t h e t oys s ca t t er ed all over t h e floor .
6 . 1s t a yed u p all n igh t a n d n ow Im d r op p in g wit h fa t igu e/ Im on
my last legs wit h fat igu e. 7. Let s go u p t h e hill, it gives a ver y
go o d vie w o f t h e r iver . 8. Im fe e lin g off- c olou r (ou t o f
s or t s/ u n der t h e wea t h er / u n well), I s h ou ld go a nd lie down .
9 . 1d on t lik e look in g d own fr om a gr ea t h eigh t , I feel
dizzy/ giddy. 10. You h a d bet t er t a ke/ wr it e/ pu t d own my address
in you r n ot e-b ook , you ma y los e this s heet / slip o f paper . 11. Th e
r a dio is t oo lou d/ is s pea kin g t oo lou dly/ lou d, t urn it down .
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
BRINGING UP CHILDREN
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. Basic pr in c iple s . - .
t o b r in g u p (r a is e) ch ildr en - ;
t o a void pit fa lls - / ;
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t h e for ma t ive years - ,
;
t o pr ogr es s (r egr es s ) in on e s d evelop m en t -
/ ( );
s t u n t ed d evelop m en t - ;
ph ys ica l a n d men t a l d evelop m en t -
;
t o en cou r a ge a ch ild - ;
t o let ch ildr en gr ow n a t u r ally -
.
2. Basic qua lit ies . - ,
love - ;
s ecu rit y - ;
- ;
a ffect ion - , ;
r es pect - ;
p a t ien ce - ;
r eassu rance - , ; ;
h a ppy h om e ba ckgr ou n ds - ;
;
r es pon s ible adult s - ; ,
;
n ot t o feel n eglect ed -
( I );
t o be s en s it ive t o smb.s feelin gs - (
);
t o be t oo wis e t o a r gu e - / -
( / , ;
t o s pea k fir mly - ;
t o be con s is t en t - ;
t o be fa ir - ( );
t o h a ve n o fa vor it es - ;
t o s h ow mu ch pa t ien ce (p len t y o f love ) -
( ).
3. Ha n d li n g c h ildr e n . - .
t o h a ve fu ll fa it h in - / -
ii ( - );
t o k eep a n ger u n der con t r ol - , -
II. . ;
ca pa cit y t o r est rain a n ger - ;

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t o cau se en or mou s da ma ge - ;
t o t reat ch ildr en like... - /
...;
t o d evelop mor e qu ickly t h a n pr eviou s gen er a t ion s -
;
t o ga in in d ep en d en ce fr om pa r en t s -
;
t o gr ow up - ; ;
t o be mat u re - / ;
an effect ive a ppr oa ch - ;
a pea cefu l a n d r ela xed ma n n er - ;
n ot t o for ce on e s will on a ch ild -
;
t o a void la bellin g ch ild r en (s t u pid, silly, foolis h ) -
( );
t o lis t en t o ch ildr en wit h u n der s t a n din g a n d s ympa t h y -
;
t o win smb. over - - ( -
), - ;
t o a void s t a t emen t s (com m en t s ) wh ich ca n cr ea t e a r gu
men t s a n d t en s ion - ( ),
;
t o s h a ke s mb. s c on fid e n c e - -
;
t o offe n d s mb. s s elf- r es p ect - -
;
t o pr even t crises - ;
4. At mos ph e r e . - / .
fr ien d ly - ; ;
n ot a u t h or it a r ia n - , ;
( );
dign ified -
; ;
u n comfor t a b le - ,
, ; ;
emba r r a s s in g - , ,
, ;
an a t mos ph er e o f ca lm a n d qu iet -
/ ;
t o let s t eam o ff - ;
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t o pu t t h e fat in t o t he fir e - ;
t o los e on e s t emp er - , ;
n ot t o cr ea t e t en s ion (s ) - /
( );
t o be said in t h e h ea t o f t h e momen t -
( . .), [ ].
5. Pr a is e . - .
dir ect pr a is e o f p er s on a lit y -
;
r ea lis t ic (id ea lized ) pict u r e o f smb.s per s on a lit y -
( ) -
;
t o exa gger a t e pr a is e ou t o f all p r op or t ion -
;
t o give a r ea list ic pict u r e o f a ch ilds a ccomplis h men t s -
/ ;
t o con cen t r a t e on a ch ild s s t r en gt h a n d n ot wea kn es s -
,
;
t o k eep a wa y fr om gen er a l r ema rks a bou t a n yon es per s on
a lit y - .
6. Pu n i s h me n t . - .
t o s cr ea m a n d yell at - ;
n ot t o h it ch ild r en - ;
t o be bou n d t o los e - ;
s pa n kin g - ;
t o cau se men t a l illness (p s ych ologica l d a ma ge) -
(
);
t o bea t t h e da yligh t s ou t o f smb. - -
;
t o s hake t h e life ou t o f smb. - - ;
t o be a s h a med o f on es elf - /
i ;
t h e best wa y t o cr it icize - -
11, ;
t o say n ot h in g o f - ;
a dir ect r epr ima n d - ;
t o a n s wer ba ck - , - ;
a bea t in g - ; ; ;
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t o lock ch ildr en u p - ;
n ot t o s pea k wit h a ch ild deliber a t ely -
;
t o ign or e a ch ild - ;
an u n des ir a ble for m o f pu n is h men t -
;
sarcasm - ;
t o wor k ou t all sort s o f s ch emes for r even ge -
;
t o t ell smb. o ff (t o give smb. a t ellin g o ff) - ,
- .
7. Dis ciplin e. Be h a viou r . Ma n n e r . - .
. .
t o dis ciplin e smb. - / - ;
a wa y o f t ea ch in g polit en es s - ;
t o be pu n ct u a l - / ;
t o in t er r u pt a con ver s a t ion - / ,
;
t o get qu a r r els ome - ( );
t h e art o f livin g t oget h er - / ;
t o lea d t o fr a yed n er ves for days on en d -
/ ;
t o d evelop a con s cien ce in smb. - -
;
n ot a wor d o f bla me - ;
n ot t o impos e a n yt h in g on ch ildr en -
;
t o en cou r a ge in n er d evelop m en t -
;
t o give ch ild r en a ch oice - ;
t o h eigh t en s mb.s s elf-con fid en ce - -
;
a ben eficia l a n d cor r ect ive in flu en ce on smb. -
- ,
;
t o lea ve a d ecis ion t o t h e ch ild -
;
;
t o t ea ch smb. ma n n er s - -
.
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8. Ch i ld r e n s r e ac t ion . - .
t o live u p t o smb.s exp ect a t ion s - -
( ( );
t o d o smt h. on pu r pos e - - (
);
t o give a d mon it ion s a n d wa r n in gs -
I ;
t o en cou r a ge t o ask qu es t ion s - ,
;
t o be cu r iou s a n d in qu is it ive -
;
t o lea r n by imit a t ion - , /
;
t o feel pa r t o f t h e fa mily - ;
t o h at e qu es t ion s wh ich t ry t o t rap - -
11 ;
t o be pu s h ed in t o ma kin g u p lies -
;
t o ch oos e b et ween t ellin g a lie a n d givin g embar r a s s in g
a ns wers - ,
< ;
t o a ppr ecia t e smth. - - ( );
t o b ecome fu ll o f r es en t men t -
/ ;
t o b ecom e a n u is an ce - (
);
t o b ecome r es en t fu l - ; ,
;
t o b ecome spiritless - / ;
t o b ecome d elin qu en t - / -
.
UNIT FIVE
Exer cise 1, p. 137-138
Pos s ible va r ia n t s
1. St eve is a wfu lly s t u bbor n ( ). Mot h er ca n t d o
<I thing with him, try as she would. 2. Mar y is obs t in a t e ( )
as a mu le. I cant do a thing with her no matter how hard I try.
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3. Wh er e did you fin d t his br u t e o f a d og (
)? I can'l do a thing with it however hard I try to teach it s ome
tricks. 4. I wa s t ed n o t ime. I lis t en ed a n d d id s ome thinking.
5. Wh er e did you go for you r holida ys ? Did you d o a ny s kiing?
6. Even t h e p olice wer e a fr a id o f him. He wa s n o ordinary>thief,
he was a bom killer. 7. You s eem t o for get t ha t we dea l wit h n o
ordinary cases. After all, we are in charge ofX-files. It is the s uper
natural we look into. 8. Th er e is s omet h in g fis hy a bou t t h e wh ole
t hing. This is no ordinary breaking and entering (
). 9. Id n ever h a ve believed t h at J ack wou ld pr ove the s erial
k iller all the police had been look ing for. 10 Th e you n g act ress h a d
n o p r emon it ion ( ) t hat t h e p er for ma n ce
would prove (to be) such a flop. 11. Th ey h a d t o lea ve In dia
b efor e t h e yea r wa s over . Th e clima t e proved too much f or them
(too bad f or Mrs. Greene's health). 12. Wh y d o you min d his c om
in g s o mu ch? - I just supposed that it might cause s ome difficul
ties under the circumstances, that's all. 13. Don t be a n gr y wit h
me. I just tried to follow the rules of this game, as I unders tood
them, that's all. 14. He is n ot t o blame. He just tried to help as best
he could, that's all. 15. You k n ow h ow mu ch I look for wa r d t o
you r letters. Tr y a n d write more often, will y ou? 16. It is a ver y d if
ficu lt sou nd. Tr y a n d pronounce it. 17. Th e task is u rgent . Tr y a n d
do/ perform it as quickly as possible. 18. Id like t o suit you r con
ven ien ce. Let s ma ke it Monday. 19. It s a go t h en [( , !
( ! / !)]. Let s make it the 1st of April. 20. Cou ld you
s par e t h e t ime t o com e t wice a week? - Sure. - Good. Let s make
it Tuesday and Friday.
Exe r cis e 2, p. 138
1. ,

2. , -
- . 3.
,
, .
4. , ,
, . 5.
,
- . 6.
, (in d iffer en t -
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). 7. -
- ,
(
). 8. .
, . 9.
- . , .
/ . ,
,
.. .
Exe r cis e 3, . 138
Model: I t h in k it s u p t o you to do the explaining.
1. On e a ft er n oon Bea t r ice as ked me if I r ode, a nd I exp la in ed
i hat I h a d d on e s ome/ a lit t le r idin g bu t wa s far fr om pr oficien t
i n t h e art. 2. Mrs. Ket t le is n ot t h e kin d o f wom a n t o d o t h e wa s h -
in g (o f h er clot h es ) her self. 3- Her eyes wer e r ed a n d s wollen , it
was clea r t hat Ma r y h a d d on e s ome crying. 4 . 1 u sed t o d o s ome
(a lot o f) fis h in g in my you n ger days. 5. He did all t h e t a lkin g, and
I h ey t h ou gh t h e wa s st upid. 6. Ive d on e a good dea l o f (a lot of)
t h in kin g a bou t it.
Model: I can't do a thing with him. He won't do his lessons.
1. I ca n t d o a t h in g wit h Paul. He wo n s go t o s ch ool.
2. 1ca n t d o a t h in g wit h Ne lly Like a n a u gh t y ch ild s he won t
list en t o me a n d pu t on h er win t er coa t . 3. Ma r ys mot h er cou ld
nt d o a t h in g wit h her. She wou ld n t t a ke u p music. 4 . 1 ca n t d o
a t h in g wit h h im n o ma t t er h ow h a r d I try. He won t t ell t he
i ruth. 5 . 1ca n t d o a t h in g wit h her. She just won t ea t p or r id ge
in t h e mor n in g.
Model: We h a d n o p r emon it ion t hat t h e t r ip would prove so
disappointing.
1. I had n ot exp ect ed t hat t h e film migh t p r ove (t o b e) so
ihr illing. 2. Id n ever h a ve believed t hat J a cob wou ld pr ove
.1 hero. 3. Befor e t h e mon t h wa s over Nick p r oved a br igh t pupil.
I. I won t be s u r pr is ed o f Mor r is pr oves (t o b e) an excellen t
scholar. 5. We a ba n don ed t h e a t t empt as t h e exp er imen t p r oved
d o b e) danger ou s .
Model: He s h owed n o great skill,
1. I h a ve n o gr ea t r es pect for her. 2. Th is wa s n o or din a r y
rase. 3. It wa s n o mer e s lip o f t h e t on gu e. 4. He expr es s ed his
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op in ion in n o u n cer t a in t erms. 5. Rebecca s dress excit ed n o
mea n a d mir a t ion (m ea n - , ). 6. Hila r y wa s a
s ch ola r o f n o mea n a bilit y (m ea n - , ,
).
Exer cise 5, p. 139
Goin g ou t o f t h e h ou s e/ Lea vin g t h e h ou s e/ Lea vin g
h ome/ Wh en lea vin g t h e h ou s e (h om e ) Ros ema r y n ever sus
p ect ed t hat t h e n ext t wo h ou rs o f h er life wou ld p r ove s o u nu su
al / ext r aor dinar y.
Ma da me, cou ld you give me s ome m on ey for a cu p o f t ea?
Ros ema r y look ed back. She s a w a lit t le cr eat u re, a gir l (o f) h er
own a ge wh o wa s s qu eezin g h er coa t colla r wit h r edden ed
h an ds and s h iver in g wit h cold.
Ha ve you n o mon ey at all? a s ked Rosemary.
No, ma da me, t h e girl said a n d burst in t o tears/ burst ou t
crying.
How u n u s u a l/ ext ra or din ar y! It wa s like a s cen e fr om a n ovel.
She wa s n o or din a r y/ common begga r. Wh y n ot t a ke h er h ome?
[Su ppos in g (Wh a t if) she t ook h er h ome?]. An d Ros ema r y ima g
in ed h er s elf s a ying t o h er fr ien ds lat er, I just t ook h er h ome
wit h me, t h a t s all, a n d said a lou d, Wou ld you like t o com e a n d
h a ve a cu p o f t ea at my pla ce?
A ligh t br ea kfa s t com p let ely t r a n s for med t h e gir l/ ch a n ged
t h e gir l ou t o f r ecogn it ion . She h a d s t op p ed feelin g a wkwa r d
a n d wa s lyin g ba ck in a d eep a r mch a ir (Her emba r r a s s men t
gon e, s he wa s lyin g/ s in kin g ba ck in a d eep a r mch a ir ). To look at ^
h er (Look in g at h er ) it wa s h a r d t o b elieve t hat just a s h or t t ime
a go s h e h a d b een s h ed d in g t ea r s / cr yin g. Ros ema r y wen t
on / kept wa t ch in g h er ou t o f t h e cor n er o f h er eye st ealt hily.
Su dden ly Ros ema r ys h u s ba nd ca me in t o t h e r oom/ en t er ed t h e
r oom. Excu s in g h ims elf/ Ap ologizin g h e a s ked Ros ema r y t o
com e in t o t h e libr a r y wit h him.
Exp la in wh o s h e is s a id Ph ilip . Wh a t d oes a ll t h a t
mea n ?
Ros ema r y said, la u ghin g, Ive p ick ed h er u p in Cu rs on
St reet .
Bu t wh a t ar e you goin g t o d o wit h her?
I just wa n t t o be kin d t o her. Ta ke ca r e o f her, t h a t s all!
Bu t , Ph ilip u t t er ed slowly, s h e is a ma zin gly bea u t ifu l.
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Bea u t ifu l? Ros ema r y wa s s o t a ken a ba ck/ a s t on is h ed that
t h e blu s h ed t o t h e t op o f h er ea rs / t o t h e r oot s o f h er hair. Do
you r ea lly t h in k so?
Ha lf an h ou r la t er Ros ema r y r et u r n ed t o t h e library.
I ju s t / on ly wa n t ed t o t ell you t h a t Miss Smit h is n t
din in g/ is n t h a vin g din n er wit h us t oday. I cou ld n t d o a t h in g
wit h her. She wou ld n t even t a ke t h e m on ey (Sh e even r efu s ed
t o t a ke t h e mon ey).
EXPLANATORY NOTES
p. 144
1. je r k wa t e r (Am. coll.) - , ;
( ,
);
4. r ot (coll., not si.) - , ;
5. bos h (coll.) - , ;
6. u m p h - ! !
8. by gu m - ;
7. popp yc oc k (coll.) - , , ;
10. e lfi s h - ;
14. gob - ( , , . .);
15. a d m on i s h - 1) ; 2) , ; 3 )
.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
VOCAPULARY NOTES
1. t o r e lie ve v t 1) , ( , . .)
Th e r emedy r elieved his pa in at on ce. -
.
Not h in g cou ld r elieve h er anxiet y. -
.
t o r e lie ve o n e s fe e lin gs - ;
She burst ou t cr yin g a n d t hat r elieved h er feelin gs . -
.
t o fe e l r e li e ve d - (t o h ear or at
hearing, t o s ee or at t h e s igh t of, t o k n ow s mt h .) - ( ,
/ , - )
Th ey felt r elieved t o h ea r t h a t h e wa s safe. -
, ,
.
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syn. t o ease
t o ease t he pa in o f a wou n d - ;
t o ease a p er s on s a n xiet y - -
( - );
Th is medicin e will ease t h e pa in qu ickly. -
.
2 ) , ;
t o r elieve a s en t r y - / ;
3) ( - );
Let me r elieve you o f you r bag. -
.
r e l i e f - ; ;
t o sigh wit h r elief - ;
t o give (t o b r in g) r elief (s om e r elief) t o smb. -
( ) - ;
t o give (t o br in g) n o r elief t o smb. - - -
;
Th e med icin e br ou gh t (ga ve ) h im immed ia t e relief. -
.
Tears br ou gh t h er n o r elief. -
.
Wh a t a r elief! - ( )!
syn. c om for t
Th e n ews t h a t h er s on wa s ge t t in g we ll a n d s t r on g
b r ou gh t gr ea t c o m fo r t t o h er. - ,
,
.
2. a r t - 1) ;
a r t -lover - ;
art cr it ic - ;
gen u in e art - ;
p r et en ce o f art - ;
gr a ph ic art - ) ; ) ;
a pplied art - ;
folk art - ; ;
t h e Fin e Ar ts - ;
Im in t er es t ed in t he n ew t r en ds in art. -
.
2 ) (syn. Th e Hu ma n it ies );
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His t or y a n d lit er a t u r e a re a mon g t h e arts. -
.
Ba ch elor (Ma s t er ) o f Ar ts - ( )
;
3) , , ;
Th e ma kin g o f su ch r afts has b ecom e a los t art. -
.
ar t ist - 1) ;
; . .; 2 ) ,
; 3) , ( .);
p r ofes s ion a l a rt ist -
( . .);
a ma t eu r artist - - ;
Reyn olds wa s t h e mos t p r omin en t ar tist o f his day. -

.
a r t i s t i c - 1) ; 2) ; 3)
, ; 4 )
;
ar tist ic skill - ,
;
art ist ic t as te - ;
art ist ic per s on - ,
, , ;
Ga in s bor ou gh wa s es s en t ia lly an a r t is t ic per s on . -
(
).
a r t ifi c ia l - 1) ; ;
a r t ificia l flower s (ligh t , silk, et c. ) -
( , . .)
An d r ew Ma n s on h a d t o use a r t ificia l r es pir a t ion t o r evive t h e
baby. - ,
I .
2 ) , , ,
;
Her s mile is s o a r t ificia l t hat I d on t trust her. -
I I / / ,
.
t o d r a w vt/ i - 1) ( ), ( ), ( );
( ), ( ); 2) ;
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He pu t his h a n d in t h e p ock et a n d d r ew ou t a ring. -
.
t o d r a w s mb. ou t - - ,
; - ,
;
It s ver y difficu lt t o dr a w h im ou t . -
.
3) , ; ;
Th e exh ib it ion is su re t o d r a w cr owds . -
.
4 ) , , , ;
dr a ws his in s pir a t ion fr om nature. -
.
Th ey d r ew d iffer en t con clu s ion s fr om t h e s a me fact s. -
/
.
5) ; ;
t o dr a w well - / ;
t o dr a w in pen cil - / ;
t o dr a w a bu n ch o f flower s - ;
He d r ew a pict u r e o f his n iece. -
.
I ca n d r ew t h e ma p o f t h e ar ea for you . -
.
6 ) ;
Th e con cer t s ea s on is d r a win g t o a clos e. -
.
d r a w - ( .) , , ,
, ;
Th e n ew p la y p r ove d a gr ea t dr aw. -
/
.
dr a win g - 1) ; 2) ; 3 ) ,
; 4 ) ;
Tu r n er left a va s t mass o f wor k , oil pa in t in gs , wa t e r
colou r s a n d dr a win gs . -
: ,
.
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4- p i c t u r e n - 1) , , , ;
a pict u r e ga ller y - ;
in t h e for egr ou n d (b a ck gr ou n d ) o f t h e pict u r e -
( ) ;
Th er e is n ot h in g o f unu su al in t er es t in t h e s u bject ma t t er o f
t h e pict u re. - , ,
.
Every det a il in t he pict u r e plays its pa r t in t h e comp os it ion . -
/
, .
syn. p ie c e
a flower p iece - ( )
;
a con ver s a t ion p iece - ,
;
2) ;
Th e pict u r e I t ook o f you last week t u r n ed ou t ver y well. -
, ,
.
3) , , (t h e . . . )
You look t h e pict u r e o f healt h. -
/ .
4 ) ;
I like t o s ee a good pict u r e on ce in a wh ile. -
.
t o p i c t u r e vt - 1) , ; 2)
, ;
Th e n ovel pict u r es life in Russia b efor e t he r evolu t ion . -
.
3) ;
I ca n t qu it e pict u r e you as a t eacher. - -
.
t o d e p ic t v t - 1) , ; 2 ) ,
;
Per ov liked t o depict t h e s cen es a n d t ypes o f com m on life. -
11
.
t o r e p r e s e n t - 1) , . .; 2 )
( - ), ;
3) , ; 4 ) ;

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t o p o r t r a y - , ;
2) , ; 3) ,
- ;
Th e pict u r e r epr es en t ed t wo It a lia n wom en t alking. - Ha
.
Tu r ner t r ied t o por t r a y t he m ood o f t he sea. -
.
p i c t u r e s qu e - 1) ; 2) , ,
; ;
I won d er wh o lives in t hat pict u r es qu e cot t a ge over t here. -
, /
.
5. p a i n t - ;
Con s t a ble s omet imes u sed a pa let t e kn ife t o a pply t he pa in t
in s t ea d o f a brush. -
, .
t o p a i n t vt/ i - 1) ( ), , ;
Th ey pa in t ed t h e d oor wh it e. -
.
2 ) ( ) , ;
t o pa in t fr om n a t u r e/ life - ;
Cer emon ia l por t r a it s wer e pa in t ed a ccor d in g t o for mu la . -

.
Tu rn er excelled in pa in t in g ma r in e subjects. -
.
3 ) , ;
You are pa in t in g t h e s it u a t ion t oo dark. -
,
p a i n t e r - ;
p a i n t i n g - 1) ;
Pa in t in g has b e c om e his wor ld . -
.
2) , , ;
an oil pa in t in g - , ;
s t ill life pa in t in g - ;
a collect ion o f pa in t in gs - ;
an exqu is it e p iece o f p a in t in g -
;
c a n va s - , , ;
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An oil pa in t in g ca u gh t a n d h eld him... h e for got his a wkwa r d
wa lk a n d ca me clos er t o t h e pa in t in g, ver y clos e. -
, .
,
.
Th e bea u t y fa d ed ou t o f t h e pa in t in g. -
.
6. c o l o u r - 1) , , , ;
br igh t (da r k, rich, cool, wa r m, dull, fa d ed ) colou r s -
( , , , , , )
/ ;
Th e da n cer s wor e t igh t -fit t in g dresses o f r ich ly glowin g
colou r s . -
.
c o l o u r s c h e m e - , ;
Ga in s b or ou gh s p ict u r e a r e p a in t ed in clea r a n d t r a n s pa r
en t t on e in a colou r s ch eme wh er e blu e a n d gr een p r e d om i
nat e. -
,
.
2 ) , ;
Tu r ner con s t a n t ly u sed wa t er -colou r for immed ia t e st u dies
fr om nature. -
.
t o pa in t smt h. in br igh t (d a r k ) colou r s - -
( ) ;
Th e h ea d ma s t er p a in t ed t h e s c h ools fu t u r e in br igh t
colou r s . -
.
3) , ;
She has ver y lit t le colou r today. - .
o f f c o l o u r - , ; -
; ( );
Hes been feelin g r a t h er o ff colou r lately. -
.
t o c o l o u r vt/ i - 1) , , ;
, ;
Th e lea ves h a ve begu n t o colou r . -
( )
2) ;
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3) ; ;
News is oft en colou r ed in n ews pa per s . -
.
c o l o u r e d - ; ;
cr ea m-colou r ed - ;
fles h -colou r ed - ;
a colou r ed pr in t - ;
a mu lt icolou r ed h a n d k er ch ief - /
;
Ill ma ke mys elf on e wh it e a n d on e colou r ed dress for t h e
s u mmer. - :
.
c olo u r le s s - , ;
a colou r les s s t or y (p er s on ) - (
);
c o l o u r fu l - , ( , .)
c o l o u r i n g - ;
ga u dy (s u b t le) colou r in g - ( )
;
c o lo u r i s t - ;
As a colou r is t Ga in s bor ou gh h a d few r ivals a mon g Englis h
paint er s. -
.
7. d o u bt - 1) , ; 2) ,
;
Th er e is (t h er e ca n b e) n o dou bt a bou t it. - -
/ .
Th er e is n o (n ot mu ch, s ome, gr eat , s ligh t ) dou bt a bou t it. -
( ) (
; ;
).
I h a ve n o (n ot mu ch , lit t le, n ot t h e s ligh t es t ) dou bt t h at h e
will come. - ( /
, ),
.
I h a ve d ou b t as t o his in t en t ion s . -
/
.
t o d o u bt vt/ i - ;
t o d o u b t t h e t r u t h o f s m t h . (t h e fa c t s , s m b s a b i l i t y t o
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d o s m t h . , e c t . ) - -
( , - -
. .);
Do you d ou b t his h on es t y? -
?
t o dou bt i f (wh et h er ) smt h. is cor r ect (t r u e, wr on g, smb. will
d o s mt h .) - , -
( , - , / , ,
- - );
n o t t o d o u b t t h a t - , ;
I d on t d ou b t t hat h e will come. - ,
.
Do you dou bt t hat h e will come? - ( ),
?
d o u b t fu l - 1 ) , ;
2) , , ; 3)
, ;
Th e wea t h er look s ver y dou b t fu l. -
, .
is a dou b t fu l ch a ra ct er . - .
t o be (f e e l ) d o u bt fu l a s t o - , ;
Im dou bt fu l as t o wh a t I ou gh t t o d o - ,
.
8. s elect vt - , ;
t o s elect a gift (a s u it able per s on , t h e best singers, t h e mos t
t ypical cases, t h e best samples , et c. ) - (
, ,
, . .);
Th ey s elect ed a sit e for t h e mon u men t . -
( ).
syn. c h oos e , p i c k - ;
Th e lit t le gir l ch os e t h e bigges t a p ple in t he dish. -
.
I p icked t his wa y beca u s e it wa s t h e short est . -
flop oiy, .
s e le c t i on - 1) , ; 2) , ;
i) , ;
s elect ion fr om Sha kes pea r e (Ru s sian compos er s , et c. ) -
/ (
. .)
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poet r y/ pr os e s elect ion s - / -
( ) ;
a good s elect ion o f pa in t in gs (good s , et c.) -
( . .);
Th is dep a r t men t s t or e has a good s elect ion o f hats. -
.
9. s i ze - 1) , ;
It wa s t h e s ize o f a pea -nu t . -
.
Wh a t size s hoes (gloves , colla r ) d o you wear ? - Size 36 shoes. -
( , )? -
36 .
I wa n t a hat a s ize s ma ller (la r ger ). -
( ).
Th ey bou gh t h im a coa t a s ize (t wo s izes ) t oo la r ge (s ma ll)
for him. - / / (
) ( ), .
-s ize d - ( ) - , -
;
mediu m-s ized - , ;
a life-s ized por t r a it - ;
I wa n t mediu m-s ized pajamas. - ( )
.
10. e ffo r t - , ;
h er oic (last , s t r on g, great , des per a t e, et c.) effor t -
( , , , . .)
;
con t in u ed (con s t a n t , va in ) effor t s -
( ) ;
It wa s such a n effor t t o get u p on t h os e da r k win t er m or n
ings. -
.
t o d o s m t h . wi t h (a n ) e ffo r t (wi t h o u t e ffo r t ) -
- ( , );
collect ed h ims elf wit h an effor t . -
.
lift ed t h e b ox wit h ou t effor t . - /
/ .
t o m a k e a n e ffo r t - ;
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t o m a k e e ve r y e ffo r t - ,
;
t o m a k e n o e ffo r t - , ;
I will ma ke ever y (n o ) effor t t o h elp him. -
( ,
).
t o c os t s m b. m u c h e ffo r t t o d o s m t h . - -
- ;
It cos t me mu ch effor t o f will t o give u p t oba cco. -
.
t o s p a r e n o e ffo r t (s ) - ( ),
;
Th e p olice s pa r ed n o e ffor t (s ) in t h eir sear ch (in s ea r ch in g)
for t h e mis s in g child. - /
, .
WORD COMBINATION AND PHRASES
t o be in good (b a d ) s h a pe - ( )
/ ( ) ;
at a gr ea t s a cr ifice t o on e s h ea lt h -
/ ;
t o t a ke u p art (p a in t in g) - (
);
t o a vert a disas t er - ;
t o look at smb./ smth. a ppr a is in gly - -
/ - ;
a b ox o f wa t er -colou r s - / ;
a t u be o f oils - ;
t o s en d smt h. t o t h e clea n er s - / -
;
t o b ecome in volved in s mt h. -
- ;
t o execu t e a pict u r e (a s t a t u e) - ( );
t o exh ibit (s mt h . ) in a s h ow - -
;
a lifet ime dr ea m - , ;
a mat u r e art ist - ;
t o b ecome a la u gh in g-s t ock - ;
t o be a ccep t ed for t h e s h ow -
( );
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a n in con s picu ou s pla ce - /
;
t o blu sh t o t h e t op o f on e s ears -
;
t h e clos e o f t h e exh ib it ion - /
;
t o a wa r d a p r ize (a med a l) - / ;
Exe r c i s e 4, p. 148
1. Pygma lion fell in love wit h t h e st at u e o f Ga la t ea h e had
execu t ed in ivory, a n d at his pr a yer Ap h r od it e ga ve it life. 2. Th e
art dea ler look ed at t h e pict u r e a ppr a is in gly but r efu s ed t o
p r omis e t hat h e wou ld bu y it at a cer t a in price. 3. An ot h er o f his
a mbit ion s - a lifet ime dr ea m - wa s on e da y t o h a ve a library. 4. Is
it pos s ible t o det er min e wh a t wor k s will be a wa r ded pr izes
b efor e t h e clos e o f t h e exh ibit ion ? 5. Th er e is n o den yin g (It is
impos s ible t o d en y) t he fa ct t ha t t he pict u r es are well execu t ed
t echn ically. 6. Un for t u n a t ely I d o n ot r ememb er t h e n a me o f t h e
you n g artist wh os e pict u r es h a ve been a ccep t ed for t h e show.
7. Wh en did J ane first t ake u p pain t in g? 8. Don t b ecome/ get
in volved in t he qu a r rels o f ot h er people. 9. It s t h e ma ddes t idea
Ive ever h ea r d. It wou ld ma k e Alexa n d er a la u gh in g
s t ock / Alexa n d er wou ld b e com e a la u gh in g-s t ock . 10. She
blu s h ed t o t h e t op o f h er ea r s for s h a me. 11. You r e in
good/ gr ea t / won der fu l shape, Diana. Wh er e d id you get this
d ivin e dress? 12. It s n o use s en din g/ Th er e is n o poin t / u s e in
s en din g my clot h es t o t h e clea n er s, t h ey a re past r epa ir [
] (t h ey ca n t be clea n ed/ t h e dirt won t com e
o ff n o ma t t er wh a t t h ey d o). 13. Ou r ga r den is in good s h ape
a ft er t h e rain.
Exe r c i s e 5, p. 149
1. Her s t wood s a ffa ir s we r e in ba d s h a pe a n d it s eemed
t h a t n ot h in g cou ld a ver t a disa st er . 2. He wa s a fr a id o f b e c om
in g t h e la u gh in g-s t ock o f t h e t own . 3. Th e ma n you a r e ca ll
in g/ you ca ll a p r om is in g s t u den t is t o my m in d a ma t u r e a rt is t
a n d t h e s oon er we exh ib it / d is p la y his p ict u r e in a / t h e s h ow
t h e bet t er . 4. Ca r lt on b eca me a gr ea t s ch ola r at a gr ea t s a cr i
fice t o his h ea lt h . 5. Someon e d r op p ed a t u be o f oils on t h e
floor a n d I s t ep p ed / t r od on it. No w Ill h a ve t o s en d t h e ca r pet
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t o t h e clea n er s. 6. Don t be silly. If you h a d pu t t h e n ot e in
a con s p icu ou s pla ce, I wou ld h a ve n ot ic e d it. 7. J on h blu s h ed
t o t h e t o p o f h i s e a r s (t o t h e r oot s o f his h a ir ) wh en his
m ot h er ca u gh t h im lyin g/ ca u gh t h im in a lie/ exp os ed his lie.
8. Th e s t a t u e Pygma lion h a d execu t ed wa s s o bea u t ifu l t hat h e
fell in love wit h it. 9. Aft e r t h e clos e o f t h e 1882 exh ib it ion
(t h e e xh ib it ion o f 1882) Ku in gy wh o wa s a lr ea d y a ma t u r e
a rt is t (Ku in gy, a lr ea d y a ma t u r e a r t is t ) ma de t h e s t a r t lin g/
s t u n n in g a n n ou n cemen t t h a t h e wou ld n o lon ger exh ib it his
pict u r es in s h ows (wou ld n ot exh ib it h is pict u r es in s h ows
a n y lon ger / a n y m or e). 10 Con s t a b le wa s a wa r d ed a gold
meda l for his p ict u r e/ p a in t in g Th e Ha y Wa in wh ich wa s
exh ib it ed / d is p la yed in Pa r is in 1824. 11. To t h e u t t er a s t on is h -
men t / To t h e gr ea t s u r pr is e o f t h e own e r (To t h e own e r s u t t er
a s t on is h men t / a ma zemen t ) t h e m on k e ys da u b (s cr a wl) wa s
a ccep t ed for t h e s how. 12. Th e ju r y/ Th e memb er s o f t h e ju ry
ca me t o t h e con clu s ion t h a t t h e you n g p a in t er s / ar t is t s p ic
t u r es / pa in t in gs wer e execu t ed wit h gr ea t s kill a n d a wa r d ed
h im t h e fir s t pr ize. 13. Soa mes a n d Fleu r a r r a n ged / a gr eed t o
go t o t h e m od er n art exh ib it ion t oget h er . Soa mes wa s t h e firs t
t o come/ Soa mes ca me fir s t / Eyein g (Look in g a t ) t h e exp r es
s ion is t s wor k s wit h cu r ios it y h e k ep t won d e r in g wh y t h ey
It a d been a ccep t ed for t h e s h ow a n d p u t in t h e mos t con s p ic
u ou s places . J u n o, execu t ed by a p r om is in g you n g s cu lp t or
Paul Pos t look e d lik e a lop s id ed p u m p wit h t wo h an dles .
A r ea l la u gh in g-s t ock!
Exe r c is e 8, p. 150
t o t h in k over ca r efu lly - t o d o s ome con s t r u ct ive (ca r efu l)
l hinking;
at t h e exp en s e o f on es h ea lt h - at a s a cr ifice t o on e s healt h;
t o d evelop an int eres t in art - t o t a ke u p art;
t o p r even t a gr ea t mis for t u n e - t o a ver t a disaster;
a s t u den t likely t o s u cceed - a p r omis in g st u dent ;
lower on on e s ide t han on t h e ot h er - lops ided;
t o s peak a bou t smth. for a lon g t ime - t o d well on smth.;
t o p r odu ce t h e des ir ed a ffect - t o wor k per fect ly;
t o get mixed u p in smt h. - t o get / b ecome in volved in smth.;
t o thirst for in for ma t ion - t o dis pla y a n in s a t ia ble cu riou sit y;
ch er is h ed dr ea m - lifet ime dr eam;
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h igh ly-s killed art ist - ma t u r e artist;
a n ob ject o f r idicu le or t ea s in g - a la u gh in g-s t ock;
t o ca u t ion a gains t smth. - t o a dmon is h a gain s t smth.;
t o on es gr ea t su r pr ise - t o on e s u t t er a s t on is h men t ;
n ot ea s ily s een or n ot iced - in con s picu ou s ;
t o m ove s ilen t ly a n d s ecr et ly usu ally for a ba d pu r pos e - t o
sneak;
a blu s h fu r iou s ly - t o blu s h t o t h e t op o f on e s ears;
t o give a pr ize - t o a wa r d a pr ize;
t o s pea k qu ickly a n d sh ar ply - t o snap.
Exe r c is e 9, p. 150
1. It s good for you . 2 . 1 ca n s d o a t h in g wit h him. 3. He h a d
d on e s ome con s t r u ct ive t h in kin g. 4. It wa s n o or d in a r y case.
5. At a (gr ea t ) s a cr ifice b ot h t o his h ea lt h a n d his p ock et b ook .
6. Ive got a p r op os it ion for you . 7. It p r oved t oo mu ch for t h e
p a t ien t s heart . 8. Th e dis a st er h a d been a ver t ed. 9. It ll be fun.
1 0 . 1 just s u gges t ed, t h a t s all. 11. Ra n an eleva t or at n igh t t o pa y
t u it ion . 12. He look e d at h im a p p r a is in gly 13. Let s t r y a n d
d r a w t h a t va s e ove r t h er e on t h e ma n t elp iece. 14. Th e dr a win g
on t h e t a ble h a d a s ligh t r es embla n ce t o t h e vase. 15. Well,
wh a t d o you t h in k o f it? 16. Cou ld you s pa r e t h e t ime t o com e
t wice a week? 17. Let s ma ke it Mon d a y a n d Wedn es da y. 18. He
wou ld d well on t h e r ich va r iet y o f colou r in a b owl o f fruit .
19. Th e t r ea t men t wa s wor k in g per fect ly. 20. An en t ir ely n ew
wor ld op e n e d u p it s mys t er ies . 21. He ma d e a s t a r t lin g
a n n ou n cemen t . 22. Th e b igges t art exh ib it in qu a lit y if n ot in
size. 23. Th e lifet im e d r ea m o f ever y ma t u r e artist. 24. Th e
p a in t in g wa s h u n g in an in con s picu ou s pla ce. 25. He was
u n u s u ally ch eer fu l.
Exe r c is e 10, p. 150
1. Doc t or Ca s well wa s in m ed icin e (wa s a med ica l ma n ), so
h e wa s u s ed t o a n y in for m a t ion a bou t t h e pa t ien t s , h owever
s t a r t lin g. 2. He h a d t h ou gh t ever yt h in g ove r ca r efu lly s in ce his
last vis it . 3. Th e old ma n wa s qu it e fit / in a p r et t y good
for m/ con d it ion / s h a p e for a ma n o f s even t y-s ix. 4. All his pu r
ch a s es o f r ecen t yea r s h a d t o b e r es old at a gr ea t loss b ot h t o
his h ea lt h a n d his for t u n e (in ju r in g/ d a ma gin g b ot h his h ea lt h
a n d h is for t u n e). 5. Th e d oc t or wa s h old in g his s t et h os cop e in
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h is h a n d in ca s e t h e u n exp ect ed n es s o f t h e p r op os it ion
ca u s ed a h ea r t a t t ack. 6. Bu t t h e old gen t lem en s a n s wer wa s
a n e n e r ge t ic Non s e n s e ! (Bos h !/ Ru b b is h !/ S t u ff a n d
n on s en s e!). 7. Collis P. Ells wor t h look e d at h im clos ely/
look e d h im u p a n d d own t o for m an op in ion o f h im. 8. He r e s
t h e d r a win g you wa n t ed , - h e s a id s h a r ply wit h a gr u n t o f
s a t is fa ct ion . 9. He oft e n t a lk ed for a lon g t ime a bou t t h e r ich
va r iet y o f c olou r in a b owl o f fru it . 10. Th e t r ea t men t wa s
a s u ccess/ a p er fect s u ccess / wa s s u cces s fu l/ p r oved effect ive.
11. A c om p le t e ly n ew wor ld s u d den ly a p p ea r ed b e for e h im
offe r in g its fa s cin a t in g mys t er ies . 12. Th e old ma n s h owed
a t h ir s t for in for m a t ion a bou t t h e ga ller ies a n d t h e pa in t er s
wh ich it s eemed imp os s ib le t o qu en ch (t h ir s t ed a r d en t ly for
t h e in for m a t ion a bou t t h e ga ller ies a n d t h e p a in t er s ). 13. Th e
ch er is h ed d r ea m o f ever y s killed a r t is t in t h e Un it ed St at es
wa s t o get a p r ize a wa r d ed b y t h e La t h r op ga ller y. 14. Lu ckily
t h e p a in t in g wa s h u n g in a p la ce t h a t d id n ot a t t r a ct a t t en t ion
a n d s o cou ld n ot b ecom e t h e ob ject o f a n y n ot icea b le c om
men t . 15. You n g Swa in s t ole in t o t h e ga ller y on e a ft er n oon
a n d blu s h ed fu r iou s ly/ t o t h e r oot s o f h is h air wh e n h e s a w
Tr ees Dr es s ed in Wh it e, a gau dy, r a u cou s s mu dge on t h e
wa ll. 16. As t wo s t u den t s ma k in g low gu r glin g s ou n ds o f glee
s t op p ed b e for e t h e s t r a n ge a n oma ly Swa in h u r r ied a wa y in
t er r or . 17. Swa in a n d Kop p e l ma de s om e ch ok in g s ou n ds
u n a ble t o u t t er a s in gle wor d .
Exe r c is e 12 (b ), p. 152
in a ccu r a t e - 1) ; 2) , ,
(
in a t t en t ive - ,
in ca pa ble - ;
incautious - , ,
in con s ider a t e - ( ),
;
in con ven ien t - , ;
in cor r ect - 1) , , 2) ,
;
in decen t -
in d is cr eet - 1) , , ;
) I^ , , ;
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in d is t in ct - 1) , , ;
2 ) , ( ); 3) , (
, , );
in exp er ien ced (als o u n exp er ien ced ) - ;
in h u ma n - 1) , ; 2 )
: ;
in s en s ib le- 1) , (t o);
2) ; 3) , ;
in s ign ifica n t - ;
in s ocia ble ( .) ( u n s ocia ble) - ;
in vis ible - .
Exe r c i s e 1, . 153
. 1. ,
. 2. . 3-
,
/ . 4. /
- , ,
, . 5. ,
, . 6. ,
,

. 7.
. 8.
, , ,
. 9- /
. 10.
, /
. 11. , .
12.
,
. 13- . 14. ,
. 15.
/
, /
. 16.
,
, . 17.
/ ,
- . 18.
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Exe r c i s e 3, . 154
A. 1. Th e d oc t or s t r ea t men t d id n ot r elieve his pa in. 2. It
wa s a gr ea t r elief t o k n ow t h a t t h e ch ild r en we r e safe. 3- He
felt s om e h ow r elieved o f fu r t h er r es pon s ibilit y. 4. Im on du t y
u n t il 2 p.m. An d t h en Pet er is c om in g t o r elieve me. 5. Th e lit
t le b oy said, I ca n wh is t le wit h my mou t h , - a n d wa s
ea ger / a n xiou s t o d emon s t r a t e his art. 6. She has a kin d o f a r t i
ficia l s mile. 7. Th ey k n ow h ow t o b e plea s a n t . Th eyve cu lt i
va t ed t h a t art for cen t u r ies . 8. Her bea u t y d r e w t h em as t h e
m oon t h e sea. 9. She cr os s ed t h e r oom, d r e w t h e cu r t a in s
a pa r t a n d op en ed t h os e low win d ows . 1 0 . 1cou ld n t d r a w h im
ou t / d r a w a n y in for m a t ion fr om him. 11. Well k n own as it is,
t his is a p ict u r e t h a t dr a ws on e a ga in a n d a ga in , a n d its fa s ci
n a t ion n ever en ds . 12. Con s t a b le ma n a ged t o d ep ict / p or
t r a y/ r ep r es en t / p ict u r e t h e En glis h cou n t r ys id e in a ll it s
moods . 13- You look t h e p ict u r e o f h ea lt h . 14. Th is d oc t or is a
m ild - look in g ma n , n ot wh a t Ive p ict u r ed at all. 1 5 . 1 wa n t t o
p a in t a r ea lly go o d p or t r a it o f you r fa t h er . 16. Dir k St r oeve ha d
a t a s t e for mu s ic a n d lit er a t u r e wh ich ga ve d ep t h a n d va r iet y
t o his u n d er s t a n d in g o f pa in t in g.
B. 1. She wa s a du ll, colou r les s lit t le t h in g. 2. Don a ld
b lu s h ed t o t h e t op o f his ea r s / colou r ed t o t h e r oot s o f his h air
a n d t h en look e d away. 3- Mon e t ga ve p r efer en ce t o t r a n s pa r
en t ligh t colou r s . 4. Sh ed b e p r et t y if h er colou r in g we r e n t
bad. 5. Th e flower s a d d ed colou r t o t h e r oom. 6. Th er e is n o
d ou b t a bou t it. 7 . 1d ou b t as t o wh a t we ou gh t t o d o u n d er t h e
cir cu ms t a n ces . 8. Ha r r is s s h ir t wa s in a d ou b t fu l t as t e.
9 . 1s e c r e t ly d ou b t e d t h e a ccu r a cy o f b ot h d es c r ip t ion s
a p p lied t o on e gir l. 10. Ha vin g look e d t h r ou gh t h e ca t a logu e
t h e s cien t is t ca r efu lly s elect ed t h e b ook s wh ich h e n eed ed
for his r es ea r ch wor k . 11. Th e s elect ion o f pict u r es for t he
e xh ib it ion wa s a dmir a ble. 12. Th e bu mp on t h e b oys for e
h ea d wa s t h e s ize o f a d u ck s egg. 13. He n ot ic e d t hat
St r ick la n d s ca n va s es we r e o f d iffer en t s izes / wer e d iffe r e n t in
s ize. 14. I d on s wa n t t o ca m p ou t a n d s p en d t h e n igh t in
a t en t t h e s ize o f a t a b leclot h . 15. She h a d t o ma ke a n effor t / It
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cos t h er an e ffor t t o t a lk o f a n yt h in g els e wit h Bart , 16. Plea s e
ma k e a n e ffor t a n d come. 17. Th e gia n t lift e d u p t h e b ig r ock
wit h ou t effor t / effor t les s ly. 18. Pou r in g ou t t h e c od - live r - oil
s h e wr in k led h er n os e in a n effor t t o k eep h er n os t r ils clos ed.
Exe r c is e 4, p. 155
A. 1. He h e lp e d Po ir ot d e ft ly o ff wit h h is ove r c oa t .
2. Ma llor y n o lon ger felt fea r or a n xiet y a n d t ha t wa s h is c h ie f
r ea ct ion : h e wou ld h a ve h a t ed t o h a ve t o s pea k t o h im a gain.
3. But Hila r y cou ld n t fr ee h ims elf/ get r id o f his own bu r den s
in t h a t way. 4. Ha ve you h ea r d t h e n ews ? We n eed n o lon ger
wor r y/ b e a fr a id/ 5. You r r oom is a r r a n ged in ve r y go o d
t a s t e/ ver y t a s t efu lly. 6. Th e pa la ce wa s d ecor a t ed wit h p a in t
in gs a n d s cu lpt u r es / pa in t er s a n d s cu lpt or s h a d b een h ir ed t o
ma ke t h e p a la ce bea u t ifu l. 7. Ever y p or t r a it t h a t is execu t ed
wit h feelin g is t h e p or t r a it o f t h e p a in t er a n d n ot o f t h e s it t er ,
s aid Basil Ha llwa r d. 8. Qu it e s oon I fou n d , t o my own a s t on
is h men t , t h a t t h e d ifficu lt cr a ft o f fis h in g I wa s t r yin g t o ma s
t er had, in d eed , a p ower fu l fa s cin a t ion , 9- Wh en it wa s ove r h e
in h a led d eep ly/ h e s igh ed wit h r elief. 10. Bea u t y a t t r a ct ed h im
ir resist ibly. 11. I f t h e r ep or t er cou ld n ot get fa ct s for his s t o
ries, h e oft en u s ed his ima gin a t ion . 12. A con s id er a t e h os t
a lwa ys d oes his bes t t o en ga ge a left - ou t gu es t in t h e c on ve r
s a t ion / s o t h a t a left - ou t gu es t ca n t a ke pa r t in t h e con ver s a
t ion . 13- Mr. St r ickla n d has p a in t ed t h e p or t r a it of/ h a s d e p ic t
ed/ h a s r epr es en t ed/ h a s p ict u r ed an excellen t h u s ba n d a n d
la t h er , a ma n o f kin dly t emp er , in du s t r iou s ha bit s, a n d mor a l
dis pos it ion . 1 4 . 1 h a ven t b een p h ot ogr a p h ed for yea rs / I h ea v-
r n t h a d my p h ot o t a ken for years. 15. Mou s eh old Hea t h is a
ma gn ificen t p a in t in g by J oh n Cr ome. It s h ows / por t r a ys a
s h ep h er d -b oy a n d h is d og wit h a fe w s h eep on a p iece o f
gr ou n d c over ed wit h b r ok en turf. 16. He ima gin ed a h ou s e
h a lf-wa y t o Plyn hill, ivy- cover ed a n d wit h a vie w o f t h e h a r
bou r, a n d J a n et wa it in g for h im wh en t h e d a ys wor k wa s
t h r ou gh . 17. Leon a r d o da Vin ci love d t o p a in t / d ep ict t h e
s mile a n d u s ed it t o give life a n d r ea lit y a n d t h e illu s ion o f
s pir it u al d ep t h t o his ch a r a ct er s . 18. Th e p r es id en t wa s t ed n o
\v<>rds, yet ma n a ged t o give a d et a iled a n d gr a p h ic p ict u r e o f
ilie n a t ion s s t r en gt h . 19. Th e Russian a rt s t u den t s we r e ea ger
t<> d epict / r ep r es en t / p ict u r e n a t ion a l t h emes a n d t o ch oos e
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t h e s u bject s o f t h eir p ict u r es t h ems elves . Th ey we r e n ot
d r a wn t o cla s s ica l s u bject s , for t h eir h ea r t s la y in r ea lis m a n d
p u r p os e pa in t in g. 20. Ceza n n e wou ld n ever h a ve execu t ed his
exqu is it e pict u r es if h e h a d b een a ble t o use h is p en cil as s k ill
fu lly as t h e a ca d emic In gr es . 21. She d es cr ib ed his in gr a t it u d e
ver y vividly.
B. 1. He met h er ch a llen ge wit h a b it t er s mile t h ou gh h e
h a d gr own ver y pa le/ pa le as a s h eet / pa le as ch a lk. 2. Tr is t r a ms
fa ce wen t gr im as dea t h , a n d h e bit his lips, wh ile his br ide
b l u s h e d t o t h e t o p o f h e r e a r s / blu s h ed/ colou r ed t o t h e r oot s
o f h er hair. 3. His r ep u t a t ion wa s n t c om p le t e ly u n b lem
is h ed/ ir r epr oa ch a ble. 4. Th es e pa ges t ell a bou t even t s t hat
r ea lly h a pp en ed. All t h a t has b een d on e is t o va r n is h / emb el
lis h / mis r epr es en t t h em. 5. Mr. Ga it s kill n ever for a m om en t
qu es t ion ed (wa s all t h e t ime a bs olu t ely su re o f) his d ivin e r igh t
t o do, wit h in t h e a ccep t ed limit s , exa ct ly wh a t h e liked. 6. Th e
wea t h er look s as i f it ma y ch a n ge a n y momen t . 7 . 1 s h ou ld n t
lik e t o live in s u ch a qu es t ion a b le n eigh b ou r h ood / t o live
a m on g s ich s u s piciou s ch a r a ct er s . 8. Dor is h a d n ow ma d e it
clea r t h a t s he wa s by n o mea n s sure o f t h e s in cer it y o f La u r as
d eep a ffect ion for Con r a d. 9. Th e wh ole cr a ft wa s t o s t ay s ilen t ,
t o ch oos e on e s t ime ca refu lly, a n d t h en p ick o ff t h e en emies .
10. Th e b oys s a ilor -s u it , a s ize or t wo t oo b ig for h im, h a d b een
ch os en in t h e exp ect a t ion o f his gr owin g in t o it wh ich n o
d ou b t s h owed gr ea t t hr ift . 11. Book s a re oft e n dis pla yed on t h e
cou n t er t o let t h e cu s t omer s p ick / ch oos e wh a t t h ey like.
12. Th e ma n wh o h a d ch a r ge o f t h e ca n oes wa s a h u ge guy,
b r own all over , wh o h a d been p ick ed / ch os en for his s t r en gt h .
13- He felt , as ot h er men felt in h er pr es en ce, br igh t er a n d wit
t ier a n d br aver. 14. Har ris s u gges t ed t h a t Geor ge n ever ou gh t
t o s t ep in t o a b oa t o f an or d in a r i ma gn it u de wit h feet t hat
len gt h . 15. We s a w t h e ru ins over gr own wit h cr eeper s , h a lf
bu r ied in veget a t ion bu t s t ill as h u ge as ever . 16. Th e por t r a it
look e d as if I h a d execu t ed it mys elf. Th e s ad da r k eyes wer e
fixe d on me, s h a r in g, or at lea st u n der s t a n din g, as it s eemed,
my foolis h boyis h dreams . 17. Th e You n g Ma n s eems t o ga ze
at us wit h su ch in t en s it y a n d sadness, t h a t it is a lmos t imp os s i
b le t o b elieve t h a t t h es e d r ea my eyes a r e on ly a bit o f ea r t h o f
d iffer en t t in t s s pr ea d on a r ou gh p iece o f canvas . 18. He ma de
a gen t le a t t emp t t o in t r od u ce his fr ien ds in t o Ber t olin i s ociet y
a n d t h e a t t emp t h a d fa iled. 19. Seein g t h a t s om eon e was
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a p p r oa ch in g h im, h e con cen t r a t ed on p u llin g h im s elf t oget h
er a n d it wor k ed . 20. He r ea lized t h a t h e wou ld n t fa ll as leep,
t r y as h e migh t (n o ma t t er wh a t h e d id ) a n d ga ve up. 21.
La mp t on join ed in t h e la u gh t er , bu t h e h a d t o try' h a r d t o b r in g
h im s elf t o la u gh t o ma k e h ims elf la u gh / t o for ce h im s elf t o
la u gh a n d it wa s all a r t ificia l, o f cou r s e.
Exe r c i s e 5, p. 157
draw - p a in t
1. She p la ced t h e p a p er a n d p en cil b efor e me a n d s aid I cou ld
draw a n yt h in g I liked. 2. Th e pict u r e wa s pa in t ed so t hat t h e eyes
s eem t o follow you n o ma t t er wh er e you are.
colours - paints
1. Th is pos s ible pict u r e she p a in t ed is glowin g colours , u nt il
t h e ch ild s pa t h et ic da r k eyes glis t en ed wit h pleasu re. 2. If you
wa n t cor n flower blu e ( ) you h ad b et t er mix
t hes e t wo paints . 3. Th e wa r m colours a re red, yellow a n d or a n ge.
pictu re - portra y - repres ent
1. Roer ich s paint ings for t he Ka za n r a ilwa y st at ion in Mos cow
repres ent/ portray comba t s bet ween Russians and Tatars. 2. 1 cou ld
h ar dly picture Charles in this role. 3- Th e gr ea t t ragic actress is p or
trayed/ pictured/ repres ented in h er da y dress. 4. Th e artist was
con cer n ed mor e wit h r e-cr ea t in g t h e r a dia n ce o f Ven ice t han
wit h repres enting t h e s olid st ru ct u re o f its monu ment s .
Exe r c is e 6, p. 157
- t o r elieve/ ea s e t h e t en s ion
- t o r elieve/ ea s e t h e pa in
- . - t o d ou bt / qu es t ion smth.
- t o s elect / ch oos e/ p ick
a Ne w Year gift
- t h e pict u r e o f h ea lt h
- t o s elect t h e bes t p er
for mer s
- d iffer en t in s ize
- . - t o h a ve a good/
br oa d s elect ion / ch oice o f smth.
, - a s ize t oo big/ la rge
- t o ma ke a gr ea t effor t
- . - t o dou bt / qu es t ion
smb.s s in cer it y
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- t o pa in t smb./ smt h in da r k colou r s , t o
pa in t smb./ smt h bla ck
- . - t o d r a w smb. ou t
, - . - t o com for t smb./ t o b r i n g
r e l i e f t o s mb.
- a r t i fi c i a l (s t u died/ a ffect ed) s mile
- colou r les s ma n (p er s on )
- a va gu e a n s wer
- t o r elieve on e s feelin gs
- t o r elieve t h e m on ot on y
- t o d r a w t o a clos e
- t o h a ve ve r y li t t le c o l o u r (t o look
p a le)
- t o s pea k wit h an effor t
- a s igh o f r elief
- t o dr a w a con clu s ion
- t o p ic t u r e / t o ima gin e/ t o fa n cy
- . - t o t a k e a p i c t u r e o f s mb. / t o
t a ke a p h ot o o f smb.
- a cr ea m-colou r ed dress
, , -
t o lar gest in im p or t a n ce if n ot t h e size
- t o s pa re n o effor t / t o ma ke ever y
effor t
- t o dr a w in s pir a t ion
- t o pa in t a pict u r e
- t o pa in t fr om n a t u r e/ fr om life
- a life s ize/ life-s ized
por t r a it
, - br igh t , r ich colou r s
- du ll/ fa ded colou r s
- art t ea ch er
- art cr it ic
- - a ma t eu r artist
- art ist ic per s on
- por t r a it pa in t er
- la n ds ca pe pa in t er
- pict u r es qu e pla ce
- colou r r ep r odu ct ion
- t h e s ize o f t h e pict u r e
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- art exh ibit ion / s h ow/ exh ibit
- ar tist ic tast e
- t o
depict / por t r a y/ pa in t / pict u r e scen es o f com m on life
Exe r c i s e 7, p. 158
A. 1. Olive r n ot iced / s a w wit h r e lie f t h a t t h e ma n op p os it e
h ad n ot r ec ogn ize d h im. 2. How oft e n a re t h e s en t r ies a t / by
t h e ga t e r elieved ? 3. Wh a t a r e l i e f! (Wh a t blis s !) At (lo n g) last
I ca n s t r et ch my legs. 4. Th e you n g wom a n s igh ed wit h r e lie f
wh en Sh er lock Holmes a gr eed t o a ccep t h er ca s e/ t o t a ke u p
h er case. 5. Th e n ew m ed icin e b r ou gh t h im n o r elief. 6. Os ca r
Wild e wa s a r ep r es en t a t ive o f t h e t h eor y/ s ch ool o f art for
a r t s sake. 7. Th is ob ject / t h in g look s m or e lik e a k et t le t h a n
a wor k o f art. 8 . 1 wou ld n ever h a ve t h ou gh t / b elieved t h a t
t h is p ict u r e wa s / h a d b een p a in t ed b y a n a ma t eu r artist.
9- Alt h ou gh Dir k St r oeve wa s a ba d p a in t er h ims elf, h e h a d
a fin e/ s u b t le a r t is t ic t a s t e a n d goin g t o/ a t t en d in g exh ib it ion s
wit h h im wa s a r a r e t r ea t . 10. Th e exh ib it ion / s h ow o f fin e
art s t u r n ed ou t / p r oved (t o b e ) ver y in t er es t in g a n d we wa n
d er ed a b ou t / r oa med a b ou t / r oa med t h e ha lls for an h ou r or
t wo. 11. Th e old Bla ck ma n wou ld n t dis clos e/ r evea l/ t ell t h e
s ecr et s o f his art o f h ea lin g. 12. Ros ie d r e w a s ide t h e cu r t a in
a n d look e d ou t o f t h e win d ow. 13. Th e ma n wit h t h e s car
d r ew ou t / t ook ou t / p r od u ced a h a n d k er ch ief a n d wip e d his
fa ce. 14. Th e m or e t h e d e t ect ive t r ied t o d r a w Ter r y ou t , t h e
less h e s u cceed ed . 15. A p la y o f t h is kin d/ s or t is su re t o be
a d r a w/ will s u r ely d r a w t h e pu blic. 16. Th e b oy is ver y good at
d r a win g/ d r a ws ver y well, bu t his pa r en t s d o n ot a p p r ove o f
his d ecis ion t o b e com e a pa in t er / a r t is t . 1 7 . 1 lik e/ Im fon d o f
look in g at old fa m ily p ict u r es / p h ot ogr a p h s . 18. As for t h e
ba by (As fa r as t h e b a b y is c on c e r n e d ) h e is t h e pict u r e o f
h ealt h. 19. Th e s u bject o f t h e p ict u r e is ver y s imple. It p or -
i r a ys / r epr es en t s a b oy s h ep h er d a ga in s t / on t h e b a ck gr ou n d
o f a n e ve n in g sky. 20. Th e wom a n is d ep ict ed / r epr es en t -
cd / p or t r a yed / p a in t ed / p ict u r ed s ea t ed b efor e/ in fr on t o f
,i mir r or . 21. Th e life o f t h e ca p it a l is p a in t ed in t h is n ovel in
Ih e da r kes t / bla ckes t colou r s . 22. It is k n own t h a t Mon a Liza
wa s lis t en in g t o mu s ic a s / wh en / wh ile Leon a r d o da Vin ci wa s
p a in t in g h er p or t r a it .
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B. 1. It is d ifficu lt t o t ell wh a t t h e colou r s o f Reyn olds , t h e
ou t s t a n d in g En glis h p a in t er we r e lik e (or igin a lly)/ It is d iffi
cu lt t o ju d ge t h e (or igin a l) colou r s o f Reyn olds , t h e ou t
s t a n d in g En glis h p a in t er , beca u s e/ a s m a n y o f h is
pict u r es / pa in t in gs a r e cr a ck ed a n d fa ded. 2. N. Roer ich t r a v
elled a lot in In d ia a n d Tib et / a r ou n d In dia a n d Tib et a n d t h e
colou r s h e s a w t h er e had a n in flu en ce on / in flu en ced his
p a let t e/ h is c olou r s ch eme. 3. Ga in s b or ou gh s c o n t e m p o
r a r ies va lu ed h im as a p or t r a it pa in t er , bu t t h e a rt ist h im s elf
vie we d h im s elf as a la n ds ca p e p a in t er all h is life [con s id
er ed / r ega r d ed h im s elf (t o b e ) a la n d s ca p e p a in t er a ll his life.]
4. Th e imp r es s ion is t s t r ied t o c on ve y t h e p la y o f colou r s on
s u r fa ces (o n t h e s u r fa ces o f t h in gs / ob ject s ). 5. Th e ch ild
look s off- c olou r t oda y. 6. J a n et wa s s milin g, h er eyes we r e
s h in in g/ wer e glowin g/ we r e b r igh t / we r e glis t e n in g, a n d
t h e r e wa s c o l o u r i n h e r c h e e k s (a n d h er ch eek s wer e p in k ).
7. Th e r e s n o d ou b t / Th er e ca n b e n o d ou b t t h a t we mu s t t a ke
a d va n t a ge o f t h e op p or t u n it y/ t a k e t h e op p or t u n it y/ s eize
(o n ) t h e op p or t u n it y. 8. Gemma d ou b t ed t h a t t h e lea flet s
cou ld d o a n y good / cou ld be a n y use. 9 - 1h a ven t t h e s ligh t es t
d ou b t t h a t h e is ju s t t r yin g t o coa x/ wh eed le you ou t o f t h e
va lu a b le b ook . 10. You h a ve gon e t oo far, you d ou b t t h e h on
es t y o f you r old fr ien d . 1 1 . 1 h a ve n o d ou b t t h a t s h e is goin g
t o ma k e a s cen e. 12. We wo n t h a ve (t h e ) t im e t o s elect a
go o d Ne w Yea r s gift / p r es en t . 13. Th e good s we r e dis -
p la yed / Th e mer ch a n d is e wa s d is p la yed in s u ch a wa y t h a t
t h e cu s t omer s cou ld s elect / ch oos e/ p ick wh a t t h ey liked.
14. He s p ok e/ wa s s p ea k in g s lowly, pa u s in g fr om t ime t o t ime,
s e l e c t i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y wor d s / c h oos in g ca r efu lly t h e n e c
es s a r y wor d s . 15. Her e is a pa ir o f b oot s you r s ize. 1 6 . 1 n eed
glove s a s ize s ma ller . 17. Th e s t r a n ger d r e w ou t / t ook
ou t / p r od u ced ou t o f his p ock et a n ob ject t h e s ize o f a m a t ch
b ox. 18. Wit h (a n ) e ffo r t An d r e w p u lle d h im s e lf
t oget h er / collect ed h im s elf/ t ook h im s elf in h a n d. 19. Don t
los e h ea r t / Don t des pa ir , you r effor t s will bea r fr u it / will be
r ewa r d ed / won t be fr u it les s / won t be wa s t ed. 20. It cos t me
a lot o f e ffor t t o p er s u a de h im t o con t r ib u t e (t o t a lk h im in t o
c on t r ib u t in g) t o ou t pa per .
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Exe r c i s e 8, p. 159
1. On e is lik ely t o fe e l r e lie f (t o fe e l r e lie ve d ). 2. It
r elieves / ea s es a n xiet y. 3- We ca ll su ch a per s on a Ba ch elor o f
Ar t s or a Ma s t er o f Art s d ep en d in g on t h e yea r s o f lea r n in g. 4. If
t h e wa lls o f a h ou s e a r e p eelin g off, it wa n t s r ep a in t in g/ p a in t
ing. 5. He is p a in t in g t h e s it u a t ion in da r k/ bla ck colou r s (He is
p a in t in g t h e s it u a t ion b la ck ). 6. He s pa r es n o effor t t o a ch ieve
his aim. 7. He/ Sh e has ver y lit t le colou r . 8. He/ Sh e is a pict u r e
o f h ea lt h . 9. It is oft en colou r ed . 10. We ca n ca ll s u ch a p er s on
a n art lover . 11. We ca ll s u ch a p er s on an artist. 12. He dr a ws his
in s p ir a t ion fr om n a t u r e. 13- We u s u a lly r efer t o fa mou s
art is t s, es p ecia lly fr om t h e 15t h t o t h e 18t h cen t u r y or t o t h eir
pa in t in gs as Old Ma s t er s . 14. We k n ow por t r a it s , la n ds ca pes ,
s ea s ca pes a n d s t ill life pict u r es . 15. Qu it e oft e n it s t h e colou r
s ch eme, s omet imes it s t h e su bject . 16. A pa in t er wh o has
a go o d c olou r s ch em e in h is p ict u r es ca n b e t er m ed
a colou r is t ./ A colou r is t is a p a in t er wh o ca n a ch ieve a good
colou r s ch eme. 17. Wor ks o f art a re pis pla yed in art s h ows / a t
exh ibit ion s / a t exh ibit s / in mu s eu ms . 18. We u s u ally ca ll such
pieces ma s t er pieces or wor k s o f art. 19- We ca ll su ch a pa in t in g
a s t ill life.
Exe r c is e 9, p. 159
1. Com e on , it will cos t you n o e ffor t at all. 2. Wh a t d o you
mea n ? Th ey a r e qu it e d iffer en t in size. 3. Oh , n o! It wa s s u r ely
s elect ed by s om eon e else. 4. Th a n k God I wo n t h a ve t o ma ke
a n y m or e effor t s . 5. Yes, it is execu t ed ma r velou s ly. 6. Well,
1k n ow Im p r et t y good at d r a win g a n d p a in t in g but I wou ld
nt go s o fa r as t o ca ll t h at art. 7. Oh , yes, h es ver y t a cit u r n , on e
has t o ma ke a lot o f effor t t o ma k e h im op en his mou t h . Ive
cu lt iva t ed t h at s kill for year s , it s qu it e a n art. 8. Yes, t o b e sure,
t his a ct ion film/ t h is t h r iller d r a ws cr owd s o f s pect a t or s , it s
a b ig blockbu s t er . 9- An d wh a t d o wa n t you wa n t me t o do? To
pa in t t his dis a s t er in b r igh t r a t h er t h a n in da r k colou r s ? No
wa y! I m n ot on e t o colou r r ea lit y. 10. I n ever d ou b t ed it t o
b egin wit h . 11. An d I t h in k it s ju st t h e r igh t size. 12. You
s h ou ld h a ve s een me yes t er da y. I h a d n t s lept a win k a n d had
n o colou r at all. I look e d lik e d ea t h wa r m ed over (
i! ).
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Exe r c i s e 12, p. 160
1. Th is t r a in st art s fr o m Plymou t h a n d goes t o Lon d on .
2. Wh a t cou n t r y d o you com e fr om ? 3. You mu st t r y t o look at
t h e ma t t er f r o m my p oin t o f view. 4. St op t h a t b oy fr o m s p oil
in g t h e book. 5. J oh n s on n ever ma de a n y p r ovis ion f o r t h e
fu t u r e, h e just lived fr o m h a n d t o mou t h . 6. F r o m t ime t o t ime
I will exa min e you on t h e wor k you h a ve don e. 7. I k n ow it
fr o m / b y my own exp er ien ce. 8. We mu st k eep t h em fr o m ge t
t in g t o k n ow a bou t ou r plans. 9. Th e s pea ker n ever r efer r ed t o
his n ot es , h e s poke fr o m memor y. 10. His a r r iva l wa s a s u r pr is e
t o / fo r me. 11. Don t pa y a t t en t ion t o wh a t h e is doin g. 12. Th e
gu id e d r ew ou t a t t en t ion t o a n old ch u r ch, wh ich wa s a fin e
s p ecimen o f Ren a is s a n ce a r ch it ect u r e. 13- It wa s r ou gh i n t h e
At la n t ic a n d t h e gir l h a d t o k eep t o h er ca bin . 14. Th e b a n qu et
d r ew t o its clos e. 15. Th e fa ct is it n ever occu r r ed t o me.
16. Th e ch a n ces a r e t en t o on e. 17. Tu r n er s colou r s wer e t r u e
t o n a t u r e. 18. Th e bu s wa s fille d t o t h e bu r s t in g p oin t .
19- Ever yb od y wa s s ca r ed a lmos t t o deat h . 20. Mr. Wolfe t ook
a gr ea t fa n cy t o / fo r his n iece. 21. Sybils fa t h er a n d m ot h er
migh t pos s ibly ob ject t o t h e ma r r ia ge. 22. I a m goin g h om e
i n / fo r a bou t t h r ee days. O f cou r s e, I s hall t a ke on ly t h e t h in gs
I ca n t d o wi t h o u t . 23. He is wi t h o u t e xcep t ion t h e bes t pu pil
I h a ve ever had. 2 4 . 1k n ow you will wor k ha rd, t ha t goes wi t h
o u t saying.
Exe r c i s e 13, P - 161
1. Br ea d is b a k ed (m a d e ) fr om / of/ ou t o f flou r . 2. Wh a t
a p it y t h a t you h a ve t o k e e p t h e c h ild fr om go in g t o
s c h ool/ t o k e e p t h e c h ild ou t o f s c h ool, s a id An d r ew.
3. Poet s a n d p a in t er s oft e n d r a w in s p ir a t ion fr om n a t u r e.
4. Th e b r ot h er s a r e s o mu ch a lik e t h a t I ca n t t ell t h em a pa r t
(d is t in gu is h / t ell on e fr om t h e ot h e r ). 5. I f I a m a d vis in g you
t o d o it Im s p ea k in g fr om/ b y exp er ien ce. 6. Her e is a p ict u r e
t o m y t as te. 7. Th e d oor s la m m ed t o. 8. Gwe n d ole n s a id t h a t
s h e wa s en ga ged / b et r ot h ed t o Er nest . 9- Ho w ca n on e b e s o
in d iffe r e n t t o o n e s wor k ? 10. Su ch s t u b b or n n es s / ob s t in a cy
ca n d r ive a n yon e t o des pa ir . 11. You s h ou ld a p ologize t o t h e
h os t es s for b ein g la t e. 12. Th e fr ien d s ma d e a t oa s t t o/ dr a n k
t o t h e h a p p y con clu s ion o f t h e jou r n ey. 13. Don t t a ke it s o
mu ch t o h ea r t / Ta ke it easy. 14. Lois e wa s look in g for wa r d t o
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t h e da y wh e n s h e wou ld go t o s ch ool. 15. He t ook t o (got
in t o t h e h a bit o f) r ea d in g a n ews p a p er wh ile/ wh en ea t in g/ a t
meals/ as h e at e. 16. He got n ext t o n ot h in g for his wor k .
17. Mich a el p r op os ed t o Fleu r s ever a l t imes. 18. Th e vis it o f
fr ien d s h ip con t r ib u t ed t o/ p r om ot ed mu t u a l u n der s t a n din g.
19- It wa s d on e wit h ou t my con s en t . 20. He s olves s u ch p r ob
lems ea s ily (wit h ou t e ffor t ). 21. Th er e is n o s mok e wit h ou t
fire.
CONVERSATI ON AND DI SCUSSI ON
PAINTING
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. Pa i n t e r s a n d t h e i r c r a ft . - ,
a fa s h ion a ble/ ma t u r e artist - / ;
a s elf-t a u gh t artist - - ;
a por t r a it pa in t er - ;
a la n ds ca pe pa in t er - ;
t o pa in t fr om n a t u r e/ memor y/ ima gin a t ion -
/ / ;
t o pa in t myt h ologica l (h is t or ica l) s u bject s -
( ) ;
t o s pecia lize in por t r a it u r e/ s t ill life -
/
t o p or t r a y p eop le/ emot ion s wit h m ovin g s in cer it y/ wit h
res t raint - /
/ ;
t o dep ict a per son / a s cen e o f com m on life/ t h e m ood of... -
/ / -
- ./ - . ;
t o r en der / in t er pr et e t h e per s on a lit y o f - / -
- .;
t o r evea l t h e p er s on s n a t u re - ( )
;
t o ca pt u r e t h e s it t er s vit a lit y/ t r a n s ien t exp r es s ion -
/
;
t o d evelop on e s own s t yle o f pa in t in g -
;
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t o con for m t o t h e tast e o f t h e p er iod -
; ;
t o br ea k wit h t h e t r a dit ion - ;
t o be in a dva n ce o f on es t ime - ;
t o exp os e t h e da r k sides o f life - (
) ;
t o b ecome fa mou s over n igh t - ;
t o die for got t en a n d pen n iles s -
.
2 . Pa in t in gs . Ge n r e s . [ j o n oz] - . .
an oil pa in t in g - ,
/ ;
a ca n vas - , , ;
a wa t er -colou r - , ,
;
pa st el pict u r e - , ;
a sket ch/ s t u dy - / ;
a fa m ily gr ou p / cer em on ia l/ in t im a t e p or t r a it -
/ / ;
a s elf-por t r a it - ;
a s h ou lder / len gt h / h a lf len gt h / kn ee len gt h / fu ll len gt h p or
t rait - / /
/ ;
a la n ds ca pe - ;
a s ea s ca pe - ;
a gen r e/ h is t or ica l pa in t in g - /
( );
a still life - ;
a ba t t le piece - / ;
a flower p iece - ,
;
a ma s t er piece - .
3. Co m p o s i t i o n a n d d r a wi n g. -
.
in t h e for egr ou n d / b a ck gr ou n d - /
;
in t h e t op / b ot t om / left - h a n d cor n er - /
/ ;
t o a r r a n ge s ymmet r ica lly/ a s ymmet r ica lly -
/ ;
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t o a r r a n ge in a pyr a mid - ;
t o a r r a n ge in a ver t ica l for ma t - ;
t o d ivid e t h e pict u r e s pa ce d ia gon a lly -
;
t o d efin e t h e n ea r er figu r es mor e s h a r ply -
;
t o emp h a s ize con t ou r s pu r pos ely -
;
t o be s ca r cely dis cer n ible - ;
t o con vey a s ense o f s pa ce -
;
t o pla ce t h e figu r es a ga in st t h e la n ds ca pe b a ckgr ou n d -
( ) ;
t o mer ge in t o a s in gle en t it y - ( ) ;
t o blen d wit h t h e la n ds ca pe -
/ ;
t o in dica t e t h e s it t er s pr ofes s ion -
/ ;
t o be r epr es en t ed s t a n din g/ s it t in g/ t a lkin g -
/ / ;
t o be pos ed/ s ilh ou et t ed against an op en sky/ a classic p il
lar/ the s n ow - /
/ / ;
t o a ccen t u a t a t e smth. - , - .
4. Co l o u r i n g. Li gh t a n d s h a d e e ffe c t s . - .
.
s u bt le/ ga u dy colou r in g - /
;
t o comb in e for m a n d colou r in t o h a r mon iou s u n it y - -
1 1 ;
br illia n t / low-keyed colou r s ch eme - /
I( ;
t h e colou r s ch eme wher e... p r ed omin a t e - ,
it ...
mu t ed in colou r - ;
Th e colou r s ma y b e c o o l a n d r es t fu l/ h ot a n d a git a t ed/
s oft a n d d elica t e/ d u ll, op p r es s ive, ha rs h. -
/
/ / ,
, .
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Th e d elica cy o f t on es ma y be los t in r epr odu ct ion . -
( )
.
5. Im p r e s s i o n . J u d ge m e n t . - . .
Th e pict u r e ma y be movin g, lyrical, r oma n t ic, or igin a l, p oe t
ic in t on e a n d a t mos ph er e. -
, , , ,
.
an exqu is it e piece o f pa in t in g -
;
an u nsu rpassed ma s t er piece, dis t in gu is h ed by a ma r velou s
s ens e o f colou r a n d comp os it ion - ,

;
Th e p ict u r e ma y b e du ll, cr u de, ch a ot ic, a colou r les s da u b o f
pa in t , obs cu r e a n d u n in t elligib le, gau dy, depr es s in g, dis a p
p oin t in g, ch ea p a n d vulgar . - ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
.
UNIT SIX 1 '
SPEECH PATTERNS
Exe r c is e 1, p. 177
Pos s i ble va r i a n t s
1. Wh y did you give An n t h e t ickets? - She t r icked / coaxed
me ou t o f them. 2. It wa s on ly wh en I ca me h ome that I n ot iced
t h at I h a d been cheated ou t o f fifty rubles in the shop. 3. Wh y on
ea r t h are you s h ou t in g? Im n ot to be s houted at, I m not goin g to
s tand it. 4. It s n o con cer n o f yours. Im n ot to be interfered with.
5. She wa s ma kin g ever y effor t n ot to give way to (h e r) tears. 6. It
wa s t h e first t ime h e had given way to his temper (he had been
trick ed out o f his money ). 7. She must h a ve r ea lized s h e was
wr on g. She just s t u ck t o h er p oin t ou t of s heer s tubbornnes s /
obs tinacy. 8. She is nt r ea lly in t er es t ed in my affairs. She a s ked out
o f politenes s , thats all. 9. You a re in n o con d it ion t o s pea k t o her
n ow. Wh y n ot leave now a n d come again tomorrow ? 10. It s a
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s plen did op p or t u n it y for us t o get t oget h er . Wh y n ot take
advantage ofit/ tak e it/ seize it?
Exe r c i s e 2, p. 178
Po s s i ble va r i a n t s
1. Who are y ou t h at you s h ou ld s h ou t at me? 2. Who is he t hat
h e s h ou ld in t er fer e in my affairs? 3. The moment Im free, Ill let
you kn ow. 4. The moment h e comes , t ell h im Im in t h e library.
5. It will tak e her an h ou r or s o t o d o t h e job. 6. It will cos t a bou t
2000 r ou bles t o bu y a t icket .
Exe r c is e 3, p. 178
1. She t r ick ed me ou t o f t h e let t er s a yin g s h e a lr ea dy h a d
you r p er mis s ion t o r ea d it. 2. It wa s t h e firs t t ime h e h a d given
wa y t o his t emp er wit h her. 3- She h a t ed givin g wa y t o (h e r )
t ears in pu blic. 4. Wh o is s he t h a t s h e s h ou ld k eep ever yon e
wa it in g? 5. Wh o is h e t h at h e s h ou ld pr es u me/ t h in k t hat ever y
on e s h ou ld a lwa ys s t a n d u p for him? 6. Th e momen t h e st ir r ed,
t h e d og gr owled . 7. Th e m om en t Geor ge s t a r t ed p la yin g t h e
ba n jo, Mon t m or en cy bega n h owlin g. 8. I s h ou ld n ever h a ve
t h ou gh t t hat it wou ld t a ke you s o lon g t o a n s wer my let t er . 9. It
t akes skill t o ma ke a fir e in t h e rain. 1 0 . 1 d id it ou t o f p it y for
her. 11. You n eed n t st ay just ou t o f polit en es s . Ill b e p er fect ly
all r igh t a lon e. 12. Wh y n ot be fr a n k if you wa n t my a dvice?
13. You ca n s ell you r p ia n o t h e m om en t you feel you d on t r ea l
ly n eed it.
Exe r c is e 4, p. 178
1. Wh y d o you d is lik e J im s o mu ch ? - He s dis h on es t . He
ca n ea s ily ivheed le/ coax/ cheat/ trick / con/ d o y ou ou t o f any
a m ou n t o f money . 2. Ar e you s t ill a n gr y wit h h er ? - I am. She
s hould nt have given way to h er t e m per th at way/ 1 am. She
refus ed me ou t o f s heer malice. 3- Wh a t d id s h e a n s wer , I
won d er ? - Sh e d id n t say a word, s he ju s t ga ve way to h er
tears. 4. Did t h e gir l cr y wh e n s h e fell? - She d id n t cry, she
k ept qu ie t ou t o f prid e. 5. Sh a ll we go a n d h elp h im? - No, h e
said h e wa s n ot to be in terfered with. 6. Im at my wit s en d
wh a t t o do. - Oh , com e, d on t giv e way to des pair. 7. Do you
ih in k h ell t a k e t h e n ews ca lmly? Oh , n o, h e s su re to give
way to his temper. 8. Wh y d id n t you t ell J a n et t h a t you dis
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a p p r ove d o f h er decis ion ? - Ho w cou ld I? Wh o d o you t h in k
I a m th at I s hould tell h e r w hat to do? 9. Wh o a r e we wa it in g
for n ow? - J ane. Th e m om en t s h e comes , w e'll be off. 10. Im
a fr a id I s h a n t ma n a ge t o d r op in on her. - Bu t you live n ext
d oor t o her. It w ill tak e y ou ju s t a min u te or two to p op in.
11. Sh a ll I wa it for you ? - If you will. It ll tak e very little time
f o r me to get dres s ed. 12. Wh y d on t you com e? Sh e in vit ed
you , d id n t she? - She did, bu t it wa s on ly ou t o f com m on
politenes s , she d id n t really mea n it.
Exe r c i s e 6, p. 179
On ce Alec decla r ed t hat on Su nday we wer e goin g skiing.
We st ick/ st ay at h ome t oo mu ch , h e said. Wh y n ot ski s ome
t en or fift een k ilomet er s in t h e for es t / t h r ou gh t h e for es t
(wood s )? It won t t ake us mu ch t ime, a n d we ll feel fin e all
week/ t h e wh ole week .
Wh en I ca me t o t h e r a ilwa y s t a t ion r igh t on t ime/ exa ct ly on
t ime, I s a w s ever a l/ s ome p eop le on t h e p la t for m (wh o wer e)
wa it in g for t he t rain, but Alec wa s n ot a mon g them.
Wh o k n ows wh a t migh t / ma y/ cou ld h a ve dela yed/ det a in ed
h im, I t h ou gh t a n d d ecid ed t o wa it a lit tle/ a bit.
Th e win d wa s ch illin g/ pier cin g me t o t h e bon es / t o t h e ma r
r ow a n d s oon I bega n t o give wa y t o my t emper / a n ger (a n d
s oon I bega n t o s eet h e). Wh o is h e t hat I s h ou ld wa it for him?
But just t h e momen t I wa s a bou t t o lea ve/ wa s on t h e poin t
o f lea vin g Alec t u r n ed u p/ s h owed up, t en min u t es la t e and
bega n t o expla in r a t her in coh er en t ly/ in a r t icu la t ely/ a bou t t he
clock h e ha d for got t en t o win d (u p).
I ga ve wa y t o my t emper (t o ir r it a t ion ) a n d ga ve h im a piece
o f my mind. Aft er all, I a m n ot (on e ) t o b e t r ea t ed like that.
Still we did go, but bot h o f us wer e ou t o f spirit s (in low s pir
it s ) / but n eit h er o f us wa s a n y lon ger in t h e mood/ bu t we had
b ot h been pu t ou t o f h u mou r / bot h ou r spirit s h a d sunk.
Wh en we got o ff t he t r ain at a small s t a t ion , we wen t t o t he
for est : I led t h e wa y (I wen t fir s t ) a n d Alec br ou gh t u p t he
r ea r / followed me. He t old me t hat wa y I wou ld n t be a ble t o
la g/ fa ll/ dr op beh in d (I wou ld n t h a ve a ch a n ce o f lagging/
fa llin g/ dr oppin g beh in d).
It h a d b een s n owin g all n igh t , a n d t h er e wa s n o s ki-t r a ck yet
(a n d n o s ki-t r a ck h a d been ma de/ la id yet ). It wa s difficu lt for me
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(It cos t ma qu it e an e ffor t ) t o lea d t h e way, s o I s aid Wh y n ot
ch a n ge pla ces / s wop r ou n d? It won t cos t you s o mu ch effor t t o
lea d t h e way, a ft er all you a re a good skier.
But Alec r efu s ed/ didn t wa n t t o/ wou ld n t agree. He has
d on e it ou t o f s h eer ma lice, I t h ou gh t . Bu t wh en a fe w min u t es
la t er I look ed ba ck/ looked over my s h ou lder , I s a w t o my u t t er
a s t on is h men t / t o my gr ea t a ma zemen t t h a t h e wa s t r a ilin g
(d r a ggin g h ims elf a lon g) s omewh er e beh in d, evid en t ly u n a ble
t o keep p a ce wit h me.
Ever yt h in g wa s clea r n ow: h e just c ou ld n t ski. I wis h ed t o
God t h a t I h a d n ot gon e wit h h im (I wa s ve r y s or r y t h a t I h a d
gon e wit h h im ). Th e p oin t wa s n t t h a t (It wa s n t b eca u s e) h e
h a d p r oved / t u r n ed ou t (t o b e ) a b a d s kier . He wa s a Her a n d
a br a gga r t / boa s t er . An d t h a t wa s s om et h in g I cou ld n ot pu t
u p wit h .
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Tut! Tut! - Ax! ! ! ( ,
)
Da lila [d ' la ila] - ( .;
) ( . - ,
)
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
1. c h a r a c t e r - 1) , , ;
is a ma n o f fin e (s t r on g, wea k, in d ep en d en t ) char act er. -
( / , , )
.
In or d er t o k n ow a p er s on s ch a r a ct er we must k n ow h ow h e
thinks, feels a n d acts. - ,
11 , , .
2 ) , , ;
t h e ch a r a ct er o f t he wor k , soil, clima t e, et c. -
, , . .;
3) ; , ;
is a ma n o f ch a ra ct er . - ( )
.
Ch a r a ct er bu ildin g is n ot an easy t hing. -
- .
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4 ) , ( ,
) , , . .; ,
( , );
t h e ch ar a ct er s in t he n ovel - ( ) ;
good (bad, imp or t a n t ) ch a r a ct er s - (
, ) / ;
Ma n y cha r a ct er s o f t h e n ovel are real p eop le, ot h er s are fic
t ion al. - - ,
.
5) ) , ; ) , ,
;
is qu it e a cha ract er . - .
6 ) , ;
ca me t o ou r office wit h a good char act er. -
.
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c - , ;
, (o f);
t h e ch a r a ct er is t ic en t h u s ia s m o f t h e you t h - ,
;
It s ch a r a ct er is t ic o f her. - ./
.
t o c h a r a c t e r i z e (f t ) - 1) ;
2) , ;
His wor k is ch a r a ct er ized by lack o f a t t en t ion t o detail. -
./
.
Th e ca mel is ch a r a ct er ized by an a bilit y t o go for ma n y days
wit h ou t wa t er . - -
.
2. t h r e a t [0 ret ] - 1) ;
Nob od y is a fr a id o f you r threat s. -
;
2) , , ;
Th er e wa s a t h r ea t o f r ain in t h e dark sky. -
./ .
t o t h r e a t e n vt/ i - 1) ( - . );
Th e clou ds t h r ea t en ed rain. - .
2 ) , ( - . );
wa s u n con s ciou s o f t h e da n ger t hat t h r ea t en ed him. -
, .
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3) , ( - . ), (
- .);
t o t h r e a t e n t o d o s m t h . - - . ;
An d r ew t h r ea t en ed t o r epor t t h e in ciden t t o t h e au t hor it ies. -
,
/ .
t o t h r e a t e n s m b. wi t h s m t h . - - . - .;
Th e cr imin a l t h r ea t en ed his en emy wit h deat h. -
.
t h r e a t e n i n g - ;
a t h r ea t en in g a t t it u de (voic e ) - ( );
t o gi ve s m b. a t h r e a t e n i n g l o o k - - .
;
3. s i n k (s a n k , s u n k ) vi/ t - 1) ; ,
. .;
Th e sun wa s s in kin g in t h e wes t . -
/ .
Wood does n ot sink in wa t er . - .
Th e s hip sank (US:. Th e s hip su nk). - .
Th e d r own in g ma n sank like a s t on e. -
.
2) , ( . );
My s pirit s sank. - ( )
.
Ha vin g dis pla yed his cowa r d ice ([k a u a d is ] - ,
) h e sank in ou r es t ima t ion . - -
/ , .
3) , ;
sank t o t h e gr ou n d wou n ded. - ,
.
She sank in t o t h e ch a ir a n d burst in t o tears. -
( ) .
s i n k - ( . );
Put t h e dir t y dishes in t o t h e kit ch en s ink a n d ask you r sister t o
help you t o wa s h up. -
.
4. s e n s e - 1) ( );
Th e five senses are sight , h ea rin g, s mell, tast e a n d t ou ch. -
, , ,
< .
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a s en s e o f s mt h. - 2 ) , ,
( - . );
a s ense o f du t y (h u mou r , beauty, p r op or t ion , security, dan ger ,
pa in , cold et c. ) - ( , , ,
, , , . .);
has a s t r on g s ense o f duty. -
.
3 ) pi. , ;
in on es r igh t senses - ;
t o b e ou t o f on e s senses - . , ,
;
Ar e you ou t o f you r senses t h at you t alk su ch nons en s e? -
, , ?
4 ) ;
is a man o f sense. - /
.
has p len t y o f sense (c om m on s en s e). -
( ) .
Th er e is a lot o f s ense in wh a t h e says. - To, ,
( ) .
Th er e is n o s en s e in d oin g it. - (He )
.
Wh a t s t h e s en s e o f d oin g it? - ?
5) , ;
in a s t rict (lit er a l, figu r a t ive, good , b a d ) s en s e -
( , , , ) ;
Th is wor d ca n n ot be u sed in this sense. -
.
t o m a k e s e n s e - , ,
, ;
I ca n n ot ma k e s ense o f wh a t h e is saying. -
, .
t o m a k e n o s e n s e - ;
It ma kes n o s ens e. - (
).
s en s it ive - , ; ,
; , ;
t o h a ve a s en s it ive s kin - ( )
; , ;
t o be s en s it ive t o pa in - ;
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t o be s en s it ive t o ot h er p e op les su ffer in g, bla me, cr it icis m -
, ,
;
t o be s en s it ive a bou t on es ph ys ica l defect s -
;
s en s ible - , , ;
a s en s ible fe llow (idea , s u gges t ion ) -
( , );
5. ca u t iou s - , ;
A ca u t iou s t h in ker does n ot b elieve t h in gs wit h ou t pr oof. -

.
Be cau t iou s wh en cr os s in g a bu s y st reet . -
, /
.
c a r e le s s - , ,
;
i n d i s c r e e t - , ,
, ;
c a u t i o n - , ;
Wh en you cr os s a bu s y s t r eet you s h ou ld use cau t ion . -
,
.
c a u t i o n vt (a ga i n s t ) - ,
;
Th e t ea ch er ca u t ion ed us a ga ins t b ein g late. -
, ,
p r e c a u t i o n - ;
Th ey t ook pr eca u t ion s agains t t he flood [fk d]. -
.
s li p vt/ i - 1) , ;
;
Th e t a bleclot h s lipped o ff t h e t able. -
.
Th e fish s lipped ou t o f his hands. -
.
2) ;
She s lip p ed a n d wou ld h a ve fa llen if I h a d n ot s t ea died
her. - ,
.
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3) ( . .);
Th e n a me has s lip p ed m y a t t en t ion (m y memor y, my
min d ). - /
( /
).
4 ) , ;
s lipped ou t o f t h e h ou se u n n ot iced. -
/ .
She s lipped a wa y for h a lf an h ou r or so. - -
, .
5) , ;
slips in his gr amma r . -
.
6 ) (o n or /
h u r r iedly s lipped on (o ff) his clot h es. -
( ).
7 ) ( , );
She s lipped t h e let t er in t o an en velop e a n d s ea led it. -
.
s lip - 1) , ;
Ma y I use t his s lip o f pa per t o ma r k a pa ge? -
, ?
2 ) , ;
a slip o f t he t on gu e - ;
a s lip o f t h e pen - ;
3) ;
t o give smb. t h e slip - , - .;
s li p p e r y - ;
It s s o s lipper y t oday, plea s e be ca r efu l. -
, , ,
s li p p e r s - 1) ; 2) - ;
7. bit t e r - ; ; , ;
bit t er wor ds (compla in t s , d is a p p oin t men t ) -
( , );
a bit t er s mile - ;
a bit t er r ema r k - ;
a bit t er win d - / ;
a bit t er en emy - ;
Her lips t wis t ed in t o a bit t er smile. - - |
.
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A bit t er win d bea t in t o t h e face. - ,
bi t t e r ly - ; ;
la u gh t ed bitt erly. - .
How cou ld you be s o blin d? s he said bit t erly. -
? - .
2) , ;
It wa s bit t er ly (b it t er ) cold. - .
8. t o s t ir vt/ i - 1) , ;
t o stir t ea (coffee, p or r id ge) - ( , );
2) ;
t o stir t h e lea ves - ;
n ot t o s t ir a fi n ge r - ;
Wh a t kin d o f fr ien d is he? He wou ld n t st ir a fin ger t o h elp
me. - ? ,
.
n ot t o s t ir a n e ye lid - ;
It s a ma zin g h ow ca lmly Ru t h t ook t h e news: she did n ot stir
an eyelid. - ,
: .
3) ( vt) , ;
It wa s still, n ot a lea f st irred. - ,
.
Nob od y s t irr ed in t h e house. - ( ).
9. t o i n ju r e - 1) , , ;
, , ;
t o inju r e on e s h ea lt h - - . ;
t o inju r e a par t o f t h e b od y - , ,
;
t o inju r e s mb.s feelin gs - - . ;
t o inju r e smb.s r epu t a t ion - ( )
- . ;
t o inju r e smth. a cciden t a lly (ba dly, seriously, slightly, et c.) -
( ) - . ( ,
, . .);
t o be inju r ed in an a cciden t (in a fire, in t h e war, etc.) -
( , . .);
in ju r e d - , , ;
in ju r ed p r id e - ;
in ju r ed feelin gs - ;
in ju r ed look - ;
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in ju r ed t on e - ;
in ju r ed voice - ;
i n ju r y - 1) , , , ,
;
2 ) , ( ) ;
t o r eceive (s u ffer ) an in ju r y (in ju r ies ) t o t h e head, t o t h e
back, etc. - ( ),
( ) , . .;
10. t o r e ve n ge vt/ t - ( ) ;
t o r even ge a n insu lt (a n in ju s t ice) -
( );
s wor e t o r even ge t h e insult. -
.
t o r even ge on e s e lf on (u p o n ) a pe r s on - - .;
Ya go r even ged h ims elf on Ot h ello. - .
t o be r e ve n ge d - ;
She was r even ged, but t hat br ou gh t h er lit t le s a t is fact ion. -
,
.
r e ve n ge - , , ;
t o h ave/ get / t ake (o n e s ) r e ve n ge o n (u p o n ) s mb. -
( ) - .;
Ill h a ve my r even ge on you for wh a t you did. -
, .
t o d o smt h. i n r e ve n ge - - . ;
An d r ew wa s a wa r e t hat t h e ma n migh t d o mu ch h a r m in
r even ge. - ,
,
r e ve n ge fu l - .
WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES
t o disgu ise on es elf - ;
t o be u n der arrest - ;
t o s mile t h r ou gh on e s t ears - ;
t o r ob smb. o f smt h. - - . - .;
t o flin g smt h. - - .;
t o cu t a foolis h figu r e - ,
( ) ;
t o in t er cept in for ma t ion - ;
t o be t a ken a ba ck - , ,
;
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t o r efu s e poin t b la n k - ;
t o br ea k d own - 1) ( ),
, ;
, . .; 2) ,
;
t o ma ke a s cen e - , . .;
t o t ry on es t ricks on smb. - - .
( - .);
t o be bes ide on es elf - ;
t o go t oo fa r - ( ) ;
t o ma ke use o f smb. (o r s mt h .) - - . (
- .).
Exe r cis e 4, p. 189
1. Br own wa s h eld u n der / wa s u n der a rres t for a mon t h .
2. On his fir s t da y in Ne w Yor k J oh n wa s r ob b ed o f all his
mon ey, a n d h e h a d n o on e t o t u rn t o for h elp. 3. Ar en t you
a s h a med o f flin gin g s t on es at t h e dog? 4 . 1a s ked h im t o join us,
bu t h e r efu s ed poin t bla n k. 5. No use t r yin g you r t r icks me,
I s ee you t h r ou gh , s aid Nick. 6. I fou n d Br ef bes id e h ims elf
wit h a n ger , h e wa s in n o s t a t e t o lis t en t o r ea son. 7. Don t t ry
you r t r icks on me, you wo n t be a ble t o ma ke me d o it. 8. You
k n ow h ow pr ou d a n d t ou ch y h e is, h e wou ld r a t h er k eep in t h e
b a ck gr ou n d t h a n cu t a foolis h figu r e. 9- It wa s a wfu lly mea n o f
h im t o in t er cep t t h e let t er t ha t wa s n ot mea n t for h im, said
J anet. 10. Ta ken u n a wa r es , s he b r ok e d own . 11. Wh en she wa s
left a lon e, s h e b r ok e d own , a n d cr ied bit t er ly. 12. We evid en t ly
ca n t a gr ee on t his p oin t , bu t wh y ma ke a s cen e? 13. Th a t s
goin g t oo far, s o fa r we d on t k n ow a n yt h in g for cer t a in .
14. Th e wa y An n is ma k in g use o f h er s is t er s kin dn es s is r ea lly
s h amefu l.
Exer cise 5, p. 189
1. Cr ea ves h a d b een u n d er a r r es t for a m on t h bu t s t ill
r e fu s e d p o i n t bl a n k (fla t ly r efu s ed ) t o give evid en ce. 2. Ou t
of/ Th r ou gh / Fr om t h e ca r r ia ge win d o w J oh n s a w h er s mile
i h r ou gh h er t ea r s a n d wa ve t o h im. 3. Th ey s aid old Tim h a d
s ome m on ey pu t by a n d t hat h e k ep t in his h ou s e, a ft er all it
wa s n t for n ot h in g t h a t h e wa s s o a fr a id/ s ca r ed o f b ein g
r obbed. 4. An d r ei flu n g t h e let t er on t h e t a b le bu t a min u t e
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la t er p ick ed it u p a ga in a n d b ega n t o r ead. 5. Don t t r y you r
t r icks on me. It wo n t wor k / It will get you n owh er e/ Not h in g
will c om e o f it a n ywa y. 6. J a n e wa s b es id e h er s elf, a n d it cos t
h er a lot o f e ffor t t o k eep h er t emp er . 7. Mor e t h a n o f a n y
t h in g els e h e wa s a fr a id o f cu t t in g a foolis h figu r e. 8. Reb ecca
wa s we ll a wa r e/ r ea lized p e r fe c t ly we ll wh a t t h r ea t en ed h er if
s h e d id n t ma n a ge t o in t er cep t t h e let t er . 9. J oe wa s s o t a ken
a ba ck b y t h e u n exp ect ed qu es t ion t h a t h e los t his s elf- con -
t r ol r igh t a wa y/ a t on ce. 10. Wh e n old J olion h a d left , J u n e
b r ok e d own a n d ga ve wa y t o h er tears. 11. Aft er Mrs. Pa ge h a d
ma d e h im a s cen e on a ccou n t of/ beca u s e o f t h e mon ey,
An d r e w fir mly d ecid ed (wa s d e t e r m in e d ) t o look for a n ot h er
job. 12. Wh a t a r e you d r ivin g/ get t in g/ h in t in g a t ? s a id
Nor in . Be ca r efu l/ Look ou t / Wa t ch ou t / Wa t ch you r s t ep, you
ma y go t oo fa r . 13. You ma k e u se o f h im in you r own in t er
e s t s ) a n d ca ll it fr ien d s h ip , - s a id Pet er wit h in d ign a t ion /
in dign a n t ly.
Exer cise 8, p. 190
wom a n ly - femin in e;
t o ma ke a n ea r n es t r equ es t t o smb. - t o a ppea l t o smb., t o
imp lor e smb., t o b eg smb.;
t o h old t igh t ly - t o clasp;
n ot t o let go n ea r - t o k eep smb. a wa y fr om;
t o fa ce smb. in a h os t ile wa y - t o con fr on t smb., t o t u rn on
smb.;
t o s t r et ch ou t on es h a n d - t o pu t ou t / h old ou t / ext en d on es
hand;
t o t ake a wa y - t o r emove;
t o s eize - t o snat ch;
t o be exa ct ly a like - t o ma t ch on e a n ot h er ;
in an imp olit e ma n n er - ru dely;
a s t r on g des ir e for fa me - a mbit ion ;
t o feel r es pect a n d a d mir a t ion for smb. - t o wor s h ip smb.;
in a difficu lt p os it ion - at bay;
t o fa ce smb. b old ly - t o con fr on t smb.;
t o st and in an er ect pos it ion - t o s t a n d u pr igh t ;
t o give smb. a wa y t o t h e en emy - t o bet r a y smb.;
loss o f good n a me - dis gra ce, dis h on ou r ;
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n ot s h owin g r es p ect - wit h coa r s e fa milia r it y; im p e r t i
n en t ;
ob viou s ly fr igh t en ed - evid en t ly st art led.
Exe r cis e 9, p. 190
- ext r a or din a r ily gr acefu l;
- in t elligen t face;
( - . ) - t o s ave
on es elf t h e t r ou ble (o f d oin g smt h.);
- . - t o pa t smb. on t h e ch eek;
- wit h a r a dia nt smile;
- t he mos t t ediou s t h in g in t h e
wor ld;
- t o br ea k in t o a t or r en t o f
s coldin g;
- . - t o ma ke a fa ir divis ion ;
- t o gasp;
- t o wr in g on e s hands;
- wit h coa r s e fa milia r it y;
- . - t o comp r omis e smb.;
- pu blic op in ion ;
- t o figh t a du el;
- t o be a b ove s u s picion;
- . - t o fa ll in t o smb.s hands;
- hau ght ily;
- a mbit iou s hu sband;
- s ocia l pos it ion ;
- bes ide h ims elf.
Exe r cis e 10, p. 190
1. A p er s on wh o is d es cr ib ed as h a vin g ch a r a ct er in t h e
ch in has eit h er a ch in wh ich is m or e or less on a level wit h
t h eir lips or - m or e oft e n - a p r ot r u d in g/ ju t t in g ch in. It is
wid ely b elieved t h a t t h is is a s ign o f ch a r a ct er . On t h e ot h er
h a n d a p er s on wit h a r eced in g ch in (
) oft e n d es cr ib ed as h a vin g n o ch in is b elieved t o h a ve
n o ch a r a ct er / t o h a ve a wea k ch a r a ct er . Let t h e r ea der ju dge
fr om t h eir own exp er ien ce wh et h er s u ch a n ot ion is t ru e or
false. 2. Elega n t , in t elligen t , in ven t ive, s h owin g edu ca t ion ,
good t a st e a n d ma n n er s . 3. Don t pa y a n y a t t en t ion t o h im,
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gen er a l/ He is n t wor t h you r a t t en t ion , gen er a l. 4. Let me dea l
wit h h im/ h a n dle h im/ Lea ve t h e ma t t er in my hands. 5. Givin g
an a r t ificia l s mile wh ile for cin g/ p u m p in g a fe w t ear s ou t o f
h er eyes. 6. Wit h r ep r oa ch bu t k eep in g on e s dign it y. 7. Th e
la dy in a d ver t en t ly r emin ds Na p ole on o f t h e wor d s t h e lieu
t en a n t said just a fe w min u t es a go, Lady? He is a ma n ! Th e
ma n I s h owed my con fid e n c e in . Her wor ds , You see, I s h ow
my con fid en ce in you , a r e u t t er ed wh en t h e b et r a yed lieu
t en a n t s wor d s a r e s t ill t oo fr es h in Bon a p a r t es memor y.
Su r ely t h e La dy s h ou ld h a ve u s ed m or e ca u t ion / s h ou ld n ot
h a ve for got t en t o t a ke ca r e in t h e p r es en ce o f on e o f t h e
clever es t men in Eu r ope. 8. Woma n , wom a n , love ly a n d
t r ea ch er ou s , you h a ve b een t r yin g t o ch a r m me in t o let t in g
you go wit h m y d is p a t eh es / Lovely t r a it r es s / Tr ea ch er ou s
s edu ct r es s, you h a ve b een t r yin g t o t r ick me ou t o f my dis
pa t ch es by u s in g you r fem in in e ch ar ms . 9. Th e mea n , c om
mon Cor s ica n a d ven t u r er you r ea lly a r e s h ows ver y ea s ily
t h r ou gh you r gla mor ou s fa ca de/ You t ry t o look like a well-
ma n n er ed, p olit e ma n , bu t t h e mea n , c om m on Cor s ica n
a dven t u r er you r ea lly a r e s h ows u p wh e n e ve r you a r e cr os s ed
(a t e ve r y op p or t u n it y). 10. Look in g a t t h e p a p er s wit h
u n plea s a n t , s a t is fa ct ion . 11. Wit h a ffect ed / fa ls e s weet n es s
bor n o f (r es u lt in g fr om ) b it t er exp er ien ce/ Wit h a mixt u r e o f
a r t ificia l s weet n es s a n d gen u in e bit t er n es s . 12. Like a t ru e
Cor s ica n I love (I h a ve a t a s t e for ) in t er es t in g s t or ies . 13. Th e
wife o f t h e r u ler s h ou ld n ot be s p ok en ill o f wh a t ever h er
t r a n s gr es s ion s ma y be (n o ma t t er wh et h er s h e is bla meles s or
n ot ). 14. You h a ve b een t act less. 15. You ma y for get you r -
s elf/ You ma y sa y s om et h in g s o in dis cr eet t h a t I wo n t be a ble
t o for give you / t o ove r look it. 16. Do you mea n t h a t you a re
t h e s or t o f ma n wh o k n ows t hat his wife is u n fa it h fu l t o
h im/ ch ea t s on h im bu t p r efer s t o ove r look it / t o t u r n t h e
b lin d eye beca u s e h e ca n t h elp lovin g her?
Exer cise 14 (a ), p. 191
A gr ea t milit a r y leader, a r en own ed st at esman, a ma n o f
ext r a or din a r y dest iny, Na p oleon Bon a pa r t e qu it t h e s t a ge o f his
t or y in J uly 1815.
But for s ix mor e years t h e ma n wh o h a d ou t lived his glor y
dr a gged ou t an exis t en ce on a r ocky islan d los t in t h e ocea n . It
wa s a lon g-d r a wn -ou t a gon y o f a pr is on er d oom ed t o s low
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deat h. Th e Br it is h Gover n men t on wh os e gen er os it y Na p oleon
h a d cou n t ed, did n ot live u p t o his expect a t ion s . It k ep t h im
u n der a pet ty, ca pt iou s s u r veilla n ce t hat p ois on ed t h e last years
o f his life. Th e cou r a ge a n d for t it u d e h e dis pla yed in t h os e lon g
days o f t rials a n d t r ibu la t ion s h a ve ma de on e for get ma n y o f his
for mer crimes.
At a dis t a n ce o f on e h u n dr ed a n d fift y or on e h u n dr ed a n d
eigh t y years t h e voices o f an ep och gon e b y are s omewh a t
mu t ed. But on t h e ot h er h a n d a h is t or ia n r es t or in g a pict u r e o f a
b ygon e er a a n d its h er oes a n d villa in s is a lr ea dy fr ee fr om t he
pa r t ia lit ies a n d pr eju dices o f t h e t ime h e depict s . Mea s u r ed by
t h e u n b en d in g ya r ds t ick o f t ime, t h e h is t or ica l even t s a n d fig
ures ca n be s een in per s p ect ive for h is t or y a llot s ever yb od y t h eir
p r op er place.
Seen fr om t his r em ot e dis t a n ce, Na p ole on Bon a p a r t e
a ppea rs as a mos t con t r a d ict or y figu r e in deed. We view h im, first
a n d for emos t , as t h e s on o f his t ime, a t ime o f ch a n ge, wh en t h e
old feu da l s ys t em wa s fa din g a wa y a n d a n ew bou r geois s ociet y
wa s emer gin g (wa s com in g u p t o t ake its pla ce). On e a s s ociat es
his n a me wit h tyranny, cr u el b lood y wa r s a n d a n in s at ia ble lust
for n ew con qu es t s .
It will b e p r ob a b ly cor r ect t o say t h at Na p oleon Bon a pa r t e
wa s on e o f t h e mos t ou t s t a n d in g r epr es en t a t ives o f t h e b ou r
geois ie wh en it wa s s t ill a you n g, br a ve, r is in g class a n d t hat it
wa s h e wh o mos t fu lly ep it om ized all t h e s t r on g poin t s it had
t hen, as well as all t h e fla ws p ecu lia r t o it even at t h a t ea r ly
stage.
As lon g as p r ogr es s ive e lem en t s p r e d om in a t e d in
Na p oleon s a ct ivit ies , his go od for t u n e h eld a n d h e won on e
vict or y a ft er a n ot h er . But wh en his wa r s t u r n ed in t o pu r ely
a ggr es s ive, imp er ia lis t on es b r in gin g t h e p eop les o f Eu r ope
n ot h in g bu t s u bju ga t ion a n d op p r es s ion , n eit h er his per s on a l
la len t s n or t h e t r emen d ou s effor t s h e t ook cou ld en s u r e vic-
lory. Not h in g cou ld a ver t t h e colla p s e o f his emp ir e a n d his
own d own fa ll. Bot h his ris e a n d his fa ll wer e qu it e in t h e or d er
o f t hings .
Na p oleon Bon a pa r t e wa s a ma n o f his t ime a n d his ima ge is an
epit ome o f its features. All t h e bou r geois polit icia n s wh o ca me
a ft er h im an d t r ied t o s tep in t o his s hoes kept degen er a t in g in t o a
I ravest y or car icat u r e o f t he ma n t h ey en dea vou r ed t o imitate.
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It is u t t er ly imp os s ib le t o s t r ike Na p ole on s n a me o ff t h e
annals. In 1968 his b icen t en n ia l wa s ma r ked in volvin g h u n
dr eds o f b ook s a n d a r t icles , a gr ea t n u mb er o f con gr es s es ,
con fer en ces , TV s h ows - a n d m or e dispu t es . Th e p u blic in t er
est in Na p oleon as a man, a milit a r y lea d er a n d a s t a t es ma n is
s t ill keen .
So wh a t d o p eop le con t in u e t o dis pu t e abou t ? Some dis pa r
a ge a n d curse Bon a pa r t e, ot h er s s in g his praises, s t ill ot h er s t ry
h a r d t o expla in t h e con t r a dict ion s o f his ca r eer s o u n like all ot h
ers. Bu t n o ma t t er h ow diver s e t h e opin ion s ma y be, ever yb od y
a gr ees t ha t h e wa s a ma n o f a u niqu e, a s t on is h in g des t in y
impr es s ed for ever on t h e memor y o f ma n kind.
Exer cis e 2, p. 193
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Exer cise 3, . 195
. 1. Sh e is n ot , I t h in k, a wom a n o f ch a r a ct er . 2. Th e
wr it e r s s kill in cr ea t in g vivid a n d or igin a l ch a r a ct er s a n d
s cen es is c om b in e d wit h t h e r efin em en t o f la n gu a ge an d
s t yle. 3. Th e ch a r a ct er s in t h e wr it e r s b o o k (s ) a r e a ll ver y
mu ch a like. 4. His con ver s a t ion wa s ch a r a ct er is t ic o f a r et ir ed
officer . 5. Look at t h e clou ds . Th ey t h r ea t en rain. 6. Th e
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t ea ch er t h r ea t en ed t o pu n is h t h e p u p il u n les s h e d id his
h om e wor k p r oper ly. 7. J a pp s a n k in t o a ch a ir , look e d at me
a n d t a p p ed his for eh ea d s ign ifica n t ly (
). 8. His voic e h a d r is en bu t n ow it s a n k
a lmos t t o a wh is p er . 9- At last h e s a n k in t o h ea vy s lu mber .
10. You a r e h er fr ien d - in t h e bes t s en s e o f t h e wor d . Su r ely
t h a t gives you s pecia l p r iviledges . 11. Th e dr u gs h a d ea s ed t h e
p a in a n d s h e wa s left wit h a s en s e o f gr ea t fa t igu e. 12. Nor a
n ever ma de scen es . She wa s s en s ible en ou gh / Sh e h a d en ou gh
s en s e t o k n ow t h a t t h ey wou ld on ly ir r it a t e Roger . 13. Th e
t r u t h wa s t oo ob viou s , a n d J u lia h a d t oo mu ch s en s e/ wa s t oo
s en s ible t o miss it. 14.1 t h in k s h e b eh a ved wit h gr ea t s en s e/
c om m on s ens e. 15. He n ever ca u t ion ed me a b ou t t h a t u n t il
yes t er da y.
. 1. My fr ien d a n d I s lipped ou t o f t he r oom. 2. We k n ew
wh a t you in t en d ed t o d o a n d we t ook pr eca u t ion s. 3 . 1 mea n t t o
give t h e b ook ba ck t o you t h is mor n in g, bu t in t h e h ea t o f
ou r dis cu s s ion it h a d s lip p ed my memor y. 4. Sh e s lip p ed h er
h a n d in t o h is a n d ga ve h im h er old s mile. 5. It mu st b e a wfu l
t o s ee yea r a ft er s lip by a n d live in a p la ce wh e r e n ot h in g ca n
h a ppen . 6. His life h a d b een a b it t er s t r u ggle a ga in s t ever y
s or t o f difficu lt y. 7. Gor k ys d ea t h wa s a b it t er los s t o all t h e
p eop le. 8. His fa ilu r e at t h e exa m in a t ion s wa s a b it t er d is a p
p oin t m e n t t o h im. 9. She wa s a fr a id t o s t ir for fea r s he migh t
wa k e u p t h e ch ild. 10. Poet r y, lik e mu s ic, s t ir r ed h im p r o
fou n dly. 11. He h a d n o pit y, a n d h er t ea r s s t ir r ed n o em ot ion ,
bu t h e d id n t wa n t h ys t er ics . 12. Th e r e ! h e wou ld s ay in an
in ju r ed t on e. No w t h e n a ils gon e . 13- Is n t it a b it t oo h ot
for s u n -ba t h in g? - Not for me. I lik e it h ot . Th e su n ca n t
in ju r e me. 14. Th e d oc t or t h ou gh t t h a t t h e in ju r y h a d b een
in flict ed (t h a t h e h a d b een in ju r ed ) b y a h ea vy b low fr om
s om e blu n t in s t r u men t . 15. She is r even gefu l t o a n yon e wh o
has h u r t her. 16. He t old Ka t e t h at , in p r a ct ica l a ffa ir s ,
r even ge wa s a lu xu r y h e cou ld n ot a ffor d . 17. Th a t wa s h ow
lie cou ld t a ke (ge t / h a ve ) r even ge/ r even ge h im s elf on t h os e
p e op le for t h eir mocker y. 18. An n k n e w s h e cou ld t a ke
r even ge/ r even ge h er s elf on t h em, bu t s h e n o lon ger felt
angry.
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Exer cise 4, p. 196
A. 1. Is it lik e h im? - Not at all. 2. His a p p ea r a n ce d id n ot
ma t ch his d is p os it ion / n a t u r e. 3. I lik e t h e wa y t h e a ct or
r evea ls t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e ch a r a ct er . 4. Th e old gen t lem a n
is d ecid ed ly/ d efin it ely a ver y in t er es t in g a n d u n u s u a l per s on .
5 . 1 k n ow t h a t Bla n ch e is qu ick - t em p er ed / h ot - t em p er ed . It s
pa r t o f h er s t r on g will. 6. Th e p er s on t h e wr it e r likes mos t a n d
pr efer s t o p or t r a y in his b ook s is a ma n wh o is p oor a n d a lon e
in t h e wor ld . 7. His s t yle is ver y la con ic/ s u ccin ct / On e o f t h e
mos t s a lien t fea t u r es o f his s t yle is la con is m (s u ccin ct n es s ).
8. Th e fa t h er exp r es s ed t h e h or r ib le in t en t ion t o cu t t h e b oys
p oc k e t m on ey t o a s h illin g i f h e d is ob eyed h im. 9. We h a d h a d
clou d y days b efor e, bu t t h en it d id n t look like rain. 10. Wh o
wa s t h e h er t h ey we r e t a lk a bou t ? I s u d d en ly u n d er s t ood
wit h h or r or : me. 11. Bu t wh y s h ou ld t h ey get s o d a m n ed sus
p iciou s ? Miller a sked. It s eems p oin t les s t o me, bos s / Th er e
s eems t o be n o p oin t in it, bos s . 12. He wa s a ble t o look a ft er
h er a n d t h a t wa s a r elief. In fa ct h e ma d e a ll wh o we r e n ea r
h im feel t h a t h e wa s s u p p or t in g t h em. 13. He h a d en ou gh
s en s e/ He wa s r ea s on a b le (s en s ib le) en ou gh t o a ccep t t h e
in evit a ble. 14. I t h in k s h e b eh a ved ver y s en s ibly/ r ea s on
a bly/ wis ely. 15. Com e on , le t s s pea k r ea s on a b ly/ let s t a lk like
r ea s on a b le p e op le . 16. You t a ke o ffe n c e wh e r e n on e is
given / You t a ke ever yt h in g t oo mu ch t o h ea r t : t h a t s r id icu
lou s . Ever yon e is s u r e t o we lc om e you . 17. It s s t u pid t o ca t ch
cold / Th er e is n o p oin t in ca t ch in g cold . Pu t on you r s wea t er .
18. He is ext r e m e ly s elf-imp or t a n t . 19- She b r ok e in: We ca n t
t a ke t oo mu ch ca r e wh en we t a lk b e for e ch ild r en . 20. Wh en
h e r et u r n ed, h e s a id t h e d oc t or ou gh t t o s ee her, just t o b e on
t h e s a fe side. 21. Mrs. Ebb er ly a lwa ys t ook mea s u r es a ga in s t
b ein g exp os ed t o dr a u gh t s .
B. 1. She pu t t h e r in g on h er fin ger a n d h eld ou t / ext en d
ed/ pu t ou t h er a r m t o h a ve a b et t er look at his pr es en t . 2. Th e
min u t es pa s s ed b y in t o an h ou r . 3. If you a ga in say s om e
t h in g d iffer en t fr om wh a t wa s in t en d ed , a cciden t a lly, as you
cla im, I will fa il you , s a id t h e exa min er . 4. He r elieved h im s elf
of/ He t ook o ff his b oot s a n d coa t a n d s lid in t o t h e wa t er .
5. Th e s ever e c old o f la t e a u t u mn wh ich n o on e has p r ep a r ed
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for or for es een is m or e d ifficu lt t o bea r t h a n t h e c old o f win
ter. 6. He r ep r oa ch ed me veh em en t ly/ s ever ely for n ot h a vin g
let h im kn ow. 7. Bu t t h a t wa s n t mu ch im p r ove m e n t , h e
s a id wit h a qu iet s a r ca s m, a n d h is wor d s we r e u t t er ed is s u ch
a wa y as t o s h ow t h a t h e wa s fe e lin g ve r y s t r on gly a b ou t it.
8 . 1wa s s o u t t er ly exh a u s t ed/ s o t ir ed ou t / s o ru n d own t h a t
I cou ld h a r d ly move. 9. Ha llwa r d ma d e a s ligh t m ove m e n t in
his ch a ir as if h e we r e goin g t o rise. 10. In h er d a y s h e h a d
ca u s ed a lot o f e xcit em en t in t h e lit t le wor ld o f Lon d on .
11. Do n ot let t h e ch ild r en d a ma ge t h e bu s h es in t h e park.
12. His h ea d wa s h u r t in t h e a ccid en t . 13- Wh y s h ou ld s h e
a lwa ys look hu rt ? 14. Th e d oc t or s a id t h a t s or t o f t h in g migh t
h u r t / h a r m/ da ma ge t h e gir ls m en t a lit y for life. 15. If a ma n
t r ies t o get even wit h a p er s on wh o has in ju r ed h im (t o d o
h a r m in r et u r n for t h e h a r m t h a t has b een d on e t o h im ), h e is
bu t equ a l t o his en emy, bu t in ove r look in g it h e is s u per ior .
16. Th e you n g pea s a n t s wor e t o get even wit h t h e ma n wh o
h a d in s u lt ed h is sist er. 17. His gr ie f a n d a feelin g t h a t h e
wou ld n o lon ge r s ee t h e p er s on h e love d s o mu ch wer e
r ep la ced by a des ir e t o get even / t o r et a lia t e (b y a d es ir e for
ven gea n ce).
Exe r cis e 5, p. 197
caution - warn
1. His fr ien ds w arned h im a ga in s t a pp r oa ch in g da n ger a n d
cautioned h im agains t r u n n in g in t o it./ His fr ien ds cautioned
h im a gains t a p p r oa ch in g da n ger a n d w arned h im against r u n
n in g in t o it. 2. We cautioned h er agains t s pea kin g rashly a nd
w arned h er o f t h e cir cu ms t an ces . 3. I cautioned h im against
bein g late. 4. Th e boys mu st be w arned n ot t o go s kat in g on t he
pond: t h e ice is t oo thin.
(In f orm a l contexts use c a u t i on agains t/ about).
s tir - move
1. He h eld his breat h, a fr a id t o stir. 2. Move as ide please. 3. He
wou ld n t s tir a fin ger t o h elp a n yon e. 4. He is a ble t o s tir a n yon e
lo a ct ion . 5. His kin d a t t it u de s tirred/ moved me t o tears. 6. She
was a fr a id t o s tir s o as n ot t o wa k e u p t h e ch ildr en .
( to s tir = to mak e a slight movement)
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injure - damage
1. Th e cr ops wer e damaged/ injured by t h e s t or m. 2. He wa s
injured in t h e war . 3- Lot s o f bu ildin gs wer e damaged b y t he
ea r t h qu a ke. 4. He wa s t h e on ly on e t o es ca pe fr om t h e t rain
wr eck wit h ou t being injured. 5. Th e car wa s damaged in an
a cciden t .
Exe r cis e 6, p. 197
A. 1. Wh e n Ted join e d ou r com p a n y/ a p p ea r ed in ou r
c om p a n y we im m ed ia t ely felt / s en s ed t h e s t r en gt h o f his
c h a r a c t e r (w e fe lt h o w s t r on g h is ch a r a c t e r wa s
r igh t / s t r a igh t a wa y). 2. Pu b lic s ch ools r ea lly bu ild ch a r a ct er
a n d a ver y d e fin it e on e - t h a t o f a lea der . 3. Wh e n we s t a r t
ed t o dis cu s s t h e ma in ch a r a ct er o f t h e s t or y, op in ion s we r e
d ivid ed . 4. Th e (A) d ecis ion t o wa it a n d s ee (t o wa it wit h ou t
d oin g a n yt h in g) is ver y ch a r a ct er is t ic o f h im. 5. An ywa y/ At
a n y r a t e/ in a n y ca s e you cou ld h a ve d on e/ m a n a ged wit h ou t
t h r ea t s , s a id J u ne. Th r ea t s w o n t wor k / won t get you a n y-
wh er e/ You w o n t a ch ieve a n yt h in g b y t h r ea t s / Th r ea t s wo n t
d o you a n y good . 6. No on e excep t / b u t t h e lea d er o f t h e
e x p e d it io n wa s a wa r e o f wh a t (r e a lize d wh a t ) d a n ger
t h r ea t en ed t h em i f t h e b lizza r d / t h e s n ows t or m d id n ot d ie
d own / d id n ot a b a t e/ s u b s id e/ cea s e b y m or n in g. 7. Th e
Tit a n ic , t h e ocea n lin er / t h e pa s s en ger s t ea mer s a n k in
1912. 8. Th e s u n wa s s in k in g t owa r d s t h e h or izon . It b eca m e
d a mp . / Th e a ir b eca m e da mp. 9- Du r in g a s t or m in t h e s ea/ at
s ea t h eir b oa t s ank, bu t t h e fis h er men m a n a ged / wer e a b le t o
es ca pe. 10. Do n t you t h in k t h is a ct or over a ct s (is ove r a c t
in g)? He has n o s en s e o f p r op or t ion . 11. (Wh y ) you a r e a
s en s ib le ma n / You a r e a s e n s i ble (r ea s on a b le) ma n a ft er all.
Do n t you u n d er s t a n d t h a t t h er e is n o p oin t (n o s e n s e ) in
a r gu in g a b ou t it u n t il we clea r e ver yt h in g u p / cla r ify e ver y
t h in g? s a id Ted. 12. Th is s e n t e n c e d oe s n t ma k e
s en s e/ ma kes n o s en s e, t h er e mu st b e a mis p r in t in it. 13. J ane
is ve r y s en s it ive (is over s en s it ive) t o cr it icis m; a n y r e p r i
ma n d / r eb u k e/ t ellin g o ff wh a t e ve r it is i n j u r e s h er (s h e
t a kes offe n c e at a n y r eb u k e/ t ellin g o ff n o ma t t er wh a t it is).
14. You h a d b e t t e r lis t en t o wh a t Roger is s a yin g: h e is t a lkin g
s en s e. 15. Per s ever a n ce a n d (c o m m o n ) s en s e/ good s en s e -
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t h a t s wh a t I lik e a b ou t h er . 16 . Us e c a u t i o n / Be c a u -
t iou s/ Be ca r efu l/ Look ou t / Ta k e ca r e, t h is is a ve r y b a d r oa d,
on e s h ou ld n t d r ive/ it w o n t d o t o d r ive a lon g it a t a h igh
speed. 17. I h a ve c a u t ion e d / wa r n e d you a ga in s t b e in g lat e,
a n d you a r e a n h ou r la t e. 18. All p r eca u t iou s we r e t a k en
a ga in s t t h e flu.
B. 1. She s t a r t ed a n d t h e cu p s lip p ed ou t o f h er hands .
2. Th is p a t h is ver y s lipper y, we h a d b et t er t a ke t h e r oa d / let s
t a ke t h e r oa d. 3. Wh e n t h e p a r t y wa s in fu ll s win g/ a t it s
h eigh t / At t h e h eigh t o f t h e p a r t y An n e ma n a ged t o s lip ou t o f
h ou s e u n n ot iced . 4. He s pea ks Ger ma n ver y flu en t ly bu t h e
s lips in his gr a mma r . 5 . 1 wa n t ed t o p h on e you / ca ll you / r in g
you u p yes t er d a y even in g/ la s t n igh t , bu t wh en I ca m e h om e
it s li p p e d (f r o m ) m y m e m or y/ m i n d (is es ca p ed my m em
or y). 6. Mrs. Dowe ls look e d a bou t / r ou n d/ a r ou n d. Tom wa s
n owh er e t o b e s een , h e mu s t h a ve given h er t h e s lip a ga in .
7. His fa ilin g (in ) t h e exa m/ His fa ilu r e in t h e exa m wa s a bit t er
d is a p p oin t m en t t o h im. 8. Wh e n Dor in wa s (l e ft ) a lon e, s h e
ga ve wa y t o h er t ear s a n d cr ied lon g a n d b it t er ly wit h m or t i
fica t ion / h u r t . 9. It is bi t t e r l y (a wfu lly/ t er r ib ly) c old t oda y.
Wh y n ot (Wh y d on t w e ) p os t p on e/ p u t o ff ou r t r ip t ill
t om or r ow? 10. Th er e wa s n o win d at a ll/ It wa s c om p le t e ly
s t ill, n ot a (s in gle ) le a f s t ir r ed. 11. St ir t h e p or r id ge or it will
bu rn. 12. No on e s t ir r ed in t h e h ou s e yet , I op e n e d t h e d oor
a n d wen t ou t . 13. Ma r ion n e ve r s t i r r e d a n e ye li d (n e ve r
t u r n ed a h a ir ) wh e n s h e h ea r d t h is s t u n n in g/ s t a r t lin g/ s t a g
ger in g n ews , s h e mu s t h a ve a lr ea d y k n own it. 14. Wh en J oh n
h a d an a ccid en t (m e t wit h a r oa d a ccid en t / got in t o a ca r
cr a s h ), his ba ck wa s s ever ely in ju r ed a n d h e s t ill feels o ff
c olou r / a n d h e h a s n t got ove r it / h e s t ill d oes n t feel ver y
well. 15. Im a fr a id t h is m ed icin e ma y i n ju r e t h e ch ild / ma y
h a r m t h e ch ild / ma y d o h a r m t o t h e ch ild. 16. Tr y t o be m or e
d i s c r e e t / t a c t fu l s o as n ot t o in ju r e her. She is ver y s e n s i t ive
(t ou ch y). 17. I t h in k s h e bu rs t in t o t ea r s / ou t cr yin g beca u s e
o f in ju r ed pr ide. 18. She d id it in r even ge/ Sh e d id it t o
r even ge h er s elf/ t o t a ke/ get / h a ve (h e r ) r even ge, a ft er a ll you
h a dn t t r ea t ed h er ver y we ll eit h er . 19. I wou ld n ever h a ve
t h ou gh t , s a id Nor a , t h a t s h e wa s ca p a b le o f h a vin g/ get -
l in g/ t a kin g (h e r ) r even ge for a s ma ll in ju r y a n d a ccid en t a l at
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t h a t (fo r a s ma ll in ju r y t h a t h a d n ever b een mea n t ). 20. Su ch
r e v e n ge fu l (vin d ic t ive ) p e o p le n e ve r fo r ge t i n j u r i e s
(in s u lt s ) a n d a lwa ys h op e t o r even ge t h ems elves / t o t a ke/
get / h a ve (t h e ir ) r even ge on t h e i n j u r e r / o n t h e p er s on wh o
h a d h u r t t h em/ on t h e offen d er .
Exer cise 7, p. 198
1. He has a wea k ch a r a ct er . / He has n o ch a r a ct er . 2. He is
qu it e a ch a r a ct er . 3. Th ey a r e t oo s en s it ive (ove r s e n s it ive ).
4. Th e y a r e r e ve n ge fu l/ vin d ic t ive . 5. Th e y h a ve/ get / t a k e
(t h e ir ) r even ge. 6. Reven ge/ Ven gea n ce. 7. I wou ld t r y n ot
t o s t i r a n e ye li d (t u r n a h a ir ). 8. On e mu s t t a ke p r eca u t ion s .
9. On e mu s t wa lk ca u t iou s ly. 10. On e ma y b e in ju r ed. 11. On e
ma y be/ get in ju r ed. 12. Slipper s . 13. Pe op le wit h n o s en s e o f
h u mou r . 14. Th is is c h a r a ct er is t ic o f h im. 15. A s in k/ a
k it ch en s ink. 16. A s en s ib le p er s on / A p er s on o f s en s e.
Exe r cis e 8, p. 199
1. Oh , yes, h er ch a r a ct er is fu ll o f (is a bu n dle o f) con t r a
dict ion s . She is c om p let ely u n p r ed ict a b le. 2. I ca n s ee t hat
n ow, bu t h e h a d a goo d ch a r a ct er . 3. Oh , I ca n assure you t ha t
it s qu it e u n lik e her. Qu it e ou t o f ch a r a ct er . 4. Oh , yes, t h a t s
ver y ch a r a ct er is t ic o f her/ ju s t like her. She has n o s en s e o f
t ime/ s en s e o f r es pon s ibilit y. 5. Beca u s e you a r e a s en s ible
ma n / Beca u s e you h a ve a lot o f (c om m on ) s en s e a n d a lwa ys
k n ow wh a t t o do. 6. No, it s lip p ed (fr o m ) my a t t en t ion / No, it
d oes n t s eem t o ma k e sense. 7. It just s lip p ed my memor y/
min d. 8. Yes, I h a d b et t er s lip a s wea t er / a coa t on . 9. Not her.
She d id n t s t ir an eyelid. 10. He s lip p ed a n d b r ok e his a n kle
a n d his wr is t / He wa s in ju r ed in a n a cciden t . 11. She wa s
b es id e h er s elf (wit h r a ge, a n ger , fea r, et c. ). 12. It wa s h a r dly
a s en s ib le t h in g t o d o/ Th e r e wa s n o s en s e in it.
13. Un for t u n a t ely it s lip p ed my m em or y t o d o min e. / Wa s
t h er e a n y s en s e in d oin g it ?/ Th er e wa s n o s en s e in d oin g it.
14. O f cou r s e, I am. I s lip p ed in my gr a mma r s o ma n y t imes
t h a t I los t cou n t o f my mis t a kes . 15. It s r ea lly qu it e t ediou s ,
bu t you wou ld h a ve in ju r ed t h e h os t es s s feelin gs if you h a d
n t come. / Well, you ma y just s lip ou t o f t h e h ou s e u n n ot iced .
16. My fa t h er h as r efu s ed p oin t b la n k t o len d me his car, so
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Ive h a d t o t a ke a bu s/ 1 just d on t h a ve a s en s e o f t im e a n d my
wa t ch has s t op p ed . 17. Th a t s beca u s e o f his inju ry.
Exe r cis e 12, p. 199
1. Nor ma n is out . Hell be ba ck in an h ou r or so. 2. Let s for
get t h e qu a r r el a n d be fr ien ds , h e said h old in g ou t his hand.
3- Let s get ou t o f t h e ca r a n d s t r et ch ou r legs. 4. I r ea lly ca n t
wa lk a t su ch a rate. Im qu it e ou t o f br eat h. 5 . 1r ememb er t hat
I wa s s ca r ed ou t o f my wit s t hen, bu t t h e det a les h a ve fa ded
fr o m my memor y. 6. Out o f r es pect for h er feelin gs you ou gh t t o
be dis creet . 7. Th e d oor won t lock. All t h e locks in t his cot t a ge
are ou t o f or der . 8. Ar e you ou t o f you r senses t o act like this?
9. Th e la dy s u cceeded in t r ickin g t h e lieu t en a n t ou t o f t h e dis
pat ch es . 10. Ar e you at you r t ricks again? fe u ll dr ive me ou t o f
my senses. 11. Th e first in t r odu ct ion o f Fr en ch in t o English
dat es fr om t h e t ime o f t h e Sa xon kings. 12. Amer ica n s la n g is
for cin g its wa y in t o English. 13. It s good t o be a ble t o t u rn s or
r ow in t o/ t o joy. 14. Wh y did you burst in t o t h e r oom wi t h s o
mu ch nois e? 15. He sat s t a r in g at t h e fire.
Exer cis e 13, p. 200
1. Wh e n t h e p a r t y wa s in fu ll s win g/ a t its h eigh t , Ru t h
s lip p ed ou t o f t h e h ou s e u n n ot iced . 2 . 1 ca n t ma ke ou t s ome
o f t h e wor d s , you h a ve a n a wfu l h a n d wr it in g. 3. Th e da y
t u r n ed ou t / p r oved fin e, a n d we wis h ed we h a d n t s t a yed in
t h e cit y (a n d we we r e s or r y t h a t we h a d s t a yed in t h e cit y).
4. Ou t o f s igh t , ou t o f m in d (Lon g a bs en t , s oon for got t e n ).
5. Ka t e s miled t h r ou gh (h e r ) t ea r s a n d s a id, Im s orr y, my
n er ves a r e a ll t o p ieces . 6. He lives in t h e cou n t r y, a n d it
t a kes h im an h ou r a n d a h a lf t o get t o wor k . 7. You will get
in t o t r ou ble/ a mes s/ a s cr a pe. An d d on t s a y t h en t h a t I d id
n t wa r n you . 8. Wh e n Ka t e lea r n t t h a t t h e d ep a r t u r e h a d
b een ca lled o ff a ga in , s h e bu r st in t o t ear s / bu r s t ou t cr yin g. 9.
J im bu rs t in t o t h e r oom , s n a t ch ed / gr a b b ed (ca u gh t h old o f)
s om et h in g, a n d in a min u t e wa s ou t a ga in . 10. No w t h a t t h ey
wer e ou t o f d a n ger t h ey cou ld t a ke a r es t at last (t h e y cou ld
at lon g las t t a k e a r es t ). 11. He h a s n t gon e ou t for a mon t h .
12. Th e d oor d oe s n t / won t lock. Th e lock mu st b e ou t o f
or d er . 13. It is n ot lik e h im/ It is u n like h im t o a r gu e ou t o f
s h eer ob s t in a cy/ s t u bb or n n es s .
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CONVERSATI ON AND DI SCUSSI ON
FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. Pos it ive fe elin gs . - .
a dmir a t ion - ;
en t h u s ia s m - 1) , ; 2) ( )
;
excit emen t - ( ); ;
ela t ion - , , ;
, ;
joy - ;
love - ;
pr ide - ;
zes t - 1) , ; 2) , .
2. Ne ga t ive feelin gs. - .
a n ger - ;
a n n oya n ce - ;
ir r it a t ion - ;
a n xiet y - , ;
des pa ir - ;
h u milia t ion - , ;
emba r r a s s men t - ; ; ;
t en s ion - , ;
en vy - ;
h a t e - ;
jea lou s y - ;
fea r - ;
s h a me - ;
gu ilt - , ;
r a ge - ;
t er r or - .
3. Em ot i on a l c on d i t i on . -
.
a ) t o feel good , t o feel fin e - ,
;
t o feel gr ea t - ,
;
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t o feel pr ide a n d joy - ,
;
t o be br igh t a n d h a ppy - (
);
t o be in a good m ood - ;
d ) t o feel bad - ,
;
t o feel u neas y/ an xiou s - , ;
t o feel lon ely/ s ca r ed/ mis er a ble -
/ / ;
t o feel gu ilt y - ,
;
t o feel pu t u pon - ,
;
t o be u ps et - ;
t o b e t en s e a n d ju mpy - ;
t o b e fu r iou s - ;
t o be in a ba d t emp er - , / -
.
4. Dis p la y o f e mot ion s . - .
t o expr es s on e s feelin gs - ;
t o h id e on e s feelin gs - ;
t o dis gu is e on e s feelin gs - ;
t o con t r ol on es feelin gs -
, ;
t o r evea l on e s feelin gs - ;
t o r elieve on es feelin gs - ,
;
t o get a n gr y at s mt h ./ wit h smb. - - ./
- .;
t o let o ff s t ea m - nap;
t o burst ou t la u gh in g/ cr yin g - / ;
/ ;
t o beh a ve ca lmly a n d coolly -
;
t o t a ke on e s ir r it a t ion ou t on smb. - - .
i- ;
t o t h r ow t ant ru ms - ;
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t o s cr ea m a n d yell at smb. - - .;
t o keep on es t emp er - ,
;
t o los e on es t emp er - , ; ;
t o fly in t o a r a ge - , /
.
: UNIT SEVEN i i i I
Exer cise 1, p. 212
Pos s i ble Va r ia n t s
1. Ca u t ion ma d e J im h es it a t e t o say w ho he really was.
2. He d id n ot h es it a t e t o propos e to h e r the m om e n t she
d iv orced that hateful hus band o f hers. 3- I s h a n t t ou ch u p on
t h e s u bject u n les s s omebod y els e mentions it (brin gs it up). 4.
No u s e dis cu s s in g t h e ma t t er wit h me u n les s y ou are p re
p a re d to lis ten to reas on. 5. We t h ou gh t we k n ew It a lia n h a v
in g s t u d ied it fr om b ook s , bu t we h a d s ome d ifficu lt y (in )
com m u n ica t in g when we f ou n d ours elves in Italy . 6. It s n ot
a lwa ys ea s y t o t ea ch ch ild r en t o read. Some ch ild r en h a ve
s p ecia l difficulty (in ) lin k in g the letters in t o s y llables a n d the
s y llables in to words . 7. Th e d oor wa s s o n a r r ow t h a t we h a d
s om e difficulty (in ) s queez ing through it as a ll o f us were
ra t h er fa t. 8. Wit h ma n y ot h er t h in gs t o occu p y my min d,
I h a d n ot given Wils on a s ingle thought. 9- Th e t wo old ge n
t lem en we r e ob viou s ly d is p lea s ed wit h t h e in t er r u p t ion .
Th ey ga ve us a f row n a n d pu rs ed th eir lips. 10. Im n ot a s t on
is h ed at his r efu s a l t o h elp us at all. Th a t is p r ecis ely w hat
Ie x p e ct e d him to do. 11. No w it s qu it e evid en t t h a t we s h a n t
b e a ble t o fin is h t h e wor k on t ime. Th a t s precis ely / jus t w hat
Fve alway s feared . I k new f rom the very s tart that we w ou ld n 't
meet the deadline. 1 2 . 1k n ow t h a t h es s or r y a bou t wh a t h a p
p en ed bu t I a m n on e the h a p p ie r f o r his apolog}/ f or learn in g
it. 13- Th e b oy is n a u gh t y, bu t I lik e h im n on e the wors e f o r his
ba d behavior. 1 4 . 1 t h in k it on ly fa ir t o t ell you t h a t t h a t s all I
can give y ou. 15. Hes a con n ois s eu r [k on a ' s a :] ( ) o f art
a n d h e s u r ely k n ows a goo d p a in t in g wh e n he sees it. 16. Th is
you n g a ct r es s has got r ea l t a len t . I assu re you I k n ow a good
a ct r es s wh en I s ee her. 17. You ca n n ot im a gin e a mor e
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d eligh t fu l p er s on t o d eal with. 18. If you r e in n eed o f a dvice,
you ca n n ot fin d a b et t er p er s on t o tu rn to.
Exe r cis e 2, p. 212
Pos s i ble Va r ia n t s
1. He hes itated t o go fu r t h er beca u s e h e wa s a fr a id. 2. Don t
h es it a t e t o r efu s e if you t h in k t h e pla n is u n wis e. 3. Unles s the
w eather is bad we ou gh t t o h a ve a good t r ip t h er e. 4. Unles s ive
hurry we s h a n t get h om e b e for e dark. 5. He had (s om e ) d iffi
culty (in ) get t in g t h e in for ma t ion . 6 .J ea n -Pierre h a d (s om e )
difficulty (in ) u n d er s t a n d in g wh a t s h e s a id beca u s e o f h er ba d
Fr en ch . 1 .John gave a shrug/ sigh, s eemed t o h es it a t e a n d t h en
wa lk ed on . 8. Give him a r in g, it s u r gen t . 9. Thats (precis ely )
wh a t it s goin g t o be if we ca n t fin d s om e b et t er exp la n a t ion .
10. She is definitely n ot (Th a t s precis ely ) wh a t you e xp ect ed
a t ea ch er t o be. 11. I m none the h a ppie r for k n owin g t h e
t ru t h. 12. I lik e y ou none the wors e for b ein g fr a n k a n d
s t r a igh t for wa r d . 13. Thats a ll I d are t o h op e for . 14. He was
a connois s eur o f clas s ical mus ic a n d k new a good s y mphony /
opera wh en h e h ea r d it. 15. I ve never met a more pleas ant
w oman t o h a ve a ch a t wit h . 16. He is the w ors t p a rt n e r im a gi
nable t o wor k wit h .
Exer cise 3, p. 213
1. He h es it a t ed t o give a d vice a fr a id o f r es pon s ibilit y,
I t hink. 2. Don t h es it a t e t o ca ll me if you n eed me. 3- Un les s Im
mis t a ken t his is bu t a t emp or a r y job. 4. Don t d o a n yt h in g
u nless you h ea r fr om me. 5. Wer e goin g on a h ike n ext
Sat u r da y u nless t h e wea t h er t u r ns ou t nasty. 6. I a lwa ys h a ve
(s om e ) d ifficu lt y (in ) r ememb er in g da tes, t h ey just s lip my
memor y. 7 . 1h a d s ome d ifficu lt y (in ) u n der s t a n din g t h e a r t icle.
8. He ga ve an a p ologet ic la u gh a n d said, So t h a t s it. How on
ea r t h d id you gu es s t h e t ru t h ? 9. Tom ga ve a shrug. Wh a t n ext ,
1won d er ? 10. Th e la n dla dy ga ve t h e t h r ee you n g men a cr it i
cal look a n d clos ed t h e d oor in t h eir faces. 11. At s eein g me
J ovella ga ve a s igh o f r elief. 12. Th a t s pr ecis ely/ ju s t wh a t I wa s
a fr a id of. 13. If I h a d my t ime over a ga in , t h a t s pr ecis ely/ ju st
h ow I s h ou ld act. 1 3 . 1 liked t h e b oy n on e t h e wor s e for b ein g
a bit nau ght y. 15. He is n on e t h e h a ppier for his wea lt h / for
bein g rich. 16. Im a wa r e t ha t t h a t s t h e on ly t h in g I ca n s et my
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h op es on / I ca n h op e for . 17. Is t h a t a ll I ca n (h a ve got t o) look
for wa r d t o? a s ked Cor a. 18. Soa mes k n ew a good pict u r e
wh en h e s a w it. 19. He is a well- r ea d per s on a n d k n ows a good
Fr en ch p oem wh en h e sees it. 2 0 . 1ca n h a r dly ima gin e a bet t er
dis t r ict t o live in t h a n t h e Sou t h -Wes t o f Mos cow. 21. He d oes
n t b elieve t h er e is a b et t er p la ce t o h a ve a res t in t h a n
Scot la n d.
Exer cise 4, p. 213
1. I h es it a t ed t o b ot h er you . 2. Not if you h a ve d ifficu lt y
(i n ) fin d in g t h e t ime. 3- No on e u n les s you h a ve c on fid e d it
t o s om eon e. 4 . 1 h a d s om e d iffic u lt y (i n ) ge t t in g h er e. My ca r
b r ok e d own . 5. I d id h a ve d iffic u lt y (i n ) ob t a in in g it. In all
t h e b ig b ook s t or es t h ey t old me it wa s ou t o f p r in t , bu t
I ma n a ged t o fin d it in an ob s cu r e s ma ll b ook s h op on t h e
ou t s kir t s o f t h e cit y. 6. Oh , yes , s h e ga ve s u ch a yell/ s cr ea m
t h a t it cou ld h a ve r ou s ed t h e dea d. 7. Yes, I wa s t old t h a t
s om e on e h a d give n h im a pu s h. 8. Im in t wo min ds . Th a t s
ju st wh a t Im t h in k in g ove r n ow. 9. Th a t s p r ecis ely wh a t you
mu s t n t do. Sh e will just ma k e you a s cen e. 1 0 . 1 d on t k n ow
a m or e d eligh t fu l p la ce t o s p en d my h olid a y in. 11. Th a t s
p r ecis ely wh a t I ca n t do. I h a ve a s t h ma a n d d u s t in g t h e fla t
ma y p r ovok e a n a t t a ck. 12. Oh , yes, Im a con n ois s eu r o f art
a n d k n ow a go o d p ict u r e wh e n I s ee it. 13. Yes, I k n ow good
p oe t r y wh en I s ee it. 14. Yes, t h a t s pr ecis ely/ ju s t wh a t you
ou gh t t o do.
Exer cis e 5, p. 214
1. She t ook h old o f t h e d oor k n ob / d oor h a n dle bu t st ill
h es it a t ed t o en t er t h e r oom. 2. If you n eed my h elp, d on t h es
it a t e t o r in g me u p a n y t ime. 3. Un les s I a m mis t a ken , t h e m eet
in g has been pu t off/ p os t p on ed t ill Mon da y. 4 . 1 wou ld p r efer
t o s t ay in a h ot el u nless it is over cr owd ed . 5. We h a d (s om e )
d ifficu lt y (in ) fin d in g this s t r eet beca u s e it h a d n t been pu t on
t h e ma p yet , a n d n o on e k n ew wh er e it was. 6. It t ook me so
lon g t o t r a n s la t e t h e a r t icle beca u s e I h a d d ifficu lt y (in ) t ran s
la t in g/ u n der s t a n din g t h e t ech n ica l t er ms / h a d d ifficu lt y wit h
t ech n ica l t erms. 7. Hen r y ga ve a d eep s igh a n d said, I s h ou ld
n ever h a ve t h ou gh t t hat t his wor k wou ld t u rn ou t / p r ove (t o
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b e) s o d ifficu lt (wa s s u ch a n u n der t a kin g). 8. An n e ga ve t h e
h ea dlin es a cu r s or y gla n ce a n d pu t t h e n ews p a p er aside. 9. Ive
t old h er ever yt h in g. - Th a t s p r ecis ely wh a t you s h ou ld n t h a ve
don e. 10. You s h ou ld n t h a ve lift ed t his b ox a lon e. - I ca n
assure you I feel/ I a m n on e t h e wor s e for lift in g/ d oin g it. You
n eed n t wor r y. 11. You ca n k eep p h on in g h er all da y/ t h e wh ole
d a y a n d ge t n on e t h e wis er : s h e w o n t p ick u p t h e
p h on e/ r eceiver / s h e d oes n t a n s wer . 12. J im k n ew p er fect ly
we ll t h at it wa s all h e cou ld h op e for / h e h a d t o h op e for . But
s t ill h e d id n t los e h ea r t / didn t des pa ir / didn t give wa y t o
des pa ir. 13. Th a t s all I mu s t t ell you . I h op e you ll t a ke/ t r ea t it
seriou sly. 14. Kir ill k n ows good a n t iqu es (a good a n t iqu e)
wh en h e s ees t h em (wh e n h e s ees it ). You h a d b et t er ask h im
wh et h er t his va s e is r ea lly wor t h s o mu ch mon ey. 15.1 h a ve
n ever met a mor e in t er es t in g per s on t o t a lk to.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
1. c o n fi d e vi/ t - 1) (in smb.)-,
I ca n con fid e in him. - .
2 ) , (smth. to smb.);
c on fid e d h is t r ou b les / p la n s / fea r s t o me. -
/ /
.
con fid ed t o me his secret . - .
c o n fi d e n c e - 1) ;
I h a ve n o con fid en ce in su ch p eop le (in his op in ion ). -
( ).
I h a ve n o con fid en ce in his ability. - -
I .
en joys ever yb od ys con fid en ce. -
./ .
Wh a t she says does n ot in s pir e con fiden ce. -
.
I s h a n t bet r a y you r con fid en ce. -
.
She t ook me in t o h er con fid en ce. -
./ .
2) , ;
has t oo mu ch con fid en ce in h ims elf (s elf-con fid en ce). -
( )u .
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His la ck o f con fid en ce is mos t a n n oyin g. -
.
His com for t in g wor d s ga ve me con fid en ce. -
.
3) , (often in p i.);
I lis t en ed t o t h e gir ls con fid en ces wit h mixed feelin gs o f pit y
a n d dis a ppr ova l. -
,
c on fid e n t - 1) ;
We wer e n ot con fid en t o f success. -
.
2 ) ;
a con fid en t ma n n er - ;
;
con fid en t s mile - /
;
con fid en t voice/ t on e -
/ ;
c o n fi d e n t i a l - , ;
;
con fid en t ia l in for m a t ion -
;
con fid en t ia l ma t t er - ;
con fid en t ia l cor r es p on d en ce - ;
con fid en t ia l voice - .
2. s t a r t vi/ t - 1) ;
t o start ea r ly (la t e, at 6 p.m., et c.) -
( , . .);
t o start on a t r ip (a jou r ney, an excu r s ion ) -
( , );
2 ) ;
t o start wor k (bu siness, con ver s a t ion ) -
( , );
t o start wor k in g, r u nn in g, cr yin g - , ,
;
3) ;
How did t h e wa r (t h e fire, t h e qu a r r el) start? -
(- ) ( , )?
4 ) ( - . ) ( . .); ,
;
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t o start a m ot or - ;
t o start a n ews pa per - ,
;
5) ;
s t a r t ed at t h e noise. - ( ) ,
s t a r t i n g-p oi n t - 1) , ;
2 ) , ;
Th e in cid en t t u r n ed ou t t o b e a s t a r t in g- p oin t t h a t s et
e ver yt h in g a floa t . -
, (
).
st ar t 1) ;
t h e start o f a r a ce - ;
at t h e jou r n eys start - ;
Th a t ga ve h er a st art in life. -
.
fr o m t h e st ar t - ;
Ever yt h in g wen t wr on g fr om t h e start. -
.
fr o m st ar t t o fin is h - ;
Th is is t he wh ole s t or y fr om start t o finish. -
.
2 ) , ( - );
s pr a n g u p (a wok e ) wit h a start. - /
( ).
You ga ve me a start, I mu st s a y - ,
.
b y fit s a n d s t ar t s - , ;
Res ea r ch wor k ca n n ot b e d on e b y fit s a n d st art s. -
/
.
3- t o c on fu s e vt - 1) , ;
t o con fu s e n a mes (wor d s or per s on s ) -
( );
t o con fu s e fa ct s (d a t es ) - ( ) ( );
Th ey look s o mu ch a like t ha t I a lwa ys con fu s e t hem. -
, .
Old p eop le a lwa ys con fu s e dat es a n d figu res. - -
i .
2 ) ;
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Ever ybodys a t t en t ion con fu s ed h er a n d she wa s at a loss for
wor ds . - , ,
.
syn. e m ba r r a s s
t o be (fe e l, s e e m ) c on fu s e d (e m ba r r a s s e d ) - (
, ) / ;
s eemed a t r ifle con fu s ed (emba r r a s s ed). -
.
c on fu s i on - 1) , ;
2) , ;
t o lie/ be/ be t h r own a bou t in con fu s ion - / ,
/ ;
His t h in gs la y in con fu s ion on t h e sofa. -
.
His t h ou gh t s wer e in con fu s ion . - . /
.
r ema in ed ca lm in t h e con fu s ion o f bat t le. -
/ /
.
syn. mess
3 ) , ;
His con fu s ion wa s obviou s . -
.
4 ) , ;
t h e con fu s ion o f sou nds, let t er s - , ;
c on fu s i n g - , ;
An exa min er mu st n ot ask con fu s in g qu es t ion s (s o as n ot t o
pu t t h e s t u den t ou t ). -
, (
).
Don t ask emba r r a s s in g qu es t ion s (s o as n ot t o ma ke on e
u n com for t a b le). - He (

.
c on fu s e d - 1) , ;
Th e gir l look ed con fu s ed. -
, .
2) , , ;
His t ale (a n s wer ) wa s con fu s ed. - ( )
.
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He wa s u n a ble t o pu t his con fu s ed ideas in t o shape. -
.
4. d r op vt/ i - 1) , ;
t o dr op a glass (a h a n dker ch ief, et c. ) - (
. . );
t o dr op bombs - ;
t o d r op a let t er in a p illa r -b ox (a coin in a s lot ) -
( );
2 ) , ;
t o d r op on e s wor k (st u dies, a h a bit ) -
( , );
t o d r op s mok in g - ;
Let s d r op t h e a r gu men t (t h e s u bject ). -
( ).
3) ; ;
t o d r op a s u bject - - . ;
t o d r op a p er s on at s ome pla ce - ( )
- . ;
t o d r op a lin e - ;
t o d r op s mb. a h in t (o n s mt h . ) - - .
( - . );
t o d r op on e s voice - ;
t o d r op on e s eyes - ;
t o d r op on e s fr ien ds - ;
t o d r op a n ch or - ;
4 ) ; ; ;
t o d r op wit h fa t igu e - ;
t o d r op in t o a ch a ir - ( ) ;
t o d r op on (t o ) on e s kn ees - ;
t o d r op dea d - ;
lea ves (a pples , blos s oms ) d r op - ( , )
;
It wa s s o qu iet , you migh t h a ve h ea r d a pin dr op. -
( , ,
).
5) , , , ;
t h e t emper a t u r e d r op p ed - ;
t h e win d d r op p ed - ( );
o n e s voic e d r op p ed - ( ) /
;
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pr ices ma y d r op - ;
t o d r op in (on s mb.) - ( - . );
Sever al fr ien ds d r op p ed in t o tea. -
.
t o d r op o ff - 1) , ;
on e s fr ien ds / cu s t omer s (t h e d oct or s p r a ct ice) ma y d r op
o ff - , /
( );
2) ;
d r op p ed o ff du r in g t h e per for ma n ce. -
.
t o d r op be h i n d - ;
Th e t wo gir ls d r op p ed beh in d t h e rest o f t h e party. -
.
d r op 1) ;
dr ops o f wa t er (per s pir a t ion , rain, et c.) - ( ,
. .);
t o dr in k smth. t o t h e last d r op - - .
;
t a ke t en dr ops a da y - /
;
2 ) , , ;
a s u dden (u n exp ect ed , sharp, s ligh t ) d r op in pr ices (t em p er
ature, et c.) - ( , )
( . .);
5- t o m i n d vt - 1) ;
( . , .)
Min d you r own business. - He / -
.
Please, min d t h e ba by (t h e fir e). - ,
( ).
2 ) ( . . , ;
Th e ch ild won t min d his granny. -
.
3) ; ,
, ;
Min d t h e s t ep (t h e d og). - - (
).
Mind! Th er es a bus comin g. - ( !)
.
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Min d t h e t r a ffic rules. -
.
4 ) ( - . ,
Do you min d my s mok in g/ if I s moke? - ,
?
I d on t min d it a bit. - .
Yes, I min d it ver y mu ch. - , .
Wou ld you min d clos in g t h e win d ow? - ,
.
Never min d (a n ans wer to an apology), - (
).
m i n d - , ;
t h e gr ea t min ds o f t h e wor ld - ;
t o be in on e s r igh t min d - ;
Lom on os ov wa s on e o f t h e gr ea t min ds o f his t ime. -
.
Ar e you in you r r igh t min d t o say su ch things? -
, ?
2) ;
t o com e t o on es min d - , ;
t o bea r in min d - , , ;
Th e in ciden t gr a du a lly ca me t o my mind. -
, .
Bea r in min d t h at you a re t o be h er e at s ix sharp. -
( ),
.
3) ( ) , ;
t o ma ke u p on e s m i n d - ( );
Ive ma de u p my min d, a n d Ill s t ick t o my decis ion . - -
i .
t o c h an ge on e s m i n d - ;
I won t ch a n ge my min d wh a t ever is said. - ,
.
t o be in t wo mi n ds - , ;
Im in t wo min ds a n d ca n t give you a d efin it e a n s wer yet . -
.
t o s pe ak on e s m i n d -
;
Don t bea t a bou t t h e bush, s pea k you r min d. - He
, , .
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t o give a p e r s on a piec e o f on e s m i n d - -
. , ;
I shall give you a p iece o f my min d, u n plea s a n t as t hat ma y
be. - , ,
.
t o h a ve a m i n d t o do smt h . - (
) - .;
t o h ave n o m i n d t o d o smt h . -
- .;
She h a d n o min d t o a n s wer such qu es t ion s. -
.
t o h ave smt h . on on e s m i n d - - .;
She s eemed t o h a ve smt h. on h er min d a n d cou ld n ot c on
cen t r a t e. - -
.
-m in d e d - ,
, . .
a bs en t -min ded - ;
fa ir -min ded - , ;
br oa d -min d ed - ,
, ;
n a r r ow-min d ed - , , ;
;
She is ver y a b s en t -min d ed a n d a lwa ys lea ves h er t h in gs
b eh in d. -
.
6. t o pr a ct is e vt - 1) ( - . );
t o pr a ct is e ea r ly r is in g - ;
t o pr a ct is e a met h od o f wor k - ( )
;
2) - .
, ;
t o pr a ct is e wh a t on e pr ea ch es - ,
;
If on ly h ed pr a ct is ed wh a t h ed pr ea ch ed. -
.
t o pr a ct is e la w - ,
;
t o pr a ct is e med icin e - ,
;
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It has b een lon g s in ce I pr a ct is ed medicin e. -
.
3) , , ;
t o pr a ct is e t en n is (t h e p ia n o) - (
);
She pr a ct ises t h e pia n o for an h ou r ever y day. -
.
pr a ct ic e - 1) , ,
;
Th e m et h od is r a t h er s imp le in p r a ct ice a n d ver y e ffe c
t ive. -
.
t o pu t in t o pr a ct ice - ( ),
;
t o pu t in t o pr a ct ice a t heor y; a plan, an idea, a s u gges t ion -
( ) ,
, , ;
Th e t h eor y s eems right , bu t on e mu st t h in k o f h ow t o pu t in
in t o pr a ct ice. - ,
, .
2) , ;
Wh a t you n eed is mor e pr a ct ice. -
/ / /
.
Look, h ow pr ecis e t he movemen t s o f t h e wor k er are, pr a c
t ice s hows . - , /
: .
t o be in (o u t o f) pr a c t ic e - /
( );
t o be ou t o f pr ac t ic e - ,
/ ;
I u sed t o be a good chessplayer , but Im ou t o f pr a ct ice now. -
, .
3) , ; ;
;
It wa s t h en t h e pr a ct ice (a common pr a ct ice). -
.
Aft er s u pper Da d wen t for a wa lk as wa s his usual pra ct ice. -
1I .
4 ) ( , );
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Doct or N. has r et ir ed fr om pr a ct ice. - H.
.
Ma n s on h a d a la r ge pr a ct ice. -
/ ( ).
wa s a you n g la wyer wit h n o pr a ct ice at all. -
, ,
p r a c t i t i o n e r - ;
gen er a l pr a ct it ion er - ;
An d r ew Ma n s on wor k ed as a gen er a l pr a ct it ion er . -
.
p r a c t i c a l - , , ,
; ;
pr a ct ica l a d vice - (- ) ;
pr a ct ica l results - ;
pr a ct ica l b en efit - / ;
pr a ct ica l h elp - ;
pr a ct ica l ma t t er s - ;
pr a ct ica l u s e/ a pplica t ion - ,
;
pr a ct ica l con s ider a t ion s / difficu lt ies (difficu lt ies in pu t t in g
smth. in t o pr a ct ice) - /
( , - . );
Its o f n o pract ical use. - / -
./ .
Th er e wer e pr a ct ica l difficu lt ies . -
.
Th ey used t o pla y pr a ct ica l jokes on ea ch ot h er a n d n eit h er
ever got offen d ed . - ,
,
p r a c t i c a lly - ;
Pr a ct ica lly ever yon e wa s willin g t o help. -
.
7. o d d - 1) ;
1, 3, 5 are od d nu mbers. - 1, 3, 5 - ;
2) ;
an od d s h oe or glove - (-
) ;
3) , ;
t wo od d volu mes o f a n en cyclopa ed ia -
;
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4 ) , ,
;
t h ir t y od d year s - - ;
fift y a n d s ome od d miles - ;
5) , ; ;
od d jobs - , ,
;
an od d per s on (way, manner , appearance, beh a viou r ) -
( , (- ) , (- ) );
How odd! - !/ !
o d d l y - ;
o d d l y e n o u gh = s t r a n gely en ou gh = s t r a n ge as it ma y s eem =
s t r a n ge as it is - ;
Od d ly en ou gh she did n ot turn u p at t h e party. -
, .
o d d s - ; , ;
Th e odds a re against us. - .
o d d s a n d e n d s - , , ;
Wh a t is t o be d on e wit h all t hes e odd s a n d en ds o f t he
paper? - ?
8. c o n c e r n - 1) , , ;
It s con cer n o f min e. - / -
/ .
It s my own con cer n . - / .
Wh a t con cer n is it o f yours? - ?
2 ) , , ;
t h e t ea ch er s con cer n over t h e pu pils pr ogr es s -
;
t o c o n c e r n vt 1) , ...;
Th a t d oes n t con cer n you at all. -
.
As far as I a m con cer n ed... - ...
He is said t o be con cer n ed in t h e a ffa ir = He is said t o be
mixed u p in t his affair. - ,
/ .
t o con cer n on es elf (wit h )/ t o be con cer n ed - 2)
( - ); ( - . );
t o con cer n on e s e lf a b ou t / over (t o b e con cer n ed
a bou t / over ) - - . / - .
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Don t con cer n you r s elf with ot h er p e op les affairs. - He
(He / )
.
Im n ot con cer n ed a bou t det ails. -
.
3) , , ;
Lord Illin gwor t h had n ever been con cer n ed abou t his son. -
./
, ,
c o n c e r n i n g - , , ;
Mon t mor en cy ma n ifes t ed gr ea t cu r ios it y con cer n in g t he
ket t le. -
( ).
9. s y m p a t h y - 1) , ; 2)
, ; 3 ) , ;
t o a rou s e (s h ow, expr es s ) s ympa t h y - ( ,
) / ;
You h a ve my sympat hies . - /
( ).
I h a ve n o s ympa t h y wit h (fo r ) idle people. - -
/ .
I feel s ome s ympa t h y for her, she in u nha ppy. -
( ), .
t o s ym p a t h i z e vt (wi t h ) - 1) ,
, ; 2) ,
;
I s ympa t h ize wit h you . - .
I s ympa t h ize wit h you r a mb it ion t o be a wr it er . -
.
s ym p a t h e t i c - 1) ; ,
, ; ;
A good d oct or is a lwa ys s ympa t h et ic. -
/ .
ant. u n s ym p a t h e t i c - , ,
;
2 ) , , ;
I felt gr a t efu l t o h er for h er s ympa t h et ic wor ds . -
/ .
s y m p a t h e t i c a lly - ; ,
;
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She s miled s ympa t h et ica lly. - (
) .
10. t o fa i l vi/ t - , ; ,
;
My a t t empt has fa iled. - (
).
I t r ied t o con vin ce h im bu t failed. -
, .
Th e ma ize fa iled that year. -
;
2) , { );
t o fail in ma t h ema t ics - (
) ;
t o fa il (in ) an exa m - ,
;
3) , ; ,
, ;
His cou r a ge fa iled him. - . /
./ .
His h ea rt fa iled him. - .
His s ight (h ea lt h ) wa s begin n in g t o fa il him. -
( ) .
Ill n ever fa il you . - .
Wor ds fa iled me. - .
t o fa i l t o d o s mt h . - 4 ) , ,
- .; - .,
I - .;
n ever fails t o wr it e t o his mot h er . -
.
Don t fa il t o let me kn ow. - .
I fa il t o s ee you r mea n in g. - ( -
I ), .
I cou ld n ot fa il t o p er cieve wh o she was. -
, .
fa i l u r e ['feilja ] - 1) , ;
Success ca me a ft er ma n y failures. -
.
2 ) ;
She wa s a com p let e fa ilu r e as an actress. -
Iie .
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Wo r d Co m bi n a t i o n s a n d Ph r a s e s
t o alt er ma n n er s (h abit s , poin t s o f view, plans, on es wa y o f
livin g) - ( , , ,
);
t o a lt er a dress - ,
;
a r in g at t h e bell (a k n ock at t h e d oor ) - ( )
;
t o r ea ch ou t for smth. - , - .;
t o r ea ch u p (d own ) for smth. -
( ) - .;
t o h a ve a fa n cy for smth., smb. - - ., - .,
- ., - .;
t o keep b od y a n d sou l t oget h er - ;
dr ive u p t o a h ou s e (c om e up t o a d oor ) -
( );
t o be lit t er ed wit h books (pa per s , lu mber, et c.) -
( , . .);
t o h a ve n ot t h e least n ot ion (o f s mt h .) -
( - . );
t o r emin d smb. o f smth. - - . - .;
a dim r ecollect ion - ;
s h a bby clot h es - ;
s habby man - , ,
;
a sh abby h ou s e - ;
a s ha bby s t r eet - , ,
;
t o be (feel, ma ke on es elf) at h ome s omewh er e - (
, ) ;
t o exch a n ge smt h. (for s mt h .) - - . - .
Exe r c is e 4, 223
1. Wh e n on e is n o lon ge r you n g, it is n ot a n ea s y t h in g t o
a lt er on e s h abit s . 2. Th e coa t is a s ize t oo la r ge for you , you
mu s t h a ve it a lt er ed. 3. Im t ir ed o f a lt er in g my pla n s ever y
t ime you ch a n ge you r min d. 4. She h a d s ca r cely fin is h ed
s p ea k in g b e for e t h er e wa s a r in g at t h e b ell a n d a kn ock.
5. Wit h ou t a wor d s h e r ea ch ed ou t for p en a n d pa per . 6. Lor a
r ea ch ed ou t for t h e let t er , bu t t h e ma n wa s qu ick en ou gh t o
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ca t ch h old o f it. 7. She d a r en t even r ea ch u p (d o wn ) for t h e
s wit ch les t t h e m ovem en t s h ou ld wa k e h im. 8. Cla r e is ea s ily
ca r r ied a wa y; wh e n s h e has a fa n cy for s mt h . s h e ca n n ot
t h in k o f a n yt h in g else. 9. Some m or e ca ke? - Th a n k you ,
h a ve qu it e a fa n cy for c h oc ola t e ca ke. 10. Da ve h a d t o d o all
kin ds o f od d job s t ha t ca me his wa y t o k eep b od y a n d s ou l
t oget h er . 11. Th e m om en t Da vid s a w t h e ca r d r ive u p t o his
h ou s e, h e r u s h ed ou t t o m eet his fr ien ds . 1 2 . 1 fou n d m ys elf in
a r oom lit t er ed wit h b ook s , pa per s a n d a ll kin d o f lu mber .
13- Im at my wit s end. I h a ve n ot t h e l e a s t n o t i o n (t h e faint est /
s ligh t es t id ea ) (o f) wh er e t o look for h im. 14. 1h a ven t t h e
l e a s t n o t i o n (t h e fa in t es t / s ligh t es t id ea / n ot ion ) (o f) wh a t
h e is h in t in g at. Do his wor d s ma ke s en s e t o you ? 15. I wis h
you h a d r em in d ed me o f it, it ju st s lip p ed my min d. 16. Th e
m om en t h e m en t ion ed t h e in cid en t a d im r e c olle c t ion ca me
ba ck t o me. 17. Th e clot h es t h e ma n wor e we r e t er r ib ly s h a b
by, bu t t h a t evid e n t ly d id n ot b ot h er h im. 18. Ed h a d s ome
d ifficu lt y in fin d in g t h e pla ce, a s h a bby b u ild in g in an e vil
s mellin g slum. 19. Let s exch a n ge seat s for you t o h a ve a bet -
ler vie w o f t h e s t a ge. 20. Th e t h r ee fr ien d s exc h a n ge d
gla n ces . Th ey we r e u n a n imou s in t h eir dis a p pr ova l. 21. Th ey
exch a n ged idea s b efor e r ea ch in g a d ecis ion . 22. If you d on t
r emin d me o f it, Ill for get . 23. Her fr ien d ly s ymp a t h et ic s mile
ma de me feel at h ome.
Exe r c is e 5, p. 224
1. A n u mb er o f t h in gs h a p p en ed t o me a n d a lt er ed t h e
cou r s e o f my life. 2. En glis h s p ellin g is a p p a llin g bu t in t ime
ii will b e p a r t ia lly a lt er ed. 3. He h ea r d a r in g at t h e bell a n d
wen t t o op en t h e d oor . 4. Sh e r ea ch ed ou t for t h e let t er .
5. Dob b in r ea ch ed ou t a n d ca u gh t t h e va s e (r ea ch ed ou t for
i h e va s e) b e for e it fell t o t h e floor . 6. J a n es s a la r y wa s h a r d
ly s u fficien t t o k eep b od y a n d s ou l t oget h er . 7. I s a w a ca b
d r ive u p t o t h e d oor o f my h ou s e. 8. Th e t a b le wa s lit t er ed
wit h t es t -t u bes ( ) a n d ph ia ls ( / -
). 9. He wa s le ft a lon e in t h e u n k emp t s t u dy lit t er ed wit h
b ook s , p a p er s a n d wh a t n ot ( ).
10 . 1h a ven t t h e lea s t n ot ion o f wh a t you a r e t a lk in g a bou t .
I I . I h a ve on ly a d im r e c olle c t ion o f t h e s t r eet I u s ed t o live
m. 12. It wa s a s h a bby s ma ll b ed r oom . 13- Th e ma n wa s
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we a r in g a s h a bby gr a y suit. 14. Th e b oy d id n ot fe e l at h om e
in s u ch a s p len d id h ou se.
Exe r c is e 6, p. 224
1. You a r en t s pa r in g you r s elf at all. You will fa ll ill if you
d on t a lt e r you r wa y o f livin g (ch a n ge you r wa y o f life/
lifes t yle). 2. Im a lr ea dy r ea dy t o lea ve (r ea d y for t h e depa r t u r e),
t h er es just on e dress t o alt er. 3- No s oon er h a d t h ey sat d own t o
t a b le t h a n / Th ey h a d h a r d ly/ s ca r cely/ ba r ely sat d own t o
t a ble/ Th ey h a d just sat d own t o t a ble wh en (Th e m om en t t h ey
sat d own t o t a ble) t h er e wa s a lou d k n ock at t h e door . 4. Ed
r ea ch ed ou t for t h e let t er , bu t Cla ir st ill h es it a t ed t o give it t o
him/ st ill h es it a t ed a n d cou ld n t ma ke u p h er min d wh et h er t o
give it t o h im or n ot . 5. Wh y h a ve you bou gh t t his pa in t in g? -
Ive just h a d a fa n cy for it. An d wh a t s wr on g wit h it? 6. An
a mbu la n ce d r ove u p t o t h e h ou s e a n d t h e d oct or h u r r ied
upstairs. 7 . 1k n ow you well en ou gh . You ll su r ely n ot d r o p you r
pla n (It s qu it e clea r t hat you a r en t goin g t o dr op/ give u p you r
pla n ). But wh y n ot lis t en t o ot h er p e op les op in ion s (con s id er
ot h er s op in ion s )? Ma ybe you d b et t er a lt er / ch a n ge it a bit?
8. Ma ybe it is nt t h e best job in t h e wor ld , Ella s aid bit t erly, bu t
at least it a llows me t o k eep b od y a n d s ou l t oget h er / t o ma ke
en ds meet . 9. His des k/ wr it in g t a ble is a lwa ys lit t er ed wit h
book s a n d papers. I h a ven t t h e least n ot ion (t h e s light est /
fa in t es t id ea ) h ow h e ma n a ges / con t r ives t o fin d wh a t h e needs.
1 0 . 1 h a ven t t h e lea st n ot ion (t h e s ligh t es t / fa in t es t id ea ) h ow
t o u se t his in s t r u men t / device/ a pplia n ce let s r ea d t h e manu al.
11. Ill t r y t o clea r u p t his ma t t er t omor r ow, bu t plea s e r emin d
me o f it (t o d o it ). 12. We mu s t h a ve los t ou r wa y/ We mu st
h a ve got lost . 1 h a ven t t h e lea st n ot ion (t h e fa in t es t / s ligh t es t
id ea ) wh er e t h e s t a t ion is. We ou gh t t o h a ve r ea ch ed it (We
s h ou ld h a ve r ea ch ed it ) lon g a go. 1 3 . 1 h a ve a dim r ecollect ion
o f h a vin g mea s les a n d my eld er sist er look in g a ft er me (I h ave
a d im r ecollect ion t hat I h a d mea s les a n d my eld er s is t er t ook
ca r e o f me). 11. In his s h a bby suit Ma r t in felt a wkwa r d/ ill at
ca s e in t h eir h ou se. He wis h ed h e h a d n t come. 15. Id like t o
exch a n ge th is b ook for a n ot h er if it is a llowed (i f it is pos s ible),
16 . 1 h a r dly ever met h im a n d on ly on ce d id we exch a n ge a few
wor ds .
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Exe r c is e 9, p. 225
t o t ell p eop le h ow t o live - t o or d er t h e lives o f ot h er s ;
o f t h e s a me kin d - s u chlike;
t o thrust smt h. on smb. - t o for ce/ t o imp os e smt h. on smb.;
t o exch a n ge views a n d idea s by s p eech or wr it in g - t o com
mu n ica t e (wit h );
s omet imes - on occa s ion ;
t o releas e on e s h old o f - t o let go of;
a t ot a lly u n k n own per s on - a per fect / t ot a l st ranger;
h a n gin g loos ly - ba ggy ( );
t o s well ou t - t o bu lge ( );
t o be r ea dy - t o be willin g;
t o s lip o n e s m em or y - t o pass com p le t e ly fr om on e s
memor y;
a s light illness - a t r iflin g in dis pos it ion ;
fas t idiou s - squ eamish.
Exe r c is e 10, p. 225
- t o k n ow lit t le o f on es elf;
- a s olit a r y t ower ;
- t o advis e well;
- a modes t a pa r t men t ;
- t o give smb./ smth. a cu r s or y
glan ce;
, - a t h ick-s et a n d s t ou t man;
- clos e-cr op p ed hair;
- a mea n s o f livelih ood;
- t o
i>ive u p a good safe job for an u ncer t ain t y;
- t o d ecid e for on es elf;
- medica l a pplia n ces ;
- t o t win k le gaily;
- s ympa t h et ic a ppea r -
;
- n o lon ger in her first you t h.
Exe r c i s e 11, p. 226
1. t o commu n ica t e by con ven t ion a l signs - t o exch a n ge
Ideas a n d feelin gs by mea n s mor e or less compr eh en s ib le t o
ever ybody. 2. a n ir r epa r a ble mis t a ke - a mis t a ke t hat ca n t be
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r epa ir ed. 3. a t ot a l s t r a n ger - a t ot a lly u n k n own per s on / a p er
fect st ranger. 4. wit h ou t let t in g go o f his hat - con t in u in g t o
h old his hat; 5. t o be in t h e medica l - t o be a doct or ; 6. t o s t ick
smt h. - t o s t a nd s mt h / t o bea r smth. 7. t o give smb. a cu r s or y
gla n ce - t o gla n ce at smb. br iefly. 8. a mea n s o f livelih ood - a
s ou r ce o f in come, a mea n s o f ea r n in g on es livin g. 9- t o give u p a
good s a fe job for an u n cer t a in t y - t o give u p a well-p a id job on e
is u n likely t o los e for s omet h in g you k n ow n ot h in g abou t . 10. t o
k eep b od y a n d sou l t oget h er - t o s cr a pe a livin g, t o ma ke b ot h
en ds meet . 11. t o h a ve a t r iflin g in dis pos it ion - t o h a ve a s light
a ilmen t . 12. a s qu ea mis h pa t ien t - a pa t ien t wh o is pa r t icu la r
a bou t t h e con d it ion his d oct or s su r ger y is in.
Exe r c i s e 2, p. 227
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Exe r c is e 3, . 229
A. 1. Th e wor d s we r e h a r d ly ou t o f h er mou t h wh e n s he
wis h ed s h e h a d n t c on fid e d h er s ecr et t o An n . 2. It is equ a lly
wr on g t o c on fid e in all a n d in n on e. 3- His c on fid e n c e in s u c
ces s wa s in fect iou s . 4. You s eem t o b e ve r y c on fid e n t o f his
a bilit y. 5. No w s h e s e e m e d t o lin ge r at t a ble, e vid e n t ly
in clin ed t o s h a r e c on fid en ces / t o t a ke me in t o h er c o n fi
d en ce. 6. I won d e r if t h er e is a n yt h in g t h a t ca n ma k e h im
a bit less s elf- con fid en t . 7. You a r e m a k in g a mis t a ke: you a r e
con fu s in g me wit h s om e b od y els e. 8. Ever yb od y wa s em b a r
r a s s ed b y t h e t u r n o f t h e t alk. 9. Her t h in gs a r e a lwa ys
t h r own a bou t in con fu s ion . 10. She d r op p e d t h e c oin in t h e
s lot a n d t ook u p t h e r eceiver . 11. Sin ce I h a ve t a ken t h e ca s e
u p I mea n t o d r op ever yt h in g t o s ee it t h r ou gh . 12. For t h e
t ime b ein g le t s d r op t h e a r gu men t . 13- Aft e r a cer t a in a ge,
s a id a u nt An n , on e get s a lik in g for d r op p in g o ff a t im p r op
er m om en t s . 14. Th e b oy just w o n t min d h is mot h er .
15. Wh o will min d t h e ch ild r en wh en you r e a wa y? 16. An d
a ga in s h e wa s u n a b le t o t ell wh e t h e r s h e wou ld h a ve m in d
ed or n ot . 17. Min d t h a t you mu s t be b a ck b e for e t welve.
18. He s eem ed a bou t t o d e n y e ver yt h in g bu t ch a n ged his
min d. 19- Bu t h er e wa s a ma n wh o s in cer ely d id n t min d
wh a t p e op le t h ou gh t o f h im.
B. 1. How lon g has h e b een p r a ct is in g la w? 2. Th e pla n
s eems good t o me, le t s t h in k h ow bes t t o pu t it in t o pr a ct ice.
3. It wa s a p r a ct ice wit h Fa t h er t o h a ve t h e ma ga zin es b ou n d
as volu m es . 4. Od d l y en ou gh / s t r a n ge ly e n ou gh (Od d /
s t r a n ge as in ma y s eem/ a s it is ) it wa s J oh n n y wh o s et t led
ever yt h in g. 5. You d o sa y t h e od d es t t h in gs / odd t h in gs s om e
t imes. 6. Th er e a r e s ome m igh t y qu eer t h in gs goin g on here.
7. Sh e s a id s h e wa s n ot c on c e r n e d in it. 8. Th e m ot h er s c on
cer n ove r h er d a u gh t er s p oor h ea lt h k ep t h er a wa k e all
n igh t . 9. Th e ma t t er con cer n s t h e in t er es t o f a fr ien d for
wh om Im a ct in g, s a id t h e la wyer . 10. Wh y d o you con cer n
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you r s elf wit h ot h er p e op le s affair s? 11. Not h in g wa s s a id
con c e r n in g t h e ma t t er . 12. He has a ver y c on cer n ed look
t oday. 13. Th e b oy s eemed m or e c on cer n ed wit h food t h a n
wit h con ver s a t ion . 14. Her h ea r t wen t ou t t o h im in s ymp a
thy. 15.1 s miled at h er t o s h ow m y s ympa t h y. 16. He h a d k in d
ly s ymp a t h et ic eyes a n d t h e ma n n er o f on e wh o h a d d on e a
lit t le s u ffer in g o f his own a ccor d. 17. He wa s su re t hat h e
wou ld n ot fa il t h is t ime. 18. Rob er t felt t h a t t h e gu ilt wa s
pa r t ly his own , t h a t h e h a d fa iled h im as a h u ma n bein g.
1 9 . 1 fa il t o s ee t h e h u mou r in it. 2 0 . 1 d on t b elieve you k n ow
wh a t fa ilu r e is.
Exe r c is e 4, p. 230
A. 1. He s u s pect ed t h a t St ella d id n ot s h a r e h er s ecr et s wit h
h er fa t h er / did n ot t ell h er fa t h er t h e p er s on a l det a ils o f h er
life (St e lla d i d n ot c o n fi d e i n h e r fa t h e r ). 2. You cou ld n ot
h a ve ima gin ed a m or e t r u s t wor t h y per s on , ever yb od y t r u s t ed
h im/ ever yb od y felt t h a t t h ey cou ld tru st h im. 3. I h es it a t ed
b e for e ma k in g t h e decis ion : t h e offe r s eemed r a t h er s u s pi
ciou s / t h er e wa s s om et h in g fis h y a bou t t h e offer . 4. He migh t
b ecom e m or e s elf-a s s u r ed/ mor e a s s er t ive/ mor e sure o f h im
s elf if we let h im t r y/ if h e is a llowed t o try. 5. Even a p er s on
wit h a h ea r t o f s t on e wou ld con fid e in h er / wou ld t ell h er
t h eir s ecr et s: s h e has a wa y wit h her. 6. Did h e k n ow en ou gh
o f r ea l life t o s pea k wit h a s s u r a n ce on a n yt h in g? 7. Im
a la wyer . I mu s t (I a m b ou n d by la w) t o k eep a clien t s c om
m u n ica t ion s s ecr et / l a m p r oh ib it e d b y la w t o d is clos e
a clien t s commu n ica t ion s t o a n yon e. 8. She r os e a n d s ilen t ly
wen t t o/ h ea d ed for t h e exit d oor . 9- Wh e n h e r et u r n ed t o
Lon d on , h e op e n e d a lit t le r es t a u r a n t in Soh o. 10. A lot o f
r ema r ka ble a dven t u r es h a d begu n in t h e u n t idy r oom o f t h e
fir s t floor in Ba ker St r eet . 11. You mu st h a ve t a ken me for
s om eb od y els e/ mixed me u p wit h s om eb od y else. 12. He wa s
n ever con fu s ed, a lwa ys r ea dy wit h s ome glib exp la n a t ion .
13. He wa s left in a s t a t e o f p er p lexit y a n d des pair. 14. Some
En glis h men d o n ot p r on ou n ce h s at t h e b egin n in g o f wor d s
if t h e h s ar e followe d by vowels . 15. He a lwa ys got wh a t he
wa n t ed wh a t ever t h e d ifficu lt ies wh en h e h a d s et his m in d on
it / He n ever ga ve u p if h e h a d s et his min d on a t hing. 16. On ce
m or e h e s eemed t o pu t an in vis ib le wa ll b et ween h im s elf an d
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t h e ot h er s in t h e r oom. 17. He s eemed t o h a ve los t con t a ct or
t o qu a r r el wit h mos t o f his fr ien ds . 18. Wr it e me a let t er h ow
ever s h or t wh en you a r e away. 19. Th e last t h in g I h ea r d as
I wa s fa llin g a s leep wa s Mr. Le n d ows voic e s a yin g good - n igh t
t o Ca r ol. 20. Will you look a ft er my lu gga ge wh ile I go a n d fin d
ou t ? 21. So I d ecid ed n ot t o in t er fer e in ot h er s a ffa ir s a n d t o
s ay n ot h in g a b ou t wh a t I h a d s een. 22. Th e ch ild r en ob e y h er
lik e t r a in ed seals. 23. Look ou t or you ll k n ock you r h ea d,
Lu cas wa r n ed h im. 24. Th ey d id n ot s eem t o ob ject t o ea ch
ot h e r s p r es en ce in t h e least . 25. An d t h en , b ein g a ma n wh o
wa s a ble t o u n der s t a n d a n d ju d ge s it u a t ion s fairly, h e look ed
at t h e ot h er s ide o f t h e qu es t ion . 2 6 . 1 t r ied t o con cen t r a t e, bu t
my br a in wou ld n t wor k pr oper ly. 27. I a lwa ys t h in k logica l
ly, s he r et u r n ed, wh ich you h a ve n ever b een a ble t o d o a n d
n ever will. 28. His eyes, wh e n t h ey look e d at you dir ect ly, ga ve
you t h e feelin g t h a t h e k n ew exa ct ly wh a t you we r e t h in k in g
a bou t / t h a t h e wa s r ea d in g you r t h ou gh t s (m in d ). 29- His
n a me h a d n ot r u n g a bell/ h a d mea n t n ot h in g t o me; per h a ps
it wa s r em em b er ed on ly b y jou r n a lis t s . 30. Rem em b er / Don t
for ge t t h e p u r p os e o f you r s p eech a n d s pea k t o t h e poin t .
3 1 . 1 t r ied t o c on c e n t r a t e on my d r a win g a n d d id a fe w
lin es ; bu t it wa s n o use. 32. It just d id n t occu r t o me. 33. If
Melod y cou ld n ot ma ke t h e d ecis ion h er s elf - well, it mu s t be
ma d e for her. 3 4 . 1d id n t h es it a t e a n d a ct ed qu ickly. 3 5 . 1t h in k
Ill qu it .
B. 1. Th e n ew d oct or h a d fe w pa t ien t s . 2. Th is s u r geon gives
loca l a n a es t h et ics wh en ever pos s ible. 3. Th is foot b a ll t ea m will
ver y lik ely Ios e./ Th e ch a n ces a r e t his foot b a ll t ea m will los e t h e
ga me. 4. But s t r a n gely en ou gh / s t r a n ge as it is (a s it ma y s eem),
t h ou gh s o mu ch a like, t h ey det es t ea ch ot h er . 5. Th er e wer e
s ever a l t h in gs a bou t it all t h at s t ru ck me as fishy. 6. Ever ybod y
wa s wor r ied / wa s filled wit h wor r y wh en n ews ca me t hat
Fa t h er wa s s er iou s ly ill. 7. Lau r a a n d Lin da look ed at ea ch ot h er
wit h wor r y/ exch a n ged wor r ie d gla n ces . 8. I k n ew wh o t h e
s t or y wa s a bou t a n d wa s ea ger t o lea r n it all. 9 . 1k n ow h im well
en ou gh t o k n ow t hat h e is n ot in volved / mixed u p in t he
a ffa ir / t h a t h e has n ot h in g t o d o wit h t h e affa ir . 10. As ph ys i
cia n s t r ea t in g p e op le we r e n a t u r a lly wor r ied a bou t t h e p r ofes
s ion a l s t a n da r t s you ma in t a in her e. 11. An d r ew look ed d own ,
le e lin g pit y, yet h a r d ly k n owin g wh a t t o say. 12. Dot t ie
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r ema in ed silent , mer ely wa t ch in g h im wit h p it y/ wit h a ppr ova l.
13- An gela wa s op p r es s ed wit h a s en s e o f in ju s t ice, bu t h er
mot h er d id n t feel for h er / didn t feel t h e s ligh t es t p it y for her.
14. His mis s ion h a d en d ed a n d h e felt t ha t h e h a d n t a ccom
plis h ed it p r op er ly/ h a dn t a ch ieved a success. 15. My eyes igh t
is n t wh a t it u sed t o be a fe w yea r s a go/ My eyes igh t has b een
t r ou b lin g me for s ome t ime. 16. Du r in g t h e a n ecd ot es h e
wou ld a lwa ys la u gh at exa ct ly t h e r igh t poin t . 17. Th e p ilot has
defin it ely/ s u r ely s een us t h er e on t h e op en bea ch . 18. Ill
exp ect t o s ee you bot h . Not h in g mu st k eep you fr om comin g.
19. He n ever a ch ieved a su ccess in a n yt h in g h e did. 20. How d o
you exp la in t hat h e has n ot come?
Exe r c i s e 6, p. 232
( ) - . - t o con fid e in smb.;
( ) - . - . - t o con fid e smth. t o
smb.;
- t o en joy smb.s con fiden ce;
- t o in s pir e con fiden ce;
- t o be con fid en t o f success;
- t o start on an excu r
s ion t o t h e mou nt ain s ;
- t o start r u n ning;
- t o start a qu ar rel;
- fr om start t o finish;
- fr om t h e ver y start;
- t o be emba r r a s s ed, t o fe e l
emba r r a s s ed;
- a con fu s ed answer;
- t o d r op wit h fat igu e;
- . - t o d r op in on smb.;
- a d r op in t emper a t u r e;
- t o be in t wo minds ;
- t o pu t in t o pr a ct ice;
- an od d n u mber ;
- t wen t y od d years;
- t o look con cer n ed;
- t o a r ou s e/ t o excit e s ympat hy;
- . - t o s ympa t h ize
wit h smb.;
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- a s ympa t h et ic smile;
- t o fail en d in failure.
Exe r c i s e 7, p. 233
A. 1. Sh e con fid e d h er pla n s t o n ob od y. It wa s a p r ob le m
s h e h a d t o s olve h er s elf/ It wa s a qu es t ion s h e h a d t o s et t le
h er s elf. 2. If you h a d t a k en me in t o you r c on fid e n c e t his
t r ou ble/ u n plea s a n t n es s m igh t h a ve b een a void ed . 3. Fr om
t h e ver y s t a r t / b e gin n in g o f t h e Gr ea t Pa t r iot ic Wa r , e ve n in
t h e h a r des t t imes , t h e p e op le h a d a fir m c on fid e n c e in t h e
vict or y. 4 . 1 qu it e a gr ee wit h you t h a t h e in s pir es con fid e n c e ,
bu t it is n ot t h e p oin t : t h e m a t t er / t h in g is ju st t h a t I d o n t
k n ow h im we ll en ou gh t o as k h im for h elp. 5. At t h e s ligh t
es t n ois e Ka t e s t a r t ed a n d look e d at h er wa t ch , bu t t ime
s eem ed t o h a ve s t op p ed . 6. Th ey a r e ve r y n ice p eop le. I felt
at h om e at t h eir p la ce fr om t h e ver y s t a r t (b e gin n in g).
7. Th er e wa s a k n ock at t h e d oor . Mich a el s t a r t ed a n d wok e
u p (wo k e u p wit h a s t a r t ). 8. Ever yb od y s t a r ed at h im wit h
cu r ios it y bu t it d id n ot emba r r a s s h im at all. 9 . 1w o n t m e m
or ize t h is d a t e u n les s I wr it e it d own . Im a lwa ys c o n fu s i n g
(m ix in g u p ) d a t es a n d n u mber s . 10. Th e Na zis d r op p e d
b om b s on cit ies a n d villa ges givin g n o qu a r t er t o t h e civilia n
p op u la t ion . 11. Will you r fr ien d c om e t oda y? - He ma y d r op
in la t er . 12. Pu t t en d r op s o f t h is m ed ic in e in t o a gla s s o f
wa r m wa t er a n d ga r gle. 13. Dr op me a lin e or t wo wh e n you
a r r ive. 14. Will you m i n d (lo o k a ft er / t a ke ca r e o f) t h e b a b y
wh ile Im la yin g t h e t a ble? 15. Mi n d h o w y o u go (Wa t ch
you r s t ep ), t h e r oa d is ver y mu d d y h er e. 16. Will you ch a n ge
p la ces wit h me, plea s e? - I d on t min d. 17. Ho w d o you like
t h is s u dden d r op in t emp er a t u r e? - I d o n t min d t h e c old if
it d oe s n t r ain. 18. Ill s u r e give h im a p ie c e o f my m in d as
s oon as h e s h ows up. It is n t t h e fir s t t im e h e has k ep t me
wa it in g, s a id Bill, los in g (r u n n in g ou t o f) p a t ien ce.
B. 1 . 1h a ven t p r a ct is ed for a lon g t ime a n d d on t t h in k Ill
b e a b le t o h elp you , bu t t h er es a d oc t or livin g n ea r h er e,
you d b et t er go t o h im. 2. We a r e s u r e t o ru n in t o d iffic u l
t ies / s n a gs wh e n we p u t (wh e n p u t t i n g ) t h is p la n i n t o
p r a c t i c e (wh e n we im p lem en t / ca r r y ou t t h is p la n ). 3.
Wh e n a c olle c t ion o f his s h or t s t or ies wa s p u b lis h ed at last,
J oh n d r op p e d h is m ed ica l p r a ct ice wit h ou t h es it a t ion a n d
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t ook u p wr it in g. 4. It s n o u s e t r yin g t o p er s u a de me, I k n ow
fu ll we ll/ p e r fe c t ly we ll t h a t Im ou t o f s h a p e/ on t o f p r a ct ice.
I h a ven t p r a ct is ed for a lon g t im e a n d ca n t t a ke p a r t in t h e
c on c e r t . 5. Th e e n gin e e r h a d b e e n wo r k in g a t / on t h e
d evice/ a p p lia n ce for five yea r s b e for e it wa s pu t in t o p r a c
t ice. 6 . 1 d o n t k n ow wh e t h e r you ll lik e h im or n ot ; h e is a
ver y od d man . 7. O f cou r s e, you ma y t ell me t o min d my own
bu s in es s / you ma y t ell me t h a t it s n o c on c e r n o f min e, bu t I
ca n as s u r e you t h a t you mu s t give u p s mok in g, you h a ve s u ch
a cou gh . 8. Min d you , t his d ecis ion con cer n s a ll o f us. 9-
Ger t r u d e wa s s u r e t h a t h er h u s ba n d wa s in ca p a b le o f a n y
d ir t y t r ick s / of a n y m a ch in a t ion s a n d it t o o k h er a lon g
t im e t o b e lie ve t h a t h e wa s c o n c e r n e d (in volve d / m ixe d
u p ) in t h is a ffa ir . 10. Ia m ver y c o n c e r n e d (wo r r ie d ) a b ou t
He le n s h ea lt h . Un for t u n a t ely I ca n t d o a t h in g wit h h er ; s h e
w o n t go t o t h e d oct or . 11. At t h e m om en t Im n ot c o n
cer n ed a bou t det a ils , we will d ea l wit h t h is a ffa ir / ca s e la t er .
12. Her p a r en t s d o n ot s ym p a t h ize wit h h er d r ea m o f *
b e c om in g a n a ct res s. 13. We felt gr ea t s ymp a t h y for h er a n d I
t r ied t o d o all we cou ld t o ma k e h er life ea s ier . 14. He wa s |
gr a t efu l t o h er for h er s ym p a t h et ic wor d s a n d a s in cer e I
d es ir e t o h elp. 15. No ma t t er wh a t h e is c on c e r n e d / b u s y j
wit h h e ma n a ges / con t r ives t o s ee ever yt h in g t h a t s goin g on |
a r ou n d. 17. For t h e m om en t / So fa r I ca n t t ell you a n yt h in g I
d efin it e. Ive ma d e en qu ir ies bu t fa iled. 18. Th e fa ilu r e o f t h e
e xp e r im e n t did n ot d is cou r a ge h im, h e wa s s u r e t h a t s oon e r
or la t er h e wou ld s u cceed. 19- Wh e n s h a ll we meet ? - Let s
ma ke it Tu es da y at s ix. Com e wit h ou t fa il. We ll be wa it in g.
Exe r c i s e 8, p. 234
1 . 1 a lwa ys c on fid e in h er a n d s h e n ever bet r a ys my c o n fi
d en ce. 2. Per h a ps beca u s e I in s p ir e c on fid en ce. 3. Com e on ,
ma n ! You s h ou ld h a ve m or e c on fid en ce. 4. Ar e you k id d in g?
Ho w ca n you fa il t o s ee t h e jok e? 5. Th e t h in g is I d id n t r ea d
by fit s a n d s t a r t s as you p r ob a b ly did. 6. I ju s t wa n t ed t o s ee
my d a u gh t er s n e w b oyfr ien d . I d id n t s ee t h e m ovie fr om
s t a r t t o fin is h , it wa s r a t h er b or in g a n ywa y. 7. Im d r op p in g
wit h fa t igu e. 8. Oh , yes ! I n ea r ly d r op p e d d ea d wit h fr igh t .
9. I f I did, I wou ld n t be con fu s in g it a ll t h e t ime wit h h er |
m ot h e r s. 10. She s eem ed con fu s ed . 11. Im s t ill in t wo min d s I.
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wh e n t o c om e ba ck. 12. Will you d r op me a lin e? 13. He
d oe s n t s eem t o m in d m e at all, t h a t s wh y. 1 4 . 1 d o n t min d.
15. J ust m in d you r own bu s ines s , will you ? 16. No, 1 h a ven t
m a d e u p m y m in d yet . 17. Do you fin d t h e s u r r ou n d in gs t oo
con fu s in g? (Yes , I ca n s ee t h a t you r m in d is n ot on it. 18. No,
t h e t em p er a t u r e has d r op p ed , a n d n ow it s s o c old a n d d a mp
t h a t Im c on c e r n e d a b ou t my t h r oa t . 19-J ust s om e od d jobs .
20. 1 d id n t wa n t t o b e c on c e r n e d wit h it./ I d id n t wa n t t o
c on c e r n m ys elf wit h it. 21. I h ea r h e has fa iled m os t o f his
exa ms beca u s e o f u n r equ it ed love. 22. Oh , I s ym p a t h ize wit h
h er a ll r igh t a n d w o n t r u b h er n os e in it. 23. No, I fa iled / No,
a ll my e ffor t s fa iled / en d ed in fa ilu r e.
Exe r c is e 13, p. 235
1. Th e b oys we r e t h r owin g s n owb a lls at t h eir fr ien d.
3. Th a t n igh t (On t h a t n igh t ) J oh n wa s at his bes t (a t his wit t i
es t ) a n d ma de us all la u gh at his jokes . 4. At a n y r a t e (An ywa y)
we k n ow t h a t n ow h e is safe. 5. Th e old ma n wa s in d ign a n t at
(ou t r a ged b y) t h e u nju s t a ccu s a t ion . 6. In t h e fir s t s en t en ce at
t h e t op o f p a ge 31 t h er e is a mis pr in t , cor r ect it. 7. At / Fr om
s u ch a d is t a n ce I ca n t ma k e ou t / s ee a n yt h in g. 8. Com e t o
t h in k o f it/ I t h in k I wo n t go by t his t r a in (t a k e t his t r a in ). It
lea ves at mid n igh t , it s ver y in con ven ien t . 9- Ren n y fir mly
decid ed / wa s d et er m in ed t h a t wh en all t h e fa mily a s s embled
at d in n er h e wou ld t ell t h em a bou t his in t en t ion . 10. At t h e
fir s t s ou n d o f t h e a la r m-clock h e ju mp ed u p a n d bega n / s t a r t
ed dr es s in g/ pu t t in g on h is clot h es . 11. It wa s an old ca r a nd
we we r e goin g/ t r a vellin g at a s peed o f 40 miles p er hou r.
12. Th e h u n t er t ook a im at t h e h a wk (le ve lle d his r ifle at t he
h a wk ) a n d fir ed. 13- She ca n h a r dly b e r ega r d ed as a n adult:
s h e is s ixt een at (t h e ) mos t / a t t h e u t mos t . 14. Now I h a ve n o
t ime, bu t Ill t r y t o clea r u p t his ma t t er on Fr ida y at t h e latest.
15. At fir s t t h is b ook d id n ot s eem ver y in t er es t in g t o me but
t h en it gr ip p ed me s o mu ch t hat I cou ld n t pu t it d own .
16. Her e ar e t h e pills for you r cou gh . Don t for get t o t a ke
t h em. 1 7 . 1 d on t feel a n y r es p ect for him. 18. Ma r y h a d n o on e
t o ask for a dvice. 19. Bu t for you we wou ld h a ve com e in t ime.
20. Peop le wh o s a cr ifice t h eir lives for t h eir cou n t r y s t a y for
ever in t h e h ea r t s o f t h eir cou n t r ymen / comp a t r iot s .
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Exe r c i s e 14 (a ), p. 236
1. - . 2. (
/ ) . 3.
. 4. -
. 5. - .
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
TALKING ABOUT PEOPLE
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. :
a ffa ble - , , ;
a mia ble - , , ;
good-n a t u r ed - ; , ;
good -h u mou r ed - ;
kin d - ;
kin d-h ea r t ed - , ( ) , ;
commu n ica t ive - ;
fr ien dly - ;
modes t - ;
dis cr eet - , ;
gen er ou s - , ;
con s ider at e - , ;
a t t en t ive - ( . . );
t h ou gh t fu l - , ;
ear nes t - 1) ; 2) ;
s in cer e - ;
en t h u s ias t ic - , ,
;
ca lm - , , ;
qu iet - , ;
comp os ed - , ; ;
s elf-pos s es s ed - , ;
h on es t - ;
mer cifu l - ;
impa r t ia l [m u; Jbl] - ;
just - ;
pa t ien t - ;
for ebea r in g - ;
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s ympa t h et ic - , ;
;
r es pect a ble - , , ;
cor dia l - ;
b r oa d -min d ed - , ;
wit t y - ;
in t elligen t - ;
d ign ified -
;
ca pa ble - , ;
b en evolen t - , ;
ph ila n t h r opic - ;
s cr u pu lou s - 1) , ,
; 2 ) ;
con s is t en t - ;
ea s y-goin g - , ;
a ffect ion a t e - , , ;
d evot ed - ;
loya l - , ;
cou r a geou s [ks 'r eidzs s ] - , ,
;
per s ever in g [s] - , ; ;
in du s t r iou s - , ;
h a r d-wor k in g - ;
s weet - , ; , ;
gen t le - 1) , ; 2 ) , ,
;
pr ou d - .
2. :
ill-n a t u r ed - , ; , ;
u n kin d - , ;
h a r d-h ea r t ed - , ; ,
;
r es er ved - , ;
u n commu n ica t ive - ;
u n s ocia ble - ;
h os t ile - , ;
h a u gh t y [ ho: ti] - , ;
a r r oga n t - ;
da s h in g - 1) , 2 ) ;
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s h owy - ;
in dis cr eet - ,
;
;
u n scru pu lou s - , ,
;
gr eed y - ;
in con s is t en t - ;
tact less - ;
in s in cer e - ;
h ypocr it ica l - , ;
false - , , , ;
vu lga r - ;
d ou b le-fa ced - ;
in differ en t - ;
dis pa s s ion a t e - , ;
;
fussy - 1) ; 2) ;
u n r es t r a in ed - , ;
dis h on es t - ;
cr u el - ;
pa r t ia l - ;
in t oler a n t - ;
con ceit ed - ;
s elf-willed - , ; ;
willfu l - , ; ,
;
ca pr iciou s - ; ; ;
per ver s e - ; ; ;
;
in s en s ible - ; ;
in con s ider a t e - ( ),
;
s er vile - ;
pr es u mpt u ou s - , ,
;
deceit fu l - , ;
har sh - , ;
s ulky - , , ;
s u llen - , ;
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obs t in a t e - ;
coa r s e - , ; ;
ru de - , ;
va in - ;
imp er t in en t - , , ;
impu den t - , , ;
r even gefu l - .
UNIT EIGHT
SPEECH PATTERNS
Exe r c is e s
Exe r c is e 1, p. 249
Po s s i ble va r i a n t s
1. We s a w a lot o f in t er es t in g t h in gs wh en we we r e on
a tramp/ a tour. 2. It s t oo la t e t o st art on a tramp/ hike. 3. Will
you go wit h t h em on an excurs ion? 4. I a m bu sy n ow, I h a ve
a lot to do/ five w ritten exercis es to do. 5. It wa s gr owin g da r k
a n d t h ey s t ill h a d s ome s ix miles to go. 6 . 1s h a n t be fr ee t ill J uly.
I h a ve w ork to do. 7. Bot h br ot h er s a re t a ll a n d as thin as rails.
8. In t h e fa t h er s pr es en ce t h e boys a r e as meek as lambs.
9. Th e t win s a r e as lik e as two peas. 10. Wit h h er clos e-
c r op p e d h a ir s h e look ed lik e a boy. 11. She is u n der t wen t y bu t
s h e look s lik e a tw enty -five y ea r-old woman. 12. Th e wa t er in
t h e la ke wa s s o wa r m t h a t it wa s lik e a bath. 13. She wa s a
s ma ll, p r et t y wom a n wit h a com p le xion t h at wa s lik e a rose
petal. 14. Th e clou d n ow s p r ea d in g a cr os s t h e sky, wa s lik e
as heet of fire . 15.1 h a d a go o d look at t h e pict u r e yes t er da y
a n d I t h in k it is as good as the p a in te rs other works. 1 6 . 1d on t
k n ow t h e ru les bu t I t h in k it s lik e being on a tramp. 17. Th is is
t h e h ou s e wh er e t h e wr it er lived, n ow it s a mus eum and p e o
ple go there on excurs ions . 18. Im n ot su re o f t h e mea n in g o f
t h e t er m, per h a ps it s s omething lik e a hand over.
Exe r c is e 2, p. 250
1. I h a d a k in d o f s u s p icion t h a t he wa s ch ea t in g. 2. Th e
vin es for m e d a k in d o f r oof. 3 . 1d id n t k n ow t h e kin d o f ga me
t h ey we r e pla yin g. 4. It wa s a d es er t ed h u t t h a t cou ld give
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t h em a k in d o f s h elt er . 5. Sh e h a d a k in d o f h a t on h er h ead.
6. Th e wh ole a ffa ir s t r ikes me as qu eer . 7. It s t r u ck me as od d
t h a t I fou n d n ob od y at h ome. 8. Th e excu s e h e ga ve s t r u ck
me as r idicu lou s . 9- He s t r ikes me as well- r ea d in lit er a t u r e.
10. He t u r n ed t h e ca r t owa r d s a la r ge h ou s e t h a t s t r u ck h im
as t yp ica lly Swiss.
Exe r c i s e 4, p. 250
1. It h a p p en ed wh en we we r e on a t ou r o f t h e Cau casu s.
2. As s oon as we ca m e t o/ a r r ived in Lon d on we wen t / s t a r t ed
on a n excu r s ion . 3- Aft er t h e we d d in g Mich a el a n d Fleu r
wen t on a h on e ym oon t rip. 4. Th e r e n ova t ion / r ed ecor a t ion
o f t h e cou n t r y c ot t a ge is a lmos t over , t h er e is on ly t h e floor
t o pa in t . 5 . 1 h a d s t ill t en p a ges t o r ea d wh e n t h e ligh t we n t
ou t . 6. Th e ge ologis t s t ill h a d t h r ee days t o s t a y in t h e ca mp
wh e n s u d d en ly a s t or m b r ok e ou t . 7. Aft e r h is illn es s J oh n
h as b e c om e t h in as a r a il t h ou gh h e says t h a t h e a lr ea d y feels
well. 8 . 1won d e r wh y in p u b lic/ b efor e s t r a n ger s t h e ch ild r en
a r e m eek as la mbs a n d at h om e t h ey d o as t h ey plea s e/ a t
h om e t h ey a r e s o n a u gh t y. 9. Th e t win s we r e as lik e as t wo
p ea s a n d n o on e excep t / b u t t h eir m ot h er cou ld t ell t h em
a p a r t / cou ld d is t in gu is h t h em. 10. He is a h igh ly ed u ca t ed
ma n . Ta lk in g t o h im is lik e r ea d in g an en cyclop a ed ia . 11. Th e
gir l los t h er m ot h er at a n ea r ly a ge a n d h er eld er s is t er wa s
lik e a m ot h er t o h er . 12. Th is m on t h in t h e mou n t a in s wa s
lik e a won d e r fu l dr ea m. 13. Th er e is a s or t o f t er r a ce in t h eir
cou n t r y cot t a ge, bu t it is n ot fin is h ed yet . 1 4 . 1h a ve n o id ea
wh a t t h is dis h is. Ma ybe it s a s or t o f r a gou t ? 15. It s t h e k in d
o f flo we r wh ich ca n be fou n d / t o be fou n d on ly h igh in t h e
mou n t a in s . 16. Wh e n we ca m e u p t o/ a p p r oa ch ed t h e h ou s e
it s t r u ck us as qu eer t h a t t h er e wa s n o ligh t in t h e win d ows .
17. He s t r u ck me as a ver y ca u t iou s a n d in d ecis ive/ ir r es olu t e
p er s on . 18. He s t r ikes me as a r ea l con n ois s eu r o f p a in t in g.
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. t r a c k - 1) ;
t o be o n t h e t r a c k o f s m b. - 1) ,
- . ;
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2) ;
Th e p olice wer e on t h e t r a ck o f t h e t h ief. -
.
t o c o ve r u p o n e s t r a c k s - ;
Th e ma n wa s sure h e h a d cover ed u p his tracks. -
, .
2) , ; , ;
a t ra ck t h r ou gh a for es t (a field ) - ,
( );
t h e be a t e n t r a c k - ;
An d r ew wa s n ot a per s on t o follow a bea t en t rack. -
, .
t o k e e p t r a c k o f - ( - . ,
- . );
t o los e t r a c k o f - 1) ( - . ); 2 )
- . ,
You s h ou ld k eep t r a ck o f cu r r en t event s . -
.
3) , , ;
2. o u t li n e - pi. ( ), , ( );
an ou t lin e ma p (o f Afr ica , Eu r ope, et c. ) -
( , . .);
t h e ou t lin e (ou t lin es ) o f a bu ildin g (t r ees, mou n t a in s ) -
( , );
La n n y cou ld h a r dly ma ke ou t t h e ou t lin es o f t h e b ig h ou s e in
t h e dark. -
.
2) ; ;
an ou t lin e o f a comp os it ion (a lect u r e, a b ook ) -
( , ;
in ou t lin e - 1) ; ;
2 ) , ;
Bos in n ey s h owed Soa mes t h e des ign o f t h e hou s e in ou t
line. - .
1 ca n t ell you t he a r t icle in ou t lin e. -
( ).
t o o u t li n e - , ,
;
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t o ou t lin e a cer t a in h is t or ica l p er iod (even t s , et c. ) -
(
. .);
t o be ou t lin e d a ga in s t s mt h . - ( - .);
She wa s ou t lin ed against t h e sky. -
.
3. r o u gh [rAf] - 1) ( ) ,
, , ;
r ou gh pa per - ;
a r ou gh r oa d - ( ) ;
r ou gh h a ir - ;
2 ) , ( . .); ,
; /
a r ou gh sea - ;
a r ou gh cr os s in g - ;
a r ou gh da y - ;
a r ou gh ch ild - , ;
r ou gh lu ck - , ;
3 ) ; ;
( );
a r ou gh d ia mon d - ) ; )
;
4 ) , ;
r ou gh r eply - ;
r ou gh wor d s - ;
h e h a s a r o u gh t o n gu e - ,
;
5) ( ) , ;
4. e ye - 1) ;
We see wit h ou r eyes. - .
It wa s s o in t er es t in g t hat I cou ld n t t ake (k e e p ) my eyes o ff
it. - ,
.
t o k e e p a n e ye o n - , ...,
..., ;
Cook a sked me t o keep an eye on t h e mea t wh ile s h e was
away. - ,
.
t o o p e n a p e r s o n s e yes t o s m t h . - - .
- .;
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His wor d s op en ed my eyes t o t h eir r ela t ion s . -
(
).
t o m a k e e ye s a t a p e r s o n - - . ;
t o s e e e ye t o e ye wi t h a p e r s o n -
- ., ;
I r egr et I d on t s ee eye t o eye wit h you on t h a t s u bject . -
,
.
t h e a p p le o f o n e s e ye - ;
His d a u gh t er is t h e a p p le o f his eye. -
.
wi t h a n e ye t o - ( - . ), ( -
. ); , , ;
I d id n t com e h er e for plea s u r e bu t wit h an eye t o business. -
, .
t o c los e o n e s e yes t o - ( - . );
You s h ou ld clos e you r eyes t o h er mis beh a viou r . -
.
t o r u n o n e s e yes o ve r (t h r o u gh ) - ,
;
He qu ickly ran his eyes over t he page. -
.
t o h a ve a n e ye fo r - , ,
( - . - . ), ( - . - .);
- .;
t o h a ve an eye for bea u t y - ;
2 ) ( ); ( ); (
- . );
an elect r on ic eye - ;
t o e ye - , ; ( - .),
I ( - . );
5- t o wo n d e r vt/ i - 1) , ,
;
I won d er wh o h e is (wh a t h e want s , wh y h e is late, wh et h er
liell come, if it is cor r ect , h ow you can b e s o t act less as t o say
i hat...) - , ( ,
, , ,
, . .. )
Wh o is he, I won der ? - , ?
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Wh a t does h e wa n t , I won d er ? - , .
2 ) , ; ;
I won d er at you r s a ying that. - ,
wo n d e r - ; , ;
Ma n n ed fligh t s t o s pa ce are t h e won d er o f mod er n s cien ce. -
.
Her eyes a re t h e won der . - -
.
A won d er lasts bu t n in e days (proverb). - .
She has wor k ed u n s pa r in gly at t his task. It is n o won d er t hat
s he over s t r a in ed hers elf. - ,
. , .
refu ses t o h elp and n o won d er . -
, .
6. t o l i m p vi - ;
Ashu rst wa s limp in g along. - , .
Th e ma n lim p ed on. - .
Th e wou n d ed s old ier limp ed o ff t h e ba t t lefield. -
, , .
a l i m p - , ;
t o wa lk wit h a limp - , , ;
t o h a ve a ba d limp - ;
l a m e - 1) ;
a la me ma n (ch ild, h or s e) - ( ,
);
t o be la me in t h es r igh t (le ft ) foot -
( ) ;
t o go la me - ;
a la m e d u c k - 1) , ;
;
2) . ,
;
2. , , ;
la me excu s e - ( ) ;
la me a r gu men t - ;
la me s t or y - ;
la me exp la n a t ion - (
) ;
His exp la n a t ion s ou n ded lame. -
.
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7. p u t - , , ;
Put mor e su gar in you tea. -
.
Put t h e b ook in its r igh t pla ce, t h e flower s in t o t h e wa t er ,
a ma r k against his name. - ,
, .
Geor ge pu t an a dver t is emen t in a n ews pa per . -
( ) .
2) , ; (
, . .);
J im wa s pu t in pr is on. - .
Pu t you r s elf in my pla ce. - .
Put it ou t o f you r min d. - He .
Let s put t he docu men t s in or der . -
.
Th e n ew ma n a ger pu t an en d t o t h e slack dis ciplin e. -
.
She k n ew h ow t o pu t h im at his ease. - ,
( ,
/ ).
3) , , ;
I d on t kn ow h ow t o pu t it. - , .
I wou ld n t put it t hat way. - .
Ive put it badly. - .
t o put in black an d wh it e - ;
Id like t o put a qu es t ion t o you . -
.
4 ) ; - . ;
t o pu t smb. t o expen s e - - . ;
t o pu t smb. t o in con ven ien ce - - .
;
t o pu t smb. t o a test - - . ;
Wi t h p o s t l o gu e s
t o p u t a side - 1) ( );
2 ) , ;
t o p u t a wa y - , - . ( ,
. .);
t o pu t away on es t hings, books , a let t er - ,
, ;
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t o p u t ba c k - 1) , - . ,
;
2) ( ) ;
Th e clock wa s 5 min u t es fast a n d h e pu t ba ck t h e hands. -
5 , .
Put t h e dict ion a r y ba ck on t h e shelf, pleas e. - ,
,
t o p u t d o wn - ;
t o p u t d o wn t o - - . - ., - .
- . ;
Th e flu was pu t d own t o d a mp wea t h er . -
.
t o p u t i n - , ( );
t o pu t in a wor d for a fr ien d - ;
t o p u t o f f - 1) ;
Never pu t o ff t ill t om or r ow wh a t you ca n d o today. -
, .
Th e meet in g wa s pu t o ff t ill Mon d a y (fo r t wo days). -
( ).
2 ) ( - . );
She t r ied t o pu t me o ff wit h a jest. -
( ).
She t r ied t o pu t me o ff wit h pr omis es (excu s es ). -
( ).
t o p u t o n - 1) , ,
;
2 ) , ( ., );
His modes t y is all pu t on. - .
She wen t on a diet , s o as n ot t o pu t on weigh t . -
, .
We must pu t on t h e pace, ot h er wis e we ll be late. -
, .
t o p u t ou t - 1) , ; 2) ,
; , ;
Pu t ou t t h e ca n dle (t h e fire, t h e lamp, t h e ga s). -
( , , ).
wa s ver y mu ch pu t ou t by t h e u n exp ect ed delay. -
.
t o p u t t h r o u gh (t o s mb.) - - .
;
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Put me t h r ou gh t o t h e ma na ger , plea se. - ,
, .
t o p u t u p - 1) ( - . ) ; 2)
( . .); , - .,
;
Th e b oy pu t u p his h a n d ea ger t o a n s wer t he t ea ch er s qu es
t ion. - ,
.
We shall pu t u p at an in n for t h e night . -
/ .
Th e la n d la d y a gr eed t o pu t us u p i f we d id n t m in d s h a r
in g t h e r oom. - ,
,
.
t o p u t u p wi t h - - ., - .;
I ca n t a n d won t pu t u p wit h all t his noise. -
.
8. s h y - , ;
a shy p er s on (boy, gir l) - (
/ , - / );
a shy s mile - ;
Amelia wa s n t s hy o f s h owin g J oh n h er a ffect ion . -
( )
.
s h yn e s s . - , ; ;
She s poke wit h ou t shyness. - .
s h yly adv. - , ; ;
She d r op p ed h er eyes shyly. -
.
9. s t r e t c h - 1) ( ), ( ), ( ),
( ), ( );
Silk socks s t r et ch, woolle n on es shrink. -
, .
Th ey s t r et ch ed a wir e across t h e road. - -
IiepeK .
rose, s t r et ch ed h ims elf a n d ma de for t h e ba t h r oom. -
, .
s t r et ch ed ou t his h a n d wit h t h e let t er. -
.
t o s t r e t c h o n e s le gs - ;
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Let s go for a s t r oll t o st r et ch ou r legs. - ,
.
2 ) ; ;
s t r et ch ed h ims elf ou t on t h e lawn. -
.
s t r e t c h . - ;
a t a s t r e t c h - ; ;
ou t s t r e t c h e d adj. - , ,
;
His ou t s t r et ch ed h a n d r ema in ed in t he air. -
.
10. t o h o l d (h e l d , h e l d ) vt/ i - 1) ( . .);
wa s h old in g a b ook in his hands. -
.
t o h o l d o n (t o s m t h . ) - ( - . );
Robin s on wa s h old in g on t o a br anch. -
.
Hold you r arms ou t . - / .
Hold you r h ea d up. - .
t o h o l d ou t o n e s h a n d - ;
An n ie h eld ou t h er h a n d wit h a lit t le pa cka ge in it. -
.
t o h o l d s m t h . ba c k (f r o m ) - - . - .;
You s h ou ld h old ba ck this n ews fr om t h em for a wh ile. -
- .
2 ) ( , . .);
A pa per ba g will h old sand, but it won t h old wa t er. -
, -
-
Sea wa t er h old s ma n y salts in s olu t ion . -
.
t o h o l d o f f -
Hold you r d og off. - .
3) ;
t o h old a meet in g (exa min a t ion , lect u r e, t rial et c. ) -
( , , . .);
Th e meet in g will be h eld on Monday. -
.
Th ey are goin g t o h old a t rial t here. -
.
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4 ) , , ( . .);
How lon g will t h e wea t h er h old? -
( ) ?
t o h o l d t o ge t h e r - , ;
, ;
Hold t oget h er a n d you won t be defea t ed. -
( ), ,
h o l d - ;
t o ca t ch (get , t ake, h a ve) h old o f a t h in g or a per s on -
1) , ; - . - .; 2 )
; - . - .;
t o keep h old o f a t h in g or a per s on - - .
- . ;
t o los e h old o f a t h in g or a per s on - - .
- . ;
ca u gh t h old o f t h e r op e a n d climb ed on boa rd. -
.
WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES
a ft er t h eir last (fir st , s econ d ) yea r at college (t h e u n iver s it y) -
( , )
( );
a ccor d in g t o s mt h . (t h e ir ma p, my wa t ch , t h eir or der s or
in s t r u ct ion s , h er wor d s , et c. ) - ( )
- ( , , (
) ,
. .);
s moot h h a ir (for eh ea d, su rface, boa r d, paper , skin, road,
s ea ) - ( , , , ,
, );
t o br eak in t o flower - , ;
t o be in lea f (in flowe r ) -
( );
wit h on e s eyes on smb. or smth. (wit h on es hair flu n g
Ija ck) - - . - . ( );
t o s h ow smb. t h e wa y - - . ;
t o br ea k in (in t o a con ver s a t ion ) - ,
;
t o hurt or pa in smb. - ( - . );
My leg is h u r t in g me (h u r t s ). - .
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t o t ake smb. in fr om h ea d t o h eel - - .
;
t o get smth. r ea dy - - .;
t h er es n o r oom for - ...;
on e at a t ime - .
Exe r c i s e 4, p. 258
1. Aft er t h eir last yea r (t o ge t h e r ) at t h e u n iver s it y t h ey
ma d e u p t h eir min ds t o go t o wor k in t h e Nor t h . 2. Ac c or d in g
t o his wor d s h e is n ot t o bla me. 3. Th e p eb b les on t h e b ea ch
we r e s m oot h a n d shiny. 4. Th e s m oot h sea look e d e m p t y a n d
h os t ile. 5. We d r ove d own t h e s m oot h gr a vel d r ive a n d ou t o f
t h e wh it e ga t es . 6. Th e wom a n s t ood lea n in g a ga in s t t h e wa ll
wit h h er eyes on h im. 7. He s t ood s t ock -s t ill (
, ) wit h his eyes on t h e p a in t in g.
8. Th a n k you for s h owin g us t h e way. 9. I wis h you wou ld n t
br ea k in t o ou r con ver s a t ion / b r ea k in. 10. Sor r y for b r ea k in g
in t o you r c on ve r s a t ion / for b r e a k in g in. 11. Th e b a ck
h u r t / p a in ed me s o I c ou ld n t s leep. 12. Sh e wa lk ed on wit h
ou t com p la in in g t h ou gh h er fo o t h u r t / pa in ed h er t er r ibly.
13- Sh e t ook h im in fr om h ea d t o h eel. 14. It will t a ke me h a lf
an h ou r t o get ever yt h in g ready. 15. Ha ve a r es t wh ile I get t h e
s pa r e r oom r eady. 16. Th e t r ees will s oon b e in lea f. 17. Wh a t
ca n be m or e d eligh t fu l t o t h e eye t h a n a ch er r y t r ee r ea d y t o
b r ea k in t o flower ? 1 8 . 1d id n ot go wit h t h em as t h er e wa s n o
r oom in t h e car.
Exe r c is e 5, p. 259
1. Aft er t h eir fir s t yea r t oget h er at (t h e ) u n iver s it y t h ey
b eca me gr ea t fr ien ds . 2. Ac cor d in g t o t h e d ir ect ion s / in s t r u c
t ion s we mu s t get t h e ca mp r ea dy for t h e t ou r is t s a r r iva l by
t h e fir s t o f J une. 3. Accor d in g t o my wa t ch it s h igh t ime t o pu t
t h e ch ild r en t o bed. 4. Ou r t r ip wen t (o ff) s m o o t h l y / wit h ou t
a h it ch . 5. Th e r oa d wa s s m oot h a n d we qu ick ly got t o t h e s t a
t ion . 6. Th e b oy wa s s t a n din g wit h his eyes on t h e car. If on ly
h e wer e/ wa s t a ken for a r id e (in it )! 7. Sh e look ed ver y pr et -
t y/ She look e d love ly wit h h er h a ir flu n g ba ck. 8. Im a fr a id we
a r e goin g in t h e wr on g d ir ect ion , let s ask s om eb od y t o s h ow
us t h e wa y t o t h e s h op. 9. Excu s e me for br ea k in g in, bu t Ive
got t o t a lk t o you r igh t n ow. Yes t er da y even in g/ La s t n igh t
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I h a d s u ch a t oot h a ch e/ m y t o o t h p a i n e d / h u r t m e s o m u c h
t h a t I c ou ld n t go t o s leep. 11. Wh e r e does it h u r t ? a s ked t h e
d oct or . 12. Th e la n d la d y t ook t h em in fr om h ea d t o h eel a n d
on ly a ft er t h a t in vit ed t h em in t o t h e h ou s e. 13. Ill get ever y
t h in g r ea dy in five min u t es ! 14. Th e h ed ge wa s b r ea k in g in t o
flowe r fillin g t h e a ir wit h a s weet is h s mell. 15. Th e s len d er
a s pens / a sps are in flower . Th ey b loom / Th ey s t a y i n f l o w e r
u n t il t h ey a r e in lea f. 16. Th er es n o r oom for a n ot h er a r m
ch a ir in t h e r oom. It s t oo c r owd e d (wit h fu r n it u r e) as it is.
17. Th e t ea ch er a s ked t h e ch ild r en t o s pea k on e at a t ime
beca u s e wh en all o f t h em s p ok e t oget h er it wa s d ifficu lt t o
u n der s t a n d wh a t t h ey wa n t ed.
Exe r c is e 8, p. 260
( - . ) - t o ma ke (s om e pla ce);
- t o h a ve a ben t for ;
- t o plu ck a flower ;
- t o t alk t h r ou gh on es hat;
- a gains t t he sky;
- t h e s h oes wer e split;
- wit h t h e hair flu n g back;
- t o pu t u p on e s h a n d in
a salute;
- t o stay t h e night ;
- wit h ou t shyness;
- t o t a ke u p t h e cat ech is m;
- an old or ch a r d o f a pple-t r ees ;
- a s par e r oom;
- t o s t an d by itself;
- a s a n dy bot t om;
- t o over h a n g t h e wa t er ;
, - d ewy eyes.
Exe r c is e 9, p. 260
1. Frank Ashu rst a n d his fr ien d Rober t Ga r t on wer e t r a vellin g
on foot . 2. Givin g t he k n ee a rest a n d t a lkin g o f t h e u niverse.
3. Like s ome wild pr eh is t or ica l animal. 4. Ga r t on s da r k cu r ly
i h ick hair wh ich look ed as t h ou gh its dept h s h a d n ever been
t ou ch ed by a comb. 5. Rober t wa s t a lkin g nons ens e. 6. An d
Ashurst wh o s a w bea u t y wit h ou t givin g a t h ou gh t t o (s pecu la t
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in g h ow) it cou ld b en efit h im/ h ow h e cou ld ben efit / pr ofit fr om
it... 7. His h ea d wa s ba r e/ He wa s n t wea r in g a hat, s o h ow cou ld
h e t ake o ff wh a t wa s n t t here? 8. Ga r t on wen t on a s kin g qu es
tions. 9- Th e gir ls a u nt s n eck wa s a ls o lon g a n d gr a cefu l a n d
mob ile a n d pr ob a b ly r emin ded on e va gu ely o f a snake. 10. He
felt u n r ea s on a bly happy.
Exe r c i s e 2, p. 261
A. 1. ,
. 2.
? - .
, . 3- ,
, . ,
. 4.
. 5.
. 6.
, .
7.
. 8. :
. 9-
/ ?
10. . 11.
. 12.
/ , (
). 13-
. 14. ,
. 15. / ,
. 16.
.
. 17. . - ,
. 18. ,
/ - . 19- ,
, ,
, .
B. 1. : .
2. , . 3.
(fu s s ed ove r ) . 4.
, - ,
. 5.
, - -
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. 6.
. 7. , :
. 8.
. 9.
/
? 10.
, ,
. 11.
,
. 12.
. , -
,
. 13. . 14.
. 15.
,
. 16. ,
/ (s p a r e a n d h old s h im
s e lf we ll). 17. -
: ,
. 18.
, .
19. , ,
? 20. ,
.
21. , .
22. ,
, . 23.
(p e e p e d ) .
Exe r c is e 3, . 262
. 1. Im a fr a id Ive c om p le t e ly los t t r a ck o f h im. 2. She
s t u mb led a lon g t h e s t eep t r a ck t h a t led u p t h e h ill. 3. Th e
ma n wa s s u r e lie h a d c ove r e d u p his t r acks . 4. Th e mys t er y
b or e d h im a n d h e cou ld n ot k eep t r a ck o f t h e p lot . 5. Th e
h ou n d s we r e on t h e t r a ck o f t h e fox. 6 . 1 k n ow Ive followe d
t h e wr on g t r a ck. 7. Th e qu a in t a n cien t ca s t le wa s ou t lin ed
a ga in s t t h e d a r k sky. 8. Th e s t u den t wa s a s ked t o ou t lin e t h e
h is t or ica l even t . 9- In h er let t er s s h e h a d ou t lin e d h er
life/ h a d t old me a bou t h er life in ou t lin e. 10. Th e s ea is r ou gh
t oda y. 11. His r ou gh m a n n er fr igh t e n e d t h e ch ild r en .
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12. Sh ou ld t h e we a t h e r b e r ou gh , d o n ot t h in k o f r idin g. 13.
Wh a t h e t old me op e n e d my eyes t o t h e t r u e s t a t e o f a ffa ir s .
1 4 . 1 h op e we s ee eye t o eye/ I h op e I s ee eye t o eye wit h you
in t h is ma t t er . 1 5 . 1 n ever s et eyes on h er b efor e. (Very in for
mal-. I n ever cla p p e d eyes on h er . ) 17. His wor d s op e n e d my
eyes t o t h eir pla n s . 18. You s h ou ld k eep a n eye on t h e c h il
d r en wh e n t h ey a r e pla yin g. 19. He has a n eye for a p r et t y
gir l. 20. A h a lf- in d ign a n t mu t t er a r os e a b ou t h im bu t h e ju st
clos ed h is eyes t o it.
. 1. Televis ion is on e o f con t em p or a r y wor ld s won d er s .
2. It s n o won d e r / No won d er / Sma ll won d e r t h a t you r wor d s
s en t h er t emp er up. 3 . 1won d e r at h er s a yin g that . 4 . 1won d e r
wh a t s h e t old you . / Wh a t d id s h e t ell you I won d er ? 5. Melod y
won d e r e d if sh e wou ld ever fin d t h e cou r a ge t o da r e t o c o n
fid e in Sarah. 6. Th is is a la me a r gu men t , it d oes n ot p r ove a n y
t h in g. 7. How wou ld you pu t t h is in Fr en ch ? 8. Th e ou t b r ea k
( ) o f d ys en t er y wa s pu t d own t o ba d d r in k in g-wa t er .
9. 1 pu t in a wor d for you , I pr omis e. 10. His mod es t y is all pu t
on . 11. He wa s ver y mu ch pu t ou t b y t h e los s o f t h e d ocu men t .
12. Let s pu t o ff ou r h ik in g t ou r u n t il t h e wea t h er is bet t er .
13. Don t be s hy o f r in gin g me u p a n y t ime. Ill be in t h e wh ole
day. 14. She s t r et ch ed ou t / h eld ou t h er fr a gile h a n d t o h er
cou s in a n d t ou ch ed his wife s oft ly wit h t h e ot h er . 15. He
s t r et ch ed h im s elf ou t on t h e s et t ee a n d wa t ch ed t h e ca n a r y
h op a bou t in its ca ge. 16. Hu r s t pa r is h s t r et ch es over miles o f
s a n dy lowla n d a n d s a n ds t on e hill. 17. Th e m eet in g wa s h eld in
t h e h os pit a l d in in g-r oom . 18. He h a d b een ca r efu l t o h old
ba ck wh a t h e k n ew a bou t t h e s u bject . 19. She d id n ot k n ow
wh et h er or n ot t o h old ou t h er hand.
Exe r c i s e 4, p. 263
A. 1. I clea n for got a bou t t h e t ime/ t h e pa s s a ge o f t ime./
I c om p le t e ly for got t h a t t h er e wa s su ch a t h in g as t ime./ Th e
fa ct t h a t t h e t ime wa s pa s s in g a n d s oon er or la t er t his wou ld
en d h a d s lip p ed my min d. It wa s won d er fu l. 2. He wa s ver y
ca r efu l n ot t o lea ve a n y s ign s / ma r ks t h a t cou ld let p e op le
k n ow wh er e h e h a d b een or wh a t h e h a d d on e. 3- You a r e
t h in k in g in a wa y t h a t s lik ely t o lea d t o a n in cor r ect resu lt./
You a r e a ft er t h e wr on g per s on / You ar e b a r k in g u p t h e wr on g
t r ee/ You a r e s u s p ect in g t h e wr on g p er s on / You ve ch os en
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a wr on g way. 4. It wa s t h a t , t h a t even t u a lly ma d e ou r fr ien d
gu es s / u n der s t a n d wh a t h a d h a p p en ed . 5. I h op e you d on t
e xp ect me t o fo llo w all t h e det a ils ? 6. Th e d im wh it e con t ou r
o f h er s u mmer dr es s wa s a ll t h a t I cou ld s ee. 7 . 1b egin t o s ee -
n ot wh a t you wou ld lik e m e t o s ee - t h e s h a pe o f a fa ce a n d
a for m - bu t t h e s h a pe o f a min d. / I b egin t o s ee - n ot wh a t
you wou ld lik e me t o s ee - n ot t h e wa y h e/ s h e look s bu t t h e
wa y h is / h er m in d wor k s . 8. He wa s p r ep a r ed t o a ccep t t h e
ba d t h in gs in life as we ll as t h e goo d on es . / He r ea lized t h a t it
wou ld n t b e a ll p la in s a ilin g a n d wa s p r ep a r ed t o fa ce t h e
p r ob lem s as t h ey ca me. / He r ea lized t h a t t h er e migh t be
p r ob lem s a n d d ifficu lt ies a n d wa s p r ep a r ed t o fa ce t h em.
9. Mrs. St ep t oe b elieves in t r ea t in g p oor r ela t ion s u n kin dly/
look in g d own h er n os e on p oor r ela t ion s a n d b ein g u n p lea s
a n t t o t h em. 10. Ha n ce wa s a n old ma n wit h a b r u s qu e/ imp o
lit e t on gu e a n d com p a s s ion a t e eyes. 11. She s h ook h a n ds
ver y fir m ly look in g me s t r a igh t in t h e fa ce. 12. Do you min d
look in g t h r ou gh / gla n cin g at t h es e a ccou n t s ? 13. Well, I d on t
s u p pos e t h er es h op e o f ma k in g you u n der s t a n d t h e r ea lit ies
o f life/ t h er es n o h op e o f ma k in g you give u p you r illu s ion s
a n d s ee life as it r ea lly is. 14. He p ict u r ed t h e ima ge o f t h e gir l
t o h ims elf/ He s a w t h e gir l in his m in d s eye. 15. She has n o
op in ion s o f h er own : s h e s ees ever yt h in g just like h er mot h er .
16. She ga ve/ t old me t h e ma in p oin t s o f t h e a r t icle bu t I r ea d
it mys elf. 17. He s p ok e b r iefly a bou t t h e even t s o f t h os e s t ir
r in g days. 18. I ca n n ever get ove r t h e ma r vels o f mod er n s ci
en ce. 19. Th e Ch r is t ma s t r ee, o f wh a t t h ey h a d n ever s een t h e
likes , filled t h em wit h a d m ir a t ion a n d a ma zemen t / a we.
20. Fin ch con s id er ed wh e t h e r h e s h ou ld emb r a ce t h e b oy -
give h im a h u g a n d a kiss. 21. It s ver y s u r pr is in g/ Im ver y s u r
p r is ed / it s a mir a cle you got h er e at all. 22. Th e X-r a y t r ea t
men t has r ema r k a b ly im p r ove d his con d it ion .
B. 1. A lea n old gen t lem a n r os e fr om his ch a ir a n d h ob
b led for wa r d t o meet me/ a n d wa lk ed for wa r d in su ch a wa y
t h a t it wa s evid en t t h a t on e o f his legs or feet wa s in ju r ed, s t iff
or ma lfor med . 2. He t r ied t o p r even t me fr om wh a t I in t en d
ed t o d o b y ma k in g e m p t y pr omis es . 3. Th is will ma ke me
s p en d a lot o f mon ey. 4. I ca n t s t a n d t his n ois e a n y lon ger .
1a m goin g t o t r y a n d pu t a n en d t o it. 5. Don t t r y t o assu me
t h at a ir o f in ju r ed dign it y: I ca n s ee t h r ou gh you pr et en ce/
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Don ' t t r y t o p r et en d t h a t you r d ign it y is in ju r ed: I k n ow t h a t
you a r e p la y-a ct in g. 6. He t r ied n ot t o t h in k a b ou t / t o for get
t h e in cid en t . 7. I t h in k in t h os e days we s omet imes h es it a t
ed / d id n t da r e t o s h ow ou r em ot ion s . 8. I t h ou gh t if we h a d
s p en t on e even in g t oget h er per h a p s h e wou ld da r e t o ask me
o f h is own a ccor d a n ot h er t ime. 9. He is ca p a b le o f s p ea k in g
24 h ou r s r u n n in g/ in a r ow/ n on - s t op / wit h ou t s t op p in g.
10. A we t r a ilwa y lin e/ Wet r a ils a n d t ies r a n in t o t h e d es ola t e
dis t a n ce. 11. We d id n t k n ow wh a t t h e fu t u r e h eld in s t or e for
u s / We h a d n t t h e leas t n ot ion / t h e fa in t es t idea wh a t wou ld
h a p p en t o us in t h e fu t u re. 12. A gir l in a c ot t on dr es s a n d
s t r a w h a t r a n u p t o h im h er h a n ds h eld ou t . 13. You h a ve t h e
a ir o f on e wh o ca n d ict a t e t h e t er ms / wh o has all t h e t r u mps
(a n d will h a ve ever yt h in g t h eir own wa y). 14. She ca n s t a n d
h er gr ou n d wit h a n yon e a n d s h e is nt on e t o be t r ifled wit h .
15. Ca n I s u gges t an a lt er n a t ive s olu t ion t h a t s lik ely t o
wor k / a n a lt er n a t ive s en s ible s olu t ion ? 16. Id lik e t o b e a ble
t o b eh a ve in t h is t own in a wa y t h a t s h ows t h at I h a ve n o
ca u s e t o be a s h a med o f m ys elf a n d t h a t I e xp e c t r es pect .
Exe r c i s e 5, p- 264
shy - timid
1. A bold ma n by nat ure, h e wa s s h y as a b oy in t h e pr es en ce
o f women . 2. Th e s ou p is beas t ly! old Os bor n roar ed, in a n s wer
t o a t i m i d look o f in qu ir y fr om his da u ght er .
shy - s elf-cons cious
1. She wa s obviou s ly wea r in g h er best clot h es a n d h a d t he
s e lf-c on s c i ou s wood e n s mile on h er face. 2. Th e gir l look ed at
t h e ma n wit h a s h y smile.
rude - rough
1. Th ou gh r o u gh in ma n n er a n d s peech t h e old s old ier was
at hea r t kin d a n d con s ider a t e. 2. Squ ire Wes t er n was r u d e t o t he
s er va nt s a n d t h e wom en o f his h ou s eh old.
rough - coarse
1. Th e s u r fa ce o f t h e s t on e is r ou gh . It n eeds polis h in g. 2. Th e
fir e glea med on t h e c oa r s e wh it e t a bleclot h .
Exe r c i s e 6, p. 264
A. 1. Ou r t r a in is on t r a ck five, le t s h u r r y u p/ let s wa lk
fa st er. 2. Sin kin g in t o t h e d eep s n ow t h e h ou n d wa s fo llo w
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in g a h a r es t racks. 3. He is n ot t h e k in d o f ma n / p er s on (He is
n ot on e/ He is n ot a ma n / p er s on ) t o fo llo w t h e b ea t en t ra ck.
4 . 1 h a ve los t t r a ck o f his r ea s on in g a n d c ou ld n t u n d er s t a n d
wh a t h e wa s t a lk in g a bou t . 5. Beyon d t h e r a ilwa y/ r a ilr oa d
(US ) t r a cks t h er e wa s a field wh ich s t r et ch ed t o t h e (ve r y)
h or izon . 6. Her es t h e ou t lin e o f my r ep or t . Will you look it
t h r ou gh ? 7. Un for t u n a t ely I d on t h a ve t his a r t icle wit h me
n ow bu t i f you wis h I ca n ou t lin e it t o you / t ell you wh a t it s
a bou t in ou t lin e. 8. Th e r oa d wa s r ou gh fr om t h e t r a cks o f
cou n t les s wh eels . 9. Th e ma n wa s wea r in g (a s h or t ove r c oa t )
ma d e o f coa r s e clot h / fa br ic/ a s h or t coa r s e ove r c oa t a n d n o
hat . 10. Th e wom a n s h a n d s we r e r ou gh fr om wa s h in g
c lot h e s a n d d is h es / fr om la u n d er in g a n d wa s h in g u p.
1 1 . 1d on t a dvis e you t o wr it e a r ou gh c op y o f t h e pa per : you
wo n t h a ve t h e t ime t o r ewr it e it (you wo n t h a ve t h e t ime t o
wr it e a fa ir c op y t h en ). 12. Im a fr a id t h a t Fa t h er a n d I d on t
s ee eye t o eye on t h is p oin t . 13. Th e r e s s om et h in g wr on g
wit h h er , k e e p a n eye on h er . 14. He r a n h is eyes
over / t h r ou gh t h e list a n d s a w his n a me on it. 15. He is
a clever a r t is t wit h an eye for colou r . 16. Th e d oll wa s s o p r e t
t y t h at t h e lit t le gir l cou ld n t t a ke h er eyes o ff it. 17. Ive c om e
h er e wi t h a n e ye t o/ wit h a vie w t o ge t t in g t o t h e b ot t om o f
t his a ffa ir / t o clea r in g u p t h is ma t t er . 18. She c ou ld n t t h r ea d
t h e n eed le beca u s e t h e eye wa s t oo s ma ll. 19. Th e b oy ca u gh t
t h e t ea ch er s eye a n d s t op p ed t a lkin g. 20. No won d er / Sma ll
won d er / It is n o won d e r (t h a t ) it s s o cold : t h e win d o w is
op en . 2 1 . 1 won d e r wh y t h e d oc t or has given u p / d r op p ed
med ica l p r a ct ice. 22. It s a won d e r t o me h ow on e ca n be s o
t act les s.
B. 1. Wh y a r e you la me in t h e r igh t foot ? - Ive s lip p ed
a n d fa llen . 2. Tim n ot ic e d t h a t t h e gir l wa s wa lk in g wit h
a s ligh t limp. 3. She ma d e u p s ome la me s t or y t o excu s e h er
b ein g la t e/ h er la t e a r r iva l (s om e la me excu s e for b ein g la t e).
4. Th e old ma n s h ift ed t h e h a r d s t r a w-filled / s t r a w-s t u ffed
p illo w a n d d r ew/ p u lled / s t r e t c h e d t h e b la n k et ove r h im
s elf. 5. Ha ve you got a pen ? Im a fr a id Ill for ge t you r a ddr es s
if I d o n t p u t i t d own / wr it e it d own / t a k e it d own / ma k e
a n ot e o f it. 6. Ive got ever yt h in g r eady. Pu t a s ide you r wor k
a n d le t s h a ve s u p p er / din n er . 7. It s t ime t o pu t t h e win t er
clot h es a wa y or t h ey will/ ma y/ migh t b e ea t en b y mot h s / or
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mot h s ma y get t o t h em. 8. I pu t all his fa ilu r es t o a la ck o f
c on fid en ce. 9- I k n ow h im we ll en ou gh a n d Im s u r e t h a t
h ell c op e wit h t h is wor k / job . On e s h ou ld p u t in a wo r d for
h im or it ma y b e give n t o s om e on e els e, a n d h e is ver y in t er
es t ed in it. 10. We ca n t a ccep t t h is offe r wit h ou t t h in k in g
eve r yt h in g ove r p r op er ly. Le t s pu t o ff t h e d e c is ion t ill
t om or r ow. 11. Th e fa ct t h a t t h e p a r a gr a p h wa s pu t on t h e
fir s t p a ge s h ows (t es t ifies t o ) t h e im p or t a n ce o f t his even t .
12. Wh y d o you wa n t t o pu t u p at a h ot el? St a y wit h us as
lon g as you wis h , w e ve got a lot o f r oom. 13. I d on t wa n t t o
pu t u p wit h you la zin es s , t h e fa t h er said. You mu s t d o t h is
wor k t oda y. 14. Sh e s t r u ck m e as a c le ve r bu t ver y s h y gir l.
15. He r e s you r oom . If you n eed s om et h in g d o n t b e s h y o f
c a l l i n g m e / d on t n es it a t e t o ca ll m e, t h e h os t es s said.
16. Th e gir l got ver y s h y wh e n I a d d r es s ed her. 17. Th es e
wo o lle n s ocks h a ve s h r u n k a lot , ca n t h ey b e s t r et ch ed
s om eh ow? 18. An n e s t r et ch ed a c lot h es - lin e b e t we e n t wo
t r ees a n d b ega n t o h a n g t h e u n d er wea r on it. 19. Fin ley
s p r ea d h is coa t over / on t h e we t gr a ss a n d s t r et ch ed h im s elf
(o u t ) on it. 20. I d on t k n ow wh y t h ey h a ve t o h old a t r ia l
h er e, at my p la ce, s a id Mr. Wh it e. 21. Do you t h in k t h is ba g
will h old t h e a pples ? 22. He h eld his b r ea t h a n d p r ick ed his
ears. 23. Th is wa r m s pell is t emp or a r y. Th is k in d o f wea t h er
w o n t h old lon g. 24. At t h a t m om e n t t h e b oy los t h old o f t h e
r op e a n d fell t o t h e gr ou n d / p lop p ed d own .
Exe r c i s e 7, p. 266
- t o lea ve tracks;
- t o cover u p on es tracks;
- t h e bea t en track;
- t o be ou t lin ed against;
- r ou gh hair;
- a r ou gh copy;
- t o k eep an eye on ;
- . ... - t o op en on e s eyes to;
- t o ma ke eyes (a t smb.);
- . - t o t u rn a blin d eye t o
smth.; t o clos e on e s eyes t o smth.;
- - t o h a ve an eye for smth.;
- wit h an eye to;
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( ) - t o be la me of/ in t h e
r igh t (le ft ) foot / leg;
- a la me excu s e;
- t o pu t smt h. ou t o f on e s min d;
- t o pu t smb. t o expen s e;
... - t o pu t u p wit h ;
- a shy smile;
- t o s t r et ch on e s legs;
- at a st ret ch;
- t o s t r et ch ou t on es h a n d/ t o h old ou t
on e s hand;
- . - t o h o l d s mt h . ba c k ; t o k eep s mt h/ back;
- t o ca t ch (t a ke, get , s eize, grip, la y) h old of.
Exe r c is e 12, p. 267
1. My s is t er wa s ver y ill a n d I h a d t o sit u p a ll n igh t wit h
h er . 2. Th is lit t le s t r ea m n ever dr ies u p. 3. You h a ve wor k e d
ve r y we ll s o far ; k eep it up. 4. You h a ve got t h e s t or y all
m ixed up. 5. Th e h om e wa s b u r n ed d o wn b e for e t h e fir e
b r iga d e ca me. 6. Th e s leeves o f my dr es s a r e t oo s h or t . I mu s t
ask t h e t a ilor t o let t h em d o wn a n in ch . 7. We ca n t bu y t h a t
ca r just yet , bu t we a r e s a vin g u p. 8. Aft e r d in n er Ill wa s h up.
9. Sit d o wn , t h er e is p le n t y o f r oom f o r ever yon e. 10. You r
coa t colla r is u p a t t h e ba ck, s h a ll I t u r n it d o wn ? 11. Don t
s t a n d u n d e r a h igh t r ee d u r in g a t h u n d er s t or m. 12. I ca n t
use my o ffic e n ow, it is u n d e r r epa ir . 13-1d id t h is u n d e r
or der s . 14. Un d e r t h e cir cu ms t a n ces I will n ot give you a n y
ext r a wor k . 15. He is u n d e r a ge a n d ca n n ot b e a llowe d t o be
in d ep en d en t .
Exe r c is e 13, p. 267
1. At five o c loc k I wa s a lr ea d y u p a n d wit h ou t wa s t in g
t ime s et t o wor k / s t a r t ed wor k in g. 2. Ha n g u p you r ove r c oa t
h er e, Ill s h ow you t h e wa y t o you r r oom . 3- Ive p ick ed u p
a h a n d k er ch ief. Is it you r s? 4. Her p a r en t s d ied wh en s h e wa s
s t ill a lit t le gir l a n d s h e has b een b r ou gh t u p b y a n aunt.
5. Th e b oy t u r n ed t h e b ox u ps ide d own , a n d t h e t oys s ca t
t er ed / s lip p ed a ll ove r t h e floor . 6 . 1wa s u p a ll n igh t , a n d n ow
Im d r op p in g wit h fa t igu e. 7. Let s go u p t h is h ill, it (it s t o p )
gives / offer s a ve r y love ly vie w o f t h e r iver . 8. Yes t er d a y
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Mot h e r fe ll d own t h e s t a ir s a n d h u r t / in ju r ed h er foot / leg.
Im ve r y wor r ie d a bou t h er ./ I wor r y a b ou t h er ve r y mu ch .
9. Im feelin g o ff colou r / u n d er t h e wea t h er / u n well, Id b e t
t er go a n d lie d own . 1 0 . 1 d o n t lik e look in g d own fr om a b ig
h eigh t , I feel dizzy. 11. You h a d b et t er pu t d own my a ddr es s
in a n ot e b ook , you ma y los e t h is s h eet / s lip o f p a p er .
12. A la r ge pa r t o f t h e cit y wa s flood ed / wa s c ove r e d wit h
wa t er / wa s u n d er wa t er . 13. A b oy o f a b ou t five wa s s it t in g
at a d es k a lon e. 14. A lot o f wr it er s p u blis h t h eir wor k s u n der
a s s u med n a mes . 15. Th e s t u d en t s we r e con d u c t in g/ c a r r y
in g ou t / ma k in g a n exp e r im e n t u n d er t h e gu id a n ce o f a p r o
fes s or .
CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
MAN AND NATURE
TOPICAL VOCABULARY
Na t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d a t t r a c t i o n s . -
:
min er a ls - ; ;
(fr es h ) wa t er s u pplies (r es er voir s ) - ( )
;
r es er voir ['r eza vw : ] - ;
flood - 1) ; ; ; 2) ;
r a in fa ll - ;
veget a t ion - ;
gr een er y - ; ; ;
wood la n d - , ;
wood la n d s - ;
for es t r y - , ;
wild life - ;
a n ima l k in gd om - ;
a n ima l p op u la t ion - ;
flor a a n d fau na [fo: ] - ;
a rable la n d (s oil) (also p lou gh la n d ) - ;
cu lt iva t ed la n d - ;
op en la n d - ; ;
gr een belt s ( );
r ecr ea t ion areas - ;
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coa s t a l areas - ;
cou n t r y (n a t ion a l) par ks - ;
clea r la n ds ca pes - ;
pu blic op en spaces -
.
E n v i r o n m e n t a n d m a n . -
:
t o lin k ma n t o n a t u re -
;
t o a da pt t o en vir on men t - ( )
;
t o be p r eoccu p ied wit h econ om ic gr owt h -
;
u n r es t r ict ed in du s t r ia liza t ion -
;
t he s pr a wl o f la r ge bu ilt -u p areas -
;
t o u ps et t h e b iologica l ba la n ce -
;
t o abuse n a t u re - ,
;
t o dis figu r e (lit t er ) t h e la n ds ca pe - ( )
;
ecology - ;
ecos ys t em - ;
t o be en vir on men t -con s ciou s -
;
t o be en vir on men t -ed u ca t ed -
.
En vi r o n m e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n a n d p o llu t i o n . -
:
la n d pollu t ion - ;
der elict la n d - ;
indu st rial wa s t e - ;
t h e by-pr odu ct s o f ma ss ive in du s t r ia liza t ion -
,
, -
;
t o du mp wa s t e (p r od u ct s ) on land - / -
/ ;
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ext en s ive use o f a gr och emica ls -
/ ;
t h e den u da t ion o f s oil - / ;
t h e t oxic fa ll-ou t s o f ma t er ia ls - ;
wa t er p ollu t ion - ;
a d r op p in g wa t er level - ;
t o fa ce t h e fr es h wa t er s u pply p r ob lem -
;
d ep let ion o f wa t er r esou r ces - / -
;
t h e dis r u pt ion o f wa t er cycle -
;
ma r in e p ollu t ion - ;
oil s pilla ge - ;
air (a t mos p h er ic) p ollu t ion - (
);
t h e air p ollu t ion in d ex - ;
t o pr odu ce fou l air - ;
t o exha u s t t oxic gases (fu el) -
(- oe );
comb u s t ion o f fu el - ;
con cen t r a t ion s o f s moke in t h e air -
; 1
du st con t en t in t h e air - ;
;
r a dia t ion - ;
h igh (lo w) r a dioa ct ivit y - ( )
;
t o s t or e (d is p er s e) r a dioa ct ive wa s t e - (
) ;
n ois e offen d er s (p ollu t a n t s ) - ,
; ;
mer ciles s k illin g o f a nima ls -
;
des t r u ct ion o f an ima ls h a bit a t s -
.
Na t u r e c o n s e r va t i o n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t p r o t e c t i o n . -
:
a glob a l imper a t ive for en vir on men t -
;
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glob a l en vir on men t a l s ecu r it y -
;
t o pr es er ve ecos ys t ems - ;
t o cr ea t e dis a s t er -pr even t ion pr ogr a ms -
/ ;
t o h a r mon ize in du s t r y a n d commu n it y -

;
pla n t s a n d p eop le - ;
con s er va t ion movemen t - ;
t o pr es er ve wood la n d s - ;
t o p r ot ect a n d r ep r od u ce a n ima l (fis h , b ir d ) r es er ves -
( ,
);
t o figh t p ollu t ion -
;
t o inst all a n t ipollu t ion equ ip men t -
;
t o min imize n ois e dis t u r ba n ce -
;
t o r edu ce p ollu t ion -
;
t o dis pos e o f ga r ba ge (lit t er , wa s t e) - ( ,
).
1 5 . .
vk.com/id12014052
GRAMMAR EXERCI SES
MORPHOLOGY
Exe r c i s e 1, p. 362
1. Nor ma lly n o a r t icle is u s ed wit h n a mes o f p eop le as t h ey
p oin t ou t in dividu a ls , s o t h e p r op er n ou n s Peter (fir s t n a me),
Carl (m id d le n a me) a n d Faberge (s u r n a me) a re u sed wit h ou t
art icles.
2 a n d 7. Th es e a re cases o f a met on ymic t ransfer. In t hes e
s en t en ces t he n a mes o f t he fa mou s jeweller (Faberge) a nd
pa in t er s (Levitan and Aivazovsky*) are u sed t o d en ot e t h eir wor ks
a n d thus b ecome com m on cou n t a b le nouns. As such t h ey must
be u s ed wit h art icles. Th e in d efin it e cla s s ifyin g a r t icle is used,
beca u s e t h e wor k s o f art in b ot h s en t en ces are men t ion ed for
t h e firs t t ime.
3. No ar t icle is u sed if t he n a me o f a per s on is mod ified by t he
d es cr ip t ive a t t r ibu t e little. Th e s a me ru le a pplies t o big, dear,
poor, lucky, old, y oung, honest, pretty a n d s ome ot h er s becau s e
t h ey for m a part o f t h e n a me t h ey pr ecede.
4. Big Ben a n d the Tower are p r op er n a mes d en ot in g bu ild
ings. Th e use o f a r t icles wit h n a mes o f imp or t a n t bu ildin gs va ries
fr om n a me t o n a me a n d la r gely d epen ds on t r adit ion. Mos t o f
t h em t a ke n o a r t icle bu t t h er e ar e qu it e a fe w excep t ion s wh ich
s h ou ld be memor ized.
5. Her e tow er is a com m on n ou n used in a set phr as e wit h t h e
cla s s ifyin g in defin it e art icle.
6. In t he first clau s e o f this comp ou n d s en t en ce the city is
a c om m on nou n. It is u sed wit h t h e d efin it e a r t icle in its s p ecify
in g fu n ct ion beca u s e it is clea r fr om t he con t ext t hat t h e cit y in
qu es t ion is Lon don . In t he s econ d clau se o f t h e s en t en ce uthe
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City is a p r op er name. Th e use o f t h e d efin it e a r t icle h er e is
ba s ed on t r adit ion.
8, 10, 15, 16. Th es e a re clea r cases o f a met on ymic t ransfer.
Na mes o f compa n ies u su ally t a ke n o a r t icle bu t h er e Sony,
Panas onic, Ford, Adidas, Nik e a n d Chanel d en ot e n ot t h e ma n u
fa ct u r in g compa n ies bu t it ems p r od u ced by t hem. As s u ch t h ey
a re cou n t a ble a n d ca n t a ke a rt icles in clu din g t h e cla s s ifyin g
in defin it e a r t icle as in t h es e s ent ences .
9. Th e r e is a le ge n d t h a t t h e p op u la r n ick n a m e for
Aca d em y Awa r ds wh ich wer e fir s t con fer r ed by t h e US-ba s ed
Aca d em y o f Mot ion Pict u r e Ar t s a n d Scien ces in 1929 for
excellen ce in a ct in g, d ir ect in g, wr it in g s cr een pla ys a n d ot h er
a s pect s o f film p r od u ct ion s t u ck t o t h e gilt ed s t a t u et t e in t h e
followin g way. On e o f t h e Aca d em ys emp loyees , a Ma r ga r et
Mer r ick look e d at on e o f t h e fir s t s t a t u et t es a n d s aid, Wh y
h e look s ju s t lik e my u n cle Os ca r ! Th u s as a r es u lt o f
a m et on ym ic t r a n s fer t h e Aca d em y Awa r ds ca me t o be k n own
as Oscars. Th is is a c om m on cou n t n ou n wh ich t a kes a r t icles
a n d has a r egu la r plu ral.
11. Hen iy For d is a per s on a l name. Gen er a lly su ch n a mes
t a ke n o ar t icles a nd t his is just t h e case.
12 a n d 13. Th es e a r e clea r ca s es o f a m e t on ym ic t r a n s fer .
Na mes o f p er s on s b e c om e cou n t a b le c om m on n ou n s in d i
ca t in g t yp ica l fea t u r es a s s ocia t ed wit h t h os e n a mes . In s en
t en ce 12 t h e in d e fin it e a r t icle is u s ed beca u s e t h e s p ea k er
e vid e n t ly d oes n ot t h in k t h e b oy or you n g ma n in qu es t ion
u n iqu e. In s en t en ce 13 t h e d e fin it e a r t icle is u s ed beca u s e
e ve r yb od y s eems t o b e lie ve t h e s in ger a u n iqu e p h e n om e
n on .
14. Th is is a n ot h er cas e o f a met on ymic transfer. Th e ch a r a c
t eris t ic qu a lit ies o f t h e pr over bia l J a ck-of-ca ll-t r a des are meant ,
s o t h e n a me becomes a cou n t nou n.
17. Th e d efin it e a r t icle is u sed wit h t h e s u r na me in t h e plu ral
t o in dica t e t h e wh ole family.
18. If a n a me is p r eced ed by Mr., Mrs. or Miss, t h e use o f t h e
in d efin it e a r t icle imp lies t h a t t h e s pea ker d oes n t k n ow t his
per s on .
19- See 17 for the Benois. Th e in d efin it e a r t icle is u sed b efor e
t h e n a me Benois t o in dica t e t hat on e o f a fa mily is meant .
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20. Th e d efin it e a r t icle is u sed wit h t h e n a me o f a per s on
m od ified by des cr ipt ive a t t r ibu t es as t h e limit a t ion is clea r fr om
t h e con t ext .
21. In t h e s econ d s en t en ce t h e n a me is just t ha t - a per s on a l
n a me in dica t in g t h e bea r er o f t h e n ame, s o n o a r t icle is used. In
t h e first s en t en ce t h e ch a r a ct er is t ic qu a lit ies o f t h e Cor a in qu es
t ion are mea nt , a n d it b ecomes a cou n t a ble com m on n ou n in
t h e plural.
22. Th e n a me is m od ified by a des cr ipt ive a t t r ibu t e a n d is t h e
cen t er o f commu n ica t ion , s o t h e in d efin it e a r t icle is used.
Exe r c i s e 2, p. 363
1. Ca n 1in t r odu ce Ma r ga r et Dia mon d?
2. Ca n I in t r odu ce the Ma r ga r et Dia mon d I t old you a bou t last
week?
3. Th er e is a Ma r ga r et Dia mon d wa it in g for you in t h e office.
4. Well, min e is a Lin coln , n ot a Toyot a.
5. Th e Na t ion a l Ga ller y b ou gh t a Con s t a ble at t h e a u ct ion .
6. Ha ve you got a Collin s t ha t I cou ld b or r ow?
7. - Wh a t a br igh t pu llover ! - Yes, it s a Ben et t on .
8. - Do you k n ow wh o in ven t ed the Pu llman ?
9. Th e a ct or got a Nika for this film.
10. She wa s a good actress. She ma de a r at her t ou ch in g
Na t a lia Pet r ovn a in A Mon t h in t he Cou n t r y by Tu rgenev.
11. Th is isnt the Paris I u sed t o know.
12. Th er e will alwa ys be an En gla n d for me!
13. The t wo Amer ica s h a ve d iffer en t clima t ic zones .
14. Th e con cer t hall bou gh t a n ew Pet r off.
15. How s t r on g t h e boy is M t ru e Hercu les !
Exe r c i s e 3, p. 363
1. Cou ld you len d me you r Webs t er ? - Will a Hor n b y do?/ Will
a Hor n b y suit you ?
2. You are a rea l Lovela ce! - An d you are a Don J uan.
3 . 1 k n ow n ot h in g a bou t pa in t in g. I ca n t t ell a Ceza n n e fr om
a Picasso.
4. Is it Lillian? Ho w ch a n ged she is! It is s u r ely n ot t h e Lillian
I k n ew wh en she wa s a lit t le girl.
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5. Ca n I b ook a t icket t o Bir min gh a m?/ Ca n I p a y for a ca ll t o
Bir min gh a m? - Yes, bu t we ve got t wo Bir min gh a ms in t h e c om
pu t er . Do you n eed t h e Bir min gh a m wh ich is in t h e USA or t h e
Bir min gh a m in En gla n d? - Th e Bir min gh a m wh ic h is in
England.
6 . 1 bou gh t a n ew TV set yest er day. - Is it a Sony? - No, it s
a Philips.
7. We h a ve r eceived a fa x fr om a Roma n ov.
8. Wit h all t h os e ma gic t ricks o f his you r s on ma y b ecome
a n ot h er / a n ew Da vid Copper field.
9 . 1 see you ve got a Hon da , h a ven t you ? - No, it s my wife s
n ew car.
10. A n ew McDon a lds is open in g/ op en s in Mos cow t om or
row.
11. Ha ve you got a cop y o f America t o read? Un for t u n a t ely
n ot . But Ive got Cos mopolitan.
1 3 . 1 wou ld n ever h a ve t h ou gh t t hat t h e Mor ozovs h a d su ch
a gor geou s library.
14. To my deligh t I s aw a Da h l in t h e b ook s h op a n d bou gh t it.
15. St op beh a vin g like that. You are n ot a Scar let t a n d Im n ot
a Rhet t .
16. Wh y, you are a r ea l J ames Bond.
17. Th e p olice say you k eep a Ka la s h n ikov in you r house.
18. Th e gir l wa n t s Fa t h er Fr ost t o b r in g h er a Ba rbie for t h e
Ne w Year.
19. Lor d Sa n dwich in ven t ed t h e s a n dwich .
20. Ill h a ve a Mart ini. - An d Id like a soda, please.
21. Th e s ca r ed/ fr igh t en ed Ma r in a a n s wer ed t he p h on e call.
22. Now we h a ve a com p let e Br it a n n ica a n d we are ver y
gla d a bou t it.
23. Is Nu rs e at h ome? - She is ou t d oin g t he s hoppin g./ Sh e
has gon e t o t h e s h ops / gon e s h oppin g.
24. Wh a t a lovely s h op! - Yes it s a Va len t in o.
Exe r c is e 4, p. 364
1. ,
.
to sleep is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive. It per for ms
t h e fu n ct ion o f t h e subject .
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2. ,
.
to look is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive. It per for ms
t h e fu n ct ion o f an a dver bia l m od ifier o f pu r pos e.
3. , ,
, .
to run is an a ct ive n on -per fect s imple infinit ive. It is part o f
a comp ou n d ver ba l phasal pr edicat e. To be is also an act ive n on
per fect s imple infinit ive. It is an adver bial modifier o f cons equ ence.
4. - , . ,
. - , , ,
. , .
to listen a n d to take are a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ives .
To have called is an a ct ive p er fect in fin it ive. To lis ten is pa rt o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f pu r pos e. To take a n d to have called are
part s o f object s .
5. , ,
.
to throw around is an a ct ive n on -p er fect in fin it ive; it p er
for ms t h e fu n ct ion o f an at t ribu t e.
6. ,
.
to exclude is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive, wh ich
s er ves as an a dver bia l mod ifier o f pu r pos e. To do is also an a ct ive
n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive. It per for ms t h e fu n ct ion o f an
object .
7. ,
, .
to defend a n d to take up ar e b ot h a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple
infin it ives . To defend is part o f a comp ou n d ver ba l moda l p r ed i
ca t e a n d to take up is an object .
8. :
.
to hide is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich serves
as a n object .
9. .
to fis h a n d to dry are a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ives
s er vin g as at t ribut es.
10. ,
.
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to speak is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich
serves as pa r t o f an a dver bia l m od ifier o f pu r pos e.
11. ,
.
s mile is a n a ct ive n on - p e r fe c t s im p le in fin it ive s er vin g
as a n ob ject . It is ba r e beca u s e t h ou gh mos t o f t h e ver b s t h a t
t a ke t wo ob ject s t h e fir s t o f wh ic h is a n ou n or a p r on ou n
a n d t h e s econ d is a n in fin it ive t a k e a n in fin it ive wit h t h e
p a r t icle to, s om e a r e u s ed wit h ba r e in fin it ives , n a m ely
to make, to let, to have a n d t h e ver b s o f s en s e p er cep t ion .
12. , .
to see a n d leave are a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ives ,
to see is an object ; leave is par t o f a com p lex object / a n ob ject ive
wit h an in fin it ive con s t r u ct ion . It is ba r e beca u s e a ft er t h e ver bs
o f s ense p er cep t ion such as to see com p lex object s con t a in ba r e
in fin it ives .
13. , ?
to do is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive. In this s en
t en ce it s er ves as an at tribu t e.
14. - .
to listen is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich p er
for ms t h e fu n ct ion o f t h e subject.
15. ,
.
to watch is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich
s er ves as an a dver bia l m od ifier o f pu r pose.
16. ,
.
to cool down is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich
s er ves as an a dver bia l m od ifier o f pu r pos e.
17. - ?
, , ,
.
Say a n d stop are a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple infinit ives . Th ey
a re bar e becau se t he moda l ver b need t akes a ba re in fin it ive. Bot h
are par ts o f comp ou n d ver ba l moda l predica t es . To cause a nd to
pu t are a ct ive n on -per fect s imple infinit ives . To cause is par t o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f pu r pos e, a n d to p u t is pa r t o f a parent hesis.
18. ,
.
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to win is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive wh ich serves
as an a dver bia l mod ifier o f pu r pos e.
19. .
to work at is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive. It p er
for ms t h e fu n ct ion o f an object .
20. .
to accept is a n a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive s er vin g as
t h e subject.
21. / .
to deal with is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive s er vin g
as an object .
22. .
to cons ider is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive s er vin g
as an at t ribu t e.
23. ,
.
to die is an a ct ive n on -p er fect s imple in fin it ive s er vin g as par t
o f an a dver bia l m od ifier o f a t t en da n t cir cu ms t an ces .
Exe r c is e 5, p. 365
1. Fa t h er is willin g to let us b e in depen den t .
2. Da vid is k n own to h a ve t a ken par t in t h e ca mpa ign .
3 . 1won t h a ve you say it beh in d my back.
4. Ever s in ce Simon ca me h er e h e has been ma de to look like
a fool.
5. Wh y n ot bu y s omet h in g n ew an d smashing?
6. Mot h er ma de ever yb od y d o s ome wor k a bou t t h e hou se.
7. She is a lwa ys s een to wa lk wit h h er gr a n dch ildr en .
8. We s u ppos e h er to be in h er la t e fift ies.
9. Ive n ever s een a n yon e en joy food s o mu ch.
10. I wou ld s oon er let mys elf be cu t in a t h ou s a n d pieces
t h a n bet r a y my friends.
11. Th e t ea m wa s a n n ou n ced to h a ve won t h e Cup.
12. Let s h a ve a da y off, shall we?
13. You d b et t er n ot say a n yt h ing. Id r a t h er be left a lone.
14. Th e Loveda ys ca n t a ffor d to bu y t his hou se.
15.1 wa s ma de to scrub t h e pa n s a n d pot s.
16. Don t let s go h ome yet .
17. He is k n own to be an exp er t on ecology.
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18. Th er e is n ot h in g to d o bu t risk it.
19. We h a ve to go n ow. We ca n t wa it a n y mor e.
20. She felt h er s h oes pin ch .
Exe r c is e 6, p. 365
1. Tom or r ow will be a ver y bu sy day. You ve got s ever a l clien t s
t o r eceive a n d t wo meet in gs t o at t end.
2. Ive got n o t ime t o r ela x at all. An d t h er e is still s o mu ch t o do!
3. J an ice is ver y h a r d/ difficu lt t o get in t ou ch wit h . She s eems
t o be t a lkin g on / over t h e ph on e/ b y p h on e all even in g.
4. Ill h a ve t o con s u lt my dia r y (fir. Frig.)/ ca len da r (Am. Eng),
I ma y h a ve p h on e calls t o make.
5. To k n ow on es elf is t o k n ow on es mer it s a n d demer it s /
on es vir t u es a n d fa u lt s / s h or t comin gs / dr a wba cks / on es good
a n d ba d qu alit ies.
6. Books ma de me r evis e my wor ld ou t look / ma d e me look at
t h e wor ld wit h n ew eyes.
7. Th e s ecr et is t o k n ow h ow t o use d iffer en t colou r s (s o as/ in
or d er ) t o pr odu ce/ h a ve t h e bes t pos s ible effect .
8. We a dvis e you n ot t o wa s t e a s in gle da y (s o as/ in or d er ) t o
a ch ieve t h e bes t pos s ible results.
9- Th is pa s t e is p ot en t en ou gh t o r em ove all kin ds (d iffe r
en t / va riou s kin ds ) o f stains.
10. To exclu de/ To ru le ou t a n y pos s ibilit y o f (ma k in g) a mis
t ake/ an er r or it is n eces s a r y t o ca r r y ou t a t h or ou gh in ves t iga
t ion / t o in ves t iga t e t h e ma t t er t h or ou gh ly.
11. Need I say a n yt h in g else/ say mor e? - No, you d bet t er
k eep s ilen t (you h a d b et t er s t op ) s o as n ot t o cau se mor e t r ou
ble/ n ot t o ma ke t h in gs wor s e.
12. Adr ia n t ook t h e op p or t u n it y t o t alk t o his fat her.
13. He wa s ma de t o a llow t h e ch ildr en t o go on / for a p ic
n ic/ t o let t h e ch ildr en go on / for a picn ic.
14. He bu ilt a h ou s e for h ims elf n ever t o live in it.
15. It s h a r d t o trust h im/ Hes ha rd t o trust. Hes t he last ma n
t o t u rn t o for help.
Exe r c is e 7, p. 366
I.
Sen t en ces 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18 are
cases o f a met on ymic transfer.
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1. Th e ch a n ge o f mea n in g fr om gla s s t o a gla s s is qu it e con
siderable. Wh er ea s gla s s is an u n cou n t a ble n ou n o f ma t erial
mea n in g a t rans pa rent s olid s u bst ance u sed for ma kin g win d ows
bot t les , etc. - , a gla s s is a con t a in er ma de o f t hat ma t er i
al a n d u sed for dr in kin g - , . It t akes an article.
2. Wh er eas p a p e r is an u ncou nt able material mea nin g material
in the for m o f t hin sheets that is used for wr it in g on, wr a ppin g things
etc. - , a p a p e r is a sheet o f pa per wit h print or wr it in g on it.
It is cou n t able and means eit her a n ews pa per or a docu men t or a let
ter or a piece o f pa per wit h wr it in g on it that on e uses in on es work.
As such it is cou n t able and if it is singular it takes an article.
3. Wo o d is an u n cou n t a ble n ou n o f ma t er ia l wh ich in its gen
er al s ens e t akes n o art icle. It is t h e ma t er ia l t r ees are ma de o f -
, . A wo o d is a small forest .
4. I r o n is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g a com m on
h a rd met a l u sed t o ma ke s t eel - . An i r o n is a d evice
ma de o f this met a l a n d u sed for ma kin g clot h es s moot h - .
It is cou n t a ble a n d as such ca n t a ke articles.
5. St r i n g is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n u s ed in su ch wor d
combin a t ion s as a p iece o f s t r in g, a ball o f s t r in g etc. It mean s
a t h in s t r on g t h r ea d ma de o f s ever al t h r ea ds t wis t ed t oget h er
u sed for t yin g t h in gs - , . A s t r i n g is a piece o f t h e
a b ove - , . In this s ens e it ca n be u sed
wit h t h e in defin it e art icle.
6. Co ffe e is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n a n d as such ca n t
t ake t h e in defin it e art icle. A c o ffe e is a p or t ion o f t h e a bove,
mos t pr oba bly a cu p. In this s ense t h e n ou n is cou n t a ble, it can
be u sed wit h t he in d efin it e art icle.
7. Clo t h is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g mat er ia l
used for ma kin g t h in gs such as clot h es - , .
A c lo t h is a p iece o f clot h u s ed for a pa r t icu la r pu r pos e, e.g.
a we t clot h , a c le a n c lot h , a t a ble c lot h , a di s h c lot h .
8. Ru bbe r is a n on -cou n t ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g an ela s t ic
s u bs t ance u sed t o ma ke tyres, b oot s etc. - . A r u b b e r (Br:
Eng.) is t he s ame as t h e Amer ica n e r a s e r - a s mall p iece o f ru b
ber or ot h er ma t er ia l u sed for r u bbin g o ff pen cil marks fr om
pa per . It is cou n t a ble, has a plu r al a n d ca n be u sed wit h t he
in d efin it e article.
9. A l a m b is a cou n t a ble com m on n ou n mea n in g a you n g
s h eep - . La m b is t h e mea t o f t h e a bove. It is an
u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l nou n.
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10. La n gu a ge is an abst r act u n cou n t a ble n ou n mea n in g t he
use o f wr it t en or s poken wor d s - , , e.g. wr i t t e n l a n
gu a ge , c o l l o q u i a l la n gu a ge , i n fo r m a l la n gu a ge or t h e wor d s
a n d st yle u sed in poet r y, wr it in g or s peech or t h e wor d s u s ed in
a pa r t icu la r a ct ivit y or job, e.g. l i t e r a r y la n gu a ge , fo u l l a n
gu a ge , e ve r yd a y la n gu a ge , m e d i c a l la n gu a ge , et c. A la n gu a ge
is a s yst em o f commu n ica t ion by wor d s wh ich is u sed by t h e
p eop le o f a pa rt icu la r cou n t r y or area - .
11. Ti n is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g a s oft s il
ver -gr a y n on -pr eciou s met a l - . A t i n is a s ma ll met a l
con t a in er oft en t in -pla t ed in wh is h food or dr in k is s old or
s tored.
12. St u dy is an abst r act n ou n mea n in g lea r n in g e.g. fr om
books , es pecia lly if you d o it at h ome by you r s elf - ,
, e.g. fo n d o f s t udy, gi ve a lot o f o n e s t i m e t o s t u d y etc.
It ca n t t ake t h e in defin it e a r t icle bu t is oft en u sed in plural.
A s t u d y is eit h er a p iece o f r esear ch, or a r oom u sed by smb. for
r ea din g, wr it in g, etc.
13. Li gh t is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g t h e
en er gy fr om t h e sun, a la mp et c. t hat ma kes t h in gs vis ible - .
A li gh t is eit h er a pa r t icu la r ly t ype o f ligh t or a s ou r ce o f light . It
is a resu lt o f a met on ymic t r a n sfer fr om ligh t .
14. Ai r is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l nou n. Ai r is t h e mixt u r e o f
gases a r ou n d t h e Earth t hat we br ea t h e - . An a i r is an
a ppea r a n ce, a ma n n er e.g. a n a i r o f c on fi d e n c e . It is a com m on
cou n t a ble n ou n wh ich has a plu r al a n d ca n t a ke t h e in defin it e
art icle.
15. Du c k - is t h e mea t o f a d u c k ( ) - a ver y
com m on wa t er bird. Du c k is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n a n d
a d u c k is a class cou n t a ble on e. Du c k is der ived fr om a d u c k as
a r esu lt o f a met on ymic transfer.
16. Go l d is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n mea n in g a s oft yel
low pr eciou s met a l - . A go l d as a cou n t a ble n ou n is
a cas e o f a met on ymic t r ans fer fr om gold. It ca n mea n eit h er t h e
colou r o f gold a n d or a go l d meda l in wh ich s en s e it is always
cou n t a ble a n d ca n t ake t he in d efin it e art icle.
17. Pla y is an abstract u ncou n t able n ou n mea n in g t he things
people d o for amu s ement rat her than wor k - . A p la y is a st ory
wr it t en t o be per for med by actors - . As such is a cou nt able
n ou n wh ich can be used in plural and take t he in defin it e article.
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18. Th o u gh t is an abs tr act u n cou n t a ble n ou n mea n in g an
a ct or pr oces s o f t h in kin g or ca r efu l con s ider a t ion - ,
, e.g. los t i n t h ou gh t . A t h o u gh t is an a bs t r act
cou n t a ble n ou n mea n in g a n idea, an in t en t ion or a n op in ion
for m ed by t h in kin g - .
II.
1. Wh a t t er r ible wea t h er ! Wh a t a t er r ible clima t e!
2. Wh a t (a ) bea u t ifu l la n gu a ge! Wh a t a bea u t ifu l suitcase!
3. Wh a t elega n t clot h es ! Wh a t an elega n t dress!
4. Wh a t h ea vy rainfall! Wh a t a h ea vy s h ower !
5. Wh a t a h ea lt h y cow! Wh a t h ea lt h y cat t le!
6. Wh a t a wfu l rubbish! Wh a t an a wfu l mess!
7. Wh a t clever p eop le! Wh a t a clever per s on !
8. Wh a t a difficu lt job! Wh a t difficu lt wor k !
9. Wh a t fr es h br ead! Wh a t a fr es h loa f.
10. Wh a t deliciou s food ! Wh a t a deliciou s mea l!
11. Wh a t a h or r ible s on g! Wh a t h or r ible mu sic!
12. Wh a t t ou gh beef! Wh a t a t ou gh steak!
Exe r c i s e 8, p. 367
I.
1. a lot t er y - 8. a wom a n - 21. a species - species
lot t er ies
wom en 22. a ca r p - carp,
2. a fis h er ma n - 9. a dvice carps
fis h er men 10. a mou s e - mice
23. a t oot h - t eet h
3.
a fish - fish, 11. p et r ol 24. a cu ck oo -
fishes 12. a c h e f - ch efs cu ckoos
4. a series - series 13. in for ma t ion 25. a t a xi - t axis
5.
a J a pa nese - 14. a foot - feet 26. a men u - menu s
t he J apanese 15. wea t h er 27. t oast
(t h e en t ir e 16. a t om a t o - 28. a m on goos e -
n a t ion ), t wo, t oma t oes mon goos es
three etc. 17. a mea n s - 29. a dis co - dis cos
J apanese (people/ mea n s 30. a Swiss -
men / women ) 18. a p h ot o - the Swiss (t h e
6. pr ogr es s p h ot os ent ire nat ion),
7. a per s on - 19. a lea f - lea ves t wo Swiss (p eo
p eople, per s on s
20. an o x - oxen ple/ men/ girls)
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II.
1. a cla s s -ma t e -
clas s -ma t es
2. a for get -me-
n ot - for get -
me-n ot s
3. a ma n -of-wa r -
men -of-wa r
4. a ma n -s er va n t
- men -s er va n t s
5. a mer r y-go-
r ou n d -
mer r y-go-
r ou n ds
6. a mot h er -in -la w
- mot h er s -in -
la w
7. a pa s s er -by -
pas s er s-by
8. a woma n -
d r iver -
wom en -
dr ivers
9. a gr own -u p -
gr own -u ps
10. a h a n ger -on -
h a n ger s -on
11. a b oy-fr ien d -
b oy-fr ien ds
12. an office-
b lock -
office-b lock s
13. a cu pfu l -
cu pfu ls
14. a cou r t -ma r t ia l
- cou r t s -
mar t ia l
15. a s ch ool-in s pec-
t or - s ch ool-
in s pect or s
Exe r c is e 9, p. 367
Comp let e t h e t able. Not e t hat s ome o f t h es e wor d s o f for eign
or igin h a ve r egu la r plurals.
Si n gu la r Pl u r a l 1Si n gu la r Plu r a l
1. cactus cacti, cactuses 14. stadium stadiums,
2. analysis analyses stadia
3. stimulus
stimuli 15. museum museums
4. stratum strata 16. addendum addenda, adden-
5. datum data dums
6. curriculum curricula, 17. radius radii
curriculums 18. drama dramas
7. basis bases 19- genius geniuses
8. fungus fungi, 20. appendix 1. appendices;
funguses 2. appendixes
9- genus genera (see the differ
10. index indices, ence in meaning
indexes in a good dic
11. crisis crises tionary)
12. criterion criteria 21. axis axes
13- memoran memoranda, 22. medium media
dum memorandums 23- album albums
24. ph en ome phenomena
non
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Exe r c i s e 10, p. 368
I, 2 , 4 , 8 , 13, 15, 16, 18. All t h es e u n cou n t a ble a bs t r act n ou n s
are u s ed wit h ou t a r t icles beca u s e in a gen er a l s ense su ch nou n s
t a ke n o art icle. It is n ot wor t h y t hat all t hes e nou ns: information,
advice, neivs, weather, money, work (in t he mea n in g a job or an
a ct ivit y t hat on e does, es pecia lly in or der t o ea r n mon ey -
) are never u s ed wit h t h e in d efin it e art icle.
3. Th e d efin it e a r t icle is u s ed wit h t h e u n cou n t a ble abst ract
n ou n information beca u s e t h e limit a t ion is clea r fr om t h e c on
t ext ou t o f wh ich t h e s en t en ce has been taken.
5. Th e d efin it e a r t icle is u sed wit h t h e u n cou n t a ble abst ract
n ou n advice beca u s e t h er e is t h e limit in g a t t r ibu t e I gave you.
6. On e in s t a n ce o f givin g or r eceivin g a dvice is a piece of
advice. On e n eeds such a lon g con s t r u ct ion becau s e advice
r ema in s an in va r ia ble s ingu lar n ou n n o ma t t er h ow oft en you
give o f r eceive it.
7. For advice s ee 4 a n d 6. As for good name t he wor d com b i
n a t ion gen er a lly t akes an ar t icle, mos t ly t h e in d efin it e on e, as
name is an a bs t ract cou n t a b le nou n. Here, h owever , it is used
wit h zer o art icle, pr oba bly t o ech o good advice wh ich ca n n ot
t a ke t h e in d efin it e art icle.
10. Th e cou n t a ble abs t ract n ou n weather n ever t akes the
in d efin it e art icle. Wh en p r eced ed by a des cr ipt ive a t t r ibu t e it
t akes n o a r t icle at all.
I I . Th e u n cou n t a ble n ou n money is n ever u sed wit h the
in d efin it e art icle.
12. Th e d efin it e a r t icle is u sed wit h t h e u n cou n t a ble abst ract
n ou n money beca u s e t h er e is a limit in g at tribu t e.
14. Th e a bs t r act u n cou n t a ble n ou n weather is a lwa ys used
wit h t he d efin it e a r t icle if it is n ot p r eced ed by a des cr ipt ive
at t ribu t e.
17. Wh en u sed in a gen er a l s ens e abs t ract u n cou n t a ble
n ou n s t ake n o a r t icle a n d this is just t h e case.
Exe r c is e 11, p. 368
1. Play a n d n o wor k will ma ke you lazy.
2. His t or y r epea t s itself.
3. Gr a mma r is t a u gh t d eep ly in this s ch ool.
4. My fa t h er has an old Fr en ch gr a mma r .
6. Na t u r e s h ou ld be p r ot ect ed agains t pollu t ion .
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7. He wa s a ma n wrh o lived for pleasure.
8. He has a n at u r e like his gr a n dfa t h er s.
9. It wa s a plea s u r e t o t alk t o you.
10. Can you d o me a fa vou r?
11. Get d own t o business, all o f you !
12. Ch a r it y begin s at h ome.
13. You s h ou ld st u dy la w at universit y.
14. La n gu a ge is u niqu e t o humans.
15. To s u cceed in life you n eed a will.
16. In h er you t h she wa s a beauty.
17. We ar e look in g for p eop le wit h exper ien ce.
1 8 . 1 n eed a s tu dy wh er e I ca n wor k quiet ly.
19- Th ey are look in g for wor k at t h e momen t .
20. Speech is a ma n ifes t a t ion o f langu age.
Exe r c i s e 12, p. 369
1. Wh a t is n ews a n d h ow is it ga t h er ed?
2. Wh a t is t h e lat est news? - It is ver y in t eres t in g.
3. Th er e is a piece/ bit o f n ews Id like t o discuss.
4. Be ca refu l! Such fat al n ews ca n kill t h e old man.
5. A r epor t er looks t h r ou gh t h e n ews h e has ma n a ged t o
obt a in / h e has been a ble t o get .
6. Bad n ews t ra vels fast.
7. Mos t in for ma t ion comes fr om t h e press.
8. Th e s py br ou gh t impor t a n t in for ma t ion .
9. Is t h e in for ma t ion accu rat e? Ca n it be t rusted?
10. Mom, we ve com e t o you for a dvice.
11. A good piece/ bit o f a dvice is wh a t you n eed now.
12. Do you wa n t a dvice? OK, I ca n give you a bit o f it.
13. This is an in va lu a ble piece/ bit o f a dvice! It comes fr om
t he heart.
14. Peop le like t o t alk a bou t t h e wea t h er beca u s e it s a safe
subject.
15. Wh a t is t h e wea t h er like t oday? - Th e wea t h er is cold. It
looks like s n ow
16. 1 like t o r oa m t he for es t in t h e wea t h er fa vou r a ble t o t he
gr owt h o f mu sh r ooms.
17. Wor k in a ba n k wa s difficu lt for him.
18. Is this in t er es t in g wor k? Do you like it?
19. He has got an ext en s ive k n owled ge o f physics.
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20. Th e r ock con cer t wa s a gr ea t success.
21. My st u den t s a re ma kin g gr ea t pr ogr es s in t h e for eign la n
gu age.
22. Th er e is m on ey in t h e box. Ta ke it. Th e mon ey is yours.
23. He cou n t ed t h e mon ey ca r efu lly a n d pu t it in t o his wa llet .
24. Edu ca t ion is t h e best in ves t men t .
25. He has given his s on a first -class edu ca t ion .
Exe r c is e 13, p. 369
1. In b ot h s en t en ces pa r t icu la r sort s o f cheese are men t ion ed,
s o t h e n ou n cheese has b ecom e a class cou n t a ble one.
2. Mat er ia l u n cou n t a ble n ou n s u sed in a gen er a l s ens e (food
in t his ca s e) t a ke n o art icle. Th e pr es en ce o f a des cr ipt ive a t t r ib
u t e good makes n o differ en ce.
3. Snack is a cou n t a ble n ou n u sed as an a t t r ibu t e to foods
wh ich is also cou n t a ble beca u s e it den ot es d iffer en t sort s o f
food . Popcorn is a n u n cou n t a ble n ou n o f mat erial. Since it is
u sed in a gen er a l s en s e n o a r t icle is used. A treat is a class n ou n
u sed wit h t h e in d efin it e a r t icle in its cla s s ifyin g fu n ct ion .
4. Lunch is a class nou n. As it is u sed wit h a des cr ipt ive a t t r ib
u t e very fancy it t akes t h e in d efin it e a r t icle in its cla s s ifyin g fu n c
t ion. Meats is a cou n t a ble plu r a l n ou n h er e becau s e it den ot es
d iffer en t kin ds o f meat . A s alad is also a class cou n t a ble n ou n as
it den ot es a pa r t icu la r s or t o f salad. As such it is u sed wit h t he
in d efin it e a r t icle in its cla s s ifyin g fu n ct ion .
5. In t he first s en t en ce t h e ma t er ia l n ou n wine is u sed in its
gen er a l sense, s o it is u n cou n t a ble, t akes n o a r t icle a n d is used
wit h a s ingu lar ver b. In t he s econ d s en t en ce t h e n ou n wines
den ot es va r iou s s ort s o f win e s o it is cou n t a ble a n d plural.
6. A wine den ot es a pa r t icu la r s or t o f win e, s o it is cou n t a ble
a n d ca n t ake t h e in d efin it e ar ticle.
7. See 5, t h e s econ d s en t en ce.
8. See 5, t h e s econ d s en t en ce.
9-10. See 5. Vegetable (9 ) a n d Jruit (1 0 ) are ma t er ia l nou ns
u sed as at t ribut es.
11 .A s alad d en ot es a pa r t icu la r s or t o f salad, s o it is cou n t
a ble. Fru it is an u n cou n t a b le n ou n o f ma t er ia l u s ed as an
a t t r ibu t e.
12. Tivo teas mea n t wo cu ps o f t ea, a n d a coffee d en ot es
a cu p o f c offe e . Wh e n on e s pea ks o f p or t ion s o f tea, coffee,
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beer , s a lad, et c. t h es e ma t er ia l n ou n s b e c om e class cou n t a b le
on es a n d ca n be u s ed wit h n u mer a ls or wit h a m ea n in g
o n e .
13- Chicken h er e is n ot a bir d bu t its fles h wh ich on e eat s as
food , s o it is an u n cou n t a ble n ou n o f ma terial. Fruit is an
u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n u sed a t t r ibu t ively. Fruil h er e is a s in
gu lar in va r ia ble nou n . Th e s ame a pplies t o toas t wh ich u n like
fru it is always singular.
14. See 1.
15. Differ en t sor ts o f s oup ar e m en t ion ed s o t h e n ou n
b ecomes a class cou n t a ble on e. A pa r t icu la r kin d o f broth is
men t ion ed, s o it is cou n t a ble a n d ca n t a ke t h e in d efin it e art icle.
Teas mea n d iffer en t sort s o f tea, s o t h e n ou n has also b ecom e a
class cou n t a ble on e.
Exe r c is e 14, p p . 370-371
I.
1. A s in gu la r in va r ia ble nou n .
2. If t h e wor d f ru it is u sed in t h e bot a n ica l sense, t hat is the
p a rt of a plant, bush or tree which contains the seeds, it ca n be
cou n t a ble (ruiod).
3. The fruits of nature or of the earth are t h os e pla n t or ve g
et a ble pr odu ct s that ma y be u sed for food. Th es e are set exp r es
s ion s a nd t he wor d f ru it in t h em is cou n t a ble.
4. In t his s en t en ce t h e n ou n f ru it is s ingu lar a n d is u sed in its
bot a n ica l s ens e (See 2). Mos t oft en f ru it has n o plu r al bu t it d oes
nt mea n t hat it ca n t be u sed wit h t h e in d efin it e a r t icle like
advice or toast.
5. To bear f ru it is a set ph r as e mea n in g t o yield results.
Alt h ou gh h er e t h e wor d fru it is u sed in its figu r a t ive s ense a n d
wh en u sed figu r a t ively fru it is cou n t a ble, or igin a lly to bearJruit
mu st h a ve h a d on ly a lit er a l mea n in g a n d wa s u sed wit h r efer
en ce t o fru it t rees a n d bushes, s o f ru it in this s en t en ce is a s in gu
lar nou n.
6. A s ingu lar in va r ia ble nou n.
7,1 0, 12. Her efruits is a cou n t a ble n ou n wh ich mea n s sorts of
fruit.
8. See 1. As f ru it is a s in gu lar in va r ia ble n ou n it is u sed wit h
s in gu lar verbs.
11, 13,14. See 1 a n d 4.
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I . 1 s pen d a lot o f mon ey on fr u it becau se I like it.
2. Wh a t shall we h a ve for dessert?
3. Fruit is ch ea p t his season, es pecia lly apples , banana s a n d
plu ms.
4. For mer ly/ In t h e past fr u it wa s br ou gh t fr om t h e Cr imea
a n d t h e Caucasus/ Fruit u sed t o be brought.... Now it is mos t ly
br ou gh t fr om Lat in Amer ica , Afr ica a n d Italy.
5. Th ey say t hat you s h ou ld ea t t h e fru it s t h a t gr ow wh er e you
live.
6. Wh a t s t h e Englis h for t h e fru it s o f lea r n in g?
7. Fru it s alad s h ou ld con s is t o f d iffer en t fruits.
8. A lot o f exot ic fr u it ca n b e s een n owa da ys in ou r market s.
9. Th er e isnt mu ch fru it t his year. But t his is n o pr oblem. It
will be imp or t ed fr om abroad.
10. Th e pla y Th e Fruits o f En ligh t en men t wa s wr it t en by
Leo Tolst oy.
I I . His k n owled ge is a result/ a fru it o f lon g lear ning.
12. Th e a pr icot is a ver y wh oles om e food , it is es pecia lly good
for t h e heart.
13- Now I ca n fu lly en joy t h e fruit s o f my labou r.
14. Wh a t fru it s d o you sell? - Wh a t ever you like.
15. In t h e n or t h cold-r es is t a n t fr u it is cu lt iva t ed.
16. Fruit a n d veget a bles ar e veget a r ia n s ma in food.
17. Weve r un ou t o f fruit. Someon e has t o go t o t h e market .
18. Differ en t fru it s are u sed for cos met ic pu rposes.
Exe r c is e 15, pp . 371-372
I.
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 18. Th e n ou n fis h a n d its der iva t ives
su ch as starfish (5 ) h a ve iden t ica l for ms for t h e s ingu lar a n d for
t h e plural. Wh en it is plu ral it is u sed wit h plu r al verbs.
4, 8. Th e for m fis hes den ot es d iffer en t kin ds a n d s pecies o f
fish.
In 4 a n d 11 b ot h for ms ar e used. See a bove.
14. Th e plu ra l o f t h e n ou n fis h iden t ica l t o its s ingu lar is used.
Th e s en t en ce is a set expr es s ion wh ich in t his case mea n s Th er e
are ma n y ot h er men you ca n h a ve a r ela t ion s h ip wit h .
15. Th e for mfis hes is u sed h er e just t o r h yme wit h ivishes. Th e
n ou n fis h is s in gu la r in t h e firs t s en t en ce a n d plu r al in t h e sec-
II.
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on d. An oddfis h is a n old -fa s h ion ed expr es s ion mea n in g s ome
on e s ligh t ly s t r a n ge or cr a zy.A pretty kettle offis h is t r ou ble.
13, 16. Her e fis h is t h e fles h o f a fis h wh ich on e ea t s as food .
It is an u n cou n t a ble ma t er ia l n ou n a n d t akes s in gu la r verbs .
II. 1 . 1u s u ally p r efer fish t o meat .
2. Fish is n eces s a r y for ou r h ea lt h / for t h e fu n ct ion in g o f ou r
bodies .
3. Sushi is a p op u la r J apan es e food con s is t in g o f fis h a n d rice.
4. Fish con t a in s lit t le fat.
5. Ama n da s wims like a fish.
6. Hen r y has a la r ge collect ion o f min er als, fis h es a n d birds.
7. My fa vor it e dis h is fis h a n d chips.
8. Th er e ar e ver y ma n y wa ys t o cook / of cook in g fish.
9. Th er e ar e a lot o f fish in t his r iver , bu t we h a ven t ca u gh t
a n y today.
10. Th er e is a lot o f mea t on t h e t a ble bu t lit t le fish.
11. Th e fis h er men wer e happy, t h ey h a d ca u gh t a lot o f fish.
12. St op t h in kin g a bou t Ma xim. Th er e ar e ma n y ot h er fish in
t h e sea.
13. How mu ch fis h shall I buy? - Two or t h r ee fish.
14. Th e b oy wa s given an a lbu m a bou t exot ic fishes as a pr es
ent.
15. He ca t ch es fish for pleasu re.
16. A shark is a fish wh ich is da n ger ou s for ot h er fish.
17. She is br ea t h in g like a fis h ou t o f wat er.
18. Th e fish is deliciou s ! It melt s in t h e mou t h .
Exe r c is e 16, p. 372
1. Her e fa m i l y is viewed as a s in gle u n d ivid ed body, s o it
t akes a s ingu lar pr ed ica t e ver b.
2. Her e t h e gr ou p o f p eop le d en ot ed b y t h e collect ive n ou n
fa m i l y is con s id er ed as a collect ion o f in dividu a ls d oin g p er
s on a l things, s o t h e pr edica t e ver b is plural.
3. Her e t h e s t a ff is viewed as an imper s on a l unit, h en ce t h e
s ingu lar pr edica t e ver b.
4. Her e t h e s t a ff are con s ider ed as a collect ion o f p eop le
d oin g per s on a l t hings like decidin g, s o t h e pr edica t e ver b is plural.
5. Th e m e d i a is a collect ive n ou n , wh ich ca n be u sed wit h
plu r al or s ingu lar verbs. In con ver s a t ion b ot h ca n be u sed bu t a
plu r al for m s h ou ld be u sed in for ma l writ in gs .
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6. Th e collect ive n ou n p o li c e is a lwa ys u s ed wit h plu r al
verbs.
7. Gla s s e s is t h e plu r al o f glass. In t h e plu r a l t h e n ou n los es
its or igin a l mea n in g and mea n s s pect ac le s.
8. Eq u i p m e n t is a s ingu lar in va r ia ble n ou n o f mat er ia l.
Un d er n o cir cu ms t a n ces ca n it b ecom e plural.
9. If t h e n ou n s t a t is t ic s as in t his cas e mea n s t h e s cien ce o f
collect in g a n d exa min in g n u mber s wh ich r epr es en t fact s o f
mea s u r emen t s , it is alwa ys s in gu lar a n d as su ch is u sed wit h s in
gu la r verbs.
10. Th e n ou n s t a t is t ic s if it d en ot es a set o f n u mber s r ep r e
s en t in g fa ct s or mea s u r emen t s as in t his s en t en ce is always plu
ral a n d is u sed wit h plu r al verbs.
11. Po u l t r y is con s id er ed as a collect ion o f livin g beings ,
h en ce t h e plu r al ver b.
12. Th e Go ve r n m e n t is viewed as an imper s on a l u nit s o it
t akes a s ingu lar pr edica t e ver b.
13. Th e Go ve r n m e n t is con s ider ed as a collect ion o f p eop le
d oin g per s on a l t h in gs like feelin g, s o t his collect ive n ou n t akes a
plu r al pr edica t e ver b.
14. Th e collect ive n ou n p l a n k t o n is u n cou n t a ble a n d t akes
s ingu la r pr edica t e verbs.
15. Li n e n is a n ou n o f ma terial. As such it is u n cou n t a ble an d
takes s ingu lar pr edica t e verbs.
16. Th e n ou n p u bl i c is a collect ive on e. Sin ce h er e t h e p u b
li c a r e a collect ion o f p eop le p er for min g per s on a l a ct ion s like
s t op p in g a n d st aring, t h e pr edica t e ver b is plural.
17. Cr o wd is a collect ive n ou n. Th e ver b is plu ral n ot becau s e
h er e it is a n ou n o f mu lt it u de, i.e. a n ou n d en ot in g a collect ion o f
livin g bein gs d oin g per s on a l t hings, bu t beca u s e t h e s u bject is
plural: we.
Clot h e s is a plu r al in va r ia ble n ou n u sed wit h plu ral verbs.
Ea r n i n gs is a plu r al in va r ia ble n ou n u sed wit h plu r al pr edica t e
verbs.
20. Th e n ou n t i gh t s is a plu r al in va r ia ble on e u sed on ly wit h
plu r al verbs.
21. Cla s s is a collect ive nou n. Her e it is vie wd as a s in gle u n di
vid ed body, s o a s in gle pr edica t e ver b is used.
22. Th e t ea ch er views h er c la s s as a collect ion o f in dividu als
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d oin g s epa r a t e things, h en ce t h e plu r a l p r edica t e ver b.
23. Me a s le s like t he n ames o f s ome ot h er diseases (mu mps ,
shingles, r icket s ) is a singular invar ia ble n ou n t a king singular verbs.
Exe r c i s e 17, p. 373
1. Th er e ar e mor e t h a n 80 s pecies o f bu t t er flies on t he
Brit ish Isles.
2. All my fa mily are good mu sicians.
3. Th e dr egs on/ a t t h e b ot t om o f t h e glass look ed su spiciou s.
4. His memoir s are ver y in t er es t in g t o read.
5. Wh y are you r eyelids s o red? - Ive been p eelin g on ion s .
6. Th e cu s t oms are at t h e en d o f t h e cor r idor .
7. Wh a t is t h e n ovel abou t ? - Th e p olice figh t t h e ma fia as
usual.
8. A n ew series o f s h or t s t ories for begin n er s wa s pu blis h ed a
mon t h ago.
9. Th e gla d ioli in ou r ga r den are ver y lovely.
10. Th is in for ma t ion is ver y in t er es t in g, t h e p olice are a lr ea dy
s t u dyin g it.
11. Ive r ea d Charles Da r win s b ook Th e Or igin o f Species
wit h int erest .
12. Th es e bear s b elon g t o a r are species.
13- Such nat u ral p h en omen a are fr equ en t in t his h emi
sphere.
14. You r jeans are new, bu t t h ey h a ve h oles on t h e knees. Is
t his t he lat est fas h ion ? - Exact ly/ Precisely.
15. Wh a t are Wellin gt on s ? - Th ey are r u bber boot s . Even t he
Qu een h er s elf wea r s t h em in r a in y wea t h er .
16. Th er e ar e n o pr es er va t ives in this juice.
17.1 owe you 40 pen ce, a n d Ill pa y it ba ck t o you r ight a wa y
18. Wh en we wer e t r a vellin g in t h e Sahara we s a w oas es all
t he t ime but t h ey wer e just mirages.
Exe r c is e 18, p. 374
1, 2. Non - p er fect a ct ive ger u n ds u sed as subjects.
3. Non -p er fect a ct ive ger unds. Th i n k i n g is a s u bject and
k n o wi n g is an object .
4. Non -p er fect a ct ive geru nds. Pr o p o s i n g is a s u bject and
p e r fo r m i n g is an a dver bia l mod ifier o f man ner.
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5. Non -p er fect a ct ive ger u n ds p er for min g t h e fu n ct ion o f
subjects.
6. Non -p er fect a ct ive ger u n ds p r o gr e s s i n g a n d d e n y i n g are
su bject s a n d r e gr e s s i n g is a pr edica t ive.
7. Non -p er fect a ct ive ger u n ds . Th e first c h o o s i n g is a p r ed
ica t ive, a n d t h e s econ d is a su bject .
8. Non -p er fect a ct ive geru nds . Cr o s s i n g is a su bject , a v o i d
i n g is par t o f an a t t r ibu t e a n d d r i vi n g, d oi n g, li s t e n i n g a n d
h a vi n g are all subjects.
9. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d p er for min g t h e fu n ct ion o f a
subject .
10. Non -p er fect a ct ive ger u n ds u sed as a dver bia l modifier s
o f ma nn er .
11. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d u sed as an a dver bia l m od ifi
er o f ma nner.
12. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d p er for min g t h e fu n ct ion o f
an a dver bia l m od ifier o f reason.
13. A n on - p er fect a ct ive ger u n d s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a t t r ibu t e.
14. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d s er vin g as a su bject .
15. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d for min g pa r t o f a comp ou n d
pha sa l pr edica t e.
16. A n on -p er fect a ct ive ger u n d s er vin g as an object .
17. See 16.
Exe r c i s e 19, p p . 374-375
Po s s i ble Va r i a n t s
1. If you s er iou s ly wa n t t o s ave mon ey, you d bet t er give u p
s mokin g/ ga mblin g.
2. I d on t min d mos t h ou s ewor k, bu t I ca n t st an d c ook
in g/ wa s h in g u p/ ir on in g.
3. Th e pu ppies look ed s o s weet t hat I cou ld n t resist pa t t in g
t h em/ t a kin g on e for my dau ght er .
4. If you wa n t t o r ide a h or s e you won t be a ble t o a void
fa llin g fr om t ime t o t ime.
5. Mu s t you k eep b lowin g you r n os e a ll t h e t im e/ b elch in g
s o lou d ly e ver y t im e you d r in k s om e s oda ? It s r ea lly a n n oy
in g!
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6. Id h a t e t o b e a min er ! Ca n you im a gin e h a vin g t o wor k
in t h e en t r a ils o f t h e ea r t h a n d ge t t in g you r fa ce a ll bla ck
ever y day?
7. Ca n I h a ve t h e n ews pa p er if you h a ve fin is h ed r ea din g
it / lookin g it t h r ou gh ?
8. Th e ma n t h e p olice ca u gh t fin a lly a d mit t ed s t ea lin g/ h a v
in g s t olen t h e dia mon ds .
9. Wh en h e s a id h e h a d for got t en t h e p h on e n u mber , I s u g
ges t ed ca llin g his fr ien d wh os e n u mber wa s in t h e t elep h on e
dir ect or y.
10. My job as a t ou r ist gu id e in volved s h owin g t ou rist s
a r ou n d pla ces o f in t er es t a n d exp la in in g t h in gs t o t h em in t h eir
own langu age.
11. Nob od y su spect s you o f ch ea t in g/ of s t ea lin g/ of mu r der
in g you r wife.
12. Sue n ever t akes t h e t r ou ble o f t u r n in g o ff t h e ligh t s wh en
s he leaves.
13- Is it wor t h s eein g/ r ea din g?
14. I ca n t h elp la u gh in g/ cr yin g/ givin g h im a p iece o f my
mind.
15. Ted h es it a t ed b efor e ju mp in g in t o t h e icy wa t er / befor e
a n swer in g.
16. Wh a t h e loves best is h a vin g a good figh t / wa t ch in g
videos .
17. Th er e is lit t le h op e o f ever get t in g my m on ey b a ck / of his
gr a du a t in g wit h hon ou r s.
18. Don t in s ist on t ellin g t h e t r u t h - it will on ly cau s e
t r ou ble.
19. Wh y d o you per sist in da t in g t his good - for - n ot h in g
boy/ in u s ing go o d in s t ea d o f we ll a n d vice versa?
20. At t h e r ecep t ion I h a d t h e pleas u r e o f meet in g t h e mos t
bea u t ifu l a n d in t elligen t wom a n I h a d ever seen.
Exe r c is e 20, p. 375
1. You mu st r ememb er t o ca ll at t he ba n k on you r wa y h ome
beca u s e we n eed t o or d er s ome t r a veller s ch equ es.
2. Cou ld you s t op t ypin g for a momen t ? I n eed t o con cen
t rat e on this let ter .
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3. I h op e you h a ven t for got t en t o t elep h on e t h e ga r a ge
beca u s e t h e ca r ba dly n eeds s ervicing.
4. We cou ld t r y t o ma ke a das h for t h e ca r if it wou ld on ly
s t op r a in in g for a momen t .
5. Im sure you won t r egr et bu yin g t h e h ou s e even t h ou gh it
n eeds pa in t in g a n d decor a t in g.
6 . 1r egr et t o say t ha t h es for got t en ever pr omis in g you a job.
7. I d on t r emember t a kin g my wa llet ou t o f my bag, but
I mu st h a ve d on e it wh en I s t op p ed t o bu y pet r ol.
8. As I t old you , h es r a t h er dea f, s o d on t for get t o t r y s h ou t
in g if h e does n t a n s wer t h e d oor at first.
9. Ive con s ider ed a skin g h im t o raise my salary bu t I d on t
t h in k h e ca n a ffor d t o d o/ d oin g it.
10. If t he ma ch in e h a ppen s t o s t op wor k in g just t elep h on e
a n d a r r a n ge for t h e s er vice en gin eer t o call.
11. I ca n t h elp t h in kin g t ha t we s h ou ldn t h a ve a gr eed t o
len d h im ou r car.
12. If you ve fin is h ed u sing t h e t ypewr it er , Id like t o b or r ow
it for a wh ile, s o t hat I ca n get u s ed t o t ypin g wit h t hat ma ch in e.
1 3 . 1r egr et t o say I lost my t emp er wit h him.
14. He r egr et s s t ea lin g/ h a vin g s t olen mon ey n ow.
15. Sheila will a lways r egr et n ot goin g/ n ot h a vin g gon e t o
Univer sity.
16. Th e h ea dma s t er does n ot a llow r u n n in g a lon g t h e cor r i
dors.
17. Th e t ea ch er on du t y does n ot a llow us t o run a lon g t he
cor r idor s .
18. Don t for get t o wr it e t o me wh en you are away.
19. Ha ve you for got t en a bou t wr it in g t o me already?
20. Ton y ca n n ot d o a ny wor k wit h ou t bein g t old at least
t wice.
21. Alwa ys r ememb er t o wip e you r feet b efor e en t er in g t he
s ch ool du r in g t h e r ain y season.
22. Do you r ememb er wip in g you r feet b efor e you ca me in t o
t h e house?
Exe r c i s e 21, p. 376
1. Th is is a s p ecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g au t hors hip.
2. Th is is a s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g s u bject ive r ela t ion s
(a s u bject ive gen it ive).
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3. Th is is a s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g belon gin g/ pos s es
sion.
4. See. 3. In this cas e t h e n ou n in t h e pos s es s ive cas e is a r eg
u lar plu r al on e, s o it is followe d on ly by an a p os t r op h e a n d t h er e
is n o s u ffix s.
5,6. Gen er a lly on ly a n ima t e n ou n s are u sed in t h e pos s es s ive
cas e bu t s ome in a n ima t e n ou n s ca n a ls o be u sed in t his way.
Her e b elon g t h e n ou n s d en ot in g cit ies, t own s , cou n t r ies , t he
wor ld et c. as well as all loca t ive n ou n s (s ch ools , cafes , s h ops
et c.).
7. Th is is a s p ecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g p er s on a l or s ocia l
r ela t ion s . Sin ce Ma r ia Ca lla s s s u r n a me en ds in s it ca n h a ve
b ot h a n d 5 in t h e gen it ive/ p os s es s ive case, bu t wh et h er t h er e
is a n 5 or ju st t h e a p os t r op h e t h e p r on u n cia t ion o f t h e en d in g
is [iz],
8. Th is is a s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g au t hors hip. Th e
a pos t r oph e plus 5 h er e is a dded n ot t o a s in gle n ou n bu t t o t he
en d o f a wh ole gr ou p o f wor ds .
9. Th is is a s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g s u bject ive relat ions .
Sin ce this n ou n is a comp ou n d on e t h e s is a dded t o its fin a l
comp on en t .
10. Th is is a s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g s u bject ive relat ions .
Since t h e n ou n is a r egu la r plu ra l on e t h er e is just t he a pos t r o
phe.
11. Th is is a cla s s ifyin g/ des cr ipt ive gen it ive.
12. This is a cla s s ifyin g gen it ive o f measu re/ a cla s s ifyin g gen
it ive in dica t in g t ime.
13. 14, 18. Th es e are a bs olu t e gen it ives in dica t in g per s on a l
a n d s ocia l relat ions .
15. Th is is a gr ou p s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g per s on a l r ela
t ions. Sin ce 5 comes at t h e en d o f t h e gr ou p o f wor ds a n d t he
n ou n mother is s in gu lar it is clea r t hat Ted a n d Lin da are br ot h er
a n d sister.
16. Th es e a r e s p ecifyin g gen it ives in d ica t in g a u t h or s h ip.
Sin ce s com es a ft er b ot h n a mes a n d t h e n ou n p r oject s is
plu r a l it is clea r t h a t ea ch o f t h e s iblin gs has t h eir own p r o j
ect .
17. Th is is a cla s s ifyin g abs olu t e gen it ive d en ot in g a shop.
19. Th is is a dou ble s pecifyin g gen it ive d en ot in g s u bject ive
relat ions .
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Exe r c i s e 22, p. 377
I.
1. my n eigh b ou r s d og
2. a b oys s ch ool
3. Kea t s s p oems (Kea t s
p oems )
4. a for t n igh t s h olida y
5. t h e gir ls dresses
6. t h e gir ls clot h es
7. t h e bos ss ca r
8. p olicem en s u n ifor ms
9. ch ildr en s edu ca t ion
10. t he cou n t r ys pr oblems
11.
1. To on e s h ea r t s con t en t -
,
,
, , ;
2. be at on e s wit s / wit s
en d - ,
, ;
3. h a ve smth. at on e s fin
ger s ends/ at on e s fin ger
t ips - - .
, - .
;
4. Ou t o f h a r ms wa y -
;
;
5. a h airs br ea dt h (t o
a hair, t o a h a ir br ea dt h ) -
- - , ,
;
6. For com for t s (fr ien d
s h ips ) sake -
( );
7. At arms reach - ;
8. At a r ms len gt h - 1)

; 2)
;
9. At a s t on es t h r ow -
, ,
;
11. s ecr et a r ies wor k in g hou rs
12. an act r esss life
13. Mr. Da vies s office (Mr.
Da vies offic e )
14. Fr a n ces for eign p olice
15. wom e n s lib er a t ion
16. a yea r s t ime
17. n a t u r es wa y
18. t h e pr in ces s s dress
19. t h e suns rays
20. t h e Ch u r ch s wor k
10. At s wor d s p oin t -
( .);
11. on t h e r a zor s ed ge -
,
; t o be on t h e
r a zor s edge/ r a zor ed ge -
,
;
12. on es mon eys wor t h -
.
Im at my wit s en d wh a t t o
d o wit h my son, h ow t o
ma ke h im st u dy ins t ead o f
wh a t h e is d oin g n ow -
goin g t o dis cos a n d t he
movies all t he t ime. He is
qu it e u n like his t win sister
wh o has all t h e su bject s at
h er fin ger s ends, es pecia lly
English a n d French. How
on eart h is h e goin g t o pass
t he win t er exams ? I keep
t ellin g h im h e is on t he
r a zor s ed ge bu t he won t
lis t en t o reason. Somet imes
I t h in k o f lockin g h im up
ou t o f h a r ms wa y and
t h r owin g t h e key a wa y and
pa yin g t he s ch ool t eachers
t o give h im lessons at h ome.
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Exe r c i s e 23, p. 377
I.
1. To McDon a ld s
2. To t h e gr een gr ocer s
3. To t h e d oct or s
4. To t h e ir on m on ger s
5. To t h e ha ir dr es s er s
6. To t h e (d r y) clea n er s
7. To t h e t ob a ccon is t s
8. To t h e jeweller s
9. To t h e s t a t ion er s
10. To t h e con fect ion er s
11. To t h e s u per ma r ket
12. To t h e den t is t s
13. To t h e ch emis t s
14. To t h e bu t ch er s
15. To t h e flor is t s
16. To t h e t r a vel a gen t s
17. To t h e wa t ch ma k er s
18. To Ha r r ods
19. To t h e vet s
20. To t h e dr es s ma ker s
(t h e t a ilor s )
Exe r c is e 24, p. 378
1. Th ey say eigh t y p er cen t o f t h e dat a (a ccu mu la t ed) in t he
wor ld s compu t er s is in English.
2. Don t t ou ch a n yt h in g u n t il t h e p olice arrive. - Th ey h a ve
a lr ea dy arrived. An d wh o is it t h ey are chasing?
3. Im at my wit s / wit s en d wh a t t his ma n wa n t s fr om us. -
For God s / goodn es s / h ea ven s sake d on t be s o n aive! All h e
wa n t s is ou r m on ey bu t h e won t get it.
4. St. Th oma s Hos pit a l is on e o f t h e oldes t in Lon don . It is
wit h in a s t on es t h r ow, just five min u t es wa lk/ a five-min u t e
wa lk t h r ou gh St. J a mes s park.
5. Th is r in g is n ot min e, it s my gr a n d mot h er s. It wa s bou gh t
at Tiffa n ys a n d cos t a for t u n e.
6. Ive br ou gh t you a n ew series o f Kea t s / Keat ss poems . You
ca n r ea d t h em t o you h ea r t s con t en t .
7 . 1 h a t e t hat dis gu s t in g h a bit o f you r n eigh bou r s t o turn t h e
t elevis ion fu ll tilt. - Th ey b ou gh t a n ew Son y s ix mon t h s a go a n d
s t ill ca n t en joy it en ou gh .
8. Still wa t er s ru n deep. - Th a t des cr ibes h im t o a h air s
br ea dt h / t o a hair. So you d bet t er st ay a wa y fr om h im t o keep
ou t o f h a r ms way.
9- Is t hat r ea lly a Da li in you r gr a n dfa t h er s house? - Act u a lly
h e has got t wo Dalis, a n d I r emember s eein g a Picasso and a
Ch a ga ll in his study.
10. Ever ybody is gla d of/ a bou t Cha r les / Charless success.
Let s go a n d con gr a t u la t e h im for a ppea r a n ces sake.
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11. Th er e are r epor t s a bou t unusual p h en omen a on Mar s s
surface.
12. O f all fish I p r efer t r ou t a n d s a lmon a lt h ou gh Im n ot
mu ch o f a fis h -lover .
13. Th e suns rays/ su nbeams pen et r a t ed t h e t h ick folia ge/
lea ves a n d ma de Sir Rober t Foxs est at e look even gr ander .
14. She for ga ve ever yb od y at dea t h s d oor / on h er dea t h -bed
for t h e fa milys sake.
15. Collin s is a ver y r elia ble dict ion a r y a n d I a lwa ys k eep it
a t / wit h in a r ms reach/ at hand.
16. You a re on a t h e r a zor s / r a zor edge. Be ca r efu l for s a fet ys
sake.
17. He a ccep t ed / a d opt ed a n ot h er r eligion / fa it h at s wor d s
poin t / a t gu n poin t .
Exe r c i s e 25, p. 379
1. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
at tribu t e.
2. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l m od ifier o f ma nner.
3- See 1.
4. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l m od ifier o f t ime.
5. A per fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an a dver bia l
m od ifier o f r eason.
6. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as an at t ribu t e.
7. See 6.
8. See 1.
9. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f a t t en da n t cir cu ms t a nces .
10. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f compa r is on .
11. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f con ces s ion .
12. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l mod ifier o f man ner.
13. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l m od ifier o f man ner.
14. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f a com
p le x ob ject / of a n ob ject ive pa r t icipia l con s t r u ct ion .
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15. See 14.
16. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l m od ifier o f reason.
17. A n on -p er fect a ct ive Pa r t iciple I s er vin g as pa r t o f an
a dver bia l m od ifier o f reason.
Exe r c is e 26, p. 379
I.
1. a br ot h er - a sister.
2. a fa t h er - a mot h er
3. a ma n - a wom a n
4. an u n cle - an au nt
5. a n ep h ew - a n iece
6. a s on - a da u gh t er
7. a b a ch elor - a s pins t er
8. a kin g - a qu een
9. a lor d - a la dy
II.
a ba r on - a bar ones s
a cou n t - a cou n t es s
a god - a goddes s
a du ke - a du chess
an emp er or - an empr es s
an u sher - a n u s h er et t e
(old-fas hioned), an usher
a mon it or - a mon it or
a ma n a ger - a ma n a ger
a s t ewa r d - a s t ewar des s
III.
Male Fe male You n g
1. bu ll
COW ca lf
2. boa r SOW piglet
3.
bu ck (Am. E.) d oe
fa wn
4.
st ag (Br . E.) h in d fa wn
5.
fox
vixen cu b
6. d og
bit ch pu p
7.
ga n der goos e gos lin g
8. dr a ke du ck du cklin g
9.
s t a llion ma r e foa l
10. cock
h en ch ick
10. a mon k - a nu n
11. a ma le - a fema le
12. a la d - a lass, a girl
13- hu sba nd - wife
14. a gen t lema n - a lady,
a gen t lewoma n
15. Mr. - Mrs. Miss, Ms.
16. gr a n dfa t h er - gr a n dmot h er
17. Sir - Ma dam; La dy
a wa it er - a wa it ress
a wid ow - a wid ower
a p oet - a poet , a poet es s
(old-fas hioned)
a pr in ce - a pr incess
a t iger - a tigress
a lion - a lioness
a h er o - a h er oin e
a t za r - a tsarina
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Exe r c is e 27, p. 380
1 . 1 . 1 ca n feel s omet h in g cr a wlin g u p my leg!
2. I s a w h er s wit ch on t h e ligh t a nd come/ wa lk in t o t h e
r oom.
3. For a wh ile she s t ood a n d wa t ch ed t h e men p u llin g trees.
4. He s melt s omet h in g bu r n ing, s o h e r a n g t h e fir e brigade.
5. We cou ld d efin it ely h ea r s omeon e m ovin g a bou t d own
stairs.
6. We lis t en ed t o t h e s ch ool or ch es t r a pla y t h e wh ole o f t h e
J u pit er Symph on y wit h h a r dly a mist ake.
7 . 1 felt s omeon e t a p me on t h e sh ou lder , bu t wh en I t u r n ed
r ou nd, t h er e wa s n o on e there.
8. Look at t hat p oor old la dy t r yin g t o cr oss t h e road.
9 . 1wa t ch ed t h e ma n get ou t o f his car a n d pu ll/ get ou t a gun.
II. 1. Wh er e is Harry? - He has gon e fis h in g bu t I dou bt if h ell
ca t ch a n yt h ing!
2. Did you go d a n cin g last n igh t ? - No, I d on t like t h e dis cos
in t his pla ce.
3. Wh a t are you d oin g at t h e weeken d? - Were goin g s a ilin g
if t h e boa t is ready.
4. If it h a dn t b een ready, we migh t h a ve gon e h ikin g/ s kiin g
in t h e hills a b ove Bu dapest .
5. \ >ure wet t h r ou gh ! Wh a t h a ve you been u p t o? - We h a ve
b een h ikin g (s er fin g).
6. Now t hat she has h er own pony, s he goes h or s e-r id in g
ever y day.
7. If my bicycle wer e in bet t er con d it ion , Fd go cyclin g in
Fr a n ce this h olid a y
8. Th e ice r in k is clos ed s o we won t go s ka t in g t om or r ow
night .
9. If t h er e wer e mor e snow, we wou ld go skiing.
Exe r c i s e 28, p. 381
1. Sever a l lovely old English tables.
2. A lot o f p r et t y you n g Fr en ch girls.
3. Th es e fe w last va lu a ble Regen cy d in in g-r oom chairs.
4. His t h r ee fir st r ea lly imp or t a n t impr es s ion is t pa in t in gs .
5. All my best da r k blu e silk shirts.
6. Ma n y you n g Ger ma n fa ct or y wor ker s .
7. All t hese old -fa s h ion ed ova l ma r b le-p op p ed washst ands.
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8. All Mikes la t est bla ck -a n d -wh it e wild life ph ot ogr a ph s .
9. A fe w ca r efu lly-ch os en pla in h a n d -woven dresses.
Exe r c i s e 29, p. 382
1. t in ier - t inies t
2. h a n ds omer - h a n ds omes t
3. livelier - livelies t
4. dr yer - dr iest
5. plea s a n t er - plea sa n t es t
6. s impler - s imples t
7. m ellow - mellowes t
8. bet t er - best
9. wor s e - wor s t
10. fa r t h er / fu r t h er -
fa rt h es t / fu r t h es t
11. s a dder - saddest
12. h ea vier - h ea vies t
13. gr a yer - gr ayes t
14. la t er - lat est (for time),
t h e la t t er - (t h e ) last
(for ord er)
15. qu iet er - qu iet es t
1 6 . p olit er - polit es t
17. clever er - clever es t
18. bigger - bigges t
19. fa t t er - fa t t est
20. wid er - wides t
21. foggier - foggies t
22. a bler - ables t
23. mor e ill - mos t ill
(u s ed pr edica t ively),
s icker - sickes t (u s ed
a t t r ibu t ively)
24. com m on er - common es t
25. s oon er - s oon es t
26. t h in n er - t hinnest
27. ca lmer - ca lmes t
28. h ea lt h ier - hea lt hies t
29. t r u er - t ru est
30. wid er - wides t
31. ea r lier - ear lies t
32. n a r r ower - n a r rowes t
33. fr eer - freest
34. r arer - rarest
35. fla t t er - fla t t es t
36. pr et t ier - pr et t iest
Exe r c is e 30, p. 382
1. Th a t is t h e mos t in cr edible s t or y I h a ve ever heard!
2. It is n ot a lwa ys t h e br igh t es t st u dent s wh o d o well in tests.
3. Ter ylen e shirts are h a r der -wea r in g, bu t cot t on shirts are
mu ch mor e comfor t a ble.
4. Wh ich is deeper , Lake Ga r da or Lake Iseo?
5. She is mu ch mor e s elf-con fid en t t ha n s he u sed to be.
6 . 1like b ot h o f t h em, bu t I t h in k Mich a el is easier t o talk to.
7. Mos t p eop le ar e b et t er - off t ha n t h eir pa r en t s were.
8. She has a lot t o be t h a n kfu l for - t h e sa ddes t thing o f all is
t hat s h e does n ot r ea lize it.
9 . 1wa n t t o r en t a ca r - t h e mos t p ower fu l on e you have.
10. You look a lot bet t er t h a n you did last t ime I saw you.
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11. Th er e is n ot h in g mor e ir r it a t in g t h a n lock in g you r s elf ou t
o f you r own hou se.
12. Bot h r oa ds lea d t o t h e cit y cen t er , but t h e left -h a n d on e
is pr ob a b ly a bit s h or t er a n d mor e direct .
13. As I get older , I n ot ice t ha t t h e p olicem en s eem t o be get
t in g you n ger !
14. Is Ca mbr idge t h e oldes t u n iver s it y in Brit ain? - No,
Oxfor d is a bou t 50 years older .
15. If you wer e t idier a n d b et t er -or ga n ized t ha n you are, you
wou ld n ot k eep los in g things.
16. Th e boys in ou r s ch ool ar e mu ch b et t er -look in g/ mor e
good - look in g a n d a lot bet t er at foot b a ll t ha n t h e boys in ot h er
s ch ools in t h e t own .
Exe r c is e 31, p. 383
I.
1. t ru e - t ru t hfu l
a ) Th is pla y is ba s ed on a t r u e story.
b ) I b elieve her: I t h in k she is a t ru t h fu l pers on .
2. ch ildis h - ch ildlike
a ) You ca n n ot h a ve ever yt h in g you wa n t : d on t be s o ch ild
ish.
b ) She has a ch ildlik e quality, a s or t o f in n ocen ce, wh ich
I like.
3. you n g - you t h fu l
a ) Ou r t ea ch er is fu ll o f you t h fu l ent hu sias m for h er subject.
b ) En joy you r s elf wh ile you are st ill you n g.
4. u n ea t a ble - in edible
a ) Th is mea t is s o t ou gh t ha t I fin d it u neat able.
b ) Some o f t h e in edible va r iet ies o f fu ngu s are pois on ou s .
5. u n r ea da ble - illegible
a ) Th e in s cr ipt ion wa s illegible, bu t I r ecogn ized it as Latin.
b ) Wa r a n d Pea ce ma y be a good n ovel, bu t I fin d it
u nr eadable.
6. h is t or ic - h is t or ica l
a ) Ladies a n d gen t lemen , t his is a h is t or ic momen t : t he
first ma n n ed la n din g on a n ot h er pla n et !
b ) Th e libr a r y con t a in s a c op y o f Ma gn a Cart a a n d ot h er
h is t or ica l docu men t s .
7. econ om ic - econ omica l
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a ) Th e cou n t r y is exp er ien cin g a t ime o f gr ea t econ om ic
difficu lt y.
b ) Th is s oa p is ver y econ omica l, you on ly n eed t o use a lit
t le o f it at a t ime.
8. elect r ic - elect r ica l
a ) I s ee you h a ve an elect r ic cooker ; I p r efer gas.
b ) Th e ba t t er y ga ve o ff a s u dden elect r ica l dis ch ar ge.
9. s en sible - s en s it ive
a ) J oh n will b e all r igh t on his own ; h e is a ver y s en s ible
boy.
b ) Don t cr it icize h er t oo harshly: she is ver y s ensit ive.
II.
1. a ) we h a ve k n own for a lon g t ime
b ) wh o has lived for a ver y lon g t ime
2. a ) diligen t , indu st riou s, s pa r in g n o effor t
b ) difficu lt , r equ ir in g a lot o f effor t
3. a ) h a vin g r ecen t ly a r r ived
b ) r ecen t ly bou gh t or ma de
4. a ) s mokin g a lot
b ) weigh in g a lot
5. a ) sure, wit h ou t a n y dou bt s
b ) u sed t o t alk a bou t s omeon e you d o n ot k n ow bu t wh os e
n a me you h a ve been t old
6. a ) exis t in g n ow
b ) b ein g in t he pla ce in qu es t ion
7. a ) wor r ied
b ) in volved in smth. or a ffect ed by it
8. a ) right , s u it able
b ) s t r ict ly s o ca lled
9. a ) comp lex, comp lica t ed
b ) mixed u p in t h e a cciden t or con n ect ed wit h it
Exe r c is e 32, p. 384
I.
1. a h a lf-h ou r p r ogr a mme
2. a five-h ou r dr ive
3. a fift een -t on lor r y
4. a t h r ee-a n d-a -h a lf-h ou r fligh t
5. a t welve-in ch r u ler
6. a t h r ee-a n d-a -h a lf lit r e en gin e
7. a five-yea r -old ch ild
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8. a s ix-foot ma n
9- an eigh t -h ou r wa lk
10. a s ixt een -ga llon t ank
11. a t h r ee-h u n dr ed-millimet r e t elep h ot o lens
12. a five-s t a r h ot el
II.
1. a s econ d-yea r st u den t
2. a t h ir d -floor fla t
3. a s econ d-gen er a t ion comp u t er
4. a la s t -min u t e d ecis ion
5. a first -class mea l
6. a t h ir d-r a t e p r od u ct ion
Exe r c is e 33, p. 385
1. At t r ibu t es
2. Pa rt o f an a t t r ibu t e
3. At t r ibu t es
4. At t r ibu t e
5. Parts o f a t t r ibu t es
6. Pr edica t ives
7-10. Par t s o f ob je c t ive p a r t icip ia l con s t r u ct ion s wit h
Pa r t icip le II
11. An a dver bia l m od ifier o f r ea s on
12. Th e pa r t iciple II expr es s es a s econ d a ct ion a ccomp a n y
in g t h e a ct ion o f t h e pr edica t e ver b.
13. Par t o f an a dver bia l mod ifier o f compa r is on .
14. Par t o f an a dver bia l m od ifier o f reason.
15. See 12.
16. Pa r t o f a p r ep os it ion a l a bs olu t e con s t r u ct ion wit h
Pa r t icip le II.
Exe r c is e 34, p. 385
1. No t k n owin g t h e exa ct address, t h ey got los t in t h e city.
2. Never s ign a n yt h in g wi t h o u t r ea din g it carefu lly.
3. Th e d oor wa s wid e open , an d we en t er ed wi t h ou t knocking.
4. Th e cler k wa s fir ed wi t h o u t bein g given a n y expla n a t ion .
5. Th e t een a ger s lis t en ed t o t h e p op -s in ger wi t h o u t con
cea lin g t h eir a dmir a t ion .
6. Th e s n ow has been fa llin g for ma n y days, wi t h o u t s eem
in g t o st op.
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7. Susan a ccep t ed Toms pr opos a l wi t h o u t t h in kin g o f t h e
con s equ en ces .
8. No t k n owin g a wor d o f Du t ch , s he wa s t a ken t o t h e p olice
s tat ion.
9. He left t h e r est au r ant wi t h o u t wa it in g for his wife t o join
him.
10. Th e b r ot h er a n d t h e sist er cou ld n t s t an d ea ch ot h er s
comp a n y wi t h o u t immed ia t ely los in g t h eir t emper .
11. No t h a vin g r ecogn ized me, Lin da pas s ed b y wit h ou t
a n s wer in g my Hello.
12. Th e t r a veller s wen t on a n d on , wi t h o u t pa yin g a t t en t ion
t o t h e bit t er c o ld
13- No t k n owin g t h e r ea s on for t h eir s ilence, Rober t wen t on
t a lkin g n on -s t op.
14. Tom has n ever d on e a t hing, wi t h o u t con s u lt in g his
fat her.
15. No t wa n t in g t o qu a r r el wit h his mot h er , he d r op p ed t he
su bject .
Exe r c i s e 35, p. 386
I. All t h e past pa r t iciples are part s o f ob ject ive pa r t icipia l c on
s t r u ct ion s wit h pa r t iciple II.
1. . ,
.
2.
.
3.
.
4.
. .
5. , , . .
6.
?
7.
.
8. .
. 1. Wh er e d o you h a ve you r dresses ma de? - I ma ke t h em
myself.
2. How oft en d o you h a ve you r h air cut? - It depen ds on t h e
season.
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3. Wh y did you let you r s elf get in volved / mixed u p/ en t a n gled
in t his da n ger ou s u n der t a kin g/ s ch eme/ ven t u r e?
4. Th e suit is ma gn ificen t / gor geou s , bu t Id like t o h a ve t h e
skirt s h or t en ed.
5. We h a ven t h a d ou r h ou s e r ed ecor a t ed / r en ova t ed for five
years.
6. Id like t h e con t r a ct (t o b e ) s ign ed today.
7. You la ck k n owled ge a n d exp er ien ce a n d t hat ma kes it s elf
felt .
8. Th ey wa n t t o h a ve t h eir ch ild ba pt ized.
9 . 1 won t h a ve a n yt h in g ch a n ged in my r oom.
10. In t h e h ot el you ca n h a ve you r clot h es clea n ed, t icket s
b ook ed a n d let t er s sent.
11. She h a d h er pu rs e s t olen wh ile she wa s bu yin g fruit.
12. An n e n eeds a pa s s por t p h ot ogr a p h taken.
13- My ch ildr en h a ve t h eir t eet h exa min ed ever y s ix mon t hs .
14. Ha ve you r h air cu t at last! You (a r e) look (in g) a mess!
15. Wh en I wa s in Rome I h a d my u mbr ella s t olen.
16. We are d oin g ou r bes t t o h a ve ou r cen t r a l h ea t in g equ ip
men t r epa ir ed b efor e t h e wea t h er get s cold.
17. 1like t o h a ve my fla t / r oom pa p er ed a n ew ever y five years.
18. You s h ou ld r ea lly h a ve t his cu t exa min ed: I t h ink it looks
in fect ed.
Exe r c i s e 36, p. 387
1, 2. We ca n n ot use very wit h compa r a t ives . In s t ead we use
(very ) much,far, a lot a n d lots (t h e lat t er, t wo are in for ma l).
3. Dead mea n in g completely ca n be u sed wit h t he pos it ive
d egr ee o f a dject ives . Dead is mor e emot ion a l t ha n completely.
4. No h er e mea n s not any. On e migh t just as well say. You are
not any better than all those people.
5. In for ma l s peech a n d wr it in g mos t u sed wit h ou t the d efi
n it e a r t icle b efor e an a dject ive has t h e s a me mea n in g as very.
6. Pretty b efor e an a dject ive in t h e p os it ive degr ee is a c ollo
qu ial s yn on ym o ffairly .
7. 15. Compa r a t ives wit h the ... the are u sed t o say that t wo
t h in gs ch a n ge t oget h er on e d ep en d in g on t h e ot her. A s h or t
for m o f t his st ru ct u r e (7 ) is u sed in s en t en ces en din g wit h the
better (7 ) a n d in t h e expr es s ion . The more the merrier (
, ).
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8. See 3-
9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 3 . See 5.
12 .As ... as wit h pos it ive degr ees o f a dject ives is u s ed t o say
t hat t wo p eop le or t h in gs a re equ a l in s ome way.
14. Imaginable is u sed a ft er a s u per la t ive t o emph a s ize that
s omet h in g is t h e best, wor s t , s ma rt es t etc. t ha t ca n be ima gin ed.
It comes a ft er t h e a dject ive in t h e s u per la t ive d egr ee a n d t he
n ou n it modifies .
Exe r c is e 37, pp. 387-388
I. Po s s i ble va r i a n t s
1. Th e mor e exer cis e you take, t h e fit t er you ll become.
2. Th e bigger t h e car, t h e mor e ga s / pet r ol it gu zzles.
3. Th e mor e I get t o k n ow him, t h e less I like him.
4. Th e mor e ch ocola t e s he ate, t h e mor e zit s she had.
5. Th e fa r t h er fr om h ome, t h e lon elier you feel.
6. Th e mor e ch ildr en t h er e are, t he n ois ier it is.
7. Th e s oon er you r ealize, it t h e bet t er .
8. Th e mor e fr igh t en in g t h e film, t h e mor e h or r or film
fa ns / lovers like it.
9. Th e you n ger t h e ch ild, t h e ea s ier it is for h im t o lea r n a for
eign langu age.
10. Th e less t ime you was t e, t h e bet ter .
11. Th e mor e s oph is t ica t ed a gir l is, t h e less likely she is t o fall
for a du mbh ea d, good - look in g as he ma y be/ for all his good
looks .
12. Th e mor e I k n ow peop le, t h e mor e I like animals.
13. Th e h ot t er t h e wea t h er , t h e less I like it here.
14. Th e cold er t h e win t er , t h e mor e h omeles s p eop le fr eeze
t o deat h.
15. Th e h a r der she wor ks , t h e mor e she earns.
16. Th e lon ge r you s leep, t h e qu ick er you ll r ecover /
get well.
17. Th e mor e you learn, t h e mor e pess imis t ic you b ecome for
t h e Bible/ Eccles ias tes says, Wh o incr eases k n owled ge increases
s or r ow.
18. Th e less mon ey p eop le get t he less lik ely t h eir ch ildr en
are t o go t o college/ t h e less ch a n ce t h eir ch ildr en h a ve t o go t o
college.
19. Th e mor e d ifficu lt t h e cas e is, t h e mor e o f a ch a llen ge it is.
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20. Th e bu sier t h e boss is t h e less ch a n ce we h a ve t o h a ve an
ext r a coffee break.
II.
1. Th e s t or m s t a r t ed ou t o f t h e blue.
2. Th e refusal t ou ch ed h er t o t h e qu ick.
3. All t h e s u mmer t h e kids s t a yed in t h e open .
4. On t h e wh ole s he is n ot a ba d pers on.
5. In t h e pr es en t s it u a t ion t h er e is a ch a n ge for t h e bet t er.
6. In s h or t t h e s t or y has a h a p py end.
7. Pau l Ma cey left his job all o f a su dden.
8. He did his bes t t o get t h e bet t er o f ever yt h in g.
9. Don t wor r y, it s all for t h e bet t er.
10. - Ar e you con fu s ed? - Not in t h e least.
Exe r c is e 38, p. 388
1,2. Verbs. 11. Adject ives .
3. Adject ives .
12. Nu mera ls .
4. Adject ive. 13. Adject ives .
5. Th e i m p o s s i ble is a su b 14, 15. Pr epos it ion .
s t a n t ivized a dject ive a nd 16. Pr onou ns .
t h e a c c u s e d is a su bs tan 17. Adject ive.
t ivized past pa r t iciple. 18. Past pa r t iciple.
6. Adject ive.
19, 20, 21. Adject ives .
7. Con ju n ct ion s . 22. Nu mera ls .
8,9. Adject ive. 23. Nu mera ls . (
10. Nu mer a l.
, . )
Exe r c i s e 39, p- 389
1. - Wh er e d o t h e wick ed go a ft er deat h? - Th ey go t o hell.
2. His h a ir wa s a lr ea dy gray, h er own wa s st ill a r ich h on ey
br own .
3. Bali is a h ea ven wh er e t h e fa mou s , t h e r ich a n d t h e p r ivi
leged go for a holiday.
4. He is a con s er va t ive a n d wo n t ch a n ge his views all o f a
su dden.
5. Sca n din avia ns a re mu ch o f mer ch a nt s : t h e Swedis h p r o
du ce all t h e mat er ials, t h e Nor wegia n s t r a n s por t t h em, a n d t h e
Da n is h sell t hem.
6. - Is t h e wea t h er ch a n gin g for t h e wor s e? - I h op e for t he
bet t er.
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7. Simon fle w t o Amer ica as h e wa n t ed t o h a ve a look at t he
la n d o f t h e fr ee.
8. Th e old a n d t h e you n g, t h e r ich a n d t h e p oor h a ve t h eir
own pr oblems .
9. Th e u n emp loyed ca n n ot be exp ect ed t o live on t h e s a v
ings.
10. Twice in my life h a ve I pra yed, a n d a fa t lot o f go o d it did
me. ... .
11. Some Tibet ia n s b elieved t hat t h e sou ls o f t h e d ea d wer e
r ebor n .
12. Ever y ch ild s h ou ld pass t h e medica l ch eck-u p. It s a must!
13. On e even in g she t elep h on ed me ou t o f t h e blu e a n d said
s h e wa s in s ome kin d o f t r ou ble.
14. Bla ck a n d wh it e are h er fa vou r it e colou r s.
15. J immy is a r a dica l a n d believes in his mis s ion t o ch a n ge
t h e wor ld.
16. On ly t h e wea lt h y ca n h a ve t h e lu xu r y o f d oin g n ot h in g.
17. He got a s econ d win d ( ) a n d ca me t o
t h e fin is h first.
Exe r c is e 40, p. 390
1. / .
2. . /
.
3. . / ,
.
4. - . /
- .
5. .
6. , ./ -
, .
7. .
8. .
9. !
10. ./
.
11. .
13- , - .
14. , .
15. , .
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Exe r c i s e 41, p. 391
Co u n t r y Ad je c t i ve On e c it iz e n All t h e p e op le Th e la n gu a ge
1. Ru ss ia
Ru s s ian a Ru s s ian t h e Ru ss ian s Ru s s ian
2. Br it a in
Br it is h a Br it on (ra re ) t h e Br it is h En glis h
3. Ch in a
Ch in es e a Ch in es e t h e Ch in es e Ch in es e
4. t h e USA
Am er ica n a n Am er ica n t h e Amer ica n s En glis h
5. As ia
As ia n a n As ia n As ia n s
6. Hu n ga r y
Hu n ga r ia n a Hu n ga r ia n t h e Hu n gar ia n s Hu n ga r ia n
7. Fin la n d
Fin n is h a Fin n t h e Fin n s Fin n is h
8. Spa in Spa n is h a Sp a n ia r d t h e Spa n is h Spa n is h
9. Tu r key
Tu r kis h a Tu r k t h e TUrks/
t h e Tu r kis h
10. Ir ela n d
Ir is h a n Ir is h ma n t h e Ir is h En glis h &
Ir is h
11. Wa les
Wels h a Wels h
ma n / a Wels h
wom a n
t h e Wels h En glis h &
Wels h
12. Scot la n d
Scot t is h a Scot / a Scots
ma n / a Scot s
wom a n
t h e Scot s Scot t is h &
En glis h
13. Holla n d
Du t ch a Du t ch
ma n / a Du t ch
wom a n
t h e Du t ch Du t ch
14. Ger m a n y
Ger m a n a Ger m a n t h e Ger ma n s Ger m a n
15. Den m a r k
Da n is h a Da n e t h e Da n es /
t h e Da n is h
Da n is h
16. Th a ila n d
Th a i a Th a i t h e Th a is Th a i
17. Egypt
a n Egyp t ia n t h e Egypt ia n s Ar a b ic
18. Swed en Swed is h a Swed e t h e Swed es /
t h e Swed is h
Swed is h
19- Eu r op e
Eu r op ea n a Eu r op ea n Eu r op ea n s
20. Is r a el Is r a eli a n Is r a eli t h e Is r a elis He b r e w
21. Belgiu m Belgia n a Belgia n t h e Belgia n s Fr en ch &
Flemis h
22. Por t u ga l Por t u gu es e t h e Por t u gu es e Por t u gu es e
23. Au s t r a lia
Au s t r a lia n a n Au s t r a lia n t h e Au s t r a lia n s En glis h
24. Th e Czech
Czech a Czech t h e Czech s Czech
Rep u b lic
25. Sa u di
Sa u di a Sau di t h e Sa u dies Ar a b ic
Ar a b ia
Ar a b ia n
26. Pola n d
Polis h a Pole t h e Poles Polis h
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Exe r c is e 42, p. 391
1. Th e Amer ica n s are less for ma l t h a n t h e English.
2. Mos t Da n es s pea k good English wh ich ca n t be s aid a bou t
t h e French.
3. Don t s pea k ill a bou t t h e absent.
4. Th e mor e s now, t h e bet t er for t h e crops .
5. Th e s t r on ger / wor s e t h e s t orm, t h e s oon er it will pass/ be
over .
6. Th e exp er ien ced k n ow t ha t exp er ien ce is t h e bes t t eacher.
7. All over t h e wor ld dogs are u sed t o fin d exp los ives a n d
drugs.
8. My n eigh bou r wor ks in a s ch ool for t h e d ea f a n d du mb.
9. Th e Scot s love t h eir High la nds.
1 0 . 1am a cos mop olit a n t h ou gh a con s er va t ive.
11. Th e J a pa n es e live lon ger t h a n ot h er peoples .
12. Will eigh t o clock suit you ? - Yes, t h e ear lier , t h e safer.
13. It s a ver y difficu lt job even for t h e mos t exp er ien ced and
clever (p eop le).
14. Let s for get all t h e wor s t a n d h op e for t h e best.
15. It is ver y foolis h t o a ccu s e t h e you n g. Th e old s h ou ld t ry
t o u n der s t a n d t hem.
16. Th es e offen s ive wor d s t ou ch ed h im on t h e r a w
(cu t / s t u n g h im t o t h e qu ick).
17. We all h op e t hat t he a n s wer will be in t h e a ffir ma t ive.
18. Accor d in g t o t h e wea t h er for ea s t t h e wea t h er is goin g t o
ch a n ge for t h e bet t er at last.
19. My b r ot h er is an in cor r igib le r oma n t ic. He believes in all
t h e bes t in people.
20. Th e Swiss oft en say t hat life in Swit zer la n d is ver y bor in g.
21. We wer e s it t in g in t h e c ool o f ou r s eclu ded lit t le ga r den
a n d en joyin g t h e ca lm/ t h e qu iet o f t h e even in g.
22. Wh a t is t h is s er ia l ca lled? - Th e Da r in g a n d t h e
Bea u t ifu l.
Exe r c is e 43, p. 392
1. Her pa r en t s ob ject t o/ a r e agains t h er t ellin g ever yb od y o f
h er en ga gemen t n ow (ob ject t o/ a r e agains t h er ma kin g h er
en ga gemen t pu blic n ow).
2 . 1 r emember Mom oft en r epr oa ch in g me wh en I wa s a ch ild
o f bein g u n t idy/ of unt idiness.
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3. By wor k in g wit h a cas s et t e r ecor der you ca n imp r ove you r
pr on u n cia t ion . - It goes wit h ou t saying.
4. How la zy you a r e/ Wh a t a la zy-bon es you are! You h a ven t
even t a ken t h e t r ou ble o f wa s h in g you r cup.
5. Wh y d o you a void u s ing ver ba ls in you r s peech?
6. Wh a t pr even t ed/ kept you fr om goin g t h er e you r s elf? -
I h a d just h a d ever yt h in g d on e befor e.
7. On h ea r in g t he gla d/ h a ppy n ews t he gir l cou ld n ot h elp
cr yin g/ bu r s t in g in t o t ears/ bu rst ing ou t crying.
8. Th e met h od s o f t es t in g s t u den t s k n owled ge are n ot
a lwa ys effect ive.
9. Th er e is n o t ellin g wh a t h er m ood is.
10. It is a lwa ys u n plea sa nt wh en s omeon e is t a lkin g wit h ou t
look in g you in t h e face.
11. Someh ow I d on t feel like s t u dyin g t oday. Do you t h in k
it s wor t h a t t en din g t h e lect u r e on Saturday? - It s u p t o you t o
decide.
12. We t h a n ked h im for h elpin g/ h a vin g h elp ed us.
13- It s t ime t o h a ve my s h oes men ded/ fixed/ r epa ir ed, s oon
it will be spring.
Exe r c is e 44, p. 393
1. Please, r et u rn t h e b ook t o t h e libr a r y wit h ou t fu r t h er delay.
2. Cou ld you t ell me wh er e t h e near es t p os t -office is?
3. You will k n ow fu r t h er det ails n ext t ime.
4. It is ver y/ mos t impor t a n t in for ma t ion .
5. Th is is a ver y/ mos t s ens ible decis ion .
6. You r pla n is t h e best.
7. Let s h op e for t h e bet ter .
8 . 1 exp ect ed this qu es t ion fr om you least o f all.
9. Th is is a pla n e o f t h e lat est make.
10. Th e last t rain a rr ives at midn igh t .
11. Th e la t est ed it ion o f this dict ion a r y is a lr ea dy ou t o f print .
12. We n ever exp ect ed t hat t h e livin g con d it ion s in t h e ca mp
wou ld be s o bad/ as ba d as that.
13. Th a t s t h e wor s t h abit t h er e ca n be/ Th er e ca n t be a
wor s e habit.
14. It s wa r mer t oda y t han it wa s yest erday.
15. Somet imes I t h in k wh a t t h e fu t u re h olds in s t or e for
me/ wh a t is in s t or e for me in t he future.
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16. It wa s a hasty/ rash decis ion .
17. Th e Du t ch live in Holla n d a n d s pea k Du t ch.
18. Min d you , it s ver y impor t a n t . - Yes, I u n der s t a n d t ha t it s
an ext r emely u r gen t task.
19. Th e Swiss ar e p r ou d o f t h eir pict u r es qu e cou nt ry.
20. Th e Scot s love t h eir Highla nds .
Exe r c is e 45, p. 393
1. She in s is t ed on b ein g lis t en ed to.
2. Th e cos mon a u t s are r ep or t ed t o h a ve lan ded.
3. Th e results wer e impos s ible t o pr edict . Th ey pa t ien t ly
wa it ed for t h e scient ist s t o ma ke/ ca r r y ou t t h e exper imen t .
4. Not u n der s t a n din g t h e r ea s on for t h e cold r ecept ion , h e
left wit h ou t s ayin g a wor d t o anyone.
5. Wh er e d id you h a ve you r p h ot os t aken? I ca n t h elp a dmir
in g t hes e pict u res.
6. Ou r fr ien ds wh o wor k ed in Sou t h Amer ica h a ve com e back.
7. She for got p r omis in g t o wa it for t h em a n d n ot lea ve h ome.
8 . 1will h a ve you r t h in gs br ou gh t in a n d u npa cked.
9. Th e n igh t bein g cold, h e pu t on his over coa t .
10. Th ey fell s ilen t / s t opped t a lkin g a ft er exh a u s t in g all t he
subjects.
11. Wh a t I wa n t is t o go t h er e mys elf a n d n ot just lis t en t o
ot h er p eop les st ories.
12. In all pr oba bilit y/ Mos t p r ob a bly h e well come s oon . He is
clever en ou gh t o r ea lize t hat we are t h e p eop le t o h elp him.
13. Seein g is believin g/ Wor ds are bu t win d but s eein g is
believin g. An d t h er e is n o d en yin g it.
14. Th e t emple bu ilt on t h e h illt op cou ld be s een fr om
a fa r / fr om far away.
15. Th e cou r ier wh o has br ou gh t t he let t er has a lr ea dy gon e.
Exe r c i s e 46, p. 394
1. Ten is a s imple ca r din a l nou n.
2. Se c on d is a s imple or din a l nou n. In mos t cases n ou n s pr e
m od ified by or din a ls take t h e d efin it e ar ticle. In t hes e cases t h ey
s h ow t h e or d er o f per s on s or t h in gs in a series.
3. 4. Twe n t y, e i gh t e e n a n d s e ve n ar e car dina l nu merals.
Se ve n is s imple a n d t he ot h er t wo are der iva t ives , for med by t he
mea n s o f t h e s u ffixes -teen a n d -ty.
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5-8. Th e t wo a n d a fou r , t e n s a n d h u n d r e d s a re su bs t an
t ivis ed numerals.
9. Two is a s imple ca r din a l n u mer a l a n d m i l l i o n s is a su b
s t an t ivis ed nu meral. Of is in dis pen s a ble in t his case pr ecis ely
becau se m i l l i o n s is su bst ant ivised.
10. Th is is a comp os it e ca r din a l nu meral. In mos t cases t h e
wor ds doze n , h u n d r e d , t h ou s a n d , m i l l i o n a n d b i l l i o n t ake
n o -5 a ft er ot h er ca r din a l n u mer als becau se t h ey are n ot su b
st ant ivised.
11. See 10.
12. See 9.
13. Th is is an or din a l nu mera l. Th e n ou n it p r emod ifies is
u sed wit h t h e in d efin it e a r t icle beca u s e or din a l n u mer a ls m a yb e
used wit h t h e in defin it e a r t icle wh en t h ey d o n ot s h ow a d efi
n it e or d er o f per s on s or t h ings in a series, a n d t his is just t h e case:
a t h i r d h er e mea n s mer ely a n o t h e r a n d los es its n u mer ica l
mea nin g.
14. See 13.
15. Th is is a fr a ct ion a l nu mer al.
16. Since Man is s u ppos ed t o h a ve just five u n iver s a lly r ecog
n ized senses, a s ixt h on e does n ot b elon g t o a defin in e, s cien t if
ica lly r ecogn ized nu mber . So it qu it e sa fe t o say a s i xt h s e n s e ,
mea n in g a n ot h er , an a ddit ion a l on e. In ot h er wor d s s i xt h loos
es its n u mer ica l mea n in g.
17. A fi r s t n i gh t is a set phr as e mea n in g t h e even in g wh en
t he firs t pu blic p er for ma n ce o f a s how, pla y etc. is given . It usu
ally takes t h e defin it e a r t icle but on e ma y say a fi r s t n i gh t p e r
fo r m a n c e or a fi r s t n i gh t p a r t y beca u s e h er e fi r s t n i gh t is
used a t t r ibu t ively a n d t h e in defin it e a r t icle r efers t o t h e nou ns
p r emod ified by t hem.
18-19 A fi r s t t i m e a n d a fi r s t lo ve just like ot h er firsts like,
say, a fi r s t lo ve -m a k i n g are used wit h t h e in d efin it e a r t icle if
t h er e is n o limit in g a t t r ibu t e a n d n o limit a t ion is clea r fr om t h e
con t ext . By t he wa y is lo ve at
fir s t s i gh t . It h a ppen s s o qu ickly t ha t ever yb od y for get s a bou t
articles.
20. Se c on d is an or din a l nu mer al. It is p r eced ed by t h e in d ef
in it e a r t icle wh ich r efer s t o t h e n ou n c om p u t e r .
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Exe r c is e 47, p. 394
fou r, fou r t een , fort y, fift y, fift h, n ine, n in t h , n in et iet h , eigh t ,
eigh t h , eigh t een t h , eigh t iet h .
Exe r c is e 48, p. 394
1. Ha bit is a s econ d nature.
2. Th e wor k er s o f this pla nt / Th is p la n t s wor ker s wor k in
a n igh t shift.
3. Ou r s t u den t s begin t o lea r n a s econ d la n gu a ge in t h eir s ec
on d yea r at college/ u n iver s it y (wh en t h ey b ecom e s econ d-yea r
s t u den t s).
4. My h ou s e is t h e t h ir d fr om t h e right . You su rely won t pass
it by. (You su r ely won t mis s / over look it.)
5. Min d you , you won t h a ve a t h ir d ch an ce.
6. My fr ien ds a n d collegu es h a ve b e c om e a s econ d fa m ily
t o me.
7. Im a fr a id you ll h a ve t o r et a ke t h e exa m (t o t a ke t h e exa m
a ga in / for a s econ d t ime).
8. It s a big city. Its p op u la t ion is over t h r ee million .
9. Ou t of/ Of t h e t wo br ot h er s Don is t h e tallest.
10. Th e s cien t is t ma de t h e first, t h e s econ d, t h e t h ir d a n d t he
fou r t h exp er imen t a n d got t h e s ame results.
1 1 . 1 h a d a cu p o f tea, t h en a s econ d a n d a t h ir d (on e ) an d
on ly a ft er t h e fou r t h (on e ) r ea lized t hat 1 wa s n o lon ger t hirs t y
(t h a t I h a d qu elled/ s la ked my t hirst ).
12. Th e ch ildr en en t er ed t h e ha ll in t wos.
13. Ever yon e has lived t h r ou gh a first love/ h a s h a d a first
love.
14. Th ey met at a first n igh t per for ma n ce.
15. Th r ee yea r s la t er t h ey h a d a s econ d son.
16. At t h e a ge o f fift y Da vid got a s econ d edu ca t ion .
17. A yea r passed, t h en a n ot h er / t h en a s econ d on e, bu t still
t h er e wa s n o news .
18. No 8 is t h e t h ir d fr om t h e right.
Exe r c is e 49, p. 395
1 . 1ca n t h elp wor r yin g/ feelin g ner vou s. Th er e is s o mu ch t o
do-. t o h a ve my h a ir cut, t o h a ve my nails ma n icu r ed, t o h a ve my
s h oes fixed/ men ded/ r epa ir ed a n d t o t a ke t h e clot h es t o t he
clea n er s.
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2 . 1 r emember on ce bein g a dvis ed t hat t he bes t wa y t o los e
weigh t is t o cook ba dly/ t o be a ba d cook.
3. Not r ecogn izin g us, t h e p olicem en pa s s ed us by/ wa lk ed
pas t us wit h ou t as mu ch as p a yin g a n y a t t en t ion t o t h e
s ma s h ed car.
4 . 1ca n t ima gin e you / you r h a vin g been refu sed. You are just
t he ma n t o fill this office.
5. Fixin g his ga ze at / St aring at t h e ceilin g (His eyes fixed on
t h e ceilin g), Dick bega n s in gin g in an u n fa milia r t on gu e.
6. Th er e is n o d en yin g t hat h e is ver y h a r d/ difficu lt t o dea l
wit h . Alt h ou gh t o t ell t h e t ru t h h e is in t er es t in g t o s pea k to.
7. Th e pos t ma n wh o has been br in gin g us t h e ma il for ma n y
years, says t hat h e is t oo old t o con t in u e t o d o this job.
8. Th e boss en t er ed t h e office t o dis cover u n exp ect ed ly t hat
all t h e emp loyees h ad gon e h ome.
9- On e cou ld h ea r t h em deba t e s omet h in g heat edly. Th er e
wa s n o t ime t o lose. It wa s t ime t o ma ke a decis ion .
1 0 . 1 a m t ir ed o f my pa r en t s t r ea t in g me as/ like a child. But
t h e s it u at ion/ s et -u p a lr ea dy ca n t be ch a n ged.
11. Th e man wh o has br ou gh t t his n ot e is wa it in g for an
a n s wer downs t air s .
12. Th e gir l s t op p ed cr yin g on ly wh en h er mot h er s t op p ed t o
bu y h er a ch ocola t e.
13. Th is wa t er ca n t be dru nk. It mu st be filt er ed.
14. We r oa med (a b ou t ) t h e wood / for es t , t h e m oon r is ing
s lowly over t h e trees.
15. I wa s r ep r oa ch ed for bein g la t e a n d h a vin g kept ever y
b od y wa it in g.
Exe r c i s e 50, p. 395
1. You ca n n ever fin d a t a xi wh en y ou n eed on e.
2. I see, they h a ve in ven t ed a b om b wh ich will kill p eop le
wit h ou t da ma gin g pr oper t y. Wh a t will t h ey t h in k o f next ?
3. TheyMkill us all wit h t hes e da n ger ou s wea p on s they are
in ven t in g!
4. We mu st n ot gr u mble, I s u ppos e iveve h a d a p r et t y good
year.
5. You n ever k n ow wh o you'W bu mp in t o wh en you go out.
6. It says in t h e pa p er t hat they've h a d a lot o f rain in t h e Wes t
Cou nt ry. Im gla d Im n ot t here!
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7. En joy jowr s elves wh ile y ou can: y ou ca n n ot t a ke t he
m on ey wit h y ou wh en y ou die.
8. They say we are goin g t o h a ve a h a r d win t er .
9. Do you t h in k they migh t let us h a ve a pa r t y if we pr omis e
n ot t o ma ke noise?
10. Fellow-s t u den t s , we ca n on ly per s u a de t h e a u t h or it ies
t o give in t o ou r dema n ds if we r ema in u n it ed. Let us s t a n d
t oget h er !
11. You ca n lea d a h or s e t o t he wa t er , bu t vow ca n n ot ma ke
h im drink.
12. It says in t h e p a per t hat they ar e t h in kin g o f p u t t in g u p
t h e p r ice o f p et r ol again.
Exe r c i s e 51, p. 396
1. She sat in fr on t o f t h e mir ror , r u n n in g her fin ger s t h r ou gh
h er hair.
2. Do you wa n t t o p u t your/ Xhc coa t on ? No, Ill just pu t it
r ou n d my s h ou lder s.
3 . 1 felt s omeb od y tap my s hou lder, a n d t h en gr a b me by the
arm.
5. He h a d his hat pu lled well d own over his eyes, a n d his
h a n ds wer e thrust d eep in t o his pocket s .
6. She t u r n ed u p the colla r o f her coa t t o p r ot ect her n eck
fr om t h e cold win d.
7. He wa s s ever ely bru is ed a bou t the legs, bu t his fa ce was
u n ma r ked.
8. He s h ook me wa r mly by the h a n d an d pu t his a r m r ou n d
my s hou lder s.
9. Befor e you go t o bed, ma ke sure you wa s h y our face, brush
y ou r t eet h a n d pu t y ou r clot h es a wa y neatly.
10. Let me t a ke you by the hand, a n d lea d you t h r ou gh the
s t r eets o f Lon don .
11. Clos e y ou r eyes, h old ou t y our hand, a n d see wh a t t he
good Lor d has br ou gh t you !
12. We wer e s t a bbed in the ba ck mea n s we wer e bet r a yed
b y ou r own p eop le.
13- Th ey la y on their backs a n d clos ed their eyes.
14. If you d o n ot wa n t t o h ea r it, pu t y ou r fin ger s in y ou r ears.
15. You look a mess! Tu ck y ou r blou s e in t o y our skirt and
s t r a igh t en y ou r shoulders.
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1 6 . 1 look ed h im s t r aight in the eye a n d t old h im t o t ake his
shirt off.
17. Th e p olice gr a bbed h im by t h e s cruff o f the n eck, a n d pu t
h a n dcu ffs on his wrists.
Exe r c is e 52, p. 397
I. Ch o o s e t h e r i gh t wo r d
1. St op p a t t in g me on t h e s h ou ld er as if we wer e old
fr ien ds !
2. Th e snake bit h im on t h e leg.
3. Mu nch a u s en pu lled h ims elf ou t o f t h e wa t er b y t h e hair.
4 . 1a r gu ed wit h Sarah t ill I wa s blu e in t h e face.
5. She look ed me s t r aigh t in t h e eye a n d t old a lie.
6. He has a t h or n in his foot .
7. Len a is alwa ys wea r in g a br a celet on h er wrist .
8. Look me in t h e fa ce a n d t ell me wh a t is wr on g.
9. Gr a n dpa has a con s t a n t pa in in t h e back.
10. Th e Pr es iden t h a d a n op er a t ion on t h e heart .
11 . 1s t ep p ed on his foot .
12.1 s h ook h im by t h e hand.
13. She s h ook his hand.
14. Don t t a ke it in you r head.
11. Tr a n s la t e i n t o En gli s h
1. He look ed h er in t h e fa ce a n d u n der s t ood ever yt h in g.
2. His fa ce s u d d en ly ch a n ged exp r es s ion / He s u dden ly
ch a n ged in t h e fa ce/ Th e expr es s ion on / of his fa ce s u dden ly
ch a n ged.
3. In t h e fa ce o f difficu lt ies we mu st u nit e.
4. She t ook t h e ch ild by t h e h a n d a n d led h im across t he
street.
5. Ha n g this pict u r e over you r head.
6 . 1felt a s u dden pa in in t h e side.
7. He kissed h er ch eek/ He kiss ed h er on t h e ch eck, a n d t h ey
part ed.
8. If a ma n is d r own in g he s h ou ld be s a ved by gr a bbin g his
hair a n d n ot his hand.
9. J oh n look ed h er in t h e fa ce a n d u n der s t ood ever yt h in g.
10. Ma r y pu t h er h a n d on his s hou lder.
11. He t ook h er arm.
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12. He s h ook his h ea d a n d s igh ed deeply.
13. Th e gen er a l h a d a gu n / pis t ol in his hand.
14. She wa ved (h er h a n d ) t o us a n d left .
15. He has b een wou n d ed in t h e h ea d a n d oft en s u ffer s fr om
headaches.
Exe r c i s e 53, p. 397
1. Don t t ell me you r pr oblems . Ive got en ou gh p r ob lems o f
my own .
2. Wh o is t hat man? Is h e a fr ien d o f yours?
3. Come a n d sit bes ide me.
4. It belon gs t o an old fr ien d o f my fa t h er s.
5. She pr efer s t o live by hers elf.
6. She pr efer s t o live on h er own .
7. A fr ien d o f my fa t h er s is a pa int er . He pa in t ed this p or t r a it
o f min e wh en I wa s on ly s ixt een .
8. Is t hat ca r you r s or is it you r wife s?
9. He has his own business.
10. Wh a t I wou ld r ea lly lik e is a ca r o f my own .
11. If a let t er starts Dea r Sir, it s h ou ld fin is h wit h t h e wor d s
You r s fa it h fu lly.
12. Lou isas wor k is mu ch t idier t han min e or An n a s.
Exe r c i s e 54, p. 398
1. commit s u icide - kill you rs elf.
2. h a ve a good t ime - en joy you r s elf
3. feel gu ilt y - bla me you r s elf
4. won d er - ask you r s elf
5. t ake as mu ch as you wa n t - h elp you r s elf
6. d o on ly wh a t you wa n t - plea s e you r s elf
7. believe in you r own imp or t a n ce - t a ke you r s elf s er iou s ly
8. beh a ve as if you wer e in you r own h om e - ma ke you r s elf
at h ome
9. s u rr en der (e.g., t o t he p olic e ) - give you r s elf u p
10. ma ke an effor t t o r ega in you s elf-con t r ol - pu ll you r s elf
t oget h er
11. r ela x - let you r s elf go
12. d o wh a t you sh ou ld do/ n ot d o a n yt h in g wr on g - beh a ve
you r s elf
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Exe r c i s e 55, p. 398
1. She gr ew cold wit h t er r or a n d bega n s lowly cr os s in g h er -
s elf./ Her b lood r an cold a n d s he bega n s lowly cr os s in g h er
s elf/ ma kin g t h e s ign o f t h e cross.
2. He d evot ed h ims elf t o s cien ce a n d n ever r epr oa ch ed h im
s elf for it.
3. No on e s h ou ld d eceive t h emselves .
4. Ma ke you r s elf comfor t a b le a n d h elp you r s elf t o t h e pie.
5. If you a r e a gh os t , s h ow you r s elf!
6. He views h ims elf as t h e cen t er o f t h e Univers e.
7 . 1 per s u a ded mys elf t o h elp t hem.
8. Th e diseas e is s pr ea din g like wild fir e (ver y fas t ).
9 . 1 fou n d mys elf a lon e in a com p let ely u n fa milia r city.
10. An d n ow, h on ey, go t o bed.
11. Pet er d efen d ed h ims elf as bes t h e cou ld.
12. Ten lit t le n igger s wen t t o h a ve dinn er . On e s lept late,
a n ot h er ch oked, st ill a n ot h er h a n ged hims elf.
13. Ta ke ca r e o f you r s elf! Let you r s elf r ela x at least on ce in a
wh ile.
14. J oh n did t h e job (b y) h ims elf.
Exe r c i s e 56, p. 399
1. Don t d o ever yt h in g for h im, he mu st lea r n t o d o t hings for
h ims elf.
2. Plea s e you r s elf. It s en t ir ely u p t o you.
3. Th ey a re in love - t h ey on ly h a ve eyes for ea ch ot her.
4. Ill s ee you b ot h n ext year. Look a ft er you rs elves .
5. Th ey are ver y fon d o f ea ch ot h er .
6. He is ver y con ceit ed . He has a ver y h igh op in ion o f hims elf.
7. We h a d n o difficu lt y in ma kin g ou r s elves u n der s t ood.
8. Sh e ga ve Mich a el t h e wh is k y a n d k ep t t h e win e for
h er s elf.
9. Th e s olicit or wr ot e a let t er t o J oh n a n d me in wh ich h e
a s ked us if we cou ld s et t le t h e ma t t er b et ween ou rselves.
10. Th ey h a d on ly five pou n ds b et ween t h em, s o t h ey bou gh t
s ome food a n d s h a r ed it equ a lly b et ween t hem.
11. He is old en ou gh t o dress h ims elf n ow.
12. I will join you as s oon as I h a ve h a d a wa s h a n d got
dressed.
13. As for me, I p r efer t o let p eop le ma ke u p t h eir own minds.
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14. Look a ft er t h e pen n ies a n d t h e pou n ds will look a ft er
t hems elves.
15. Ever yon e s h ou ld ask t h ems elves if t h ey are d oin g en ou gh .
16. Pu t you r s elf in my pos it ion . Wou ld you b la me you r s elf if
you wer e me?
17. Th ey s eem t o get on wit h ea ch ot h er ver y well.
18. We meet ou rs elves ever y day.
Exe r c i s e 58, p. 401
1. 1 like p eop le wh o s pea k t h eir minds.
2. Th er e is s omet h in g I d o n ot u n der s t a n d a bou t this.
3. She on ly eat s veget a bles wh ich h a ve b een or ga n ica lly
gr own .
4. Th er e ar e n ot ma n y films I r ea lly enjoy.
5. He is t h e s or t o f ma n wh os e ideas ma ke p e op le r eally
angry.
6. We a re look in g for s omeon e wh o ca n h elp us in t h e s hop.
7. Wh a t d o you t h in k o f boys wh o wea r ma ke up?
8 . 1 r ecen t ly met an a u t h or wh os e b ook s are all a bou t wit ch
craft.
9. On ly lea r n t h e wor ds wh ich are wor t h lea rn ing.
10. He is t h e ma n ever yon e is t a lkin g abou t .
11. Is this t h e gu it ar you bou gh t in Spain?
12. Th er e is a pr eju dice against p eop le wh o s pea k wit h a
s t r on g accent .
13- Dr a w a t r ia n gle wh os e sides mea s u r e 3 , 4 a n d 5 cm.
14. Do you k n ow a n yon e wh os e bir t h da y is in J une?
15.1 n eed a wa t ch wh ich has a bu ilt -in alarm.
16. Was it J oh n wh o t old you that?
17.1 wor k for a comp a n y wh ich is r ea lly great .
18. Th e clot h es she wea r s are r eally st range.
Exe r c is e 59, p 401
1. Th e ma n wh o in ven t ed t h e ball p oin t pen.
2. Th e gir l h e wa n t s t o marry.
3. Peop le wh o go joggin g.
4. Th e wom a n wh o in t er viewed you.
5. Th e p olicema n wh o won t he meda l for bravery.
6. Th e wom en you t a lked to.
7. A man I on ce met.
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8. Th e cou p le wh o live n ext door .
9. Ever yon e wh o is in volved.
10. Th e b oy you saw.
11. All t h e p e op le wh o wou ld like t o meet you .
12. All t h e p e op le you wou ld like t o meet .
Exe r c i s e 60, p. 401
a. 1. - Cou ld I s pea k t o Mr. Smith? - Wh ich Mr. Smit h d o you
wa n t ?
2. - Give me t h e mon ey. - Wh a t mon ey?
3. - Cou ld I h a ve my books back, please? - Wh ich are you r
books ?
4. - Im goin g t o bu y s ome books . - Wh a t book s d o you n eed
t o buy?
5. - Pu t on e o f t h os e logs on t h e fire. - Wh ich on e?
6. - Wh er e d id you pu t t h e ph ot os ? - Wh a t / Wh ich ph ot os ?
7. - An n a a n d Lou isa are n ice girls. - Wh ich / Wh a t class are
t h ey in?
8. - My s on is n ea r ly s even t een . - Wh a t s u bject s is h e t aking?
9. - I fly eit h er Swissair or British Airways. - Wh ich air line d o
you pr efer ?
b. 1. Wh a t kin d o f films d o you like?
2 . 1d on t k n ow wh a t / wh ich dress t o wea r t on igh t .
3. Wh ich o f t h es e sets d o you r ecommen d?
4. Wh a t / Wh ich buses go t o t h e t own cent er ?
5. Wh a t is you r fa vou r it e food?
6. Wh a t food d o you like best o f all?
7. Wh ich food d o you pr efer , Fr en ch or Italian?
8. Id like t o get a job, but I d o n ot k n ow wh a t job suits me best.
9. A t ea ch er s oon get s t o k n ow wh ich ch ildr en are r eally
in t er es t ed in English, a n d wh ich on es ar e n ot in t er es t ed in t h e
least.
Exe r c is e 61, p. 402
a. 1. We a lwa ys go t o Pragu e. Ca n we go s omewh er e else for a
ch a n ge?
2. - Did you lea ve it t o Anna? - No, I ga ve it t o s omebody else.
3. - Is t hat all you need? - No, I wa n t s omet h in g else as well.
4. - Ha ve you got wh a t you n eed? - Yes, thanks, I d on t n eed
a n yt h in g else.
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5. Wh y does Lou isa a lwa ys go a r ou n d wit h Ann a? - Beca u s e
she does n t k n ow a n ybody else.
6. - Wh y d o you a lwa ys com e h er e? - Beca u s e t h er es
n owh er e els e t o go.
7. - Wh y does she a lways wea r t h e s a me dress? - Per h a ps it
is becau s e s he does n t h a ve a n yt h in g els e t o wear .
8. - If you d on t wa n t it, Ill give it t o s omeb od y else.
9. - Wh y d o you a lwa ys h a ve you r h a ir cu t at Ton ys? -
Nob od y else cu t s it as well as h e does.
10. He t ook s omeb od y els es b ook by mist ake.
11. It wa s n t a n ybodys fault. It wa s just an a cciden t .
12. She k n ows ever ybod ys secrets.
13. It s n ob od ys business wh a t I d o in my pr iva t e life.
14. Soon , ever yb odys pa t ien ce wa s exh a u s t ed.
15. Wh y does ever ybod y els es ga r den a lwa ys look t id ier t han
mine?
16. It wa s n ob od y els es fault. I am t h e on e t o bla me.
17. Becau s e his own bike h ad a fla t tyre, h e s imply t ook
s omeb od y els es.
Exe r c i s e 62, p. 403
1. We n eed s omeon e wh o kn ows a bou t statistics.
2. Im look in g for a ma n wh o I ca n d o bu siness wit h .
3. Th ey are p op gr ou p you d o n ot h ea r ver y oft en .
4. Ha ve you s een t h e gir l wh o u su ally sits here?
5. She is t h e last per s on wh om you wou ld tell!
6 . 1am t a lkin g t o t h os e o f you wh o h a ve a ct u a lly exp er ien ced
pover t y.
7. Wh a t a bou t t he on es wh o ca n n ot figh t for t hems elves ?
8. Do you k n ow t he gir l I wa s wit h t h e ot h er night ?
9. Th es e are t h e sort s o f p eop le t h e com p a n y s h ou ld employ.
10. He is t h e kin d o f man wh o r ea lly k n ows wh a t is goin g on.
11. Do you k n ow a n yon e wh o ca n p la y as well as h e can?
12. He is t h e on ly on e t h e men will lis t en t o a n y mor e.
Exe r c is e 63, p. 403
1 . 1wen t t o s ee h er flat, wh i c h s h e lived in wh en s he wa s a
s t u den t (non-identify ing clause).
2. I wen t t o s ee t he flat wh i c h / t h a t s h e lived in wh en she
wa s a s tu dent (identifying clause).
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3. Come a n d meet t h e fr ien ds wh o/ t h a t I t old you a bou t
(iidentifying clause).
4. Com e a n d meet my fr ien ds , mos t o f wh o m you k n ow
(non-identify ing clause).
5. Th is is t h e Dir ect or , wh o fou n d ed t h e comp a n y (non-
identifying clause).
6. Th er e are s ever a l dir ect ors . Th is is t h e dir ect or wh o/ t h a t
fou n d ed t h e comp a n y (identifying clause).
7. Wh a t we r ea lly n eed is a da m t h a t / wh ic h will be big
en ou gh t o s u pply t h e wh ole area wit h wa t er (identifying clause').
8. I h a ve a p h ot o o f t h e Ka r iba dam, wh i c h su pplies t h e
wh ole ar ea wit h p ower (non-identify ing clause).
9. Id like t o in t r odu ce Mr. Bridge, wh o/ t h a t I u sed t o wor k
wit h (non-identify ing claus e).
10. Ca n t ha t be t h e Mr. Br idge wh o m I u sed t o wor k wit h ?
(identify ing claus e).
11 . 1 h a ve t o st u dy ma t h ema t ics , wh i c h I d o n ot en joy (n on
identifying claus e).
Exe r c i s e 64, p. 404
1. Th in gs will get bet t er s oon . Th a t is wh a t t omor r ows are
for!
2. Is t h a t wh a t you r ea lly mean?
3 . 1gr ea t ly dou bt t ha t wh a t you say is true.
4. He did wh a t h e cou ld. Ever yon e ca n say that.
5. Mot h er is a bs olu t ely sure t hat wh a t you ve ch os en as you r
ca r eer is n ot wh a t you s h ou ld r ea lly do.
6. Th a t is wh a t Ive a lways been t ellin g you abou t !
7. Wh a t embar ra ss es me is t ha t n on e o f t h em has ever
t h ou gh t a bou t t h eir mot h er .
8. You d on t r ea lize wh a t you a re t a lkin g abou t , a n d that is
ver y sad.
9. Wh a t a t er r ible s h ock! J ust ima gin e that!
10. Don t you k n ow t h a t h e a lwa ys does wh a t h e want s?
11. You mu st d o wh a t h e asks you to. Th a t is a must!
12. - In for ma t ion ? It t ha t wh a t you need? - Th a t is true.
13. Is t hat wh a t a ct u a lly h a ppen ed?
14. Fr eedom. Th a t is wh a t we d o n eed for you r land!
15. A s h opa h olic! Th a t is wh a t you are!
16. - Mon ey is wh a t I need. - Th a t is n o dis cover y!
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17. Th a t let t er expla in s wh a t wen t wr on g.
18. We all k n ow wh a t you are! Th a t is n o secret .
19. - Wh a t t o d o next ? - t h a t is t h e qu es t ion .
20. Wh a t su rprised me mos t wa s t hat h e d id n t feel gu ilt y.
21. I d on t t h in k t hat wh a t you are d oin g is wh a t you ve
a lways wa n t ed t o do.
22. Wh a t is eviden t is t hat it s n o excu se.
23. Th e wit n es s wa s n t s h ocked at wh a t h e saw. He h a d been
wa r n ed that t h e s igh t wou ld n t be a plea s a n t one.
SYNTAX
Exe r c i s e 66, p. 405
1. Th e s u bject s are p r op er names.
, Capa -
.
2. Th e s u bject is expr es s ed by / , a per s on a l p r on ou n in t he
n omin a t ive case.

.
3. Th e s u bject is exp r es s ed b y t h e cou n t a b le a bs t r a ct
n ou n life.
, .
4. Th e for ma l su bject is there a nd t h e n ot ion a l s u bject s are
expr es s ed by t h e class n ou n place a nd t h e abs t ra ct n ou n time.
.
5. Th e ger u n dia l phr as e meeting old friends is t he s u bject o f
t his sen t ence.

.
6. Th e passive per fect in fin it ive ph r as e to have been nomi
nated the best actress of the y ear is t he s u bject o f t his s en t en ce.

,
.
7. Th e su bject s are travelling a n d y ou. Travelling is a ger u n d
a n d y ou is a per s on a l pr on ou n in t he n omin a t ive case.
, , , .
8. Th e su bject is progressing. It is a ger u n dia l phrase.
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- .
9. In t his s en t en ce t h e s u bject s are expr es s ed by car dinal
n u mer a ls two a n d three.
, - .
10. The unexpected is a s u bs t an t ivised Past Pa rt iciple.
, .
11. Th e for ma l s u bject h er e is it. It is imper s onal.
!
12. Th e s u bject is yours . It is an a bs olu t e pos s es s ive pr on ou n .
.
13- The subjects a re the weak a n d the strong. Th ey are sub
s t a n t ivis ed adjectives.
,
.
14. Th e for ma l s u bject is it, a n d t h e n ot ion a l su bject is t he
ger u n dia l ph r a s e no denying the importance of education.
.
15. It is t h e for m a l in t r od u ct or y s u bject , to go back on his
w ord is t h e n ot ion a l s u bject exp r es s ed b y a n in fin it ive
phr a s e.
.
16. Comings a nd goings (t h e s u bject s )a r e ver ba l nouns.
To, -
, , .
17. Ringing is a ver ba l nou n.
.
Exe r c i s e 67, . 406
1. look ed a n d dis approved are s imple ver ba l predicat es .
.
2. have been travelling is a s imple ver ba l pr edica t e a n d are
homesick is a com p ou n d n omin a l predica t e.

.
3. Is made unattractive is a comp ou n d n omin a l pr edicat e.

.
4. Used to hate is a comp ou n d ver ba l phasal pr edica t e a n d it
was dark is a com p ou n d n omin a l pr edica t e.
.
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5. Seemed to read is a com p ou n d ver ba l pr ed ica t e o f dou ble
or ien t a t ion . Might have been different is a com p ou n d mod a l ver
bal n omin a l pr edica t e.
. , .
.
6. is delicate is a com p ou n d n omin a l pr ed ica t e a n d ought to
have is a com p ou n d mod a l ver ba l pr edica t e.
,
.
7. Would say is a s imple ver ba l pr ed ica t e a n d were alive is
a com p ou n d n omin a l pr edica t e.
, ?
8. Would come up a n d w ould tell are com p ou n d ver ba l phasal
pr edicat es .

;
.
9. Had to get up is a com p ou n d moda l ver ba l pr edica t e.
,
.
10. Dream away is a s imple ver ba l pr edica t e, a n d can't
answer is a com p ou n d ver ba l moda l pr edica t e.

.
11. s tarted to work a n d s topped work ing are com p ou n d ver
ba l phasal predicat es .

.
12. stays firm is a com p ou n d n omin a l d ou b le pr edica t e.
.
13. Became dark is a com p ou n d n omin a l pr edica t e a n d was
beating is a s imple ver ba l pr edica t e.
.
.
14. Felt sure is a com p ou n d n omin a l pr edica t e. Must be is
a comp ou n d mod a l n omin a l pr edica t e.
, ,
.
15. Was eager to see is a com p ou n d n omin a l ver ba l pr edica t e;
was is a s imple ver ba l pr edica t e.
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,
.
Had run wild (1 6 ), stays cool (1 7 ), s tood high (1 8 ), will drop
dead (1 9 ), s tood open (2 0 ) a n d went dead (2 1 ) are all com
p ou n d n omin a l dou ble pr edica t es , a n d was los t (2 1 ) is a s imple
ver ba l pr edica t e.
16. .
17.
.
18.
.
19. ,
.
20. , .
21. ,
.
Exe r c is e 69, - 407
1 . 1 cou ld n t h ea r t h e a ct or s well fr om t h e last r ow.
2. Ali won t h e r a ce easily.
3. Th e flower s look ed fr esh t o me.
4. We t h ou gh t t hat St r eet ca r wa s a r eal/ r ea lly good pla y
(real is in for ma l).
5 . 1ca n t r ea d well wit h t h es e glasses.
6. Gla dioli will s mell s weet in t h e livin g-r oom.
7. Th e d a mp air sure/ su rely feels good a ft er t hat lon g dr y
s pell (s ure is in for ma l).
8. Th e pr os pect o f yet a n ot h er week o f ha rd wor k ma kes h im
feel bad.
9. He rides his mou n t well.
10. Th e Secr et a r y o f St at e s t ood fir m in his decis ion .
11. Some a ct or s s pea k t h eir lin es far t oo lou d/ lou dly (lou d is
in for ma l).
12. Some act resses s pea k s oft ly bu t t h e ga ller y-goer s h ea r
t h em clea r ly n ever t h eles s .
13- Th e or ch es t r a s ou n ded ca cop h on ou s at t h e rehearsal.
14. Mos t gen t ly h e s t r oked t h e ca t s fur.
15. Th e ver d ict o f gu ilt y ma de t h e pr is on er feel a n gr y t owa r d
t he jury.
16. Th e cr owd a p p r oved h ea r t ily o f t h e bu s ker s music.
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17. Th e jet pla n e flew by t oo qu ickly for me t o s ee it bu t it
sure/ surely s ou n ded r ea l/ r ea lly n ois y (s ure a n d real a re in for
ma l).
18. Th e d a zed vict im o f t h e a cciden t ga zed h elples s ly across
t h e road.
19- She cla s ped t h e in fa n t t igh t ly in h er arms.
20. Mot h er a n d da u gh t er a re ver y clos e t o ea ch ot h er .
Exe r c is e 70, p. 408
1.A h u n gr y ma n is an a n gr y man. - Yes, the wa y t o a ma n s
h ea r t is t h r ou gh his s t omach .
2. Ra ven s h a d gon e fr om the Tower : the Kin gd om wou ld fall.
3. She a s ked Mu m for a dvice a n d s he got it; she a s ked h er
mu m for cas h a n d she d id n t get it.
4. Ch ild h ood h at red, lik e ch ild h ood love, ca n last a lifet ime.
5. - It wa s a bs olu t e pleas u r e h a vin g you in my class! - The
preas u r e wa s mine.
6. - Let s h a ve an ea r ly s u pper t on igh t . - Oh , n o! Im
a weigh t -wa t ch er .
7. The Qu een smiled. She h a d t old a bla ck lie.
8. My love t o you is like a Su nday mor n in g, my love t o you is
like s t or my wea t h er .
9. - I met R. Mu rphy. - Do you mea n the R. Mu r ph y wh o
wr ot e all t h os e gr a mma r books ? - Exactly.
10. - Min e is a Pa n a s on ic, n ot a Sony. Wh a t s yours? -
A Philips.
11. The Mon t er ey Pen in s u la juts ou t in t o the Pa cific Ocea n
h a lfwa y u p the Ca lifor n ia coast .
12. The Va t ica n is the Pop es Pala ce on Va t ican Hill in Rome.
Va t ica n Cit y is the on ly s u r vivin g Pa pa l state.
13- For a b egin n er s t a r t in g t o lea r n a s econ d for eign la n
gu a ge this b ook is a mu s t -have.
14. Mou n t Ara ra t in ea s t er n Tu r key is men t ion ed in the Bible
as the pla ce wh er e Noa h s Ar k ca me t o rest.
15. The Pan Amer ica n High wa y runs a lon g the An des o f
Sou t h America.
Exe r c is e 71, p. 409
1. Neit h er J ulia n or Mich a el is goin g t o t h e pla y t on igh t .
2. An yt h in g is bet t er t h a n goin g t o a n ot h er movie t on igh t .
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3. Diet in g is b ecomin g mor e popu la r ever y day.
4. A n u mber o f r epor t er s wer e at t h e con fer en ce yesterday.
5. Ever ybody wh o has a fever mu st go h ome immedia t ely.
6. You r glasses wer e on t h e bu r eau last night .
7. Th er e wer e s ome p eop le at t h e meet in g last nigh t .
8. Th e commit t ee has a lr ea dy r ea ch ed a decis ion .
9. A pa ir o f jeans wa s in t h e wa s h in g ma ch in e t his mor n in g.
10. Each s t u dent has a n s wer ed t h e firs t t h r ee qu est ions .
11. Eit h er J oh n or his wife ma kes br ea kfas t ea ch mor n in g.
12. Aft er she h a d per u s ed t he ma t er ial, t h e s ecr et a r y d ecid ed
t hat ever yt h in g wa s in order.
13- Th e cr owd at t h e ba sket ba ll ga me wer e wild wit h excit e
ment .
14. A p a ck o f wild d ogs has fr igh t en ed all t h e du cks away.
15. Th e jury a re t r yin g t o fin d a s olu t ion .
16. Th e a r my has elim in a t ed t h is s ect ion o f t h e t r a in in g
test.
17. Th e n u mber o f s t u den t s wh o h a ve wit h d r a wn fr om class
this t er m is a ppa lling.
18. Th er e h a ve b een t oo ma n y in t er r u pt ion s in t his class.
19- Ever y elemen t a r y s ch ool t ea ch er has t o t a ke t his exa mi
n a t ion .
20. Neit h er J ill n or h er pa rent s h a ve s een this m ovie befor e.
21. J oh n, a lon g wit h t wen t y fr iends, is pla n n in g a party.
22. Th e p ict u r e o f t h e s old ier s b r in gs b a ck ma n y m e m o
ries.
23. Th e qu a lit y o f t h es e r ecor din gs is n ot ver y good.
24. If t h e du t ies o f t h es e officer s a r en t r edu ced, t h er e will n ot
be en ou gh t ime t o fin is h t h e pr oject .
25. Th e effect s o f ciga r et t e s mok in g h a ve been p r oved t o be
ext r emely har mfu l.
26. Th e use o f cr edit ca rds in p la ce o f cas h has in cr ea s ed r a p
idly in r ecen t years.
27. Adver t is emen t s on t elevis ion are b ecomin g mor e com
p et it ive t h a n ever befor e.
28. Livin g expen s es in this cou nt ry, as well as in ma n y ot hers,
are high.
29. Mr. J ones, a ccomp a n ied by s ever a l member s o f t h e com
mit t ee, has p r op os ed s ome ch a n ges o f t h e rules.
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Exe r c is e 72, p. 410
1. A fe w o f t h e gir ls a re exp er ien ced riders.
2. Each o f t h em has a com p let e set o f maps.
3. Mos t o f t h e milk is gon e.
4. Neit h er o f t he cars h as / h ave a r a dio (h a s is form a l Brit.;
h a ve is informal Brit, and US).
5. Ever y on e o f t h e pa cka ges is heavy.
6. Ever yon e qu ickly u n der s t a n ds t h e rules o f t h e ga me.
7. Neit h er o f t h e act resses wa s (we r e ) n omin a t ed (see 5 ).
8. Each is well-t r a in ed.
9. All o f t h e fru it wa s eat en.
10. A fe w in t h e cr owd ar e t r ou bles ome.
11. Th e pu blic cons is ts o f you a n d me.
12. J acks ima gin a t ion , as well as his s en se o f h u mou r , wa s
deligh t fu l.
13. Carl, n ot J uan a n d I, is d oin g t h e a r t wor k.
14. No on e excep t t h e ba n d member s lea ves early.
15. Has a n y o f t h e s h ipmen t arrived?
16. Ra mon a n d she like hiking.
17. Rock a n d r oll is won der fu l.
18. Neit h er ou r p h on e n or ou r d oor b ell wa s wor kin g.
19. Nin et y p er cen t o f t h e s tu dent s ar e pr es ent .
20. A n u mber o f girls like s t r en u ou s sport s.
Exe r c is e 73, p. 410
1. Aft er t h e lon g like t h r ou gh t h e wood s , all t h e scou t s com
p la in ed t hat t h eir feet hurt.
2. Eit h er Ca mille or Ros e will br in g h er ca ss et t e player.
3. Ever yon e at t h e ca mpgr ou n d will n eed t o br in g t h eir own
t en t a n d bedr oll.
4. Some o f t h e wom en wr ot e t o t h eir loca l n ews pa per s a bou t
t h e p ollu t ion pr oblems .
5. Every d r iver ch ecked t h eir car b efor e t h e race.
6. Each o f t h e a ct or s h ad t h eir own su per st it ion .
7. Bot h o f t h e girls pr a ct is ed t h eir dives o ff t h e h igh t ower .
8. Mar cia a n d h er you n ger br ot h er a re s a vin g m on ey t o h a ve
t h eir car r epa ir ed.
9- Someon e has pa r ked t h eir car in my space.
10. All o f t h e gir ls k n ew t h eir par ts p er fect ly b y op en in g
n igh t .
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11. Neit h er o f t h e s wea t er s h a d its p r ice t ag r emoved.
12. Ever ybody s h ou ld exer cis e t h eir r igh t t o vot e.
13. Ma n y o f t h e cr ew got t h eir fir s t cas e o f sicknes s in t h e vio
len t s t orm.
14. Gin a a n d h er gr a n dfa t h er pr ou d ly s h owed us t h eir s t rin g
o f r a in b ow trout.
15. On e o f t h e h ou s es has its win d ows br ok en by t he hail
( ).
16. Ever yon e bou gh t t h eir own cop y o f t h e t ext b ook .
17. Th e Pr es iden t a n d t h e Vice-Pr es iden t expr es s ed t h eir
s epa ra t e op in ion s a bou t t h e issue.
18. An yon e wh o n eeds a pen cil s h ou ld raise t h eir hand.
19. Eit h er Stu or Mike will len d me his fis h in g gear.
20. Each o f t h e cars has its own pa r kin g pla ce.
Exe r c i s e 74, p. 411
1. Bot h , Alexa n d er a n d Nin a , lik e t h eir n e w n eigb ou r -
h ood .
2. Non e o f t h e m ot or boa t s wa s da ma ged du r in g t h e st orm.
3. By t wo o clock An t on io, as well as t h e ot h er singers, wa s
r ea dy for t h e comp et it ion .
4. On e o f t h e loca l p olicem en s cor ed t h e ma ximu m n u mber
o f poin t s in s h oot in g today.
5. Neit h er J ohn, n or Bru ce has got over t he h or r ible jou rney.
6. Tom a n d J er ry is my n ep h ews fa vor it e a n ima t ed ca r t oon .
7. Th er e wa s a salt a n d pep p er set on t h e cou n t er .
8. Each wa it er wa s wor k in g ver y efficien t ly a n d qu ickly
9. Some p eop le in t h e cr owd wer e h idin g s omet h in g u n der
t h eir over coa t s .
10. Eit h er Ma r y or Tom is r es pon s ible for this equ ipmen t .
11. An a ddit ion a l ch a r a ct er is t ic o f this mod el is bu ilt -in
speakers.
12. Someon e hasnt s wit ch ed o ff t h e en gin e in t h e car.
1 3- If a n ybody calls, ask t h em t o ca ll ba ck in t h e even in g.
14. Each t ea m has its own colou r a n d s ymbol.
15. Her es t h e pa ir o f gloves you h a ve left at ou r place.
16. Will t hes e qu es t ion s ever cease?
17. If you love nat ure, you d o you r best t o mix wit h it as oft en
as pos s ible.
18. Ever ybody wa n t ed t o list en t o t h eir own voic e r ecor ded.
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19. Th r ee Lives by (. c r t m d e Sit-in h a d gr ea t in flu en ce on
ma n y cont empc>r ai y wi iiers.
Exe r c is e 75, p. 411
1. a ) Th e s en t en ce is u n a mbigu ou s in mea n ing: J oh n is t h e
on ly on e wh o can speak Ar a bic really well.
b ) Th e s en t en ce has a n a mbigu ou s mea n in g. If t h e s pea ker
put s t h e stress on s pea k it mea n s that J oh n can on ly s pea k t he
la n gu a ge r ea lly well bu t n ot , say, wr it e in ii or read comp lica t ed
classical Ar a bic texts. If t h e s pea ker st ressed Ar a bic it means
t ha t Ar a bic is t h e on ly la n gu a ge J oh n spea ks r eally well.
2. a ) To t ell t he truth, I ca n n ot t alk t o h er any mor e. Frankly
is a viewp oin t adverb.
b ) I ca n n ot be fr a n k wit h h er any mor e.
3. a ) Th e firs t s en t en ce is just a s t a t emen t o f a fact.
b ) Th e s econ d s en t en ce implies s ur pr ise t hat t h e pos t has
n ot come: Th e pos t has n ot com e yet wh ich is s u rpr is ing beca u s e
it is a lr ea dy r a t h er late.
4. In a ) in t his comp a n y is t h e focu s o f commu n ica t ion , in
b ) it isnt. In a ) t h e s pea ker implies t ha t t h e comp a n y in qu es t ion
is s pecial, per h a ps u niqu e, wh er e as in b ) h e implies n o such
t hing. He just st at es a fa ct a n d does it qu it e ma t t er -of-fa ct ly.
5. a ) Th ey s oon ma de u p t h eir min ds t hat t h ey wou ld leave.
b ) Th ey d ecid ed that t h ey wou ld lea ve soon.
6. a ) I t old you t o com e r ou n d s ome t ime ago.
b ) I h a d t old you t o com e r ou n d ea r lier t han you did.
7. a ) Previou s ly, I wa n t ed J oh n t o h a ve it bu t Ive ch a n ged my
mind./ I u sed t o wa n t J oh n t o h a ve it bu t Ive ch a n ged my mind.
b ) I wa n t ed J oh n t o h a ve it ea r lier t h a n h e did.
8. a ) Wh en I a m in Lon d on I p r efer t o ea t in expen s ive rest au
rant s (I h a ven t said a n yt h in g a bou t my pr efer en ces in ot h er
cit ies ).
b ) It is on ly in Lon d on t hat I like t o eat in expen s ive rest au
rants. Els ewh er e I d on t min d goin g t o ch ea per ones. However if
t h e s pea ker pu t s t he stress on exp en s ive, b ) = a).
9. a ) Pet er is s o good at ch ea t in g at car ds t hat he can oft en get
a wa y wit h it.
b ) This s en t en ce ca n h a ve t wo mean in gs . It can h a ve t he
s a me mea n in g as a ) in wh ich cas e t he s pea ker puts t h e stress on
ca t ch . Or t h e s pea ker ca n pu t t h e stress on Pet er implyin g
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t ha t Pet er eit h er does n ot oft en ch ea t at cards or con ver s ly is a
ver y s killfu l cheat .
10. b ) is emp h a t ic wh er ea s a ) is n ot .
11. In b ) n in e t h ir t y is emph a s ized, in a ) t h er e is n o
emphas is .
12. In b ) ca r efu lly is t h e focu s o f commu n ica t ion , in a ) it
is n t.
Exe r c is e 77, p. 413
1. Un der n o cir cu ms t a n ces s h ou ld you go away.
2. Never in my wh ole life h a ve I felt s o angry.
3. Ra r ely d o you see s o ma n y Russian ships in t h e harbou r.
4. Not on ly does she play, she comp os es as well.
5. Not u n t il t h en did I r ea lize h ow mu ch she wa n t ed t o go.
6. On ly mu ch la t er did I r ea lize wh a t h e wa s t r yin g t o
a ch ieve.
7. Sca r cely ha d h e t ime t o t ake his coa t o ff wh en t h e p h on e
rang.
8. No s oon er h a d t h ey said yes t ha n t h ey r an upstairs t o
pack.
9. On ly r ecen t ly h a ve I begu n t o t h in k a bou t polit ics .
10. Seldom h a ve I h ea r d such rubbish.
11. Not u nt il t he ot h er s h a d left cou ld we t alk freely.
12. On ly in s pecia l cir cu ms t a n ces will you be a ble t o ext en d
you r visa.
Exe r c i s e 78, p. 413
1. No s oon er h ad I fin is h ed s pea kin g/ t a lkin g t ha n Molly
ju mped u p/ spra ng u p a n d ran ou t o f t h e r oom./ Ha r dly/ Sca r cely
h a d I fin is h ed s pea kin g/ t a lkin g wh en Molly ju mp ed u p/ sprang
u p a n d ran ou t o f t h e r oom.
2. Never b efor e h a ve I h ea r d su ch n on s ens e!
3. She op en ed t h e b ox a n d ou t ju mp ed t h e mou se.
4. Not a s in gle wor d d id she say a bou t t h e for t h comin g
en ga gemen t .
5. It wa s J en n y wh o ba ked t he ca ke, n ot I (It wa s J en n y wh o
ba ked t h e cake, n ot me).
6. Qu iet Flows t h e Don is a n ovel by M. Sh olok h ov a bou t
Cossacks.
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7. It wa s Mon ica In- wa u led t o see a n d n ot h er par ent s.
8. Do h a ve pa t ien ce wit h t he ch ildr en . / Do be pa t ien t wit h
t h e ch ildr en . An d d o for get abou t all t h eir pranks!
9- On a n d on wen t t he car avan across t h e desert .
10. Ten der is t he Nigh t is t he n ovel wh ich / t h a t ma de Scot t
Fit zger a ld famou s .
11. 1d o u n der s t a n d h ow impor t a n t It is lor all o f us!
12. Wer e it n ot s o impor t a n t for you, It wou ld n t h a ve
t ou ch ed you t o t h e qu ick/ got you on t h e raw.
13. You look qu it e sat isfied. - Th a t s just h ow I feel.
14. Gen er ou s wa s his gr a t it u de!
15. Wh a t r ea lly s t a gger ed/ s t u n n ed me wa s my fr ien ds r ea c
t ion t o my success.
Exe r c is e 79, p. 414
1. On ly in t h e ca r did I ma n a ge t o s pea k wit h him.
2. Fr om beh in d t he hills ca me t h e wh is per s o f t h e sea.
3. Never h a ve I s een a fa ce s o happy, s weet a nd radiant .
4. Lit t le d id she ca r e for h er wor ds .
5. So gr ea t wa s h er gr ie f t h a t I d id n t k n ow h o w t o c om
for t her.
6. Fr om t h e ba ck o f t h e r oom ca me a t imid voice.
7. No s oon er h a d h e fin is h ed on e job, t han h e wa s given
a not her .
8. Not on ly is she beau t ifu l, bu t t a len t ed as well,
9. Lit t le d oes h e r ea lize wh a t a fool h e is ma kin g o f hims elf.
10. O f t his a cciden t I cou ld n t s pea k t o my mot h er .
11. On ly on ce did h e meet his ma t ch in tennis.
12. Ma n y a t ime did h e wa t ch h er s it t in g like that.
13- Now wa s t h e momen t t o act.
14. Down h e fell.
15. Up wen t t he r ocket .
Exe r c i s e 80, p. 414
1. How b it t er ly we r egr et t ed ou r decis ion , bu t t h er e wa s n o
wa y ba ck/ Bit t er ly as we r egr et t ed ou r decis ion t h er e wa s n o wa y
back.
2. Far, fa r a wa y in a t h ick for es t t h er e st ands a s mall log hut in
wh ich lives a wit ch .
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3. Ne ve r b efor e h a ve we h a d as ma n y b ook s as we h a ve
n ow.
4. Th e t ea cher , as well as h er st udent s, is goin g t o t h e con cer t .
5. Br igh t a n d sinister, t h e sun rose.
6. On ly beca u s e t h e wor k wa s in t er es t in g d id h e a gr ee t o
a ccept it.
7. My first cousins, as well as my sister, are t a kin g t h eir last
exa m today.
8. She died you n g, a n d h e didn 't even r emember h er face.
9. In va in did t h ey t r y t o expla in t o t h em that n eit h er o f t h em
wa s r igh t (Britis h formal)/ we r e r igh t (British informal and US)
(t h a t b ot h o f t h em wer e wr on g).
10. Th e old believe n ot h in g, t h e elder ly are su spiciou s o f
ever yon e a n d ever yt h in g.
11. So t h ick wa s t h e fog t hat t h e p olice wer e helpless.
12. Never b efor e cou ld I s u ppos e t hat eit h er you or me wa s t o
imp lemen t it / t o put it in t o pr act ice.
13. Bot h my br ot h er s a n d I are r ea dy t o h elp you ./ My b r ot h
ers, as we ll as I, are r ea dy t o h elp you .
14. No s oon er h a d h e pu t his lu gga ge on t h e p la t for m t han
bot h t h e b ox a n d t h e su it case dis a ppea r ed. (Ha r dly/ Sca r cely h a d
h e pu t his lu gga ge on t h e pla t for m when ...).
15. Wh a t are his polit ics / h is p olit ica l views ? - I h a ve n o idea
a lt h ou gh we h a ve been fr ien ds all ou r lives / fr ien ds t h ou gh we
h a ve been all ou r lives.
16. How la zy you are! Not for t h e wor ld will I ever dea l wit h
you again.
17. Non e o f t h e p r ob lems has/ have been s olved yet (see 9 f o r
explanation).
18. Sh ou ld you h a ve a s par e min u t e, join ou r discu ssion.
E xer cis e 81, p. 415
1. Th e ma n comes fr om a d iffer en t wor ld t han you . He
b elon gs t o t h e pr iviledged, he is on e o f t h e ch os en .
2. A ma n wh o wa s t es mon ey is k n own as a s pen dt h r ift .
3. Tin a t hinks Ted is a failu re, s o t h e ma n drinks. Th e mor e h e
drinks, t h e mor e h e fails.
4. My fr ien d wor k s for a da t in g service. His job is t o ma t ch
t h e men a n d wom en wh o wa n t t o bu ild a family.
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5. Th e a rt icle, a small w< >rd, t lien cau ses pr oblems .
6. We mu st give- die hou s e a n ew coa t o f pa in t t omor r ow.
An d on Su nday we shall give t h e h<>usc t h e fina l coa t o f paint .
7. Th e on ly pla ce wh er e success comes b efor e wor k is in
a dict iona ry.
8. Th e At la n t ic is said t o be called "Hie Kiich cn o f t h e
Wea t h er .
9- Six cou n t r ies o f t h e Wes t In d ies .in- t h e Ba hamas,
Bar bados, Cuba, t h e Domin ica n Repu blic, lla i I i a i id I .i i n ,i it a
10. Th e t on e o f t h e s t or y is set fr om t h e ver y begin n in g
11. Wa lt Disney, t h e fa mou s film a n ima t or and p iod iu ct ,
cr ea t ed Dis n eyla n d, a la r ge plea su r e par k, wh ich wa s op en ed in
Ca lifor n ia in 1955.
12. Th e bea u t ifu l fjor ds a n d t h e br ea t h t a kin g s cenery ol
Wes t er n Nor wa y t urn a we e k s h olid a y in t o an u n for get t a ble
exper ien ce.
13. Th e n ovel is a n ot -t o-be-mis s ed b ook wh ich has b ecome
a best seller.
14. Roy is nt t h e t ype o f ma n t o ma ke a wom a n happy.
15. - Wh a t d o men call a ma n wh o ca n cook? - A chef. -
Wh a t d o men ca ll a wom a n wh o ca n cook? - A h ou s ewife.
16 . Th e d is cover y o f t h e ruins o f a n / t h e a n cien t pa la ce wa s
t h e clima x o f a ver y excit in g expedit ion .
17. Wit h t h e fift h cen t u r y ca me t h e fall o f t h e Roma n
Empire.
Exe r c is e 83, p. 418
1. 1shall n ot wa s t e t ime r eplyin g t o his let t er.
2. It s h igh t ime we wen t / t o go.
3. Id r a t h er s tay in t on igh t .
4. Th er e is n o poin t in a r gu in g wit h him.
5. We h a d t o st and u p t o get a bet t er vie w o f t h e game.
6 . 1 t h in k we h ad bet t er go.
7 . 1 will a gr ee t o h elp you as lon g as you beh a ve you r self.
8. Wou ld you ca r e t o h a ve a look at my lat est effor t ?
9. It s n ea r ly lu n ch t ime. Wh y d on t we s t op t o h a ve a snack?
10. Is n t it a bou t t ime you s t ar t ed t a kin g life seriously?
11. It s n o u s e com p la in in g, n ob od y will t a ke a n y n ot ice
o f you .
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12. Im lon gin g t o s ee you again.
13. He s eems t o be feelin g b et t er today.
14. Th e ca r n eeds ser vicin g.
15.1 da r en t go ou t a ft er dark.
16. Wh a t s t h e use o f wor r yin g?
17. If you n eed a n yt h in g, plea s e d o n ot h es it a t e t o ask.
18. Ha dn t we bet t er lea ve s oon ?
Exe r c i s e 84, p. 418
I. Th e air, wh ich con s is t s o f va r iou s elemen t s , s u rrou nds us.
2 . 1h a d a stick, wh ich I d efen d ed mys elf wit h.
3. "fou r br ot h er , t o wh om I wa s in t r odu ced yest erday, sur
pr is ed me wit h his lea rn in g.
4. Silk, wh ich t he Ch in es e h a d t h e mer it o f dis cover in g, is
mu ch wor n in Eu rope.
5. Th e pa la ce wh ich / t h a t t h e Qu een lives in is ma gn ificen t
(Th e pa la ce in wh ich t h e Qu een lives is ma gn ificen t ).
6. You h a ve t old me s omet h in g wh ich / t h a t I shall n ot for get .
7. Bill ca me h om e on a cer t a in da y wh ich / t h a t I d o n ot
r emember .
8. Th e b r id ge t h a t / wh ich 1 pa s s ed over yes t er d a y is ver y
high.
9. Th e wa t er , wh ich 1 tasted, is ver y r efr es h in g (non-identify
ing claus e)/ Th e wa t er wh ich / t h a t I t ast ed is ver y r efr es h in g
(id en t ifyin g clau se).
10. Th e pict u re, wh ich t he artist t ook a lon g t ime t o paint , is
ver y fine.
I I . Th e clima t e t h a t / wh ich pr eva ils in In dia is ver y war m.
12. Rats, wh ich mu lt iply ver y fast, d o mu ch da ma ge.
13. 1ga ve t h e m on ey t h a t / wh ich I h a d on / a bou t / wit h me t o
a beggar.
14. He did n ot like t h e br ea d t h a t / wh ich I wa s in t h e h abit o f
eat ing.
15. Sh ow me t h e b ook t h a t / wh ich you h a ve read.
16. Th e sun, fr om wh ich ou r ligh t comes , is fa r away.
17. St eel pens, wh ich wer e in ven t ed lon g a go, last a lon g
t ime.
18. Th e s hip a boa r d wh ich Colu mbu s cr os s ed t h e At la n t ic
wa s ver y small.
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19. Th e m icr os cop e, wh ich we s ee in vis ib le ob ject s
wit h / wit h wh ich we s ee in vis ible object s , is ver y useful.
20. Th e n in et een t h cent u ry, in wh ich ma ch in er y ca me in t o
use, wa s ca lled t h e a ge o f machinery.
21. Th e s wa llows wh ich I s a w yest erday, wer e a s s emblin g for
t h e night .
22. Th e cu p t h a t / wh ich t h e ser va nt b r ok e wa s ver y old.
Exe r c is e 85, p. 419
I. In 1665 a gr ea t pla gu e r a ged in Lon don . Th e in s an it a ry
con d it ion s o f t h e hou ses, t h e n a r r own es s o f t h e st reet s, t h e
dir t y habit s o f t h e p eople, all h elped t o s pr ea d t h e disease. Th e
p eop le d ied in t hou sands, a n d ever y da y car ts u sed t o go r ou n d
fr om hou s e t o h ou s e t o collect t h e dead, a ccomp a n ied by a ma n
cryin g: Br in g ou t you r dea d! Th e r ich wh o cou ld a ffor d t o d o
s o left t h e t own a n d fled t o t h e cou n t r y, wh ile t h e p oor
r ema in ed a n d d ied in gr ea t nu mbers.
(Th e ) n ext yea r a s econ d m is for t u n e ca m e u p on t h e
u n for t u n a t e cit y, n a mely, a gr ea t fir e. Ou t o f t h e blu e it s t a r t
ed in a b a k er s s h op, a n d a id ed by t h e ea s t win d , r a p id ly
con s u m ed t h e wood e n h ou s es o f wh ic h a la r ge p or t ion o f
t h e t own wa s bu ilt , r a gin g for a fe w days. Even t h e gr ea t
ca t h ed r a l o f St. Pa u ls wa s d es t r oyed b y t h e fir e, wh ich , le a p
in g a cr os s t h e n a r r ow s t r eet s r ea ch ed r igh t t o t h e ba n ks o f
t h e Th a mes . Bu t t h e dis a s t er d id mu ch good . It d es t r oyed
ma n y o f t h e dir t y, u n h ea lt h y s t r eet s , a n d s wep t a wa y t h e
h om es o f dis ea s e, en a b lin g b et t er h ou s es t o be er e c t e d in
t h eir pla ce.
II. Sir Ra lph t h e Rover wa s a wick ed pir a t e wh o s a iled a bou t
fr om sea t o sea a t t a ckin g t h e in n ocen t mer ch a n t ships a n d r ob
bin g t h em o f t h e car go. On e da y h e ca me t o t h e coa s t o f
Scot la n d a n d s a w a da n ger ou s r ock on wh ich a bell h a d been
pla ced t o wa r n t h e sailors o f t h e pr es en ce o f dan ger. Sir Ralph
t h ou gh t t hat if h e r emoved t h e bell, mer ch a n t ships wou ld be
wr eck ed u p on it, an d t h en h e cou ld ea s ily r ob t hem. Th e gr ea t
pir a t e r owed t o t h e r ock in a small boa t wit h a pa r t y o f sailors
a n d cu t o ff t h e bell, wh ich s ank d own in t o t h e d eep wa t er. He
t h en s a iled a wa y across t h e sea a n d en r ich ed h ims elf in va riou s
part s o f t he wor ld .
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Aft er a bou t a yea r h e r et u r n ed a n d r ea ch ed t h e n eigh
b ou r h ood o f t h e fa mou s r ock. A t h ick fog ca m e on , a n d h e
cou ld n ot t ell wh er e h e was , t h ou gh h e fea r ed h e mu s t b e
s om e wh e r e n ea r t h e d a n ger ou s pla ce. How s t r on gly h e
wis h ed n o w t h a t h e h a d n ot cu t o ff t h e bell fr om t h e r ock!
Blin d ly t h e s h ip d r ift ed a lon g t h e s h or e at t h e m er cy o f t h e
t ide. All o f a s u dden , t h er e wa s a cr as h; t h e s h ip h a d s t r u ck
t h e r ock ! In a fe w min u t es t h e s h ip filled wit h wa t er a n d
s a n k t o t h e b ot t om o f t h e sea wit h a ll on boa r d.
Exe r c i s e 86, p. 420
1. Th e y r ep r oa c h e d t h em s elves for h a vin g fa ile d h im / for
h a vin g let h im d own . Aft e r a ll h e h a d b een wit h in a h a ir s
b r ea d t h (h a ir b r e a d t h ) o f d yin g/ h e h a d es ca p ed d ea t h b y
a h a ir s b r ea d t h (h a ir b r e a d t h ) a n d h a d b een s a ved by a m ir
a cle.
2. S m ok in g is b a d for on e s h ea lt h . It is im p er a t ive for
b ot h t h e you n g a n d t h e old t o give it u p / d r op it./ It is im p e r
a t ive t h a t b ot h t h e you n g a n d t h e old (s h ou ld ) give it u p
(d r op it ).
4. His ca r wa s s t olen last week. / He h a d his ca r s t olen last
week. Th e p olice h a ven t fou n d it yet , but t h ey a re d oin g t h eir
best.
5. Wou ld you min d comin g n ext Tuesday? A fr ien d o f Toma s s
is goin g t o r ea d us t h e n ext ch a pt er o f his n ew book.
6. Ne ve r will I b e a ble t o guess wh a t is goin g on in this pr et t y
h ea d o f you r s!
7. Ne ve r will I pu t t his dress on aga in / pu t on this dress again!
8 . 1will a lwa ys love you (I will love you for ever ) beca u s e you
are you .
9. Tod a y you s a ved my life for a s econ d t ime. You are r ea lly
on e o f t h e br ave!
10. We met a lot o f for eign er s in t h e ca mp in g: on e Swiss,
t wo Du t ch m en , s ever a l Da n es , on e Sp a n ia r d a n d t h r ee
Por t u gu es e.
11. Is t his an Ayva zovs ky or a Repin ? - Wh y, it is t h e pict u r e
Pu s h kin b y t h e Sea pa in t ed by b ot h Ayva zovs ky a n d Repin.
* You c a n t u s e t h e w o r d cat t le h e r e a s it d e n o t e s o n l y c o w s a n d bu lls .
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12. Cows , horses, s h eep an d bu lls are lives t ock*. Lives t ock
pr ovides us wit h a gr ea t n u mber / wit h ma n y food s t u ffs as well as
lea t h er a n d wool.
13. On h ea r in g t h e n ews, wh ich wa s sad, she cou ld n t h elp
bu r s t in g in t o tears.
14. Don t insist on my lea ving. Ive com e h er e for my ch il
dr en s sake.
15. Th e pr ofes s or wh o h a d just d eliver ed his lect u r e bega n
a n s wer in g t h e s t u dent s s qu est ions .
16. Don t insist on bein g pa id that mon ey. It is n ot you rs, you
h a ven t ea r n ed it.
17. Th e Pr es iden t said t hat his goa l wa s t o ma ke t h e p oor r ich
a n d t h e r ich still richer.
18. Not k n owin g t h e ru les o f t h e ga me, t h ey left wit h ou t t a k
in g part in it.
19. Wh y, I d o k n ow his secret . - So d o I.
20. Th e n u mber o f p eop le s t u dyin g English is gr owin g ever y
year. - Yes, k n owin g English is a mu st for t h e cu lt u r ed a n d t he
edu cat ed.
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