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Chapter 15- Animal Evolution fossils- relationship between lineages and how the traits characterize each lineage

evolved Animals multicelled heterotrophs unwalled body cells are typically organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems most reproduce sexually; many also reproduce asexually develop through embryonic stages most are motile during at least part of the life cycle Animals prob evolved from colonial protists early animals= may have resembled placozoans, the simplest modern animals. Placozoan structurally simplest animal known, with only four types of cells and a small genome primitive animals(sponges) are masses of cells most animals have organized tissue 1. simple animals (sponges) are asymmetrical-more complex animals show symmetry a. radial symmetry- having parts arranged around a central axis, like spokes around a wheel b. bilateral symmetry- left and right halves with similar parts, and a front and back that differ B. have a gut with single opening- more complex bilateral animals have a tubular gut with two openings In protostomes, the first embryonic opening becomes the mouth and the second the anus In deuterostomes, the first embryonic opening becomes the anus and the second the mouth coelombody cavity with a complete lining of tissue derived from mesoderm

Pseudocol body cavity not fully lined with mesoderm Most animals have a circulatory system consisting of a heart and blood vessels 1. open systems= fluid leaves blood vessels 2. closed systems= fluid stays in blood vessels vertebrate- with backbone invertebrate- without backbone hermaphrodite- animal that makes both eggs and sperm larva- preadult stage in some animal life cycle continue 11-09-11 mollusk invertebrate with a reduced coelom and a mantle gastropod mollusk that moves about on its enlarged foot bivalve 1. mollusk with hinged, two-part shell 2. filter feeders; no head or radula 3. mussels, oysters, clams, scallops cephalopod 1. predatory mollusk with a closed circulatory system; moves by jet propulsion 2. squid, octopuses, cuttlefish, nautiluses roundworm worm with a pesudocoel and a cuticle that is molted as the animal grows molting periodic shedding of an outer body layer or part 6 evolutionary adaptations or anthropods 1. an exoskeleton( external skeleton or cuticle hardened with chitin) which is molted 2. jointed appendages 3. specialized segments (head, thorax, abdomen, and appendages) 4. respiratory structures (gills, tubes)

5. specialized sensory structures * compund eyes- consist of many individual unit, each with its own lens * antannae- sensory structure 6. specialized developmental structures