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Base station subsystem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The hardware of GSM base station displayed in Deutsches Museum

The base station subsystem (BSS) is the section of a traditional cellular telephone network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the network switching subsystem. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels, allocation of radio channels to mobile phones, paging, transmission andreception over the air interface and many other tasks related to the radio network. Contents [hide] 1 Base transceiver station 1.1 Sectorisation 2 Base station controller 2.1 Transcoder 3 Packet control unit 4 BSS interfaces 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit]

Base transceiver station

Two GSM base station antennas disguised as trees in Dublin, Ireland.

A solar-powered GSM base station on top of a mountain in the wilderness of Lapland

Main article: Base transceiver station The base transceiver station, or BTS, contains the equipment for transmitting and

receiving radio signals (transceivers), antennas, and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications with the base station controller (BSC). Typically a BTS for anything other than a picocell will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations). A BTS is controlled by a parent BSC via the "base station control function" (BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS), and manages operational states of each TRX, as well as software handling and alarm collection. The functions of a BTS vary depending on the cellular technology used and the cellular telephone provider. There are vendors in which the BTS is a plain transceiver which receives information from the MS (mobile station) through the Um (air interface) and then converts it to a TDM (PCM) based interface, the Abis interface, and sends it towards the BSC. There are vendors which build their BTSs so the information is preprocessed, target cell lists are generated and even intracell handover (HO) can be fully handled. The advantage in this case is less load on the expensive Abis interface. The BTSs are equipped with radios that are able to modulate layer 1 of interface Um; for GSM 2G+ the modulation type is GMSK, while for EDGE-enabled networks it is GMSK and 8-PSK. Antenna combiners are implemented to use the same antenna for several TRXs (carriers), the more TRXs are combined the greater the combiner loss will be. Up to 8:1 combiners are found in micro and pico cells only. Frequency hopping is often used to increase overall BTS performance; this involves the rapid switching of voice traffic between TRXs in a sector. A hopping sequence is followed by the TRXs and handsets using the sector. Several hopping sequences are available, and the sequence in use for a particular cell is continually broadcast by that cell so that it is known to the handsets. A TRX transmits and receives according to the GSM standards, which specify eight TDMAtimeslots per radio frequency. A TRX may lose some of this capacity

as some information is required to be broadcast to handsets in the area that the BTS serves. This information allows the handsets to identify the network and gain access to it. This signalling makes use of a channel known as the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH). [edit]

Further information: Sector antenna By using directional antennae on a base station, each pointing in different directions, it is possible to sectorise the base station so that several different cells are served from the same location. Typically these directional antennas have a beamwidth of 65 to 85 degrees. This increases the traffic capacity of the base station (each frequency can carry eight voice channels) whilst not greatly increasing the interference caused to neighboring cells (in any given direction, only a small number of frequencies are being broadcast). Typically two antennas are used per sector, at spacing of ten or more wavelengths apart. This allows the operator to overcome the effects of fading due to physical phenomena such as multipath reception. Some amplification of the received signal as it leaves the antenna is often used to preserve the balance between uplink and downlink signal [edit]

Base station controller

GSM transmitter

The base station controller (BSC) provides, classically, the intelligence behind the BTSs. Typically a BSC has tens or even hundreds of BTSs under its control. The BSC handles allocation of radio channels, receives measurements from the mobile phones, and controls handovers from BTS to BTS (except in the case of an inter-BSC handover in which case control is in part the responsibility of the anchor MSC). A key function of the BSC is to act as a concentrator where many different low capacity connections to BTSs (with relatively low utilisation) become reduced to a smaller number of connections towards the mobile switching center

(MSC) (with a high level of utilisation). Overall, this means that networks are often structured to have many BSCs distributed into regions near their BTSs which are then connected to large centralised MSC sites. The BSC is undoubtedly the most robust element in the BSS as it is not only a BTS controller but, for some vendors, a full switching center, as well as an SS7 node with connections to the MSC and serving GPRS support node (SGSN) (when using GPRS). It also provides all the required data to the operation support subsystem (OSS) as well as to the performance measuring centers. A BSC is often based on a distributed computing architecture, with redundancy applied to critical functional units to ensure availability in the event of fault conditions. Redundancy often extends beyond the BSC equipment itself and is commonly used in the power supplies and in the transmission equipment providing the A-ter interface to PCU. The databases for all the sites, including information such as carrier frequencies, frequency hopping lists, power reduction levels, receiving levels for cell border calculation, are stored in the BSC. This data is obtained directly from radio planning engineering which involves modelling of the signal propagation as well as traffic projections. [edit]

The transcoder is responsible for transcoding the voice channel coding between the coding used in the mobile network, and the coding used by the world's terrestrial circuit-switched network, the Public Switched Telephone Network. Specifically, GSM uses a regular pulse excited-long term prediction (RPE-LTP) coder for voice data between the mobile device and the BSS, but pulse code modulation (A-law or -law standardized in ITU G.711) upstream of the BSS. RPE-LPC coding results in a data rate for voice of 13 kbit/s where standard PCM coding results in 64 kbit/s. Because of this change in data rate for the same voice call, the transcoder also has a buffering function so that PCM 8-bit words can be recoded to construct GSM 20 ms traffic blocks. Although transcoding (compressing/decompressing) functionality is defined as a base station function by the relevant standards, there are several vendors which

have implemented the solution outside of the BSC. Some vendors have implemented it in a stand-alone rack using a proprietary interface. In Siemens' and Nokia's architecture, the transcoder is an identifiable separate sub-system which will normally be co-located with the MSC. In some of Ericsson's systems it is integrated to the MSC rather than the BSC. The reason for these designs is that if the compression of voice channels is done at the site of the MSC, the number of fixed transmission links between the BSS and MSC can be reduced, decreasing network infrastructure costs. This subsystem is also referred to as the transcoder and rate adaptation unit (TRAU). Some networks use 32 kbit/s ADPCM on the terrestrial side of the network instead of 64 kbit/s PCM and the TRAU converts accordingly. When the traffic is not voice but data such as fax or email, the TRAU enables its rate adaptation unit function to give compatibility between the BSS and MSC data rates. [edit]

Packet control unit

The packet control unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. It performs some of the processing tasks of the BSC, but for packet data. The allocation of channels between voice and data is controlled by the base station, but once a channel is allocated to the PCU, the PCU takes full control over that channel. The PCU can be built into the base station, built into the BSC or even, in some proposed architectures, it can be at the SGSN site. In most of the cases, the PCU is a separate node communicating extensively with the BSC on the radio side and the SGSN on the Gb side. [edit]

BSS interfaces

Image of the GSM network, showing the BSS interfaces to the MS, NSS and GPRS Core Network


The air interface between the mobile station (MS) and the BTS. This interface uses LAPDm protocol for signaling, to conduct call control, measurement reporting, handover, power control, authentication,authorization, location update and so on. Traffic and signaling are sent in bursts of 0.577 ms at intervals of 4.615 ms, to form data blocks each 20 ms. Abis The interface between the BTS and BSC. Generally carried by a DS-1, ES-1, or E1 TDM circuit. Uses TDM subchannels for traffic (TCH), LAPD protocol for BTS supervision and telecom signaling, and carries synchronization from the BSC to the BTS and MS. A The interface between the BSC and MSC. It is used for carrying traffic channels and the BSSAP user part of the SS7 stack. Although there are usually transcoding units between BSC and MSC, the signaling communication takes place between these two ending points and the transcoder unit doesn't touch the SS7 information, only the voice or CS data are transcoded or rate adapted. Ater The interface between the BSC and transcoder. It is a proprietary interface whose name depends on the vendor (for example Ater by Nokia), it carries the A interface information from the BSC leaving it untouched. Gb Connects the BSS to the SGSN in the GPRS core network.

Advanced baseband technology in third-generation radio base stations Zhongping Zhang, Franz Heiser, Jrgen Lerzer and Helmut Leuschner WCDMA, one of the technologies selected for the air interface of the 3GPP standard, is widely used in emerging third-generation mobile communication systems. This interface supports data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s on a common 5 MHz frequency carrier. Moreover, with the introduction of HSDPA, the peak service rate for packet access in the downlink can be increased to more than 10 Mbit/s.

Ericssons radio base station has been designed to comply with the 3GPP standard. The kernel part of WCDMA technology has been implemented in the baseband of the radio base station. Compared to previous generations, the baseband signals in WCDMA are spread with a high chip-rate code at 3.84 megachips per second on a 5 MHz frequency band. This is much wider than the frequency band used in GSM, cdmaOne and CDMA2000, or PDC. Therefore, to process the signals, more advanced technology is deployed in WCDMA baseband. Ericssons baseband technology uses the very latest ASIC, DSP, and FPGA technologies. Numerous requirements are being channeled toward the baseband platform, both to support a technical implementation of WCDMA and to satisfy operator and radio network management points of view. Being the kernel in WCDMA, the baseband platform must be able to efficiently handle the entire life cycle of an RBS, from initial deployment, with a lowcost, low-content focus, to subsequent scaling for newly developed services and traffic growth. Moreover, it must do so while networks are evolving and expanding with more users and new mixes of end-user services. New radio network functions and features will also be added through base station hardware and software to perfect the WCDMA system. The authors describe the implementation of Ericssons WCDMA baseband. They also show how it has been prepared to grow with and meet the needs of future developments by facilitating small, incremental upgrades and thanks to a flexible architecture that supports the expansion of the uplink and downlink together with critical functionality that resides in loadable hardware. Architecture of the radio base station The functionality of a radio base station (RBS) is divided into two main parts: userplane functions and control-plane functions. The user-plane functions are associated with transport, baseband, radio and the antenna. The control-plane functions pertain to the transmission of user data and operation and maintenance (O&M) data. Ericssons RBS is based on the connectivity packet platform (CPP, formerly called Cello packet platform)that is, the RBS employs the infrastructure of hardware and software modules provided in CPP. 1 Figure 1 shows a typical indoor RBS with power subrack, baseband subrack, radio frequency subrack and power amplifier subrack.

2 User-plane signals from the radio network controller (RNC) via the Iub interface are input directly via CPP boards to the baseband parts, whereas control-plane signals are input to the baseband parts via the traffic and O&M control parts of the main processor. Figure 2 shows the architecture of the Ericsson RBS3000. 3 Please note that for simplicitys sake the CPP parts and main processor are not shown. The architecture can be broken down into a cell-specific part and a non-cell-specific part. The cell-specific part contains transceiver (TRX) boards, multicarrier power amplifier (MCPA) boards and antenna interface unit (AIU) boards, whereas the common part contains boards for baseband processing. In Figure 2, the baseband processing has been split between the transmitter (TX) and random access and receiver (RAX) boards. The TX board handles downlink processing and enables coding, spreading and modulation. The RAX board handles uplink processing and enables demodulation, de-spreading and decoding. Baseband functions The physical layer functions on the baseband boards have been implemented to include the mapping and de-mapping of physical channels and transport channels; multiplexing and demultiplexing; channel coding and decoding; spreading and de-spreading; modulation and demodulation; physical layer procedures; and physical layer measurements. In addition, the baseband boards in a radio base station perform the following functions: 32 Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 Advanced baseband technology in third-generation radio base stations Zhongping Zhang, Franz Heiser, Jrgen Lerzer and Helmut Leuschner WCDMA, one of the technologies selected for the air interface of the 3GPP standard, is widely used in emerging third-generation mobile communication systems. This interface supports data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s on a common 5 MHz frequency carrier. Moreover, with the introduction of

HSDPA, the peak service rate for packet access in the downlink can be increased to more than 10 Mbit/s. Ericssons radio base station has been designed to comply with the 3GPP standard. The kernel part of WCDMA technology has been implemented in the baseband of the radio base station. Compared to previous generations, the baseband signals in WCDMA are spread with a high chip-rate code at 3.84 megachips per second on a 5 MHz frequency band. This is much wider than the frequency band used in GSM, cdmaOne and CDMA2000, or PDC. Therefore, to process the signals, more advanced technology is deployed in WCDMA baseband. Ericssons baseband technology uses the very latest ASIC, DSP, and FPGA technologies. Numerous requirements are being channeled toward the baseband platform, both to support a technical implementation of WCDMA and to satisfy operator and radio network management points of view. Being the kernel in WCDMA, the baseband platform must be able to efficiently handle the entire life cycle of an RBS, from initial deployment, with a lowcost, low-content focus, to subsequent scaling for newly developed services and traffic growth. Moreover, it must do so while networks are evolving and expanding with more users and new mixes of end-user services. New radio network functions and features will also be added through base station hardware and software to perfect the WCDMA system. The authors describe the implementation of Ericssons WCDMA baseband. They also show how it has been prepared to grow with and meet the needs of future developments by facilitating small, incremental upgrades and thanks to a flexible architecture that supports the expansion of the uplink and downlink together with critical functionality that resides in loadable hardware. Figure 1 Indoor RBS and baseband subrack.Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 33 radio base station configuration; cell control; the distribution of system information; radio link configuration for dedicated and common channels; Iub data-stream handling; and node synchronization and distribution. The baseband functions in the radio base station thus provide a platform for radio network functions, configuration functions, and O&M functions. Accordingly, the baseband constitutes a platform of resources for handling common and dedicated channels for higher layers. Figure 3 gives an overview of standard channel mapping between logical channels,

transport channels and physical channels. 4,5 The upper part pertains to the downlink channels and the lower part (shown in dark blue) pertains to the uplink channels. The Third-generation Partnership Project 6 (3GPP) has defined the synchronization procedures for cells, common channels and dedicated channels; random-access procedures; and inner- and outer-loop power control procedures. To improve the performance of the radio link connection, the 3GPP has recommended possible enhancements, such as open-loop and closed-loop transmit diversity. After the baseband boards have been configured properly with respect to the interfaces to other subsystems, they can be put into traffic operation. If the traffic load on the baseband is light, all or part of the board can be put into power save mode to reduce power consumption. By contrast, supervision and protection mechanisms reduce the risk of dropped calls when the traffic load on the baseband boards is too heavy. Baseband design aspects Ericssons baseband has been designed to comply with 3GPP standards for WCDMA. In addition, the baseband architecture has been designed to meet requirements for operating radio base stations. These include configuration flexibility, effective use of resources, easy roll-out, compatibility and future-proof hardware. By introducing the very latest in digital signal processor (DSP), field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technologies, Ericsson has significantly increased the capacity for traffic and control signaling, measured in terms of channel elements for the dedicated physical TX board From RNC (user plane) To RNC (user plane) Random access and RX board Data and/or fast control Baseband bus

Interface between downlink and uplink baseband processing Baseband TXB TRXB MCPA and AIUB TRXB MCPA and AIUB TRXB MCPA and AIUB RAXB Cell Cell Cell Transciever board Multicarrier power amplifier and antenna interface unit board Figure 2 Baseband in RBS and interfaces. RNC RBS RNC control Logical channel Logical channel Transport channel RBS/RNC control link lub data stream Physical channel Downlink channels Uplink channels

PCCH DCCH CCCH DTCH DTCH DCCH DCCH RACH DCH FACH PCH BCCH BCH SCH P-CCPCH CPICH PICH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH DPDCH DPCCH AICH PRACH DPDCH/ DPCCH MAC-hs HS-DSCH HS-SCCH HS-PDSCH HS-PDCCH DCH CCCH DTCH DTCH DCCH RBS control Figure 3 Channel-mapping model. Area marked in red is for HSDPA.channels. A channel element is defined as the equivalent baseband resource (hardware and software) needed to transmit a voice channel at 30 kbit/s. Configuration flexibility and efficient use of resources

Operators want a radio base station that can be adapted to handle different site and radio configurations. Ericssons baseband implementation gives operators this flexibility, allowing them to change radio configurations without having to physically visit the site. Flexible interfaces have been provided between the subsystems of the radio base station, and the baseband parts have been designed in a modular fashion. Each baseband unit provides a certain amount of traffic capacity for dedicated and common transport channels. This modular design enables operators to configure the radio base station for various traffic scenarios and load. Baseband board typesTX board and RAX board Obviously, the use of separate baseband downlink and uplink modules makes it easier to upgrade the system and to better adapt it to the asymmetric traffic associated with third-generation services. Ericssons RBS3000 has two baseband board types: the TX board handles downlink traffic, and the RAX board handles uplink traffic. Traffic over the air interface is expected to be asymmetricalthat is, there will be more traffic in the downlink than in the uplink. By adding separate TX and RAX boards, operators can increase capacity in small or large increments either symmetrically or asymmetrically. 34 Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 3GPP Third-generation Partnership Project AICH Acquisition indication channel AIU Antenna interface unit ASIC Application-specific integrated circuit BCCH Broadcast control channel BCH Broadcast channel BP Board processor CCCH Common control channel CCH Common channel CCTrCH Coded composite transport channel CDMA Code-division multiple access CPICH Common pilot channel CPP Connectivity packet platform

CRC Cyclic redundancy check DCCH Dedicated control channel DCH Dedicated channel DL-TPC Downlink TPC DP Data processing DPCCH Dedicated physical control channel DPCH Dedicated physical channel DPDCH Dedicated physical data channel DSCH Downlink shared channel DSP Digital signal processor DTCH Dedicated traffic channel DTX Discontinuous transmission FACH Forward access channel FP Frame protocol FPGA Field-programmable gate array GPRS General packet radio service GSM Global system for mobile communication HS-DPCCH High-speed dedicated physical control channel HS-PDSCH High-speed physical downlink shared channel HSDPA High-speed downlink packetdata access HS-SCCH High-speed shared control channel MCPA Multicarrier power amplifier MUX Multiplexing unit O&M Operation and maintenance PCCH Paging control channel P-CCPCH Primary common control physical channel PCH Paging channel P-CPICH Primary CPICH PDC Personal digital cellular PICH Paging indicator channel PRACH Physical random access channel RACH Random access channel RAKE Name of WCDMA receiver RAX Random access and receiver RBS Radio base station RF Radio frequency RNC Radio network controller

S-CCPCH Secondary common control physical channel SCH Synchronization channel SIR Signal-to-interference ratio TFCI Transport format combination indicator TPC Transmission power control TrCH Transport channel TRX Transceiver TX Transmitter UE User equipment UL-TPC Uplink TPC WCDMA Wideband CDMA BOX A, TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONSEricsson Review No. 1, 2003 35 Modularity of the baseband Traffic load and distribution vary over time in different sectors and frequencies. The Ericsson baseband architecture employs pooling to optimize the use of available resources. This approach also guarantees that configurations can be flexible. Figure 4 shows the advantages of modularity and pooled resources in two different radio configurations. Some operators require redundancy in the radio base station. The modular baseband design easily restricts the loss of traffic due to, say, a faulty component or unit in baseband processing. Easy roll-out of third-generation infrastructure Established GSM and GSM/GPRS operators can more easily roll out third-generation infrastructure by reusing site locations and infrastructure. Most operators starting out in the third-generation business want lowcost, low-capacity RBSs. Later, when the number of subscribers has increased and more advanced services are to be introduced, they will need RBSs that can handle greater traffic capacity in individual cells. The baseband boards have been designed with scalability in mindgreater capacity can be had by adding hardware units (TX boards and RAX boards). Another way of increasing traffic capacity is to deliver and install prepared hardware on site. As operator needs grow, more capacity can be activated successively by means of software functions. This approach advocates the use of simple, standard hardware configurations.

A further advantage of baseband scalability is that the RBS can be equipped with as many baseband units as needed to satisfy traffic, site conditions, and air-interface capacity for a given frequency band. This helps operators to avoid wasting unnecessary resources. Future-proof and compatible As mentioned above, most operators just starting out in the third-generation business want low-cost, low-content RBSs. Later, however, apart from increasing capacity in the RBS, they will also need more functionality and more advanced features. In designing the baseband, Ericsson has carefully considered various evolution scenarios, making allowances for customer-specific requirements for functions, services, capacity, redundancy, and site conditions. In general, the functions in the physical layer have been implemented in hardware (ASIC) or close to hardware (DSP); the control functions have been implemented in software on DSPs and board processors. To avoid the logistical problems and costs associated with frequent on-site updates or upgrades, Ericsson has prepared the hardware for future functionsthese can become available via remote software and firmware updates. Ericsson calls this feature forward hardware compatibility. On the other hand, new baseband boards must work in environments that use old baseband boards. This is called backward hardware compatibility. Ericssons baseband hardware and software are forward hardware and backward hardware compatible. Future-proofnessin terms of additional radio configurations, services, functions, and greater capacityis an importance aspect of Ericssons baseband design. Figure 5 illustrates the forward hardware compatibility concept. Function Z has been provided in hardware. A remote software upgrade can thus activate the entire funcBaseband resources Number of users in a cell Frequency 1 Frequency 2 Frequency 1 Frequency 2 Baseband resources Change in traffic Figure 4 Baseband modularity and pooled resources.

Function A Function B Function C Function D Function Z (forward hardware prep.) Function A Function B Function C Function D Function Z (forward hardware prep.) Remote software upgrade Software Hardware Figure 5 Forward hardware compatibility.tion. Figure 6 shows the backward hardware compatibility concept. The baseband unit, C, is added to the existing RBS to improve functionality and capacity. Downlink processing boardTX board Downlink processing functions Figure 7 shows the main function blocks for processing the downlink. Each of these blocks also contains other baseband functions (not pictured). The first process is frame protocol (FP) handling (pictured left). After confirming when the data frames on the common channels (paging channel, PCH, and forward access channel, FACH) and the dedicated channels (DCH) arrived from the Iub interface, the frame protocol handler aligns the frames and extracts the payload part of the data frame. The payload part contains the data of the uncoded transport channels. For the dedicated channels, the encoding function block generates the cyclic redundancy check (CRC); concatenates the transport blocks; segments the coding blocks; performs convolutional coding or turbo coding; inserts the first discontinuous transmission (DTX); matches rates; and performs the first interleaving.

To fit the 10 ms radio frame, the transport blocks from different transport channels are multiplexed in the multiplexing unit (MUX) function block. This activity is followed by insertion of the second DTX, the second interleaving, and multicode splitting. Data and control information are then sent to the cell-split function block. The control information contains transport format combination indicator (TFCI) bits and corresponding transmission power control (TPC) commands which have been mapped with pilot bits onto the dedicated physical control channel (DPCCH). After the frame protocols have been handled, the broadcast channel (BCH, which is mapped to the primary common control physical channel, P-CCPCH, and to PCH and FACH) and PCH and FACH (which are mapped to the secondary common control physical dedicated channel, S-CCPCH) are processed in a manner similar to that described for the dedicated channels. The cellsplit function identifies the common and dedicated physical channels that belong to one cell carrier. These processes are followed by modulation, spreading and weighting, 36 Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 BB unit A BB unit B Hardware addition Software Hardware BB unit A BB unit B BB unit C (new) Figure 6 Backward hardware compatibility.Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 37 with power information for the downlink power control, and scrambling. TX board implementation Figure 8 shows the downlink processing board (TX board), which is divided into two main parts: the board processor and boardspecific hardware. The board processor controls the board and parts of the traffic. The board-specific hardware, which processes user data sent to the air interface, contains the Iub user-plane interface handler, symbol-rate processor, chip-rate processor, and the physical layer processing controller.

The Iub user-plane interface handler handles the Iub interface user-plane protocol for the DCH and CCH data streams to the radio network controller. The symbol-rate processor handles the transport channel (TrCH), the coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH), the physical channel for the primary and secondary common control physical channels, the paging indicator channel (PICH), and the dedicated physical channel (DPCH). The chip-rate processor handles the distribution of physical channels, generates the synchronization channel (SCH), the primary common pilot channel (P-CPICH) and acquisition indicator channel (AICH), and transmits the distributed output sequences to the TRX. It also measures the transmitted code power and handles all cell-carrier processing-related functionality. The physical layer processing controller handles the configuration of the symbolPCH FP FACH FP DCH FP DCH encoding BCH encoding Modulation spreading PCH encoding FACH encoding MUX Cell split lub l/f l/f to TRX DL/UL l/f Figure 7 Downlink processing function blocks. Figure 8 TX board implementation.and chip-rate processing parts with respect to the control of measurements, set-up, release, and reconfiguration of cell-carriers and channels. The functionality of the Iub user-plane interface handler and the physical layer processing controller is implemented in DSPs to give flexible implementation of the controller functions; external interfaces to the RNC for the user

data interface; and interfaces to the board processor for the control interface. The symbol-rate processing functionality is implemented in FPGAs due to processing delay and varying requirements put on the throughput of user data. Some flexibility is also provided in view of changing requirements for the implemented functionality. The chip-rate processing functionality is implemented in ASICs. This approach employs parallel processing to meet the demand for limited processing delay. It also allows synchronous transmission of the distributed output sequence to the TRX. Figure 9 shows a TX board used in an RBS3000. The board can handle multiple cell-carriers with more than one antenna branch. Interface between the TX and RAX boards The interface between the TX and RAX boards supports fast signaling for controlling call set-up and power. When the user equipment (UE) sets up a call to the RBS, the corresponding RAX board in the RBS reserves sufficient resources. The RAX board then sends a layer-1 acknowledgement signal via the TX board to the UE, indicating that the UE may send the RACH message part. To control power in the downlink, the RAX board detects the TPC commands and sends them to the TX board, which adjusts downlink transmission power. To control power in the uplink, the RAX board compares the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) target with the SIR of the received signals and generates the TPC commands, which it sends to the UE in the downlink DPCCH. Uplink processing boardRAX board Uplink processing functions In the uplink, the signals received from the air interface are input to the baseband in a digital signal format from the TRX radio part of the RBS (Figure 10). For the dedicated physical channel (DPCH), the incoming signals from the TRX are processed in the demodulator function block, which contains a searcher and RAKE receiver. The demodulator

performs de-spreading; 38 Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 Figure 9 TX board of the RBS3000 series.Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 39 recovers the uplink control channel data and DPDCH data; generates uplink TPC (UL-TPC) commands; detects downlink TPC (DL-TPC) commands; and decodes and de-maps the TFCI. Searcher In multipath propagation environments, the RAKE receiver must know when the multipath rays arrivethat is, it must determine the position of the multipath rays along the delay axis, so that it can allocate the RAKE fingers to positions where the multipath components hit with signal power. The task of the searcher in the baseband is to synchronize the RAKE fingers. To speed up the searching process, a narrow searcher window is placed where the multipath rays are expected. However, in some cases, such as soft-handover set-up, the propagation delay is unknown; therefore, a wide searcher window is needed that corresponds to the entire cell range. The searcher also estimates the profiles of radio channel delay and sends them to the RAKE receiver. RAKE receiver The RAKE receiver separates the multipath components and combines them coherently into a large signal vector that provides good demodulation conditions. This increases the probability of making correct decisions and improves receiver performance. Given the proper spreading code, the RAKE receiver can de-spread all detected multipath rays. Using the pilot bits to estimate channel amplitude, phase, frequency offset and Doppler spread, the RAKE receiver processes the multipath rays with the corresponding weighting, and combines the rays. Before combining the rays, however, each ray is processed by one RAKE finger. To make efficient use of the hardware resources, the RAKE fingers can be treated as a pool of hardware resources. They can also be flexibly allocated between users on the same RAX. This allocation is made according to the position information delivered by the

searcher. Fewer RAKE fingers are needed in rural settings with a line-of-sight connection between UEs and the radio base station than in urban settings with multipath fading. During softer handover, which is the handover between cells in the same RBS and on the same carrier, the detected signals are combined. The DPCH signals are demultiplexed and de-mapped to the DCH of the transport channel for the next step of processing in the decoder. The decoder input signal consists of interleaved soft bits from the demodulator. The following tasks are performed in the decoder block: RACH FP DCH FP DCH decoder Cell combiner DMUX RACH decoder RACH demodulator RAKE Searcher RAKE Searcher DCH demodulator Preamble detection lub l/f l/f to TRX DL/UL l/f Figure 10 Uplink processing function blocks. the second de-interleaving; desegmentation of the physical channel; service demultiplexing; rate matching; radio frame de-segmentation; the first de-interleaving; convolutional and turbo decoding; and error detection by the CRC. When the UE tries to contact a radio base station, the random-access receiver detects the preamble that contains the signature used for the RACH message part. When it

has detected the preamble, it determines which signature the RACH message part is using, and whether sufficient baseband resources are available. If so, it sends a layer-1 Ack or Nack message to the UE via downlink processing and begins processing the RACH message part in a similar manner as described for the DCH. The frame protocol function for the DCH and RACH assembles frame protocol data, which consists of a header part and a payload part (user data). Frame protocol data frames are sent to the RNC via the Iub user plane. The RAX board recovers and restores the information originally transmitted from the incoming radio signal for random access and dedicated channels. The 3GPP has defined the requirements put on uplink reception performance. 7 Reception sensitivity, signal-to-interference performance, and the capacity of the physical channels determine the characteristics of the receiver. RAX board implementation The uplink processing board (RAX board) is divided into two main parts: the board processor (BP), and board-specific userdata-processing (DP) hardware. The board processor controls the board and parts of the traffic. The DP hardware processes user data received from the air interface to the Iub interface. Figure 11 shows the blocks on a RAX board in the RBS3000. The DP part contains blocks for processing the CCH chip rate, DCH chip rate, CCH symbol rate, and DCH symbol rate. The CCH chip-rate processing block detects the preamble, generates the acquisition indicator, and detects and extracts the messages (DPDCH/DPCCH) for the physical random access channel (PRACH) from the data received on the air interface. The DCH chip-rate processing block detects and extracts the DPCH (DPDCH/DPCCH) from the data available on the air interface, including power control support. The CCH symbol-rate processing block processes the CCTrCH provided by the CCH chip-rate processing block into decoded TrCH, which is sent via the Iub frame

protocol to the radio network controller. The DCH symbol-rate processing block processes the CCTrCH provided by the DCH chip-rate processing blocks into decoded TrCH, which is sent via the Iub frame protocol to the radio network controller. Algorithms and functionality for processing stable user data have been implemented in fixed hardware (ASIC) to yield high capacity. By contrast, algorithms for processing variable user data, such as channel estimation, are allocated in loadable hardware (DSP or FPGA). New functionality, due to enhancements to 3GPP standards, is also implemented in loadable hardware (DSP and FPGA). The block structure (Figure 11) and the mix of fixed and loadable hardware results in a future-proof architecture: Reception sensitivity can be improved by upgrading the algorithms in loadable hardware and software. The hardware has been prepared to support future 3GPP functions (future releases). This means that basic functional40 Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 CCH symbol-rate processing ASIC DSP/FPGA DCH symbol-rate processing Iub control frames from TXB Synchronization, power control and feedback information to TXB Iub user plane to RNC UU L1 data from TRX ASIC DSP/FPGA BP CCH chip-rate processing ASIC DSP/FPGA DCH chip-rate processing ASIC DSP/FPGA L1 acknowledge to TXB Figure 11 RAX board implementation.Ericsson Review No. 1, 2003 41 ity and extensions of the 3GPP physical layer can be upgraded. The scalable nature of the DCH and CCH

ensures that the capacity of each block can be increased using new ASIC, FPGA, and DSP technologies. The block structure supports integration within as well as between processing blocks. This also leads to greater capacity. Ericssons use of modular building blocks enables operators to vary the implementation as needed. For example, a low-capacity DCH/CCH solution would make use of separate low-capacity DCH/CCH chiprate processing and combined symbol-rate processing, whereas a high-capacity DCH/CCH solution would make use of separate, scalable, high-capacity DCH chip- and symbol-rate processing and combined CCH chip- and symbol-rate processing. Figure 12 shows a RAX board used in the RBS3000. The board supports two-way diversity and can handle multiples of 16channel elements serving up to six cell carriers. Future baseband enhancements High-speed downlink packet-data access High-speed downlink packet-data access (HSDPA) can be introduced in the downlink for best-effort services. This enhancement can increase the bit rate to more than 10 Mbit/s in the existing frequency band. 3 HSDPA can be implemented in the TX board for the downlink by exploiting more advanced baseband technology. Interference cancellation Interference cancellation can be introduced in the uplink DCH receiver to improve coverage or to increase capacity. The main effect of interference cancellation is reduced interference received from users in the same cell as the target user. This technique can either increase the amount of uplink traffic or reduce the interference margin in the dimensioning, thus increasing coverage. The configuration can be serial or parallel. Serial configurations yield the greatest improvement in performance and require less processing power, but result in greater delay. Parallel configurations, which offer a reasonable improvement in performance, require greater processing power, but result

in shorter delay. Parallel configurations are thus preferred for voice service. Conclusion The baseband part of Ericssons RBS3000 provides a hardware platform for thirdgeneration radio network functions and complies in full with the 3GPP WCDMA standard. All physical layer functions and frame protocol processing are implemented on the baseband boards. The baseband design supports free allocation of baseband resources to frequency and sectors, thereby supporting operator needs for flexibility in configuring the radio network for different sites. The architecture scales easily to meet operator demands for capacity. The baseband software and hardware support forward hardware preparation for future functional enhancements. The baseband architecture is also backward compatiblethat is, operators will be able to insert future-generation hardware into an existing platform running the RBS infrastructure. Planned enhancements to the baseband include HSDPA, to increase the bit rate for best-effort service in the downlink, and interference cancellation, to improve coverage or capacity in the uplink.

Overview On the last page, I mentioned wireless operating systems: analog cellular, PCS, GSM, and so on. This page gives you an overall look at cellular radio before we concentrate on their details. Bookmark this page and go to the next topic if you don't find it relevant right now. Wireless systems share many things in common. Here's a short pictorial of basic wireless elements:

The MS or Mobile Station 1. The mobile makes a call . . . The Cell Site Antenna

2. A nearby cell site's antenna picks up the call from the mobile . . .

The BS or Base Station 3. The call is then routed through the base station's transceiver. In PCS and GSM several base stations may be controlled by a base station controller or BSC . . . THE MSC OR MTSO 4. The mobile switching center or mobile telecommunications switching office gets the call next. This switch can be a normal landline switch like a 5ESS or an AXE or a dedicated one like a Motorola. Each MSC manages dozens to scores of cell sites and their attendant base stations. Large systems may have two or more MSCs. . .

THE HLR. VLR, AC, EIR 5. The mobile switch queries several databases before permitting a call. A dedicated server associated with the switch houses these databases. The Home Location Register (HLR), The Visited Location Register (VLR), the Authentication Center (AC), and the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) are some of these databases. . . The PSTN 6. The call is processed and routed next to the telephone network at large, also known as the Public Switched Telephone Network. The switch communicates, too, with distant databases over the PSTN.

This silly little spinning globe is supposed to represent the Public Switched Telephone Network at large.

The OMC 7. At all times an Operations and Maintenance Center monitors the network.

Simple block diagram of network elements Now that we've seen the elements, let's put it into a block diagram and discuss some terms. We'll look at more complicated diagram after the terminology discussion below. Again, if this is more than you need to know about cellular radio, bookmark this page and move to the next topic.

The elements in depth The Home Location Register and the Visitor Location Register work together they permit both local operation and roaming outside the local service area. You couldn't use your mobile in San Francisco and then Los Angeles without these two electronic directories sharing information. Most often these these two directories are located in the same place. The HLR and VLR are big databases maintained on computers called servers, often UNIX workstations. Companies like Tandem and DSC make the servers, which they simply call HLRs. These servers maintain more than the home location register, but that's what they call the

machine. Many mobile switches use the same HLR. The HLR stores complete local information. It's the main database. Signed up for cellular service in Topeka? Your carrier puts your information on its nearest HRL, or the one assigned to your area. That info includes your international mobile equipment identity number or IMEI, your directory number, and the class of service you have. It also includes your current city and your last known "location area", the place you last used your mobile. The VLR or visitor location registry contains roamer information. Passing through another carrier's system? Once the visited system detects your mobile, its VLR queries your assigned home location register. The VLR makes sure you are a valid subscriber, then retrieves just enough information from the now distant HLR to manage your call. It temporarily stores your last known location area, the power your mobile uses, special services you subscribe to and so on. Though traveling, the cellular network now knows where you are and can direct calls to you. The AC or AUC is the Authentication Center, a secured database handling authentication and encryption keys. (GSM, PCS 1900, and certain cellular systems support these features.) As we'll see later, authentication verifies a mobile customer with a complex challenge and reply routine. The network sends a randomly generated number to the mobile. The mobile then performs a calculation against it with a number it has stored and sends the result back. Only if the switch gets the number it expects does the call proceed. The AC stores all data needed to authenticate a call and to then encrypt both voice traffic and signaling messages. The EIR or Equipment Identity Register is another database.The EIR lists stolen phones, fraudulent telephone identity numbers, and faulty equipment. It's one tool to deny service or track problem equipment. The OMC or operation maintenance center is network control. It monitors every aspect of a cellular system. A maintenance center may monitor several carrier's systems. Every OMC is staffed twenty four hours a day. Now let's look at the more complicated block diagram below. It's from Ericsson and it details a GSM or PCS system. I'm discussing this to

familiarize you with block diagrams; to show network elements don't have to be mysterious. A more complicated model Much is familiar in the diagram below. Ericsson divides a system into several parts, such as a switching system, base station system, network management system and so on. Here's my quick guide below: Base station system Made up of a base station controller (BSC) and the individual base transceiver stations (BTS), which most people just call base stations. The radio base station 2000 (RBS) is Ericsson's newest base station. AXE stands for Automatic Exchange Electric, Ericsson's digital switch. Seeing AXE in a box means that element is tied or linked to the switch. Gateway products The service order gateway (SOG) means a service desk, where clerks access network databases. Operators enter and cancel accounts and do administrative chores. The billing gateway (BGW) is where customer and administrative billing information contacts the individual carrier. Message Center "Stores and forwards voice, fax and electronic mail, as well as short texts from paging networks." MIN Network MIN stands for mobile intelligent network. The service control point (SCP), The service management system (SMAS) provides service management functions. "800-number lookup services, calling card services, calling number identification, short message service, message waiting indicator, and debit card services" are all provided through databases linked to the cellular system by the much larger, countrywide MIN.
Operations support system

Operations support system (OSS) is another word for the operation

and maintenance center we discussed above. EET stands for Ericsson engineering tool, a network planning device.

AXE: Automatic Exchange Electric: Ericsson's digital switch. They operate as either a landline or wireless switch. OSS: Operations support system EET: Ericsson engineering tool, network planning software. SOG: service order gateway BGW: billing gateway. MIN: Mobile intelligent network. SCP: service control point.

Familiar now or at least more comfortable with block diagrams? Good, let's end this discussion and move on. And those who want more, well, download this outstanding .pdf file of Levine, far more details on GSM and PCS and network elements than I will ever write. <-- Last topic: Multiplexing Next topic: Wireless categories -->

Text link to West Sacramento, California, USA. A Tom Farley production

A base transceiver station (BTS) or cell site is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network.

UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones,computers with wireless internet connectivity, WiFi and WiMAX gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the wireless communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL, WAN, WiFi, WiMAX etc. BTS is also referred to as the radio base station (RBS), node B (in 3G Networks) or, simply, the base station(BS). For discussion of the LTE standard the abbreviation eNB for enhanced node B is widely used. Contents [hide] 1 BTS in Mobile Communication 2 General Architecture 3 Important terms regarding a mobile BTS 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 External links 7 References [edit]

BTS in Mobile Communication

A GSM network is made up of three subsystems: The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) comprising an MSC and associated registers. The Base Station subsystem (BSS) comprising a BSC and several BTSes The Operations support system - for maintenance of the network. Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards, it is generally and commonly associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. In this regard, a BTS forms part of the base station subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. It may also have equipment forencrypting and decrypting communications, spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base

stations). A BTS is controlled by a parent base station controller via the base station control function (BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS), and manages operational states of each TRX, as well as software handling andalarm collection. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. [edit]

General Architecture
A BTS in general has the following parts: Transceiver (TRX) Quite widely referred to as the driver receiver (DRX). DRX are either in the form of single (sTRU), double(dTRU) or a composite Double Radio Unit (DRU). It basically does transmission and reception of signals. Also does sending and reception of signals to/from higher network entities (like the base station controller in mobile telephony) Power amplifier (PA) Amplifies the signal from DRX for transmission through antenna; may be integrated with DRX. Combiner Combines feeds from several DRXs so that they could be sent out through a single antenna. Allows for a reduction in the number of antenna used. Duplexer For separating sending and receiving signals to/from antenna. Does sending and receiving signals through the same antenna ports (cables to antenna). Antenna This is also considered a part of the BTS. Alarm extension system Collects working status alarms of various units in the BTS and extends them to operations and maintenance (O&M) monitoring stations. Control function Control and manages the various units of BTS including any software. On-the-

spot configurations, status changes, software upgrades, etc. are done through the control function. Baseband receiver unit (BBxx) Frequency hopping, signal DSP, etc. [edit]

Important terms regarding a mobile BTS

Diversity techniques To improve the quality of the received signal, often two receiving antennas are used, placed at an equal distance to an uneven multiple of a quarter of wavelength (for 900 MHz the wavelength it is 30 cm). This technique, known as antenna diversity or space diversity, avoids interruption caused by path fading. The antennas can be spaced horizontally or vertically. Horizontal spacing requires more complex installation, but better performance is obtained in this configuration. Other than antenna or space diversity, there are other diversity techniques such as frequency/time diversity, antenna pattern diversity, and polarization diversity. Splitting The flow of power within a particular area of the cell, known as sector. Every field can therefore be considered like one new cell. By using directional antennas, the co-channel interference is reduced. A typical structure is the trisector, also known as clover, in which there are three sectors, each one served by separate antennas. Every sector has a separate direction of tracking of 120 with respect to the adjacent ones. If not sectorised, the cell will be served by an omnidirectional antenna, which radiates in all directions. Bisectored cells are also implemented with the antennas serving sectors of 180 separation to one another. GSM Means Global System for Mobile Communications

AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 1 2

BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION 1.1 OVERVIEW The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) consists of a single rack or cabinet that houses the necessary elements for a point to multi-point RF communication network. A single BTS may contain 1 or 2 Radio Base Units (RBUs). Each RBU contains all necessary Transmit/Receive equipment required for the operation of a single sector or cell. A modular design provides for multiple co-located BTSs. The architecture of the system is flexible, and can accommodate small or large numbers of subscribers. It can also be adapted for use in rural, suburban, and urban environments. 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION The Eagle Telephonics, Inc. AirLink 8000 system is a WLL Specific system based on digital radio technology. Specifically, it employs direct sequence, spread spectrum based, Synchronous CDMA (SCDMA) techniques over the air link to provide local access to subscribers. It offers very high quality, highly reliable service at costs that are very competitive with the wireline solutions. The system has very high spectral efficiency and thus can provide wireline quality service with limited available bandwidth. Its large dynamic range allows it to be deployable in virtually all environments, meeting specific needs of dense urban, suburban, and rural communities in an economical way. Some of the key attributes of the system are: -- Wireline voice quality delivered at 32 or 64 kbps. -- High throughput for data and fax applications with 32 or 64 kbps throughput. -- High service reliability with good tolerance for noise and ingress. -- Secure airlink that is virtually impossible to break into or eavesdrop. -- CLASS services are supported. -- Enhanced services like priority/emergency calling - both inbound and outbound. -- Full switching services available. For the network operator, the system provides several benefits: -- Advanced graphical operator interface. -- Equipment cost per access line is low and very competitive with average wireline costs. -- In typical deployments, over 70% of the per line equipment cost is on the subscriber end; thus most of the investment needs to be made only when signing up paying customers. -- Quick and easy installation and provisioning process. -- Low maintenance costs reduce the life cycle costs and total cost of ownership.

-- Theft deterrent system (stolen or misused equipment will not operate). With properly implemented procedures, even installation/maintenance staff cannot beat the system. -- Ability to provide high quality digital data services at 64 to 256 kbps and beyond increases the appeal to business and discriminating customers and provides opportunities for premium revenue producing services. -- Economically viable over a wide range of subscriber densities and hence can be used for stand alone as well as overlay networks. It can also easily grow with the subscriber population. -- The system will grow with customer needs and be able to provide higher bandwidth data/video services.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 2 1.1.2 GENERAL ELEMENTS The diagram below depicts the elements of the system. As depicted, there are four main elements of the system: -- The Digital Switching Central Office (DSCO) connects the system to the rest of the public network. -- The Base Transceiver Station (BTS), which each may include the electronics for 1 or 2 RF sectors (Radio Base Units, or RBUs), controls and aggregates large numbers of radio links. -- The Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) provides the subscriber end of the radio link and provides the standard wireline interface to the customers telephony equipment -- The Eagle Management Suites (EMS) Software, which provide control to the overall system. PSTN Publicly Switched Telephone Network E1 Links EMS EMS BTS BTS Ot h e r B T S s Multiple BTSs Servicing one site 1 or 2 RF Sectors (RBUs) per BTS E1 Links Radio Links NIU

NIU CPE Customer Premises Equipment DSCO DSCOAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 3 The Eagle Management Suites (EMS) provides the Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) functions and EMS also provides programming control of the DSCO, Collection of the subscribers call records (CDR) and contains the Eagle Billing Suite (EBS) for real-time billing of the subscriber base. Some of the distinguishing characteristics of the system include: -- Full duplex Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (S-CDMA) operation that provides higher user capacity than competing technologies and systems: 1) Three to five times capacity advantage over conventional asynchronous CDMA technologies 2) Three to seven times capacity advantage over Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology -- Modular system design allows service providers to incrementally deploy wireless service, increasing user densities and capital expenditures while initiating revenue recovery -- State of the art custom ASICs for improving reliability and packaging, and for lowering the system power requirements and overall cost -- Complete system redundancy and hot swap capability for all central equipment provides for high reliability -- Real time Call Record Collection. -- Monthly Invoices to the Subscriber Base -- On-line Subscriber status with the ability to change Customer features. Note: See the Eagle Telephonics, Inc. Support Manual for complete details the Eagle Management Suites for the operation and description for the Software.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 4 1.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The AirLink 8000 system Base Transceiver Station is described in this section. The design philosophy has been to use advanced technology in order to create a point to multi-point system with high bandwidth

efficiency, and comparatively large range. Attention has been paid to expandability of future services and requirements, high reliability, service security, fraud prevention, emergency services, and many other features. The following information entails the workings of the BTS in conjunction with the CPE. Antenna characteristics are matched to the CPE along with controls signals. See the CPE Overview for a more complete description of the CPE. (BTS) Base Transceiver Station RF Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) Home 32 or 64 kbps Up to 200 Active Circuits w / RBU(s)AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 5 1.2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE BTS Multiple RBUs may be co-located to configure local cells or scattered to form multiple cells. Two RBUs can be located in each Base Transceiver Station Cabinet. Each RBU uses a separate RF transmitter and receiver front end but may share a single omni antenna with other RBUs or use a dedicated antenna. An RBU is configurable such that it is capable of operation in a contiguous cell deployment wherein the operation of any one cell does not prohibit the operation of any adjacent cells. The modular nature of the RBU accommodates a combination of redundant and high reliability hardware to provide the necessary resiliency to provide a high MTBF. The RBU interfaces with the DSCO via one to four E1 connections. An Operation, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) interface is provided for each RBU, but the standard OAM&P interface is to the DSCO. The RBU connects to the Network Interface Unit (DSCO) which is the Eagle Telephonics, Inc. DSCO,

via multiple E1 type connections. 75-ohm BNC or 120 ohm dB connector interfaces are available. Optional Forward Earthing is available on both interfaces. This E1 connection may be implemented via various interface links such as wire, optical fiber, or microwave radio. All external signal cables and field replaceable modules are accessible from the front of the Base Transceiver Station, with the exception of the antenna cables, which are accessible from the top of the Base Transceiver Station. E1 E1 E1 E1 E1 and ADPCM 1 2 3 4 32 Digital Receivers 4 3 2 1 Redundant Power Supplies Prime Power Redundant Bus Structure Partition A Link Control Processor Baseband Combiner Synchronization RF Front End Link Control Processor Baseband Combiner

Synchronization RF Front End Partition B Switching and Routing Power Amp Redundant Power Amp Antenna UAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 6 1.2.2 OVERALL SYSTEM For purposes of understanding the placement of the BTS in the AirLink 8000 system, the following diagram shows all of the elements of the Eagle AirLink 8000 system: The four main elements are the BTS, CPE, DSCO and EMS: ) ST B( noi t at S r evi ecsnar T esa B FR t ne mpi uqE sesi mer P r e mot su C ) EPC( e mo H r o 23 spbk 46 002 ot p U evit c A sti ucri C ) OCSD( NTSP secafr et nI 1- E s UB R 51 ot p U OCSD r ep l ati gi D gol an A ) s( UBR / W ) S ME( gni hcti wS l ati gi D eciff O l art ne C seti uS t ne megana M el gaEAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 7 1.3 Hardware Description. There are three primary subsystems in the Eagle Telephonics, Inc.s AirLink 8000 system the Eagle

Telephonics, Inc. Digital Switching Central Office (DSCO), Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). The CPE itself has three primary components the Subscriber Unit (SU), the Network Termination Unit (NTU), and the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). The DSCO and the BTS share the Eagle Management Suites (EMS) for all OAM&P functions, central office control and subscriber programming. The DSCO connects to the public telephone network via analog or digital trunks. The BTS connects to the DSCO using E1 trunks and to its master antenna using a coaxial cable. The SU communicates with the BTS via the radio interface. At the customer premises the NTU serves as the connection point between the SU and the subscribers standard telephony termination point, and the UPS interfaces to the subscribers primary power using a standard cable. Further details are presented below along with appropriate diagrams. 1.3.1 Digital Switching Central Office The Digital Switching Central Office (DSCO) is the systems interface to the public network. Its primary purpose is to provide the specific protocols and signaling that are required by the public network. These protocols can vary by the country as well as by the customer and even by the connecting point in the network. The DSCO can connect to a maximum of 15 RBUs using 1 to 4 E1 connections per RBU with 4 E1s needed for a fully populated RBU. In addition, each DSCO may be configured for a maximum of 10,000 subscribers. Time Slot 16 on each E1 trunk is used for passing control information between the DSCO and the attached RBUs as well as for passing information to and from the controlling EMS. Specific functions provided by the DSCO include: -- Provisioning of dialtone to the Subscriber Units -- Set up and tear down of voice and data calls -- Billing system interface -- Call priority management (drop least priority when all channels are used) -- Channel reassignment for calls in progress -- Detection of hook flash to enable POTS+ calling features -- 32 to 64 kbps rate change initialization

-- Pay phone capability (12/16 kHz tone detection, line reversal) -- Priority and emergency number calling -- Accommodation of country specific signaling interfaces such as E&M, R2, R2 variants, V5.1, V5.2, C7, and C7 variants -- System modularity: analog/digital options for both line side and trunk side -- Full redundancy and hot swap for all circuit cards Note: See the Eagle Telephonics, Inc. Installation and Maintenance Manual (IMM) for complete details of operation and description for the DSCO.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 8 1.3.2 Base Transceiver Station The BTS consists of a standard front access 19 telephony equipment rack (31U high), populated with up to four equipment subracks. The subracks provide all the functionality required to interface to the DSCO and may include the electronics for 1 or 2 Radio Base Units (RBUs) which provide radio communication to all CPE within a cell or sector. The RBUs are connected to external antennas that communicate with the SUs. 1.3.3 Base Transceiver Station - Mechanical The antennas can be located up to 100 meters from the BTS using a 50 W coaxial cable. The antenna location is chosen to optimize transmission characteristics to the served SUs (principally line of sight). The RBU is fully redundant and all field replaceable units are hot-swappable. RBU accepts 48 or 60 VDC power with 15% tolerance. Base Transceiver Station - MechanicalAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 9 1.3.4 Eagle Management Suite The EMS is a personal computer based platform that is used to provide all the Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) control for the system. The EMS is hosted on a Windows NT compatible PC platform and uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to facilitate operator inputs and report system information. Functions managed by the EMS include initiation, control, and data logging of all system wide tests, alarm reporting, operator entry of system parameters, and entry and

maintenance of subscriber information such as priority, ID, and phone number. The EMS also acts as the administration terminal for system configuration and reporting. 1.3.5 Customer Premises Equipment The Customer Premises Equipment consists of three separate hardware units the Subscriber Unit (SU), the Network Termination Unit (NTU) and the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). All of the CPE units are located at or near the end users location. A typical installation would find the SU located on an exterior wall or rooftop to enable wireless communication with the RBU antenna, the NTU mounted at a ground accessible exterior point on the customer building, and the UPS located within the building.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 10 1.4 EVOLUTION The present system is targeted to meet the needs of a vast majority of business and residential customers, particularly in the countries/regions with inadequate telecommunications infrastructure. Its features and functions will serve the needs of discerning consumers desiring a high quality service that includes data in addition to voice. Such consumers include middle/upper income residential customers as well as small businesses throughout the world. With its inherent broadband orientation, the system has a strong appeal in competitive access markets. The system will evolve to provide broadband data services (beyond ISDN basic rate) to further enhance its appeal to business customers. It is also well positioned to serve the need for specialized overlay networks that may be geographically dispersed in a metro area. To further improve the economics of deployment, additional multi-line subscriber units are planned to serve the needs of subscribers in close geographical proximity. A 32-line unit is slated for the near future. 1.5 SUMMARY Rapid advances in digital radio technologies have made high quality telecommunications services feasible and economical using radio instead of wireline. Radio offers advantages over wireline deployment in the areas of lower initial cost, lower maintenance costs, and rapid deployment and is thus

increasingly becoming the medium of choice for operators looking to rapidly expand their networks. The Eagle Telephonics, Inc. AirLink 8000 is a custom designed fixed wireless system using leading edge CDMA technology. It provides wireline quality at an initial cost that is very competitive with wireline solutions. Advances in digital radio technology and increasing volumes virtually ensure that it will be the technology of choice for most fixed telecommunications applications. By providing voice at 32 Kbps and data at 64 Kbps, the system meets or exceeds the quality and performance of wireline systems. Adjustable dynamic range of a cell from 100m to over 30 km enables the system to be deployed in a variety of situations ranging from dense urban to sparse rural. It further enables the system to be deployed as the primary network infrastructure or as an overlay network for specialized services or for select user communities. The security and reliability of the CDMA technology ensures privacy, theft deterrence, and noise/interference immunity. In the not too distant a future, digital radio technology will be able to provide seamlessly integrated, economic, high quality, feature rich service to every user - fixed and mobile. Building a wireless infrastructure for fixed services is a necessary first step in realizing such a goal and minimizing the risk of leaving behind stranded, non-upgradable assets.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 11 1.6 RADIO FREQUENCY DETAILS 1.6.1 Radio Link Some of the important characteristics of a radio access link are the spectrum used, frequencies of operation, spectral efficiency, multiple access protocol, dynamic range, and traffic carrying capacity. These aspects are discussed in detail below for AirLink 8000. 1.6.2 Spectrum & Frequencies As mentioned earlier, AirLink 8000 is a CDMA system. It requires a separate 2.72 MHz (3.5 MHz including guardbands) channel in each direction separated by either 100MHz, 119 MHz, or 175 MHz of bandwidth, depending on the band of operation. The system will operate in one of four 3.5 MHz subchannel pairs in one of the 14 MHz channel pairs as allocated by ITU-R 283-5, and shown below.

Currently available spectrum of operation is 2.1 - 2.3 GHz and 2.5 - 2.7 GHz (per ITU-R 283-5), 3.4 3.7 GHz (per CEPT REC. 1403-E, ANNEX B), and 2.0 2.3 GHz (per ETSI DE/TM 04031). f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f 0 14 MHz fN fA fB fC fD fA=fN-5.008 MHz fC=fN+1.536 MHz fB=fN -1.736 MHz fD=fN+4.808 MHz 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Channel # Sub-Channels: CHANNEL #AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 12 1.6.3 RBU Capacity & Spectral Efficiency One RBU can support 128 simultaneous 34 Kbps channels using the 2.72 MHz bandwidth giving it a

spectral efficiency of 1.6 bits/Hz. Of this total capacity, 9 channels are used by the system and an additional 2 Kbps per channel is system overhead. Thus the effective traffic carrying capacity is 119 channels at 32 kbps. In order to further assure continued operations under less than ideal environmental conditions, the system is conservatively rated for 100 channels at 32 Kbps. The spectral efficiency of the system is 3 to 5 times that of competitive CDMA systems primarily because this system employs bi-directional Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA). Competing systems, including those based on IS-95 are asynchronous or at best synchronous only in one direction. The bidirectional synchronicity permits this system to use near orthogonal codes and gain maximum possible data carrying capacity. As designed, the system is code limited unlike most other CDMA systems that are noise or interference limited. 1.6.4 Power Control Radio emissions lose energy as they travel in air over long distances. In order to ensure that the received signal energy from a distant subscriber is not completely overwhelmed by that of a near subscriber, the RBU controls the power level of the subscriber unit. In this system, only the reverse channel power (from SU to the RBU) is controlled by the RBU. This power control is primarily established at SU initialization. Subsequent power adjustments are likely to be infrequent and mostly in response to transient environmental conditions. The closed loop power control is implemented by comparing against a desired power level and making incremental adjustments until the desired level is achieved. The forward channel power control is not needed since each SU receives its entire signal at only one level. The RBU merely to ensures that the received signal strength by the farthest SU is sufficient for its application. The nominal average power in both directions is 14dbm. 1.6.5 Range The range of an RBU is nominally determined by the farthest SU that can be served by the RBU. This implies that the range is determined by the farthest SU that has a received signal strength that is large

enough to keep the bit error rate below the acceptable threshold. This system is nominally designed to serve an SU at a distance of 10 km from the base station antenna with a bit error rate of less than 1x10 -6. Given good line of sight and environmental conditions, this range could be further extended up to 30 km or more. Typical Urban/Suburban Deployment Typical Range: 100m to 10 km. Typical Rural Deployment Typical Range: 10 to 30 km. Range RangeAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 13 It is not always desirable to have an extended range. In a dense urban or even a suburban setting, one needs to deploy the system in a cellular architecture as depicted below. To reduce interference between sectors and between cells in such a deployment, one needs to limit the range of an RBU - overall as well as selectively in specific directions. Such range control may be accomplished using directional master antenna at the RBU as well by controlling overall RBU power. This system has been designed with a dynamic range control of 100m to 30 km. Hence in a dense urban setting with need for pico-cell deployment, the RBU range can be pulled back to as low as 100m. In an overlay network with scattered users or in a semi-rural setting the range may be extended to 30 km and beyond. Of course the actual range that can be realized depends on site specific conditions. 1.6.6 System Capacity As mentioned before, the system is rated to provide at least 100 simultaneously active 32kbps channels using 3.5 MHz bandwidth in each direction. Traffic engineering based on the nature, distribution, holding time and other parameters would determine the number and type of subscribers that can be put on a single RBU. Traditional cellular deployment involving sectors, cells, and multiple frequency pairs is the most pragmatic approach to increase capacity in presence of limited spectrum availability. A typical 6 sector

cell layout is depicted below with reverse circular polarity. There are three main parameters to consider when designing the cellular layout range of each cell, number of sectors in each cell, and the frequency reuse pattern (in adjacent sectors and cells). If a number of frequency pairs are available, it is best to use different frequencies in adjacent sectors to minimize cochannel interference. However, unlike the analog and TDMA systems, the system does function with minimal capacity loss even with one frequency pair. In any situation, additional frequency pairs will increase the overall traffic carrying capacity of the system. The number of sectors is a function of traffic to be carried, actual distribution of traffic, and the antenna availability and cost. To reduce adjacent sector interference reverse circular polarization is recommended with adjacent sector antennas having alternating Right Hand (RHcp) and Left Hand (LHcp) circular polarity. This alternating circular polarity provides an additional 6 dB separation, thereby decreasing adjacent sector interference. For uniformly distributed traffic, a 6 sector approach is recommended as LHcp RHcp LHcp RHcp RHcp LHcp Six sector hexagonal cell layout with reverse circular polarity in adjacent sectorsAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 14 antennas are relatively common for the 60 beam width. However, the number of sectors is not a fixed number as the system can accommodate different number of sectors as needed. The range of each cell is a function of traffic distribution. The system is designed so that the RBU power can be adjusted to control the nominal cell/sector range from 100m to 30 km. Of course the maximum cell size is dependent on prevailing topography and other environmental conditions and acceptable bit error rate. This system is likely to suffer minimal capacity degradation under a single frequency reuse pattern for the following reasons:

-- The directional antennas and fixed application provide the flexibility to setup the RBU and SU antennas so as to minimize interference, something that cannot be achieved with systems using omni SU antennas. An SU is more likely to suffer interference from an adjacent cell rather than an adjacent sector. -- Alternating reverse antenna polarity reduces adjacent sector interference along common boundaries. -- Synchronous CDMA inherently reduces interference effects by rejecting signals outside the time slot (chip boundary). This effect is further enhanced by randomization of the P/N codes. -- The ability to adjust the RBU power to meet the needs of the cell size without sacrificing capacity reduces interference from adjacent cells. -- The system is code limited, not noise or interference limited. Hence there is a buffer for additional interference from adjacent sectors without degrading the capacity. The combined effect of all these factors is that the system can be used in a multisectored cellular architecture with just one frequency pair to provide exceptionally high traffic carrying capacity. The following table illustrates different scenarios for load carrying capacity of a single RBU system. The Load Density column indicates the traffic that could be carried with cells sectorized as indicated with one RBU per sector per cell. The actual number of subscribers per RBU is limited to 2,500. Thus in the limit, the system could serve a subscriber density of 460,000 per km2 (which should be more than sufficient for even the most densely populated cities). In the more common urban scenarios with a cell radius of 500m and with a relatively high traffic load of 0.1 Erlangs per subscriber (for a total of 1,000 subscribers per RBU), the system can serve a subscriber density of 9,200 subscribers per km2. All of the numbers stated above are for single frequency re-use. Higher traffic densities can be served with multiple frequency pairs. Thus the system has sufficient margins to serve high subscriber densities even when the traffic carrying capacity is somewhat degraded due to adverse environmental conditions. Scenario Cell Radius Sectors Area/Sector Capacity Load Density

Metro 100m 6 (60) 0.00433 km2 100 Erlangs 23,000 Erlangs/km2 Urban 500m 6 (60) 0.10823 km2 100 Erlangs 920 Erlangs/km2 Suburban 1 km 6 (60) 0.433 km 2 100 Erlangs 230 Erlangs/km 2 Rural 10 km 1 (omni) 314.16 km2 100 Erlangs 0.32 Erlangs/km2AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 15 1.6.7 Call Processing When an SU detects an off-hook (the user has picked up the phone), it will transmit an outgoing call request on one of the 6 reverse synchronous side channels in a Slotted ALOHA fashion. The side channel is chosen at random. The RBU will process this request and, providing an active channel is available, send an outgoing call reply to the SU which contains the active channel codes (both forward and reverse). In the meantime, the RBU will begin to transmit forward side channel data on the newly activated channel and at a given time, begin to transmit the active call data. The SU, which is listening to the forward side channel, will receive the active channel assignment and switch at a superframe boundary to the active codes. It will begin to receive the side channel data and then the active call data. When an incoming call is received by the DSCO for one of the SUs in the local loop, the RBU will be notified. The RBU will first check to see if the intended SU is busy. If not, the RBU will send a message to the SU on the forward side channel that contains the active channel codes. The process then continues the same as the outgoing call processing discussed above. If all channels are busy and the DSCO receives an incoming call for a non-busy subscriber, it provides a subscriber busy tone to the caller unless the called SU has priority inbound access (like a hospital, fire station, or police), in which case the DSCO will instruct the RBU to drop the least priority call to free up a channel for the called SU. Similarly, if an SU initiates request for service and no traffic channels are open, then the RBU provides the dial tone on a side channel and receives the dialed number. If the dialed number is an emergency number then the RBU drops a least priority call to free up a traffic channel and connect it to the SU. If the called number is not an emergency number then the SU is

provided a softbusy tone indicating a wait for service condition. 1.6.8 OAM&P Eagle Management Suite discussed earlier provides Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P) functions. It is a software module that needs a Pentium II / 266MHz PC or better running Windows NT with English language interface. It can be on dedicated hardware or co-resident with a compatible hardware platform running the Administration Terminal (AT) for the DSCO. The EMS can communicate with the DSCO using an RS232 interface or a LAN connection (like Arcnet or Ethernet) and can also be connected to an RBU using an RS232 connection.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 16 1.7 OPERATIONS Equipment Activation/Deactivation - All AirLink 8000 equipment components may be activated and deactivated. This is used variously in the provisioning and maintenance of the system as well as for security purposes (compromise/theft of equipment) or a change of over the air frequency planning. Failure Detection - Failures are automatically reported to the EMS. The information is then reported, logged, and displayed according to operator defined parameters. Status Display - A permanent Status Display window is provided as a part of the main screen of the operator console. The specific components for which status is reported are configurable by the operator. Operator Interface - The Man Machine Interface (MMI) for the EMS system is hosted on a PC with a minimum configuration as described in the table below. The EMS platform uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that is achieved in part by the inherent look and feel of the Windows architecture and complimented by other features specific to the OAM&P requirements of the AirLink 8000 system. The interface allows for either keyboard or mouse inputs and provides the operator with Status Display windows for selected equipment as well as an Operator Console that displays a wide

range of information based on user selectable data filters. Included in the data filtering options will be options such as the displaying of system alarms on the basis of Type of alarm, Source of alarm, or Category of alarm. Minimum EMS Host Platform Configuration Attribute Processor Operating System Mass Storage RAM Monitor Resolution Requirement Pentium II Windows NT 2 GB 64 MB 17 VGA 1024x768AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 17 1.8 ADMINISTRATION Security - System security is defined as the access protection afforded the AirLink 8000 subsystems. The System Log and Activity Reports discussed below contribute to system security but are not specific to security concerns. To simplify the administration process, all access procedures may be disabled by the service provider. -- RBU Access - Three levels of operators are supported: System Administrator, System Manager, and Technician. Each class of operator has a range of defined access within the EMS and is uniquely identified by a combination of User ID and Personal Identification Number (PIN). As an added measure of protection, the EMS is capable of verifying user ID input by an external swipe card device. 1) A System Administrator is the only Operator able to perform all functions within the control of the EMS. Functions unique to an administrator are creation, modification, and deletion of other AirLink 8000 operators. 2) A System Manager has the ability to perform those functions required for daily operations and installation of subscriber equipment. A System manager may add Technicians to the system, provision users, and perform Operations functions. 3) Technician access is limited to actions associated with the installation and maintenance of the RBU and CPE.

-- Subscriber Unit Access - The SU is sealed with a lead seal at the time of installation in order to detect tampering of the unit. Additionally, an alarm is raised at the EMS console upon detection of possible theft of services or movement of the SU. Activity Reports - The actions performed by the System Administrator, System Manager or Technician are logged to disk on the EMS terminal. The level of detail in the activity log is configurable by a System Administrator to allow for management of the disk space resources. The data logged to disk allows for reports to be generated for a class of operators over a given period of time. The System Administrator is responsible for periodic backup of the activity log using standard system functions. System Log - The System Log records all system activity and is maintained in nonvolatile memory in the EMS platform. Included in the System Log are faults, alarms, configuration commands, provisioning requests, and call activity. The level of detail within each area is configurable by the System Administrator. The EMS also provides facilities for interrogating the System Log to select and display events in a straightforward manner. This includes facilities such as analysis of faults, reports on call activity for the system of a select group of lines, examinations of commands invoked by a particular operator, etc. Subscriber Call Data - The EMS maintains subscriber call information similar to that used in typical Call Detail Record (CDR) accounting. This information includes caller ID, called party ID, call origination and termination times, call priority, and other lower level information used in calculating system performance statistics.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 18 1.9 MAINTENANCE Test and Diagnostics - The Test and Diagnostics functions are contained within the Built-In-Test (BIT) capabilities of the system. Inherent hardware and software tests exist within the AirLink 8000 equipment down to the level of a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) and are designed to detect and isolate non-functional FRUs as rapidly as possible. At a minimum, the internal hardware tests for each FRU

are able to indicate the operational status at power-on and upon request from the monitoring unit. More detailed software tests reside both internally and externally to the various FRUs and are used to further evaluate their operational status. Application of BIT is dependent on the current state or mode of the FRU(s). The three state conditions are defined as follows: Initialization State. This state is defined by a cold start or power-on reset on the FRU. BIT is always applied immediately with the results of the test used by software to determine the followon state. A successful initialization BIT transitions the FRU to an in-service state and an unsuccessful BIT transitions it to an out of service state. Online State. This state defines the FRU as active and in-service. The FRU may be continually monitored or polled for status while in the online state. Limited BIT routines may be applied periodically whenever the FRU is idle or as a part of routine testing such that it does not interfere with active users. Offline state. This state defines the FRU as out of service. BIT can be applied at anytime under control of the EMS software or System Operator as defined above. RBU BIT - The RBU Built In Tests are the basic set of tests that are used to determine that the system may be brought into service and for detecting and isolating faults once the system has transitioned to an in-service operational configuration. During the initialization state, BIT is performed on the partitioned (Dual Redundancy) FRUs first. All FRUs associated with the partition must successfully complete the scripted BIT routines to allow the partition to transition to an in-service state. To complete the initialization state, the designated online Link Control Processor (LCP) ensures that BIT is performed on all the remaining FRUs. In the case of select FRUs not passing the initialization BIT but where limited operational status may still be achieved, the operator is presented with the option of proceeding to a degraded in-service mode. SU BIT - The BIT for the SU is applied at SU initialization or upon request by the RBU

(EMS). The SU is originally initialized during the provisioning of the unit at the customer location. Once installation has proceeded to the point of applying power to the SU, the SU BIT will verify the CCA (modem, RFFE, subscriber interface) operational status as well as that of the power supply (including battery backup) prior to entering an online state. Once link availability is established, the results of the installation and BIT are reported to the RBU and the SU is transitioned to an in-service state. Once the operational state is obtained, the SU continuously monitors the forward channel bit error rate and the status of the primary power, making this information available to the EMS on demand. In addition to the unit specific tests for both the RBU and the SU, the EMS is able to command the initiation of system level BIT activities involving both the RBU and the SU. These include various RF and digital loopbacks, a make/break dial tone test, a telephone (or X.21 DTE) present test, and the monitoring of an extensive list of link performance data (Error Free Seconds, Bit Error Rate, etc.). Repair and Maintenance Requests - Repair and Maintenance requests are initiated in three different ways: 1) A subscriber reports an equipment or service problem 2) An error condition requiring service is detected at the EMS 3) A unit - BTS or SU - is scheduled for periodic maintenance, replacement or upgrade. Once a request is established through one of these three means, a Work Order is generated, resulting in technician response. Some maintenance actions may be addressed through the overthe-air download ofAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 19 software (patches or upgrades) to the SU. This will be accomplished over an assigned 64 kb/s channel with the software contained in the user data fields of the message frames.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 20 1.10 Provisioning and Configuration Provisioning and configuration activities involve initial provisioning of a new AirLink 8000 system and modifications to an existing system configuration. They are discussed briefly to familiarize the reader

with some of the key provisioning concepts. A complete explanation of the provisioning process is covered in the AirLink 8000 Provisioning Manual. 1.10.1 Initial System Provisioning Initial system provisioning is the first ever deployment of the AirLink 8000 product into a given geographical service area and is in effect whenever a new DSCO is being deployed. All other provisioning activity (addition of BTSs or RBUs, CPE) will be considered modifications to the existing configuration. Once the architecture (number of RBUs, CPE, service mix, subscriber locations, etc.) for the system is determined and the BTS is physically installed and connected to the DSCO, the system installer (using the EMS interface) configures the Link Control Processor in the RBU to accommodate the particular scenario being provisioned. The LCP has the responsibility to coordinate and maintain all radio specific provisioning parameters. All AirLink 8000 systems are pre-configured for a generic installation. Site specific parameters are used to tailor this generic configuration to meet local requirements. Provisioning data is categorized as: -- Radio characteristics -- Service configuration - Telephony, Data service, payphone -- Hardware configuration -- Periodic functions -- DSCO/EMS configuration information -- Subscriber and CPE information Once the EMS, DSCO, and BTS components are successfully installed, the provisioning data entered for the CPE is used to create a Work Order to initiate the physical installation of the CPE by a technician (the overall procedures are not discussed here). The Initial Boresight Alignment Tool (IBAT) is the key craft accessory used in the provisioning the CPE/SU. The IBAT is a hand held, battery powered device that provides two essential functions in the installation of the Subscriber Unit: -- Transfers technician ID/Work Order Number information to the RBU to verify the authorized installation of the SU (provides SU and service theft protection). -- Assists the technician in aligning the SU antenna in a direction that maximizes RF link performance with

the RBU. The IBAT reads the received power levels for various adjustment positions attempted by the installer. It stores the various signal levels and, after a series of readings, indicates to the installer when he has returned to the position of maximum link margin.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 21 1.10.2 Modifying System Configuration All modification of the system configuration is done through the EMS and must occur without disruption or impact to the service of current users. The EMS interface allows for the addition or deletion of DSCOs, RBUs, and SUs. In the case of the SUs, additional modifications may be made to change the randomizing code (unique to a single cell or sector) or change the frequency of operation to another of the four subband frequencies within the same 14 MHz F.283-5 channel. The RBU is also capable of temporarily discontinuing service to an SU for equipment repair or other reasons. The over the air commands to the SUs may be made either individually, group addressed to a subset of the deployed SUs, or to all SUs in a cell or sector. The code or frequency change procedures will utilize a secure key system to ensure that unauthorized RBUs or imitators cannot instruct a change. Additionally, before the final command for a change is sent out by the controlling RBU, the RBU requires each SU to acknowledge that it has received the new code or frequency details and that a change is imminent. This allows the genuine RBU to raise an alarm if it receives this acknowledgment unexpectedly from any SU.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 22 1.11 GENERAL FUNCTIONS Protocol between RBU and SU Command and status communication between the RBU and SU is provided via overhead control bytes contained in the active channel frame or in a frame sent on a 32 kbps side channel. Antenna An antenna with an N-type female connector should be located as close to the Base Transceiver Station as possible. This antenna may be mounted on a tower, pole, building or suitable structure. RF Cable The length of the 50 Ohm coaxial RF cable from the Base Transceiver Station to the antenna is site specific and is recommended to be type LDF5-50A manufactured by Andrew

(attenuation for 100m of type LDF5-50A cable is approximately 6 dB at 2 GHz and 10 dB at 4 GHz). An N-type male connector is specified for both ends. Grounding A chassis ground stud is provided for connecting the Base Transceiver Station to a required earth ground point provided by the installer. ESD protection of the Base Transceiver Station is provided through hardwired chassis connection to earth and a local ground strap attachment point. All grounding should be in accordance with local code. Prime Power Interface The Base Transceiver Station accepts a positive ground DC input voltage source 40.8 through 69 VDC. Terminal screws located inside the back of the Circuit Breaker Assembly are available to connect prime power. System Health Monitor Function System health is periodically monitored and results are stored at the RBU. Where possible the RBU and SU detect faults and isolate them to the failing Field Replaceable Unit (FRU). Request for/access to system health data Requests for system health information come through the Network Element Management System (EMS) which is connected to the RBU via the common channel signaling interface to the DSCO. Also, health information and command BIT can be accessed through the maintenance terminal. System Health Data Storage Complete current system health status is stored in the RBU volatile memory. The status is updated continuously. Health status is retrieved by the EMS at intervals of approximately 10 minutes. The data is stored in non-volatile memory at the EMS for a period of a least 48 hours.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 23 1.12 Built-in Test (BIT) Requirements Built-in hardware and software tests exist down to the FRU level to attempt to identify non-functional FRUs as rapidly as possible. As a minimum the internal hardware tests for each FRU attempt to indicate its operational status at Power-On and upon request from the monitoring unit. The software tests reside

both internally and externally to the FRU and attempt to confirm the functional status of the FRU. Application of BIT is dependent upon the current state or mode of the FRU(s). The three state conditions are described as follows: 1.12.1 Initialization State. A cold start or power-on reset on the FRU forces this state. BIT is applied immediately with the results of the test used by software to determine the follow-on state. A successful BIT result forces a transition to an in-service state where as an unsuccessful BIT result forces a transition to the out of Service State. 1.12.2 On-line State. This state defines the FRU as active and in-service. The FRU will be continually monitored or polled for status. BIT may be applied anytime a fault is suspected in the FRU. BIT may also be applied periodically whenever the FRU is idle as part of routine testing such that it does not interfere with active users. 1.12.3 Off-line State. This state defines the FRU as out of service. BIT can be applied at anytime under control of the software or at the request of maintenance personnel.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 24 1.13 RBU Built In Test (BIT) The RBU BIT is the basic test for bringing the system into service and for attempting to detect and isolate problems once the system has achieved an operational configuration. During the Initialization State, in the case of an RBU configured for redundancy, BIT is performed on the active FRUs first. All FRUs associated with the partition must complete a successful test to allow the partition to transition to an inservice state. To complete the Initialization State the designated active Link Control Processor (LCP) ensures that BIT is performed on all the remaining FRUs. The remaining FRUs consists of the N+1 redundant and non-redundant equipment such as: -- Digital Receivers -- E1 Framers -- Baseband Combiner -- Synchronization -- RF Front End -- Power Supplies

-- RF Power Amplifiers -- Fans Some of these tests are limited and may be as simple as polling the status of the FRU. The results of these tests are reported to the EMS prior to entering the on-line operational state. Once the operational state is obtained the normal on-line BIT runs periodically. The RBU periodically polls for operational status from the associated CPE. 1.14 CPE Built-in Test (BIT) The BIT for the CPE is applied at SU initialization or upon request by the EMS. During initialization SU BIT attempts to verify SU operational status and power supply status including main and battery backup power source prior to entering an in-service state. Establishment of link availability completes the on-line operational state and test results are reported to the RBU. Once the operational state is obtained the CPE BIT continually monitors the power status and reports any changes to the RBU. The SU and the RBU monitor forward and reverse link estimated Bit Error Rate (BER) and make this information available to the EMS. Re-encode and compare (SER) is used on all active links in both directions. When an SU is not active it reports Symbol Error Rate (SER) for the forward side channelAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 25 1.15 Operation Administration Maintenance & Provisioning (OAM&P) Functional areas on the EMS system fall into the four categories of Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P). Commands in these categories and notifications from the target RBU system are performed and received from the EMS only. 1.15.1 Platform and User Interface Network Element Management Software is provided to support basic OAM&P functionality. The minimum required EMS platform is a Pentium II or greater PC running at least 266 MHz, with a minimum of 32 MB memory and a minimum of 300 MB free hard disk space. The video must be an SVGA Controller and at least a 1024 X 768 color monitor. The mouse must not be connected to a serial

port making available two serial ports (three serial ports are required if EMS is to be operated remotely). This PC runs Windows 95 for software releases 1.X, Windows NT for 2.X and uses English as the interface language. 1.15.2 EMS/RBU Access The OAM&P hardware platform supports attachment to the DSCO via a dedicated V.24 (RS232) port. The DSCO manages distribution of information to/from RBUs and the EMS/AT. The RBU has an additional V.24 (RS232) port for local connections when the RBU and DSCO are not colocated. The EMS and AT software supports a remote dial up connection through the EMS console using a software program such as PC ANYWHERE 32. 1.15.3 Operations Operations includes those areas of the EMS functionality that provide ongoing support activity for the system. Specifically, these areas support: -- Viewing the status of the equipment and interfaces to the Network Interface Unit (DSCO). -- Activation / deactivation of the equipment -- Detection of error conditions and attempted diagnosis of root cause -- Interactive operator display The AT also provides operations data and display of the following: -- Status of trunks, Radio Interfaces, Subscribers -- Statistics (Peg Counts) -- Utilization Display -- Activation / Deactivation of DSCO hardware -- Administration -- System Security -- RBU Access Three levels of operators are supported: -- System Administrator -- System Manager -- Technician. AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 26 Each class of operator has a range of defined access within the EMS system and is uniquely identified by a combination of User ID and PIN A System Administrator is the only operator able to perform all functions within the system. Functions

unique to an administrator are creation, modification, and deletion of other operators. A System Manager has the ability to perform those functions required for daily operations and installation of subscriber equipment (i.e. Technician functions). A System Manager may add Technicians to the system, provision users, and perform operations functions.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 27 1.16 Tests and Diagnostics The EMS may command tests to be performed on system equipment to support the operator diagnostic processes. The results of these tests are reported to the system console and update the status display of the equipment (if currently active). Only System Administrators or System Managers may perform tests and diagnostics. Test results that indicate hardware faults prompt for a work order to be generated to correct the problem. This equipment can then be tested interactively by the operator on inactive equipment and, to a limited degree, during active use. 1.16.1 Standard Testing The following paragraphs list the standard tests Make/Break Dialtone The Network Element Management System is able to command an SU to initiate the looping of dialtone to the PSTN. Data Loop-Back The Network Element Management System is able to place an SU in loop-back mode to determine both the operation of transmission components and link quality (BER). Telephone Present Test The Network Element Management System is able to command an SU to initiate a test to detect the presence of a customer telephone. RBU BIT The Network Element Management System is able to command the RBU system to perform its built-in test and report the results. SU BIT The Network Element Management System is able to command an SU to perform its built-in test and report the results. Status Poll

The Network Element Management System is able to request each SU to respond to a request for status. Automatic Tests All tests that may be performed manually may be automated with the use of scripts that may be executed on demand or periodically. Tests (manual or automatic) that interfere with the operation of SUs that are active are noted but not performed. Performance Tests Facilities for ongoing bit-error tests on the RBU-SU link and storage of results on the EMS are provided. From the EMS this stored data is available and can be utilized for such things as statistics gathering and plotting. AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 28 1.16.2 Monitoring Activities and Alarms This section identifies the types of network and maintenance functions that can be monitored, detected and corrected by the AirLink 8000 software. The EMS receives unsolicited diagnostic information in event messages. Some events are interpreted as alarms and sound an audible alert. Using the Diagnostics window functions, you can: -- Clear Alarms -- Request Equipment Status -- Send Loopback Tests -- Reboot an RBU -- View RBU Properties -- Diagnose Alarms -- Resolve EMS/RBU Communications Failures -- Resolve Rack Alarms -- OVER TEMP -- AIR MOVER -- PWR SPPLY -- RF-PA -- PRM PWR1 -- PRM PWR2 -- Resolve RBU CCA Failures -- Interpret Miscellaneous Alarm Events The AirLink 8000 system software continually monitors the health of the system. If a noteworthy event occurs, the component that detects the event sends an event message to the EMS. The EMS displays the event in the Systems Events List in a Diagnostic window.

Events are diagnostic in nature and contain information specific to the condition being reported. The event includes a severity indicator. The EMS system defines the following severity levels: -- D=>Debug message -- I=>Informational -- A=>Audit -- W=>Warning -- E=>Error -- F=>Fatal An alarm is an event, generated by AirLink 8000 software that has a severity level of Error or Fatal. In addition to displaying the event, the EMS sounds an audible alarm that consists of a short tone repeated once every second. This alarm can be cleared from the EMS.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 29 1.16.3 Monitoring CPE Activities The following gives information on activities generated by the CPE. Radio Base Unit Antenna system The RBU is capable of operation with a family of omni or directional antennas to support a particular requirement (see table Base Transceiver Station The Base Transceiver Station configuration is designed for deployment into an environment with marginal environmental control (e.g., shelter). The unit is completely modular allowing for the easy removal and replacement of the functional modules. Cable I/O is accessible from the front of the unit, except for the antenna cable, which is accessible from the top. All FRUs are hot swappable. Controls and Indicators Controls and indicators for the Radio Base Unit are located on the front panel of the unit. To the extent possible, a series of LEDs starting from the power distribution module visually directs the operator from cabinet to drawer to failing replaceable module. On/Off switch A system power on/off switch (circuit breaker) is provided to protect a circuit overload condition and is configured to prevent accidental shut down. Base Transceiver Station Alarms The Base Transceiver Station has alarms indicating critical level conditions regarding

the Radio Port equipment operation. A Rack Alarm is provided that provides both contact closure and a red LED visual indication of any FRU failure. A receiving attention switch, latch and indicator are provided that causes a green LED to light and removes the rack alarm. The Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) The CPE consists of three major subsystems, the Subscriber Unit (SU), the Network Terminating Unit (NTU), and the Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS). Each component is located in different areas of the installation site. The SU is mounted outside at a high point on the building or on a ridged pole. The NTU is located outside of the home/building on a wall at or near the point of entry of the UPS and subscriber cabling. The UPS is located inside the home/building near (within 6 feet) the point where prime source power is available. Controls and Indicators The only indicator on the CPE is the UPS power-on indicator. Controls and other indicators can be accessed wirelessly via the EMS or by the IBAT.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 30 1.16.4 Cooling for the Base Transceiver Station The Base Transceiver Station relies on forced convection air cooling i.e. fans, to exchange internally heated air with room air. A permanent type (may be cleaned and reused) air filer is provided. The air handlers are redundant, and are hot swappable. Air temperature monitoring indicate a high temperature condition due to a dirty air filter or other environmental conditions. 1.16.5 Radio Base Unit Enclosure The Radio Base Unit is packaged in modular sub-racks, which are mounted in a standard 48.3 cm rack. The sub-racks are mounted in a 31U open rack with front and back doors and sides. The RBU sub-rack (shelf) depth is no more than 412.24 mm. This sub-rack depth then allows the unit to fit into an optional cabinet of depth 450 mm. Minimum BTS Configuration is a single non-redundant system with 30 user channels. Maximum BTS Configuration is dual redundant system with 200 user channels Worst case current values are based on 40.8 VDC (48V 15% worst case) Unit Size Weight Dissipated Power

Base Transceiver Station Input voltage range 40 to 69 VDC. 48.3 cm x 56.8 cm x 159.1 cm 31 U (castor/leveling feet included in height). From 158.8 kg to 209.6 kg, depending on configuration. From 30 to 72 Amps 1224 to 2938 Watts See Note for configuration. BTS sub-racks Depth < 41.2 cm NA NA RBU Antenna (Omni 2.025 to 2.290 GHZ, type N female connector) 3.2 cm dia. x 96.5 cm long. 686 gm NA RBU Antenna (Omni 2.1 to 2.3 GHZ, type N female connector) 3.2 cm dia. x 92.1 cm long. 675 gm NA RBU Antenna (Omni 2.484 to 2.688 GHZ, type N female connector) 3.2 cm dia. x 92.1 cm long. 652 gm NA RBU Antenna (Omni 3.4 to 3.6 GHZ, type N female connector) 3.2 cm dia x 75.9 cm long. 637 gm NA RBU 90 Degree Sector Antenna (0 5 Degree Adjustment) 98.85 cm x 11.43 cm x 5.92 cm + Downtilt Mounting Kit 2.25 kg N/AAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 31 1.16.6 Maintainability

The CPE is designed to provide up to 10 years MTBF. The Base Transceiver Station and DSCO are designed for long MTBF, and vary depending on operating conditions and configuration. AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 32 1.17 SPECIFICATIONS 1.17.1 Characteristics Frequency Plan Currently available: 2.1 -2.3 GHz, 2.5 - 2.7 GHz, 3.4 3.7 GHz, and 2.0 2.3 GHz Multiple Access Me thod Bi-directional Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access Modulation Scheme 128 level QAM/QPSK, differential encoding/decoding, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Traffic Capacity 119 voice channels per 3.584 MHz carrier Traffic Concentration Operator definable, up to 25:1 concentration Users/RBU Users/DSCO 2500 voice channels 10,000 (15 RBUs) Nominal Power 14 dBm/channel in each direction; normally 35 dBm from RBU Power Control None from RBU to SU; Closed Loop for SU to RBU - 50 dB in steps of 0.25 dB SU Antenna RBU Antenna 18 dBi c gain, 22 3dB beamwidth Omni - RHcp with 8 dBi c max. gain or Sectored with 11-15 dBic gain SU Receiver RBU Receiver -114 dBm sensitivity, -50 dBm max. input sensitivity, 6dB noise figure -114 dBm sensitivity, -30 dBm max. input Dial Tone Delay Less than 0.5s under non-blocking conditions Propagation Delay RBU to SU under 6ms Bit Error Rate Less than 10 -6 when received input power is more than -111 dBm Security Pseudo-random Noise encoding (2.72 Mc/s per user) with randomizing, Full encryption for over the air network control channels

Subscriber Services 32 kbps voice (ITU-T ADPCM) 64 kbps fax and modem (dynamic rate change from 32 kbps) 64 256 kbps data (ITU-T X.21 leased line service) ISDN BRI (2B+D) 32 kbps Payphone support (battery reversal, 12/16 kHz metering) Priority Calling Outbound (line side) for up to five pre-set emergency numbers Inbound (network side) for local fire, police, EMS, VIP, etc. Leased line service (permanent virtual circuits)AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 33 1.17.2 ENVIRONMENTALS RBU and UPS (Indoor equipment) SU and NTU (Outdoor equipment) Environment Requirement Temperature -10 C to +55 C ambient air Humidity 95% Relative humidity at 30 C, non-condensing Air Pressure 70 to 106 Kpa Shock Basic shipping and handling shock Cooling provisions Forced air convection cooling, Fans & Filter (BTS) Desiccants None Exposure Must withstand UV radiation, water, dust, dirt, sand, etc. EMC/EMI per ETSI 300/339 Safety UL and CE Mark Coatings Protection from humidity and corrosion Environment Requirement Temperature -30 C to +55 C ambient temperature, derated for Altitude. Weight SU: 3.4kg max.; NTU: 340 gm; UPS: 6.8 kg Humidity 100% RH, Condensing Rain 150mm per hour Ice Accumulation 10 mm on exposed surfaces Air Pressure 70 to 106 Kpa Wind Gusts 240 km/hr Shock Basic shipping and handling shock Cooling provisions Natural Convection Only, No Forced Air Cooling Desiccants No desiccants Exposure Must withstand UV radiation, water, dust, dirt, sand, etc. EMC/EMI Per ETS 300 339 as a guide Safety Designed to meet IEC En 60950 Coatings: Protective coatings against humidity and corrosionAirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 34 1.17.3 System Level Parameters Method of Operation Full duplex. Frequency pairs are used, one for the forward channel and the other for the reverse channel. CDMA Method Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), forward and

reverse channels Spreading Rate 2.7 Mcps. Forward Error Correction Trellis coding and Viterbi decoding in both forward and reverse channels. Frequency Plan Four bands currently supported: 2.0 to 2.3 GHz as defined by ETSI DE/TM 04031 2.1 to 2.3 GHz as defined by ITU-R F.283-5 2.5 to 2.7 GHz as defined by ITU-R F.283-5 3.4 to 3.6 GHz as defined by CEPT Rec.1403-E Frequency channels In the currently supported plans, each band is divided into 14 MHz channel pairs. Each channel is divided into 4, 3.5 MHz sub-channels Encryption Forward and reverse channels. Voice and data signals: PN scrambling. Control signals: authentication encrypted. Voice Compression Voice mode only: A-law companding with ADPCM. A-law only for fax and modem (ADPCM bypassed). For less bandwidth efficient cases, voice mode can be used with A-law only, and no ADPCM compression. 1.17.4 Equipment Summary Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) Subscriber Unit (SU) One piece enclosure includes antenna, RF circuitry, modem, telephone interface, and data interface. Network Termination Unit (NTU) Provides boundary between provider equipment and customer equipment. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Uninterruptible power supply maintains service during power outages. Central Site Equipment Radio Base Unit Antenna Provides the aperture for transmission and reception of signals within one cell. Radio Base Unit (RBU) One rack of equipment that includes RF circuitry, modem, telephone interface, and data interface. Network Interface Unit (DSCO) Provides the interface from the PSTN to the RBU, controls PSTN protocols.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 35 1.17.5 System Capacity (SYSTEM = single DSCO scenario) Active Telephone Lines per RBU 100 active lines, up to 119 under ideal conditions (Note: telephone lines can optionally be data connections). Maximum Lines per RBU Up to 2500 with 25:1 concentration. Maximum RBUs per DSCO (System) Up to 15 (assumes no DSCO intra-calling. When intra-calling is used, more RBUs can be supported.) Maximum Active Lines per System Up to 1500.

Maximum Lines per System 10,000 lines. RBUs per Cell Variable depending on antenna, frequency, and PN code selection. Interfaces Network Interface Unit (DSCO) PSTN Physical Interface Twisted pair VF channel bank or E1 (75 or 120 ohm). Up to 1500 ports. PSTN Protocol Interface Flexible to accommodate all known CAS, and CCS protocols. RBU Interface 1 to 4 E1 connections per RBU. The E1 signals can be relayed to accommodate remote RBUs. Up to 15 RBUs can be supported from a single DSCO. Power Input -48 VDC. Radio Base Unit (RBU) DSCO Interface One to four E1 connections. The E1 signals can be relayed to accommodate remote RBUs. Antenna Coaxial cables of up to 100 meters connect the antennas. For space diversity, up to two antennas can be connected. Power Input 48 VDC, or 60 VDC. Customer Premises Equipment Telephone Interface One to eight telephone lines with independent telephone numbers using standard tip and ring signaling. Pay Phone One or two pay phones. X.21 Data Interface One or two standard DB15 connector. Power Input Universal AC Input.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 36 Antennas RBU Transmit and Receive Gain 8 dBi, max. Optional sectored antennas with increased gain. SU Transmit and Receive Gain 18 dBi, max. Polarization Right Hand/Left Hand Circularly Polarized (RHCP/LHCP). Transceivers RBU Power Amplifier Output +35 dBm nominal. SU Power Amplifier Output +14 dBm nominal. Modulation Quadriphase shift key (QPSK) data modulation with BPSK spreading. Demodulation Coherent. User Data Rate per SU Variable in real time to support single, dual and Quad line configurations. 32 kbps, 64 kbps, 96 kbps, 128 kbps. Bit Error Rate (BER) < 10-6. Receiver Sensitivity -114 dBm. System Sensitivity -111 dBm (Includes the effects of multi user interference) Power Control Reverse channel, 40 dB range. Radio Base Unit

Reliability 25 years mean time to hardware stop (MTTHS). Redundancy Option for N+1 redundancy on all major components to ensure continued operation in the presence of a failure. Space Diversity Option A second antenna can be added to improve performance in a multipath environment through space diversity, when required. Maintainability All circuit cards are replaceable without interrupting system operation and with power on (Hot Swappable). Operating Environment -10 to +55 C, Indoor. Size One standard rack, 483 mm (19) wide, 1300 mm high (27u), 450 mm deep. Cooling Forced air cooled. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) Equipment Interfaces SU can be configured to interface to the following: One to eight telephone lines Single or dual X.21 port One or two pay phones One telephone and one X.21 SU Reliability 10 years mean time between failure (MTBF) SU and NTU Environment -30 to +55 C, Outdoor. Environmentally sealed and UV resistant. Power Supply Environment -10 to +55 C, Indoor.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 37 SU Size 41cm x 41cm x 8cm (16 x 16 x 3). NTU Size 12cm x 13cm x 6cm (4.75 x 5.25 x 2.5). Power Supply Size 19cm x 26cm x 12cm (7.5 x 10 x 4.75). Cooling Natural Convection only. Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning (OAM&P) Human Interface One computer terminal controls one DSCO and all connected RBUs up to 15. Provisioning The Control Terminal provides all necessary tools to provision the system, including adding, reconfiguring, and deleting users. Monitoring The Control Terminal allows monitoring of a wide variety of system parameters. System health and status, including data link quality, are recorded in each RBU every 10 min., and can be maintained for up to 48 hours. This data can be downloaded to the control terminal. Fault Detection and Isolation Full set of built in tests provided to isolate failures to the circuit board. All faults and performance degradation are reported to the control terminal. System tests, element test and circuit card self tests are provided. Tests are conducted automatically, but can be commanded from the control terminal. Phone Tests Make/Brake dial tone and loopback test capability are provided.

Maintenance All equipment designed for ease of maintenance. RBU can be maintained without interrupting service. Billing Full billing data is available. Unintended System Use Extensive provisions to detect and defeat CPE equipment theft, service pirating, intrusion, etc. Software upgrades Upgrades can be downloaded to the DSCO, RBU and SU from the control terminal. SU downloads software over the air via the forward channel. TMN Growth path to TMN services, including Q interfaces.AirLink 8000 1/30/00 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION Release 1.00 2 - 38