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Kings and Chronicles 2 marks What were the two groups of Indian nobles in Mughal Empire?

Two ruling groups of Indian origin entered the imperial service from 1560 A.D onwards: the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims (Shaikhzadas). The first to join was a Rajput chief, Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha of Amber, to whose daughter Akbar got married. Aurangzeb appointed Rajputs to high positions, and under him the Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers. Give an account of Honours given by the Mughal rulers. Mughal Emperors conferred honours to the person on their achievements in their field regularly that included the robe of honour (khilat), a garment once worn by the emperor and imbued with his benediction. One gift, thesarapa (head to foot), consisted of a tunic, a turban and a sash (patka). Jewelled ornaments were often given as gifts by the emperor. The lotus blossom set with jewels (padma murassa) was given only in exceptional circumstances. What are chronicles? The Mughal Emperors wanted to record their vision of their rule. They commissioned court historians to write accounts. These recorded accounts had information about the events of the emperors time. These accounts also had information about the regions of the subcontinent. Modern historians who write history in English have termed those accounts as chronicles, because the accounts give information in a chronological manner. How did the term Mughal originate? The term Mughal is derived from Mongol. But the Mughal Emperors did not call themselves as the Mughals. The Mughal Emperors called themselves as Timurids, the descendants of the Turkish ruler Timur. During the sixteenth century, Europeans used the term 'Mughal' to describe the branch of the family of Timur (Timurids). Who established the Mughal Empire in India? Zahiruddin Babar was the founder of the Mughal Empire. He first established himself at Kabul and then in 1526 moved further into the Indian subcontinent searching for territories and resources to meet the needs of his clan as his first aim was to get backup resources to reclaim his paternal territories. Why Akbar is considered to be the great ruler of the Mughal Empire? Akbar is considered to be a great ruler of the Mughals, because unlike other Mughal emperors, he expanded his empire and made it as the largest, strongest and the richest kingdom at the time of his rule. He was able to expand his empire up to the Hindukush Mountains and prevented the Uzbeks of Turan (Central Asia) and the Safavids of Iran. Also he had initiated many cultural elements. What were the features of the Mughal imperial structure during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? The institutions of an imperial structure were created in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It had effective methods of administration and taxation. The court was the centre of the Mughal power where political alliances and relationships were made and status and hierarchies were defined. The political system of the Mughals was based on

a combination of military power accommodating various traditions of the subcontinent that the Mughals faced. Which author was commissioned by Shah Jahan to write Badshah Nama? The Badshah Nama was written by Abdul Hamid Lahori who was a pupil of Abul Fazl. Shah Jahan commissioned the author to write about his rule like Akbar Nama. The Badshah Nama is in three volumes (daftars) of ten lunar years each. Abdul Hamid Lahori wrote the first and second volumes on the first two decades of Shah Jahans rule from 1627 to 1647. These two volumes were revised by Sadullah Khan, a wazir of Shah Jahan. The third volume was written by the historian Waris. Who was Gulbadan Begum? Gulbadan Begum was the daughter of Babur and sister of Humayun. She wrote the Humayun Nama. She wrote her works in Turkish and Persian languages. In her work she wrote about the conflicts and problems between the kings and queens and the role of elderly women in resolving some of these conflicts. How Calligraphy was used by the Mughals? Art of handwriting is called Calligraphy. Manuscripts of the Mughal were handwritten. It was considered a skill of great importance. It was practiced with different styles. Akbars favourite handwritten style was the nastaliq which was a fluid style with long horizontal strokes. It was written using a piece of trimmed reed which had a tip of five to 10 mm called qalam. The reed was dipped in carbon ink (siyahi). The nip of the qalam was split in the middle to facilitate the flow of ink. What is diachronic and synchronic account? A diachronic account traces developments over time. But a synchronic account depicts one or several situations at one particular moment or point of time. Why did British administrators show interest to study Indian history? British administrators showed interest to study Indian history because they wanted to have a proper understanding about the subcontinent in order to understand the people and their cultures, so they could rule accordingly. For this purpose Sir William Jones in 1784 established Asiatic Society of Bengal and took the task of editing, printing and translating many Indian manuscripts. What efforts were made by the British to publish the Mughals manuscripts in English? The Asiatic Society of Bengal published the edited versions of the Akbar Nama and Badshah Nama in the nineteenth century. The English translation of the Akbar Nama was published by Henry Beveridge. But the Badshah Nama has not been translated in English completely till date, only its extracts have been translated into English. How did Abul Fazl define sovereignty? Abul Fazl defined sovereignty as a social contract. According to him the emperor should protect four essence of his subjects- life (jan), property (mal), honour (namus) and faith (din) and in return he should demand obedience and a share of resources from his subject. Who was the famous finance minister of Akbar?

Raja Todar Mal was the famous finance Minister of Akbar. He belonged to the Khatri caste. He was credited with the introduction of dahasala system of land revenue. He was the only known minister of the Suri's administration who was later inducted in Akbar's administration also. Mention the ranks of the holders of government offices. The recruited officers for the service in the Mughal Empire were given ranks (mansabs) with two numerical designations- zat which was an indication of the position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the official (mansabdars). Another term used to indicate the number of horsemen was sawar. In the seventeenth century amansabdar with 1,000 zat was ranked as noble (umara- a plural term for amir). By serving in the imperial offices the nobles acquired power, wealth and reputation. How did the nobles provide military service to the Kings? The nobles sent their armies and participated in the military campaigns and served in the offices of the empire in the provinces. The military commander recruited, equipped and trained the main wing of the Mughal army i.e. the cavalry. He maintained horses which were branded on the flank by the imperial mark (dagh). How was a person selected to the military service? A person who wanted to enter in service petitioned to the Emperor through a noble. If his application was selected, a mansab was granted to him. The paymaster general (mir bakhshi) stood in the open court nearby the emperor and gave away the appointments or promotion orders which had his office seal and signature as well as those of the emperor. Why Mughals were called so? Who founded the Mughal Empire? Name Mughal was derived from Mongol. Mughals referred themselves as Timurids i.e. successors of Timur. Babur the founder of Mughal rule in India belonged to both Timurs and Mongols. It was the Europeans who referred them as Mughals. Babur laid the foundation of the Empire in the year 1526 A.D by defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat. Give a brief description of translation work initiated by British people. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, founded by Sir William Jones in 1784 undertook the editing, printing and translation of many Indian manuscripts. Edited versions of the Akbar Nama and Badshah Nama were first published by the Asiatic society in the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century Henry Beveridge translated the Akbar Nama into English after years of hard labour. Only excerpts of the Badshah Nama have been translated into English to date; the text in its entirety still awaits translation. How the Mughal Emperors tried to enforce the social control in the imperial court? Social control in court society was exercised through carefully defining in full detail the forms of address, courtesies and speech, which were acceptable in court. The slightest infringement of etiquette was noticed and punished on the spot. The forms of salutation to the ruler indicated the persons status in the hierarchy: deeper prostration represented higher status. The highest form of submission was sijda or complete prostration. Under Shah Jahan these rituals were replaced with chahar taslim and zaminbos (kissing the ground). 5 marks

Discuss the Mughal nobility and the process of recruitment of the nobility in the Mughal Empire. Akbar Nama, have bequeathed a vision of empire in which agency rests almost solely with the emperor, while the rest of the kingdom has been portrayed as following his orders. The imperial organisation was dependent on several different institutions to be able to function effectively. One important pillar of the Mughal state was its corps of officers, also referred to by historians collectively as the nobility. Recruitment of the Nobles: The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups. This ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state. The officer corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta) held together by loyalty to the emperor. Composition of nobility during Akbars reign, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the earliest phase of carving out a political dominion. Many had accompanied Humayun; others migrated later to the Mughal court. Discuss the contribution of Mughal ladies in the field of architecture and in chronicles. Jahanara participated in many architectural projects of Shah Jahans new capital, Shahjahanabad (Delhi). Among these was an imposing double-storeyed caravan serai with a courtyard and garden. Jahanara designed the bazaar of Chandni Chowk, the throbbing centre of Shahjahanabad. An interesting book giving us a glimpse into the domestic world of the Mughals is the Humayun Nama written by Gulbadan Begum. Gulbadan was the daughter of Babur, Humayuns sister and Akbars aunt. Gulbadan could write fluently in Turkish and Persian. When Akbar commissioned Abul Fazl to write a history of his reign, Abul Fazl requested Gulbadan Begum to record her memoirs of earlier times under Babur and Humayun, for Abul Fazl to draw upon. What Gulbadan wrote was no eulogy of the Mughal emperors. She described in great detail the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings and the important mediating role elderly women of the family played in resolving some of these conflicts. What were the objectives the chroniclers had in their mind before writing the chronicles? The text were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. At the same time they were meant to convey to those who resisted the rule of the Mughals that all resistance was destined to fail. The rulers wanted to ensure that there was an account of their rule for posterity. The authors of Mughal chronicles were the courtiers. The histories were focused on events pivoted on the ruler, his family, the court and nobles, wars and administrative arrangements. Their titles, such as the Akbar Nama, Shahjahan Nama, Alamgir Nama, that is, the story of Akbar, Shah Jahan and Alamgir (a title of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb), suggest that in the eyes of their authors the history of the empire and the court was synonymous with that of the emperor. How Akbar has managed to establish a strong and vast empire?

Jalaluddin Akbar (1556-1605) the greatest of all the Mughal emperors, as he not only expanded but also consolidated his empire, making it the largest, strongest and richest kingdom of his time. Akbar succeeded in extending the frontiers of the empire to the Hindukush Mountains, and checked the expansionist designs of the Uzbeks of Turan (Central Asia) and the Safavids of Iran Akbar had three fairly able successors in Jahangir (1605-27), Shah Jahan (162858) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707), much as their characters varied. Under them the territorial expansion continued, though at a much reduced pace. The three rulers maintained and consolidated the various instruments of governance Imperial institutions and structure was created in the 16th & 17th century. This structure includes effective methods of administration and taxation. The visible centre of Mughal power was the court. Here political alliances and relationships were forged, status and hierarchies defined. Political system devised by the Mughals was based on a combination of military power and conscious policy to accommodate the different traditions they encountered in the subcontinent. Why the chronicles are considered so important for the history of Mughal Empire? Discuss in brief. Chronicles produced during the reign of Mughal rulers provide important information about the vision of rulers their principles and their works. These chronicles deals in great detail the major events that had taken place during the reign of particular ruler. These accounts recorded the events of the emperors time. The writers collected vast amounts of information from the regions of the subcontinent to help the rulers govern their domain. Chronicles are an indispensable source for any scholar wishing to write a history of the Mughals. At one level they were a repository of factual information about the institutions of the Mughal state, painstakingly collected and classified by individuals closely connected with the court. At the same time these texts were intended as conveyors of meanings that the Mughal rulers sought to impose on their domain. What was the importance of Persian language in Mughal India? Persian developed as a leading language at the time of the Mughals rule in India. Their court historians wrote the memoirs of the Emperors in Persian and translated many books into Persian language. Persian was a court language and literary writings of the Sultans of Delhi and flourished with local variants like Hindavi. According to historians, it was Akbar who consciously developed Persian as a leading language in the Mughal court. Mughal official histories such as the Akbar Nama were written in Persian. Those who had command on Persian were conferred power and prestige. It was spoken by the king, the elite and people at the royal court. Persian language influenced other Indian languages such as Rajasthani, Marathi and Tamil. It became Indianised by observing idiom and vocabulary from the Indian languages. Write a note on the chronicles commissioned by the Mughal Emperors. The chronicles written at the time of the Mughal rule in India are an important source to study the Mughal Empire. Those chronicles were written in order to convey a vision of enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. The authors of the chronicles were court historians in the Mughal Empire. Histories written by them focused on events centered on the ruler, his family, the court and nobles, wars

and administrative system. The title of the chronicles, such as Akbar Nama, Shahjahan Nama, and Alamgir (a title of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb) shows that the court was synonymous with that of the emperor. What language was used for writing chronicles in the Mughal India? The Mughals were Chaghtai Turks by origin and Turkish was their mother tongue. The first Mughal Emperor Babur wrote poetry and his memoirs Babur Nama in Turkish language. Akbar was the first ruler who initiated the use of Persian as a court language. The chronicles of Mughal court were written in Persian language. As the origin of the Mughals was from the descendants of Timurids, Turkish was their mother tongue. Babur wrote poetry and his memoirs in Turkish language. According to historians, it was Akbar who consciously developed Persian as a leading language in the Mughal court. Mughal official histories such as the Akbar Nama were written in Persian. Other chronicles such as Baburs memoirs were translated from the Turkish into Persian Babur Nama. The court historians of the Mughals translated Sanskrit texts such as Mahabharata and the Ramayana into Persian as the Razmnama. How did the painters and their paintings play an important role in the production of manuscripts? The painters and their paintings played an important role in the production of manuscripts in the Mughal India. Chronicles that narrated the events of the Mughal emperor had images, alongside the written text, that described events in visual form. The scribe left blank spaces wherever images were required and paintings were drawn separately by artists and inserted in proper place. Paintings enhanced the beauty of manuscripts and communicated ideas about the kingdom and the power of kings. The historian Abul Fazl described paintings as a magical art. Artists from Iran came to India during the Mughals rule. Artists like Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdul Samad accompanied Emperor Humayun to Delhi. Other artists migrated to Delhi in search of opportunities. The paintings show contemporary society and culture and served the very purpose of manuscript. The paintings made the inanimate objects look as if they possessed life. How were the manuscripts produced by the Mughals? Books written in Mughal India were manuscripts that were handwritten. The work of manuscript production was carried out by the imperial kitabkhana that could be translated as library, but it was scriptorium that is, it was a place where the emperors collection of manuscripts was kept and new manuscripts were produced. The creation of a manuscript involved many tasks. Folios of the manuscripts were prepared by the paper makers. Scribes or calligraphers copied the text while gilders illuminated the pages. Painters illustrated scenes from the text, while bookbinders gathered the individual folios and set them within ornamental covers. The finished manuscript was considered as a precious object with intellectual work and beauty. The people who were involved in the production of manuscripts were recognised with titles and awards. The calligraphers and painters were held high in the status while the paper makers and bookbinders remained anonymous artisans. Write a short note on the provincial administration of the Mughal.

The administrative structure of the provinces (subhas) also had the same method like that of the centre. In the provinces ministers were assisted by their subordinates such as diwan, bakhshi and sadar. The governor or subadar was the head of the provincial administration. He had to report to the emperor directly. Each suba was divided into sarkars with the jurisdiction of faujdars (commandants). The local administration was looked after at the level of pargana (sub-district) by three officers - the qanungo keeper of revenue records, the chaudhari in charge of revenue collection and the qazi. The administration of each department was maintained by many staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers and other functionaries with good technical skills with highly standardised rules and procedures. Persian was the language of administration, but local languages were used for village administration. How did the court historians of the Mughals project the power of the kings? The Court historians projected the power of the Mughal kings as if they got it directly from God. For example Abul Fazl, the author of Akbar Nama, placed Mughal kingship in the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i-izadi). Abul Fazl was inspired by the concept that was developed by a famous Iranian Sufi Shihabuddin Suhrawardi. The concept and intention of such a projection was to show that the Divine Light was transmitted to the king who became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects. The paintings drawn in the chronicles also reflected the same concept. Mughal artists portrayed emperors wearing the halo which was used in the European paintings of Christ and the Virgin Mary to symbolise the light of God. How did the Mughal chronicles present the approaches of the kings towards religions and religious communities? The Mughal chronicles presented the empire as comprising of various ethnic and religious communities such as Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. The chroniclers described the kings as the source of peace and stability and the emperors were above all religious and ethnic groups. The kings were projected as protector of justice and peace. According to Abul Fazl, the absolute peace (sulh-i-kul) was important for an enlightened rule. In absolute peace all religions and thoughts enjoyed the freedom of expression with the condition that they did not try to undermine the authority of the state. The sulh-i-kul was followed strictly through state policies, since the nobility of the Mughal consisted of Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, and Deccanis. All were treated equally and were given positions and awards based on their service and truthfulness to the king. In order to follow absolute peace, Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jizya in 1564 as both were considered as religious discrimination. Write a short note on the capitals and courts of the Mughals. Capital cities were the main and important cities of the Mughal Empire. The capital cities of the Mughals were frequently shifted during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. When Babur bought the Lodi capital of Agra, the court was changed within four years of rule in the capital. The fort of Agra was constructed by Akbar during the 1560s with red stone. In the 1570s he built a new capital Fathepur Sikri, since it was located on the direct road to Ajmer where the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti had become an important pilgrimage centre. The Mughal emperors shared a close relationship with the Sufis of the Chishti silsila. Akbar constructed a white marble tomb for Shaik Salim Chishti near Friday mosque at Sikri. Akbar commissioned the construction of Buland Darwaza (arched gateway)

to remind visitors of the Mughal victory. The capital was shifted to Lahore in 1585 in order to strengthen the control overnorth-west. Akbar monitored it closely for thirteen years. During the rule of Shah Jahan, in 1648, the capital was shifted to Shahjahanabad. Write a short note on the imperial household. The domestic world of the Mughals was referred to as harem which is derived from the Persian word haram sacred place. Harem consisted of the wives of emperors and concubines, his relatives and other family members. It also had servants both male and female and slaves. The Mughal household maintained a distinction between wives with aristocratic backgrounds (Begums) and other wives (aghas) who were not of noble birth. The Begums were married by the emperors after giving huge amounts of cash and other valuables as dowry (mahr). The concubines (aghacha) were given the lowest position in the hierarchy of females. The wives and concubines were given monthly allowances and gifts according to their status. There were a number of male and female slaves in the Mughal household. They carried out many works. Interestingly there were slave eunuchs (kwajasara) who worked as guards, and servants. How were the imperial officials recruited in the Mughal Empire? The Akbar Nama of Abul Fazl gives detailed information about the recruitments of imperial officials. The corps of officers, known as nobility, in the Mughal Empire was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds in order to prevent any faction that would destabilise the state. The imperial officers were described by the court historians as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta). During the rule of Akbar, for the imperial service, Iranian and Turani nobles were recruited. The two important ruling groups of Indian origin were recruited for the imperial service from 1560 onwards. They were the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims (Shaikhzadas). A Rajput chief Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha from Amber was first for joining the service. He married off his daughter to Akbar. During the rule of Jahangir, Iranians were appointed for high offices, whose politically influential queen, Nur Jahan, was an Iranian. According to some historians Jahangir's marriage was a political move. The highest number of Rajputs and the Marathas were appointed on high positions by Aurangzeb during his rule. Write a note on the religious approach of Akbar. Akbar participated in the debates in the ibadat khana at Fathepur Sikri in order to have a clear understanding of religions. Debates were between learned Muslims, Hindus, Jainas, Parsis and Christians. According to the sources, Akbar religious views matured by questioning the scholars of different religions and sects and gained knowledge about their doctrines. Gradually, he moved away from the orthodox Islamic ways of understanding religions and followed a self- conceived eclectic form of worship focusing on light and the sun. He also initiated a faith named 'Din-i-Illahi'. Why the Mughal Emperors attached so much importance to the chronicles? The finished manuscript was seen as a precious object, a work of intellectual wealth and beauty. It exemplified the power of its patron, the Mughal emperor, to bring such beauty into being. At the same time some of the people involved in the actual production of the manuscript also got recognition in the form of titles and awards. The calligraphers and painters held a high social standing while others, such as paper makers or bookbinders, have remained anonymous artisans. Calligraphy, the art of

handwriting, was considered a skill of great importance. It was practised using different styles. Akbars favourite was the nastaliq, a fluid style with long horizontal strokes. It is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a tip of five to 10 mm called qalam, dipped in carbon ink (siyahi). The nib of the qalam is usually split in the middle to facilitate the absorption of ink. Write a note on Abul fazl and his achievements. Abul Fazl was well versed with Arabic, Persian, Greek philosophy and Sufism. Moreover, he was a forceful debater and independent thinker who consistently opposed the views of the conservative ulama. These qualities impressed Akbar, who found Abul Fazl ideally suited as an adviser and a spokesperson for his policies. Emperor s objective was to free the state from the control of religious orthodoxy. In his role as court historian, Abul Fazl both shaped and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar. In 1589, Abul Fazl worked on the Akbar Nama for thirteen years, repeatedly revising the draft. The chronicle is based on a range of sources, including actual records of events (waqai), official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons The Akbar Nama is divided into three books of which the first two are chronicles. The third book is the Ain-i Akbari. The first volume contains the history of mankind from Adam to one celestial cycle of Akbars life (30 years). The second volume closes in the forty sixth regnal year (1601) of Akbar. The very next year Abul Fazl fell victim to a conspiracy hatched by Prince Salim, and was murdered by his accomplice, Bir Singh Bundela. Describe the policy of Sulh-I- Kul. Abul Fazl describes the ideal of sulh-i kul (absolute peace) as the cornerstone of enlightened rule. In sulh-i kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves. The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies the nobility under the Mughals was a composite one comprising Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Deccanis all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king. Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination. Instructions were sent to officers of the empire to follow the precept of sulh-i kul in administration. All Mughal emperors gave grants to support the building and maintenance of places of worship. Even when temples were destroyed during war, grants were later issued for their repair as we know from the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. However, during the reign of the latter, the jizya was reimposed on non-Muslim subjects. Who were the important officials of Mughal empire and also describe their duties. The mir bakhshi (paymaster general) stood in open court on the right of the emperor and presented all candidates for appointment or promotion, while his office prepared orders bearing his seal and signature as well as those of the emperor. There were two other important ministers at the centre: the diwan-i ala (finance minister) Sadr-us sudur (minister of grants or madad-i maash, and in charge of appointing local judges or qazis). The three ministers occasionally came together as an advisory body, but were independent of each other.

Akbar with these and other advisers shaped the administrative, fiscal and monetary institutions of the empire. Discuss the local administration in Mughal Empire. The local administration was looked after at the level of the pargana (sub-district) by three semi-hereditary officers, the qanungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi. Each department of administration maintained a large support staff of clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers, and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials, functioning in accordance with standardized rules and procedures, and generating copious written orders and records. The Mughal chroniclers usually portrayed the emperor and his court as controlling the entire administrative apparatus down to the village level. This could hardly have been a process free of tension. The relationship between local landed magnates, the zamindars, and the representatives of the Mughal emperor was sometimes marked by conflicts over authority and a share of the resources. The zamindars often succeeded in mobilizing peasant support against the state How can we say that Mughals had tried to make proper doccumentation of court proceedings? Discuss the imperial postal system. The keeping of exact and detailed records was a major concern of the Mughal administration. The mir bakhshi supervised the corps of court writers (waqia nawis) who recorded all applications and documents presented to the court, and all imperial orders (farman). Agents (wakil) of nobles and regional rulers recorded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading News from the Exalted Court (Akhbarat-i Darbar-i Mualla) with the date and time of the court session (pahar). The akhbarat contained all kinds of information such as attendance at the court, grant of offices and titles, diplomatic missions, presents received, or the enquiries made by the emperor about the health of an officer. News reports and important official documents travelled across the length and breadth of the regions under Mughal rule by imperial post. Round-the-clock relays of footrunners (qasid or pathmar) carried papers rolled up in bamboo containers. The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days. Agents of nobles posted outside the capital and Rajput princes and tributary rulers. How does the Mughal court itself represent the position of a particular noble in the imperial hierarchy? The physical arrangement of the court, focused on the sovereign, mirrored his status as the heart of society. Its centre piece was therefore the throne, the takht, which gave physical form to the function of the sovereign as axis mundi. The canopy, a symbol of kingship in India for a millennium, was believed to separate the radiance of the sun from that of the sovereign. Chronicles lay down with great precision the rules defining status amongst the Mughal elites. In court, status was determined by spatial proximity to the king. The place accorded to

a courtier by the ruler was a sign of his importance in the eyes of the emperor. Once the emperor sat on the throne, no one was permitted to move from his position or to leave without permission. 8 marks Abul Fazl held the art of painting in high esteem: Drawing the likeness of anything is called taswir. His Majesty from his earliest youth, has shown a great predilection for this art, and gives it every encouragement, as he looks upon it as a means both of study and amusement. A very large number of painters have been set to work. Each week, several supervisors and clerks of the imperial workshop submit before the emperor the work done by each artist, Most excellent painters are now to be found, and masterpieces, worthy of a Bihzad, may be placed at the side of the wonderful works of the European painters who have attained worldwide fame Why did Abul Fazl hold the art of painting in high esteem? Historian Abul Fazl held art of painting in high esteem and described painting as a magical art. In his view it had the power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life. Why was painting considered important? Historian Abul Fazl held art of painting in high esteem and described painting as a magical art. In his view it had the power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life. Why did the foreign artists make their way to Mughal India? Artists from Iran made their way to Mughal India. Some were brought to the Mughal court, as in the case of Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad, who were made to accompany Emperor Humayun to Delhi. Others migrated in search of opportunities to win patronage and prestige. Who was Bizad? Bizad was an Iranian painter patronised by the Safavid kings. He contributed in spreading the cultural fame of the Safavid court far and wide. Write the name of the two texts authored by this author. Akbarnama and Ain-e- Akbari are the two texts wrote by Abul Fazl. Write the name of one painter of Mughal period mentioned in the above text. Who was the emperor mentioned here? Bihzaad was the painter. Discuss the view of author on the paintings. The historian Abul Fazl described painting as a magical art: in his view it had the power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life.

In the account of his experiences, Monserrate, who was a member of the first Jesuit mission, says: It is hard to exaggerate how accessible he (Akbar) makes himself to all who wish audience of him. For he creates an opportunity almost every day for any of the common people or of the nobles to see him and to converse with him; and he

endeavours to show himself pleasant-spoken and affable rather than severe towards all who come to speak with him. It is very remarkable how great an effect this courtesy and affability has in attaching him to the minds of his subjects. What is the importance of the Jesuit accounts? The Jesuit accounts are the earliest impressions of the Mughal court ever recorded by European writers. The Jesuit accounts are based on personal observation and shed light on the character and mind of the emperor. These accounts corroborate the information given in Persian chronicles about state officials and the general conditions of life in Mughal times. Europe received knowledge of India through the accounts of Jesuit missionaries, travellers, merchants and diplomats. Why was Akbar considered great by his subjects? He made efforts to show that he was pleasant spoken and friendly rather than severe towards all who come to speak with him. He was very open and allowed anybody, be it common man or nobles, to come and have a word with him without any fears. This courtesy and easygoing attitude of the king won the minds of his subjects and made him a great ruler in their eyes. The emperor maintained what type of relations with the Jesuits? At public assemblies, the Jesuits were assigned places in close proximity to Akbars throne. They accompanied him on his campaigns, tutored his children and were often companions of his leisure hours. Abul Fazl gives a vivid account of Akbars darbar: Whenever His Majesty (Akbar) holds court (darbar) a large drum is beaten, the sounds of which are accompanied by Divine praise. In this manner, people of all classes receive notice. His Majestys sons and grandchildren, the grandees of the Court, and all other men who have admittance, attend to make the kornish, and remain standing in their proper places. Learned men of renown and skilful mechanics pay their respects; and the officers of justice present their reports. His Majesty, with his usual insights, gives orders, and settles everything in a satisfactory manner. During the whole time, skilful gladiators and wrestlers from all countries hold themselves in readiness, and singers, male and female, are in waiting. Clever jugglers and funny tumblers also are anxious to exhibit their dexterity and agility. How was the status of Mughal elites determined in the darbar? In court, status of the elites was determined by spatial proximity to the king. The place accorded to a courtier by the ruler was a sign of his importance in the eyes of the emperor. The forms of salutation to the ruler also indicated the persons status in the hierarchy: deeper prostration represented higher status. The highest form of submission was sijda or complete prostration. Who all present their reports to the King? Learned and renowned men and skillful people paid their respects. While the judicial officers presented their reports. In the durbar who all exhibited their skills and nimbleness? Whenever the durbar was held, skilful gladiators and wrestlers belonging to different countries entertained the king. Singers, both male and female, waited for their turn to

perform in front of the king. King was also entertained by jugglers and funny tumblers. All these people were anxious to exhibit their dexterity and agility. 10 marks "Abul Fazl attempted to put the Mughal rulers close to God. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer, and describe the Mughal theory of Kingship. Court chroniclers narrated that of the Mongol queen Alanqua, who was impregnated by a ray of sunshine while resting in her tent. The offspring she bore carried this Divine Light and passed it on from generation to generation. Abul Fazl placed Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i izadi ). Abul Fazl was inspired by a famous Iranian sufi, Shihabuddin Suhrawardi (d. 1191) who first developed this idea. According to this idea, there was a hierarchy in which the Divine Light was transmitted to the king who then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects. Paintings that accompanied the narrative of the chronicles transmitted these ideas in a way that left a lasting impression on the minds of viewers. Mughal artists, from the seventeenth century onwards, began to portray emperors wearing the halo, which they saw on European paintings of Christ and the Virgin Mary to symbolise the light of God. Abul Fazl defined sovereignty as a social contract: the emperor protects the four essences of his subjects, namely, life (jan), property (mal), honour (namus) and faith (din), and in return demands obedience and a share of resources. Only just sovereigns were thought to be able to honour the contract with power and Divine guidance. A number of symbols were created for visual representation of the idea of justice that came to stand for the highest virtue of Mughal monarchy. One of the favourite symbols used by artists was the motif of the lion and the lamb (or goat) peacefully nestling next to each other. This was meant to signify a realm where both the strong and the weak could exist in harmony. Court scenes from the illustrated Badshah Nama place such motifs in a niche directly below the emperors throne Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. As the source of all peace and stability the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed. Why do we find difference of opinion on the matter of paintings? Describe the views of Abul Fazl on paintings. Akbars court historian Abul Fazl cites the emperor as saying: There are many that hate painting, but such men I dislike. It appears to me that an artist has a unique way of recognising God when he must come to feel that he cannot bestow life on his work... The historian Abul Fazl described painting as a magical art: in his view it had the power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life. The production of paintings portraying the emperor, his court and the people who were part of it, was a source of constant tension between rulers and representatives of the Muslim orthodoxy, the Ulama. The latter did not fail to invoke the Islamic prohibition of the portrayal of human beings enshrined in the Quran as well as the hadis, which described an incident from the life of the Prophet Muhammad. Here the Prophet is cited as having forbidden the depiction of living beings in a naturalistic manner as it would suggest that the artist was seeking to appropriate the power of creation.

This was a function that was believed to belong exclusively to God. Yet interpretations of the Sharia changed with time. Various social groups interpreted the body of Islamic tradition in different ways. Each group put forward an understanding of tradition that would best suit their political needs. What were the arrangements made by the Mughal state to ensure good quality of Chronicles? All chronicles in Mughal India were manuscripts ie they were handwritten. The centre of manuscript production was the imperial kitabkhana. Although kitabkhana can be translated as library, it was a scriptorium, that is, a place where the emperors collection of manuscripts was kept and new manuscripts were produced. The creation of a manuscript involved a number of people performing a variety of tasks. Paper makers were needed to prepare the folios of the manuscript, scribes or calligraphers to copy the text, gilders to illuminate the pages, painters to illustrate scenes from the text, bookbinders to gather the individual folios and set them within ornamental covers. Painters too were involved in the production of Mughal manuscripts. Chronicles of a Mughal emperors reign contained, alongside the written text, images that described an event in visual form. When scenes or themes in a book were to be given visual expression, the scribe left blank spaces on nearby pages; paintings, executed separately by artists, were inserted to accompany what was described in words. These paintings were miniatures, and could therefore be passed around for viewing and mounting on the pages of manuscripts. Paintings served not only to enhance the beauty of a book, but were believed to possess special powers of communicating ideas about the kingdom and the power of kings in ways that the written medium could not. Which language was the court language of the Mughals? How that language was Indianised? How this process helped the Inidan text written prior to arrival of Mughals? Persian was elevated to a language of empire, conferring power and prestige on those who had a command of it. The king, the royal household and the elite at court spoke it. Mughal court chronicles were written in Persian. Under the Sultans of Delhi it flourished as a language of the court and of literary writings, alongside north Indian languages, especially Hindavi and its regional variants. As the Mughals were Chaghtai Turks by origin, Turkish was their mother tongue. Their first ruler Babur wrote poetry (Tuzuk e Babari) and his memoirs in this language. It was Akbar who consciously set out to make Persian the leading language of the Mughal court. It became the language of administration at all levels so that accountants, clerks and other functionaries also learnt it. Persian vocabulary and idiom heavily influenced the language of official records in Rajasthani and Marathi and even Tamil. The people using Persian in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came from many different regions of the subcontinent and spoke other Indian languages, Persian too became Indianised by absorbing local idioms. A new language, Urdu, sprang from the interaction of Persian with Hindavi. Mughal chronicles such as the Akbar Nama were written in Persian, others, like Baburs memoirs, were translated from the Turkish into the Persian Babur Nama. The Mughal emperors commissioned translations of Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana into Persian. The Mahabharata was translated as the Razmnama (Book of Wars). Write a note on the Akbar Nama and its author Abul Fazl.

The Akbar Nama is the one of the important illustrated official histories. The manuscript has an average of 150 full or double page paintings of battles, sieges, hunts, construction of buildings and court scenes. The work for writing Akbar Nama started in 1589 and took thirteen years to complete. The chronicle was written based on the sources such as actual records of the events (waqai), official documents and oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons. It is considered as one of the most authentic sources because Abu'l Fazl was the contemporary of Akbar's Mughal India and he was part of most of the important events like Battle of Haldighati or commencement of Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar Nama is divided into three books. The first two are chronicles and the third is Ain-i-Akbari. The first volume starts from the history of mankind from Adam to one celestial cycle of Akbars life (30 years). The second volume closes in the forty sixth regnal years (1601) of Akbar. The Akbar Nama was written to provide detailed information of the political events of Akbars reign. Akbar Nama was written by Abul Fazl who grew up in the Mughal capital of Delhi. He was well versed in Arabic, Persian, Greek philosophy and Sufism. He was a good debater and an independent thinker and was opposed to the views of the conservative ulama. All these qualities of Abul Fazl impressed King Akbar who appointed the former as an advisor and a spokesperson for his policies. Abul Fazl was killed by Bir Singh Bundela an accomplice of Prince Salim (Jahangir) who conspired the killing. Akbars wanted to free the state from the clutches of religious orthodoxy. Abul Fazl played an important role in shaping and articulating the ideas of Akbar. Give a detail account of Akbarnama. How the two documents Akbarnama and Badshahnama helped the Britishers? The Akbar Nama was written to provide a detailed description of Akbars reign in the traditional sense of recording politically significant events across time, as well as in the more novel sense of giving a synchronic picture of all aspects of Akbars empire geographic, social, administrative and cultural without reference to chronology. In the Ain-i Akbari the Mughal Empire is presented as having a diverse population consisting of Hindus, Jainas, Buddhists and Muslims and a composite culture. Abul Fazl wrote in a language that was ornate and which attached importance to diction and rhythm, as texts were often read aloud. This Indo- Persian style was patronised at court, and there were a large number of writers who wanted to write like Abul Fazl. A pupil of Abul Fazl, Abdul Hamid Lahori is known as the author of the Badshah Nama. Emperor Shah Jahan, hearing of his talents, commissioned him to write a history of his reign modelled on the Akbar Nama. The Badshah Nama is this official history in three volumes (daftars) of ten lunar years each. Lahori wrote the first and second daftars comprising the first two decades of the emperors rule (1627-47); Sadullah Khan, Shah Jahans wazir, later revised these volumes. The historian Waris chronicled third decade. British administrators began to study Indian history and to create an archive of knowledge about the subcontinent to help them better understand the people and the Cultures of the empire they sought to rule.

Write a note on the titles and gifts of the Mughals. The Mughals adopted grand titles at the time of coronation and after victory in the war. Those titles were mentioned on the Mughal coins. The Mughals granted titles to men of merit. The titles of men were revealed in the court hierarchy. Title Asaf Khan came from the legendary minister of the prophet king Sulaiman. The title Mirza Raja was given to the two highest-ranking nobles Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh by Aurangzeb. Titles were given by the kings and sometimes were bought by giving money to the kings. For example, Mir Khan paid Rs one lakh to Aurangzeb for the letter alif, which is A to be added to his name to make it Amir Khan. Other awards were the robe of honour (khilat) which was a garment worn by the king. Another gift was the sarapa (head to foot) which consisted of tunic, a turban and a sash (patka). The main gift that was often given by the emperor was ornaments. On a rare occasion, the lotus blossom set with jewels (padma murassa) was given. When the courtier visited the emperor, they carried either a small amount of money (nazr) or a large amount (peshkash). Gifts were a sign of honour and courtesy for diplomatic purposes. Interestingly when Thomas Roe visited the Mughal court, he presented a ring to the Emperor, but the ring was returned to Thomas Roe, because the value of the ring was just Rs. 400. Write a note on the visits of the Jesuits to the Mughal court. With the discovery of a new sea route to India at the end of the fifteenth century, Portuguese merchants were able to establish trading stations in Indian coastal cities. The king of Portuguese was interested in trade with India as well as in spreading Christianity with the help of missionaries of the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits). During the sixteenth century the missionaries came to India. Mughal Emperor Akbar was interested in knowing about Christianity and dispatched an embassy to Goa to invite Jesuitpriests. The mission of Jesuit under the leadership of Monserrate with three members visited the Mughal court in 1580 at Fathepur Sikri. The Jesuits discussed with Akbar about the virtues of Christianity and with the ulama. Even they took part in the debates of the ibadat khana. Two more missions visited the Mughal court at Lahore in 1591 and 1595. The Jesuits wrote their accounts based on their personal observation and gave detailed information about the character and mind of the emperor. They were given very close seat very near to the emperor at public assemblies. They went along with the emperor at the time of campaigns and accompanied him during his leisure time. What is Mansabdari system? Evaluate the merits and demerits of this System. The word mansab is derived from an Arabic word which means Fixing the place or rank. The mansabdars were the holders of Ranks in the emperors service. Every Commander to Public servant was given a rank of mansab. Each mansabdar was required to maintain a number of soldiers. All officers holding a mansab of 5000 or less were divided into three classes. If the zat and sawar figures were equal, the officers belonged to the first class. If the sawar figure was more than half of the zat figure, he belonged to the second class. If the sawar figure was less than half of the zat figure, he was put in the third class.

The mansabdars were directly recruited, promoted, suspended and dismissed by the emperor. Unlike the Jagirdari system, the mansabdari system was not hereditary. The mansabdars could be transferred by the emperor upon his sweet will. The mansabdari troops were recruited by the 67mansabdar himself. The king however, laid down general rules for recruitment, maintenance and payment of troops. The mansabdars were highly paid. Akbar preferred to pay them salaries in cash. After the death of mansabdar his immovable property was taken by the king. Mansabdar had to maintain the record of soldiers and horses so that these may come in the use of the king while required. That is why this system could become the main base of the power of Mughal Empire. Mansabdars also created situations for the development of literature. Folk Art and Paintings were also flourished under the guidance of these mansabdars. There was very much dissimilarity in the salaries and allowances of the army regiments of the mansabdars. The soldiers of mansabdars were not responsibleto the centre. Generally such kind of army used to obey the mansabdar not the army commander. By evaluating above mentioned merits and demerits, it becomes clear that during the powerful kings this system contributed in the expansion and consolidation of the empire but during the weak successors mansabdars started to be out of control to the king and became an important cause in time decline of Mughal Empire. Sher Shah Suri was the forerunner of Akbar. Prove this Statement by giving reasonable arguments. Shershah Suri was the great Emperor of the Medieval Era. His works and successes of Shershah Suri were so great that these became ideal for the forthcoming Rulers. Shershah was a hard working and disciplined personality. He was in favour of equal law for each and everybody and he considered Judgment as most holy religious work. Keeping in view, the general welfare of the people and for the effectiveness of empire, he divided his empire into Sarkars and the sarkar into Parganas. The biggest gift of Sher Shah Suri to Akbar is in the area of land management. He divided the land and the land revenue according to the produce of the land. Sher Shah Suri got shady trees planted along the road sides for convenience of the general public. For the encouragement of the traders and convenience of general people. He introduced Gold, Silver, and copper coins and a certain amount of metal was kept in the coins. Shershah was the first emperor who adopted religious liberty and equal behavior. He separated politics to the religion. He recruited a vast central permanent army. HE gave cash payment to the Army, horse branded, getting the description rolls of the soldiers recorded and their recruitment and inspection of the troop from time to time. He opened hospitals for the poor. He also encouraged the expansion of Education. He was very much interested in the construction of the buildings. The tomb of Sahsram is an important construction which is a symbol of coordination of Mohamadden and local architectural styles. By the micro analysis of the above mentioned works/ reforms of the Shershah. It becomes clear that Akbar adopted many

works/ reforms of the Shershah as it is or by some modifications. Therefore Shershah can be called as the forerunner of Akbar. Why Mughal Emperors transferred their capitals so frequently? Capital city was the heart of the Mughal Empire where the court assembled. The capital cities of the Mughals frequently shifted during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Babur took over the Lodi capital of Agra, though during the four years of his reign the court was frequently on the move. During the 1560s Akbar had the fort of Agra constructed with red sandstone quarried from the adjoining regions. In the 1570s Akbar decided to build a new capital, Fatehpur Sikri. One of the reasons prompting this was that Sikri was located on the direct road to Ajmer, where the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti had become an important pilgrimage centre. The Mughal emperors entered into a close relationship with sufis of the Chishti silsilah. Akbar commissioned the construction of a white marble tomb for Shaikh Salim Chishti next to the majestic Friday mosque at Sikri. The enormous arched gateway (Buland Darwaza) was meant to remind visitors of the Mughal victory in Gujarat. In 1585 the capital was transferred to Lahore to bring the northwest under greater control and Akbar closely watched the frontier for thirteen years. Shah Jahan pursued sound fiscal policies and accumulated enough money to indulge his passion for building. Building activity in monarchical cultures was the most visible and tangible sign of dynastic power, wealth and prestige. In the case of Muslim rulers it was also considered an act of piety. In 1648 the court, army and household moved from Agra to the newly completed imperial capital, Shahjahanabad. It was a new addition to the old residential city of Delhi, with the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, a tree-lined esplanade with bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spacious homes for the nobility. Shah Jahans new city was appropriate to a more formal vision of a grand monarchy.