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ATENEO DE MANILA LAW SCHOOL LEGAL TECHNIQUE & LOGIC OUTLINE 1 ATTY. ALEXANDER C.

DY SECTION1E, SECOND SEMESTER, SY 2005-2006 15 NOVEMBER2005 I. I NTRODUCTION A. History of Logic B. Civil Law vs. Common Law Tradition C. The Role of Logic in Law I I . R EASONING A. Basic Concepts 1 . W h a t i s L o g i c 2 . P r o p o s i t i o n s a n d S e n t e n c e s 3. Argu ments, Premises and Conclusions4 . M o r e C o m p l e x A r g u m e n t s5. Recognizing Arguments6. Deduction and Induction7 . V a l i d i t y a n d T r u t h 8. Arguments and Explanations B. Analyzing and Diagramming ArgumentsC . P r o b l e m S o l v i n g I I I . L ANGUAGE A. Uses of Language 1. Three Basic Functions of Language2. Discourse Serving Mul tiple Functions3 . F o r m s o f D i s c o u r s e 4 . E m o t i v e W o r d s 5. Kinds of Agreement and Disagreement6 . E m o t i v e l y N e u t r al Language 1 The Outline presents the manner by which Legal Technique & Logic will be taken up inclass. The Outline is taken mainly from Introduction to Logic by Irving M. Copi and Carl Cohen.

B. Definition 1. Disputes, Verbal Disputes and Definitions2. Kinds of Definition an d the Resolution of Disputes3. Denotation (Extension) and Connotati on (Intension)4 . E x t e n s i o n , a n d D e n o t a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n s 5 . I n t e n s i o n , a n d C o n n o t a t i v e D e f i n i t i o n 6. Rules for Definition by Genus an d Difference I V . D EDUCTIVE R EASONING A. Categorical Propositions 1. Categorical Propositions and Classes2. Quality, Quantity an d Distribution3. The Traditional Square of Opposition4. Furthe r I m m e d i a t e I n f e r e n c e s 5 . E x i s t e n t i a l I m p o r t 6. Symbolism a nd Diagrams for Categorical Propositions B. Categorical Syllogisms 1. Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms2. The Formal Nature o f S y l l o g i s t i c A r g u m e n t 3. Venn Diagram: Technique for Testing Syl logisms4 . S i x R u l e s o f C a t e g o r i c a l S y l l o g i s m s C. Arguments in Ordinary Language 1. Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument2. Transla ting Categorical Propositions into Standard Form3 . U n i f o r m T r a n slation4 . E n t h y m e m e s 5 . S o r i t e s 6. Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms7 . T h e D i l e m m a 2

D. Symbolic Logic 1 . T h e V a l u e o f S p e c i a l S y m b o l s 2. The Symbols for Conjunctio n, Negation, and Disjunction3. Conditional Statements and Material I mplication4 . A r g u m e n t F o r m s a n d A r g u m e n t s 5. Statement Forms, Material Equivalence, Logical Equivalence6 . T h e P a r a d o x e s o f M a t erial Implication7 . T h e T h r e e L a w s o f T h o u g h t E. The Method of Deduction 1. Formal Proof of Validity2. The Rule of Replacement3 . Proof of Invalidity4. Incons is tency F. Quantification Theory 1 . S i n g u l a r P r o p o s i t i o n s 2 . Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n 3. Traditional S ubject-Predicate Propositions4 . P r o v i n g V a l i d i t y 5 . P r o v i n g I n v a l i d i t y 6. Asyllogistic Inference

V. I NDUCTIVE R EASONING A . I n d u c t i v e G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s (Induction by Simple Enumeration)B . A n a l o g y a n d P r o b a b l e I n f e r e n c e A n a l o g y 2. Appraising Analogical Arguments3. Refut ation by Logical Analogy C . C a u s a l i t y D. Probability 3

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