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School of Property Construction and Project Management

Aged Care Facilities


Australias Looming Demographic Shift and the Strategic Gap for Melbourne Property Developers

Demographic Shift & Baby Boomers In 2007 People aged over 65 years made up 13% of Australias population In 2056 People aged over 65 years will make up 25% of Australias population Ageing-in-place highly favourable Escalating client expectations Higher levels of affluence among the Baby Boomers Lifestyle over Retirement

Development Opportunities Appropriate and adaptable housing design critical Sector not as specialised as is perceived Aged care sector to quadruple by 2050 (Productivity Report) Demand for Hybrid Developments encompassing both Independent Living Arrangements and High Care Facilities Two distinct markets Adaptable Independent Living Arrangements and High Care Facilities The future of large Super Suite room types in high rise developments

Population Pyramid Australias Age Structure (ABS):

65yrs

2008

2024

2040

2056

Andrew Campbell, Mark McSweeney, Zdravko Knezic


Supported by Mr. Bernard Salt (Industry Mentor)

permits

School of Property Construction and Project Management

The effect of carbon tax on the construction industry


Our study aims to investigate the effect of carbon tax on the construction industry. In the past there have been many studies conducted on climate change, however, many have not been focused as the effect carbon tax on the construction industry. We are researching this topic to fill this research gap.
Effect of carbon tax on construction industry
European Union (except U.K.) Facts:
Companies likely to pass associated costs onto successive purchasers Take advantage to make profits Effect of tax weakened by granting excessive permits

United Kingdom

South Africa

Asia

Facts:
Employment and GDP to rise Continuous questioning about the wordings of the regulation Behavioural change should be complimented by cultural change

Rumours:
Operate like a revenue-raising scheme Carbon price will reach rocket high if not being capped by the government Higher tax rate to suppress carbon demand

Rumours:
The whole sector will be worsen-off as a result of carbon tax Current discussions ignored the likely effect of the tax on the industry Comprehensiveness and adequacy of the future legislation are questionable

Facts:
India: Construction on cost increased due to the increase of material costs Being forced by the developed countries to take real action

Rumours:
Damage the economic strength and subsequently affect world-wide. Using Effectiveness of the carbon tax policy has yet to be justified as an excuse

Summarizing from our detailed analyses, a conceptual framework of the effect of carbon tax on the construction industry is presented

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Implications to Australia: Construction activities could increase due to the advancement of green technology and changes of construction materials and methods. Delegating emissions law more carefully to avoid mission drift Loop holes of the carbon tax legislation should be filled up. Carbon tax may cripple the investment in property construction Further education is required to achieve the perceived outcomes

John Nguyen s3173044 Nicholas Lacarruba s3195800 William Papaspiros s3041286 Adam Bray s3162431

School of Property Construction and Project Management

The effect of climate change on the trend of construction research

Through a critical review of 290 papers published in the ERA ranked journals in Category 1202 Building, we seek to investigate the effect of climate change on the trend of construction research.
Relevant research papers from 35 international journals were reviewed. This may be the first-ever comprehensive literature review study on this topic in Australia.
Construction Research Driven by Climate Change

RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS

Materials

Emissions/Energy Consumption
Alternatives Vulnerability Adapting capacity Exposure Building Use

Design Methods
H&C Early Decision Making Alternatives

Performance Monitoring
Adaption

Policy
Carbon Tax

Mitigation

Re-use

Recycled

Comfort

Adaption

Questionnaire

Case study

Data Modulation

Case Study

METHODOLOGIES & FINDINGS

Mathematical Simulation

Simulation Study Case Study

Case Study Literature Review Experiments

Mathematical Simulation

Literature Review

Case Study

Taxonomy Development

Literature Review

Use more timber as a substitute for concrete and steel due to life cycle.

Devising solutions to reduce energy consumption by the end users

Devising proactive measures to reduce risks of carbon leakage

Including carbon consumption as a new parameter in performance monitoring systems

A clear road map to restrict energy requirements of new and existing buildings by 2020

Use of recycled aggregates

Suggesting policy to encourage carbon reduction and mitigate emissions

Design methods to retrofit old buildings with new energy efficient designs

Both daylight and natural ventilation are critical climate control components

Carbon Tax

LIMITATIONS

Re-use receives minimal attention in Australia. It takes time to attract public attention

Evaluation of effectiveness of policy is required

New energy efficient designs for old buildings receives minimal attention in Australia and creates instability

Research should address building resilience in terms of structures, function and location as well as security of energy and communication supply

Sustainability is much larger than reducing emissions

While alternative materials are suggested, there is no suggestion as to how they can be implemented

Policy doesnt reach consensus with public opinion

Developing proactive measures is yet to be proven to be feasible and requires huge policy change and haven't suggested how they can implement in reality

The figure depicts that an assortment of researches in [1] the use of building materials {2} energy/emission consumption reduction for further buildings [3] seeking alternative design methods [4] establishment of performance measurement/monitoring systems [5] policy related issues had been undertaken by the construction researchers. Yet, further research studies should be done in order to comprehend the study. The related suggestions can be found in our final report.

Predictions of operational use are feasible but prediction will depend largely on reliable monitoring data

Solving issues surrounding carbon emissions through the implementation of policies that actually reduce emissions and not just create income for the government

Summarizing the previous research outputs and linking them with the area of further research, the conceptual framework of the effect of climate change on the trend of construction research is prepared and shown in the above figure.

Dominic Ross s3191237 William Hughes s3201793

Damon Kaine s3199479 Daniel Salera s3203544

School of Property Construction and Project Management

FIRE RATED WALL SYSTEMS: TRADITIONAL VS. ALTERNATIVE

Examples of Available Wall Systems:


Traditional Systems: Plasterboard Masonry: Brick/Block Timber Stud Wall Metal Stud Wall
Source: www.wordpress.com/metalstudframing

Gyprock System No. Description


CSR 350 CSR 310 CSR 050 CSR 010 1 x 13mm GYPROCK FYRCHEK sheet to each side, 70mm timber Stud @ 600mm centres 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD sheet to each side, 70mm timber Stud @ 600mm centres 1 x 13mm GYPROCK FYRCHEK sheet to each side, 76mm 0.50BMT Steel Stud @ 600mm centres 1 x 13mm GYPROCK Plasterboard CD sheet to each side, 76mm 0.50BMT Steel Stud @ 600mm centres

Thickness FRL
96mm 96mm 102mm 102mm -/60/60 and 30/30/30 -/-/-/60/60 and 30/30/30 -/-/-

Source: http://www.gyprock.com.au/downloads/file/FILE%20MANAGER/w2GYP500C_2007_Timber.pdf

New/Alternative Systems: Speedpanel Hebel Autoclaved Aerated Concrete INSULROCK Fire Rated Panels
Source: http://www.speedpanel.com.au/wallsystems.asp

Report
BRANZ FR 3754 CSIRO FCO 2619 CSIRO FCO 1762

Description
Bare 78mm Speedpanel wall to 3.0m spans Bare 78mm Speedpanel wall to 4.5m spans On fire consulting design advice, 6.0m high Speedpanel 2 x 78mm Speedpanel walls with 50mm air cavity

Thickness
78mm 78mm 78mm 204mm

FRL
-/240/120 -/120/120 -/120/120 -/240/240

Source: Speedpanel, c2009, Product Testing: CSIRO fire tested table: Speedpanel

Based on an array of criteria and research the research group has concluded that New/Alternative wall systems are superior to Traditional Wall Systems in terms of Fire Rating Properties.
JOSH EVANS, JAKE WHITFORD, ADAM BALESTRA & DANIEL RUMPH

School of Property Construction and Project Management

Geo-Polymer Concrete
Is there a future for Geo-Polymer Concrete in the Australian Construction Industry?

Waste Materials Usage


Geo-polymer technology provides the potential for the utilisation of waste materials and processing of by-products that would otherwise be useless in the manufacturing process of Portland cement and would be disposed of in landfill. Fly ash (produced in black coal fired power stations) is a waste material that can be used to replace Portland cement. It is significant to both the Australian mining and construction industries, due to the abundance of coal fired power stations operating in the country.

Ref: Concrete Institute of Australia

Carbon Emissions Reduction


The major advantage of Geo-polymer concrete over traditional Portland cement is the lower rate of CO2 emissions . For instance, Portland cement production contributes between 5 to 10% of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, by substituting Portland cement with geo-polymer concrete, the CO2 emissions relating to binder manufacturing would potentially be reduced by 80% or more. If Portland cement was entirely replaced by geo-polymer concrete, it is predicted that current global CO2 emissions would be reduced by approximately 4 to 8%
Ref: Prusinski, et al

Strength
Geo-polymer concrete is slightly stronger in compression than traditional Portland cement concrete and the type of curing affects at what stage this occurs. Research has also shown positive association with tensile and flexural strength. As well as the benefit of being environmentally friendly, it is important that Geo-polymer concrete is up to the same standard as Portland cement concrete to evolve into the market. With further studies and tests, it is likely there will be more benefits and innovation in its structural components in the future.

Diagram 1 - % of CO2 emissions in Concrete


This shows the high percentage of carbon emissions from concrete production that are a direct result of the Portland cement component.

Diagram 2 Total emissions comparison


This shows the amount of carbon emissions produced per tonne of product in a real life example in Victoria. The emissions from the Geo-polymer concrete are significantly less.

Durability
It has been found that Geo-polymer concrete has a greater durability than Portland cement, as well as a reduced carbon footprint resulting from zero cement content. In comparison to ordinary Portland cement, these greater engineering properties include high compressive strength, greater resistance to acid attack and fire (up to 1320C), and low shrinkage creating a more durable product than ordinary Portland cement.

Research Objective
The objective of this research project is to explore the future of Geo-polymer concrete in the Australian construction industry and determine the likelihood that Geo-polymer concrete will lead the industry towards a lower-emissions future.

Barriers
Geo-Polymer Concrete faces many barriers including an industry that restricts change, statutory issues (Australian Standard Compliance), a lack of experienced contractors, cost pressures and proven long term certainty.

Conclusion and Recommendations


Geo-polymer concrete does present itself as a suitable low carbon alternative to Portland based concrete. The use of Geo-polymer concrete would significantly reduce Australia and indeed the worlds carbon emissions. We recommend that any further study look further into the effects of the proposed carbon-taxation scheme and how this may effect cost and uptake in the construction materials sector.

Industry Expert Don Wimpenny Research Mentor Koorosh Gharehbaghi

Lukasz Kuder Georgie Ellis

Steven Cahill Paul Nanas

School of Property Construction and Project Management

Green Star and NABERS characteristics and challenges


Buildings performance assessed on nine categories Environmental building rating tool developed and administered by the Green Building Council Australia (GBCA) Environmental building rating tool developed and administered by the NSW Office of Environment & Heritage Buildings performance assessed on four categories

Measures potential performance of a buildings design

Measures actual performance of a building in operation

NABERS Green Star Cost of Obtaining Rating Obsolescence of prior Green Star versions due to change of rating

Lack of transparency on assessment framework

Purchasing renewable energy helps increase star rating

Difficult for existing buildings to achieve six star rating

Lack of Recycled Materials in the Market

Robert Catoggio Alix Muir Smith Carl Naidoo Clay Tuckett Michael Woods

HERITAGE CONSERVATION
IS IT OUTDATED?
CAN ENDORSING MODERN CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES IN HERITAGE CONSERVATION BE BENEFICIAL TO THE BUILDING INDUSTRY? RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The research aimed to find whether there are any benefits to the building industry through the endorsement of modern construction techniques in heritage conservation. Community sentiment and the continued deterioration of heritage buildings has drawn attention to the issue of heritage conservation.

SCHOOL OF PROPERTY CONSTRUCTION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

KEY FINDINGS
Benefits: Ability to alleviate the current skills shortage problem Industry participant capacity improved Achieving improved cost and time certainty Reduced energy usage and increased sustainability of buildings Limitations: Uncertainty regarding material compatibility Potential loss of historical significance

CONCLUSION
The research has concluded that the building industry can benefit from modern techniques and materials in heritage conservation. If adequate planning and research is undertaken, benefits may be seen through time, cost and quality improvements. However, further research is necessary to fully understand these benefits and limitations.

93% of Australians strongly believed that heritage aids the formation of Australian identity (The Allen Consulting Group, 2005)
A theory was developed through identifying patterns and links between global, national and local literature, and the case study. The current capacities and limitations of the heritage sector were highlighted.

SUGGESTED FURTHER RESEARCH


Case studies on heritage projects and analysis contrasting like-for-like methods and modern techniques to identify problems and successes Reasons behind lack of training in heritage conservation Material compatibility studies to better understand the properties and behaviour of different materials

CASE STUDY
The Ballarat Town Hall, a $1.85 million faade restoration project, was undertaken by The City of Ballarat and completed in December 2010. Some of the issues encountered throughout this project include: Previous rendering works had resulted in deterioration of the masonry due to incompatible materials Difficulty in sourcing appropriate and traditional skilled labour including, renderers, stonemasons and blacksmiths Difficulty in sourcing traditional materials included spun glass for the face of the clock tower

RESEARCH COMPLETED BY: MICHAEL BRINE, JACK LYNCH, STEVEN LIDGERWOOD AND JOEL KEOGH

How Productive is your office?

CENTRALISED AIR CONDITIONING Produces 1.3 Million Black Balloons per annum for the average office building

AHU

AHU
Lift Overrun

Friday Night Drinks!!!!

GREEN ROOF TOP AREA These areas are places for employee's to relax, eat lunch and escape the office.

TO LET 3500m2 Office Space - 3 Star Green Star Building - All outgoing's paid quarterly - Lump sum contract only

6 CORRIDOR

TO LET 4000m2 Office Space - 6 Star Green Star Building - No electricity or water costs - $40,000 saving in productivity gains

GREEN LEASE - Enhance Reputation - Reduce Environmental Impact - Attract & Retain skilled employees - Enhance wellbeing and productivity

OCCUPANY RATES More and more buildings are going green, leaving poorly maintained office areas vacant.
This space is costing a fortune to run!!

CORRIDOR

Why won't anyone rent my office space!

OCCUPANCY RATES Tenants are more likely to stay on for longer periods of time in greener office spaces.

4 CORRIDOR

COST Unsustainable offices on the face of it are often cheaper to rent. But more expensive to run due to overheads and loss of worker productivity. LIGHTING Lack of lighting or over exposure to light can change the mood of people working in that environment often resulting in a decrease in productivity.

TASK LIGHTING Optimal lighting set up's will include a mixture of general lighting and passive day lighting. Task lighting is provided at the work surface where required. CHILLED BEAM -Reduce Draft -Increase IEQ -Individual temperature control - Consistent Temperatures

CORRIDOR

I Can't See anything!!!

What a CHILLED His jokes get worse every year.. boss I am..

Where's the snuggies?!!?!

CORRIDOR

Snow?

IS GREEN IS GOOD!

THERMAL COMFORT False roofing reduces the ability of the concrete slab to naturally cool/heat the building as temperature gets trapped in the ceiling space increasing reliance upon HVAC systems.

It's soo HOT in here!!!

CORRIDOR

Won't be needing these Ray Bans with all this anti glare stuff they installed!

NATURAL VENTILATION Better use of natural cooling and heating using outdoor air reduces: - Headaces - Cold & Flu - Allergies - Increases productivty

ANTI GLARE FACADE Use of anti glare windows on the facade reduces bright light transmission.

GREEN INITIATIVES

OFFICE SPACE DESIGN Poor Internal layouts increase noise, reduce air flow and increase sickness levels.

G CORRIDOR

Since riding to work, my wife thinks I'm less grumpy! INCREASED EMPLOYEE WELLBEING

Bicycle Storage

GROUP: Suellen Tsourlenes Philip Bardis Stephen Sarris Dean Sarris Clare Solomon SUPERVISOR: Geoff Outhred MENTOR: Mark Ross (KADOR)

RESEARCH QUESTION(S) 1- Does the influence of sustainable design increase productivity and effect the bottom line through lower operational costs within office buildings? 2- Is Building Information Modelling a useful tool for increased sustainable design in office buildings?

FINDINGS 1 - The ability to adopt sustainable features in either new or existing buildings will reduce office sickness related problems (mental and physical), improve employee satisfaction and increase productivity. 2- BIM is currently not the tool of choice for Australian Builders and Designers. Opting rather for traditional methods of design and construct.

WATER RECYCLING Roof top space can be used to collect water than can be used for toilets, hand basins, showers etc.
CONCLUSION Research has shown that buildings with green features that increase occupant comfort levels and reduce reliance upon mechanical systems to heat and cool space have and increase in productivity. The effect of going green is all but happening as the industry moves forward with new and innovative products always forcing change. Not only that but also shown in the research is a knowledge gap which exists within the industry to adopt new technology such as BIM which has shown positive results in a reduction of material wastage in case study research conducted.

School of Property Construction & Project Management

THE INFLUENCES OF WEB BASED COLLABORATION TOOLS ON PROJECT PRODUCTIVITY


Introduction
How do web based collaboration tools influence construction productivity? Time and cost savings are achieved through web based collaboration tools

Typical Project Administration Problems Discussion

Literature Review
Of all the applications of the Internet in the design professions, none has more wide- ranging significance than Webbased project management. It offers the potential to establish a seamless flow of project based information from player to player, over a projects entire life cycle. (Scott, 2005)

Inefficient Information Management

The administration efficiency is the major

Solution
C.D. Information Management system

improvement to project productivity

Conclusion and Recommendation


Administration efficiency (fast communication, information sharing, storing
Collaboration

system) are the main factor contributing to project productivity Limitations exist in training, security and

Methodology
Questionnaire Survey Interviews Supporting Documents

Results

server down time

It is recommended for use in construction industry to improve time, cost and quality of project

v NOR FAUZAN DAUD v MINH TAM ONG v WUI HONG ONG

Early Project Delivery

Cost Reduction

Better Quality Construction

School of Property Construction and Project Management

School of Property Construction and Project Management

ASSESSMENT OF OFFICE BUILDINGS USING POST


OCCUPANCY SUSTAINABILITY TOOLS
WHAT ARE POST OCCUPANCY TOOLS?
Sustainability tools which assess a buildings sustainability output once occupants have occupied a building.

Green Star NABERS


LAUNCH DATE COUNTRY OF
ORIGIN

LEED
1998

BREEAM
1990

2003

2000

WHY DO WE REQUIRE SUCH A TOOL?


To ensure buildings are maintaining the same level of sustainability and efficiency that they were originally accredited with. To increase public and industry confidence in sustainability by providing post occupancy evaluations on sustainable buildings.

Australia 1 7 Star

Australia 1 6 Star

United States - Certified - Silver - Gold - Platinum Yes Certified LEED assessment (Design documents) During design phase

United Kingdom - Pass - Good - Very Good - Excellent - Outstanding Yes Certified BREEAM assessment (Design documents) During design Phase

RATING

SYSTEM

IS THIS THE ONLY ASSESSMENT TOOL?


No, these tools only cover the post occupancy phase of sustainability evaluation. An evaluation of sustainable design and the construction phase should also be implemented .

POE POSSIBLE ACCREDITATION/


CERTIFICATION
BASED ON

Yes GBCA certified assessment (Design and As Built Documents) During design or construction phase

Yes NABERS accredited assessment (Actual performance) Post occupancy (12 months)

WHEN CAN
RATING BE ACHIEVED

Nancy Mikhail I John Rebershak I Matthew Bergonzo I Joel Nathan Ryan

School of Property Construction and Project Management

What are the major restrictions BIM faces in gaining widespread use within the construction industry? Introduction
Client

Building Information Modeling is defined by the US General Services Administration as the use of a multi faceted computer software data model to not only document a building design, but to simulate the construction and operation of a facility. Gradually replacing the 2D or 3D CAD technology. There has been limited efforts in systematically defining BIM concepts as a framework for theory and implementation.

Software Developer

Architect / Engineer

Client

Five Key Stakeholders


The five key BIM stakeholders identified in the construction industry are: 1. Client 2. Architect / Engineer 3. Contractor 4. Manufacturer / Supplier 5. Software Developer These stakeholders all face significant restrictions in the widespread implementation of BIM. Some restrictions are common across stakeholder groups. Software Developer Architect / Engineer

Figure 1 depicts a traditional procurement model in which there is no collective communication tool. Each stakeholder must communicate directly with one another, being time consuming and inefficient.

Manufacturer / Supplier

Contractor

Figure 1

BIM

Research Methodology
Three phase process used to collect and analyse data. Throughout the process, the five major stakeholders identified, will have their data analysed separately, to gain each perspective. Stage 1 - Surveys/Questionnaires Easily distributed too usedl in gaining large amount of primary data. Used to flag the major restrictions faced. Data gained will be used throughout the next stages. Stage 2 - Interviews One on one tailored questions to gain optimal responses. Data from stage 1 utilized in lines of questioning. Qualitative information. Stage 3 - Focus Groups Round table discussions between all key industry stakeholders. Validation of data gained in the previous stages. Ranking of BIM restrictions from minor to major.

Level of Business Value of BIM


We're getting no meaningful value from BIM 4% We're getting everything out of BIM that we believe it can provide us 3%

Manufacturer / Supplier Figure 2

Contractor

We're just scratching the surface of how much BIM can provide us 48%

We're getting a lot of value from BIM but believe there is more to be gained 45%

Hypothesized Major Restrictions Amongst Stakeholders


1. Client Training required to use BIM software packages. Access to the software. 2. Architect / Engineer Concerns over intellectual property and shared information. Compatibility across many differing systems and processes used by other organizations involved. 3. Contractor Time associated with training employees to use the software. Changes to business practices. Financial implications of purchasing software and licensing.

4. Manufacturer / Supplier No standard for coding across the industry. Small profit margins means less disposable funds to use on investing in BIM software. 5. Software Developer Concerns regarding future marketability of software created. Costs associated with developing software.

Source: McGraw Hill Construction 2009

William Debney s3197242 Peter Ancona s3201048 Benjamin Power s3200047 Joseph Ramsden s3201329

School of Property Construction and Project Management

VIRTUAL TEAMS
What factors should be considered when using Virtual Teams during the design and planning stage of a construction project?
Motivation: It has been identified that the primary causes of the construction industrys poor performance are its ineffective communication practices, its organisation fragmentation, and lack of integration between design and production processes. (Dainty et al. 2006) Factors To Be Considered: Human Resources Change Management Social Capital Technology

Virtual Team Structures

THE PROPOSAL Further Research: Gathering primary data through case studies and questionnaires to identify the factors that affect effective implementation of virtual teams within the Australian Construction Industry. Decision Framework: Providing companies with a set of questions or directives to aid in a decision to implement Virtual Teams

Luke Bearzatto, Steven Collins, Callum Jenkins, Nick Corp