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School oI Management Studies
ADC Court Junction

Report on
Internet, HTML and Computer Networks

Submitted by

Name : Rokov Zhasa
Academic Course : MBA
Roll No. : NU/MN-22/11
Course Code : MGT 101
Course Title : Management Principles and Practices

Date oI Submission : 24 Nov. 2011

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Sl. No. Topic Page No
1 Internet 3-4
2 Internet Protocol Suite 3-7
3 Computer Network 8-13
4 HTML 13-16
5 ReIerences 17

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The Internet is a global system oI interconnected computer networks that use the standard
Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions oI users worldwide. It is a network oI
networks that consists oI millions oI private, public, academic, business, and government
networks, oI local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array oI electronic, wireless and
optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range oI inIormation resources
and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents oI the World Wide Web (WWW)
and the inIrastructure to support electronic mail.

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are oIten used in everyday speech without much
distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The
hardware and soItware inIrastructure oI the Internet establishes a global data communications
system between computers. In contrast, the Web is one oI the services communicated via the
Internet. It is a collection oI interconnected documents and other resources, linked by
hyperlinks and URLs.

The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively. It has been
determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links oI the World Wide
Web are examples oI scale-Iree networks.
Similar to the way the commercial Internet
providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into
large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2, and the UK's national research
and education network JANET. These in turn are built around smaller networks.

Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example oI a large-scale, highly
engineered, yet highly complex system".
The Internet is heterogeneous; Ior instance, data
transIer rates and physical characteristics oI connections vary widely. The Internet exhibits
"emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transIer
rates exhibit temporal selI-similarity. The principles oI the routing and addressing methods
Ior traIIic in the Internet reach back to their origins the 1960s when the eventual scale and
popularity oI the network could not be anticipated. Thus, the possibility oI developing
alternative structures is investigated. The Internet structure was Iound to be highly robust

random Iailures and very vulnerable to high degree attacks

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies
Ior access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching
deIinitions oI the two principal ame spaces in the Internet, the lere roocol address
space and the uomal name Sysem, are directed by a maintainer organization, the lere
Corporalo for Asslged names ad numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and
standardization oI the core protocols (lv4 and lv6) is an activity oI the lere Lgleerlg
1ask lorce (IETF), a non-proIit organization oI loosely aIIiliated international participants
that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.

The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected
autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body. However, to maintain
interoperability, all technical and policy aspects oI the underlying core inIrastructure and the
principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation Ior Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, CaliIornia. ICANN is the authority
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that coordinates the assignment oI unique identiIiers Ior use on the Internet, including domain
names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols,
and many other parameters. Globally uniIied name spaces, in which names and numbers are
uniquely assigned, are essential Ior the global reach oI the Internet. ICANN is governed by an
international board oI directors drawn Irom across the Internet technical, business, academic,
and other non-commercial communities. The government oI the United States continues to
have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart oI the
domain name system.
ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment oI unique identiIiers
distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. On 16
November 2005, the World Summit on the InIormation Society, held in Tunis, established the
Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.

2 Internet Protocol Suite

Application oI Process Layer
O Provides Communication services Ior
user applications
O Provides appropriate data
transmission Iormats and codes
O Supports the accomplishment oI
telecommunication sessions

Host-to-Host Transport Layer
O Supports the organization and transIer

Internet Protocol (IP)
O Provides appropriate routing by
establishing connections among
network links

Network InterIace
O Supports error-Iree organisation and
transmission oI data in the network

Physical layer
O Provides physical transmission oI
data on the telecommunication media

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The Internet Protocol Suite is the set oI communications protocols used Ior the Internet and
other similar networks. It is commonly also known as TCP/IP named Irom two oI the most
important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol
(IP), which were the Iirst two networking protocols deIined in this standard. Modern IP
networking represents a synthesis oI several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s
and 1970s, namely the precursors oI the Internet and local area networks, which emerged
during the 1980s, together with the advent oI the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.

The Internet Protocol Suite classiIies its methods and protocols into Iour hierarchical
abstraction layers. From the lowest to the highest communication layer, these are the Link
Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer. The layers deIine
the operational scope or reach oI the protocols in each layer, reIlected loosely in the layer
names. Each layer has Iunctionality that solves a set oI problems relevant in its scope.

The Iollowing is a description oI each layer in the TCP/IP networking model starting Irom
the lowest level.

Link Layer
The Link Layer (or Network Access Layer) is the networking scope oI the local network
connection to which a host is attached. This regime is called the link in Internet literature.
This is the lowest component layer oI the Internet protocols, as TCP/IP is designed to be
hardware independent. As a result TCP/IP is able to be implemented on top oI virtually any
hardware networking technology.

The Link Layer is used to move packets between the Internet Layer interIaces oI two
diIIerent hosts on the same link. The processes oI transmitting and receiving packets on a
given link can be controlled both in the soItware device driver Ior the network card, as well
as on Iirmware or specialized chipsets. These will perIorm data link Iunctions such as adding
a packet header to prepare it Ior transmission, then actually transmit the Irame over a physical
medium. The TCP/IP model includes speciIications oI translating the network addressing
methods used in the Internet Protocol to data link addressing, such as Media Access Control
(MAC), however all other aspects below that level are implicitly assumed to exist in the Link
Layer, but are not explicitly deIined.

This is also the layer where packets may be selected to be sent over a virtual private network
or other networking tunnel. In this scenario, the Link Layer data may be considered
application data which traverses another instantiation oI the IP stack Ior transmission or
reception over another IP connection. Such a connection, or virtual link, may be established
with a transport protocol or even an application scope protocol that serves as a tunnel in the
Link Layer oI the protocol stack. Thus, the TCP/IP model does not dictate a strict hierarchical
encapsulation sequence.

Internet Layer
The Internet Layer solves the problem oI sending packets across one or more networks.
Internetworking requires sending data Irom the source network to the destination network.
This process is called routing.

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In the Internet Protocol Suite, the Internet Protocol perIorms two basic Iunctions:
O Host addressing and identification: This is accomplished with a hierarchical
addressing system (see IP address).
O !acket routing: This is the basic task oI getting packets oI data (datagrams) Irom
source to destination by sending them to the next network node (router) closer to the
Iinal destination.

IP can carry data Ior a number oI diIIerent upper layer protocols. These protocols are each
identiIied by a unique protocol number: Ior example, Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are protocols 1 and 2,
Some oI the protocols carried by IP, such as ICMP (used to transmit diagnostic inIormation
about IP transmission) and IGMP (used to manage IP Multicast data) are layered on top oI IP
but perIorm internetworking Iunctions. This illustrates the diIIerences in the architecture oI
the TCP/IP stack oI the Internet and the OSI model.

Transport Layer
The Transport Layer's responsibilities include end-to-end message transIer capabilities
independent oI the underlying network, along with error control, segmentation, Ilow control,
congestion control, and application addressing (port numbers). End to end message
transmission or connecting applications at the transport layer can be categorized as either
connection-oriented, implemented in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), or
connectionless, implemented in User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

The Transport Layer can be thought oI as a transport mechanism, e.g., a vehicle with the
responsibility to make sure that its contents (passengers/goods) reach their destination saIely
and soundly, unless another protocol layer is responsible Ior saIe delivery.

The Transport Layer provides this service oI connecting applications through the use oI
service ports. Since IP provides only a best eIIort delivery, the Transport Layer is the Iirst
layer oI the TCP/IP stack to oIIer reliability. IP can run over a reliable data link protocol such
as the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). Protocols above transport, such as RPC, also
can provide reliability.

For example, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that
addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream:
O data arrives in-order
O data has minimal error (i.e. correctness)
O duplicate data is discarded
O lost/discarded packets are resent
O includes traIIic congestion control

The newer Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is also a reliable, connection-
oriented transport mechanism. It is Message-stream-oriented not byte-stream-oriented like
TCP and provides multiple streams multiplexed over a single connection. It also provides
multi-homing support, in which a connection end can be represented by multiple IP addresses
(representing multiple physical interIaces), such that iI one Iails, the connection is not
interrupted. It was developed initially Ior telephony applications (to transport SS7 over IP),
but can also be used Ior other applications.

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User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless datagram protocol. Like IP, it is a best eIIort,
"unreliable" protocol. Reliability is addressed through error detection using a weak checksum
algorithm. UDP is typically used Ior applications such as streaming media (audio, video,
Voice over IP etc.) where on-time arrival is more important than reliability, or Ior simple
query/response applications like DNS lookups, where the overhead oI setting up a reliable
connection is disproportionately large. Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a datagram
protocol that is designed Ior real-time data such as streaming audio and video.

TCP and UDP are used to carry an assortment oI higher-level applications. The appropriate
transport protocol is chosen based on the higher-layer protocol application. For example, the
File TransIer Protocol expects a reliable connection, but the Network File System (NFS)
assumes that the subordinate Remote Procedure Call protocol, not transport, will guarantee
reliable transIer. Other applications, such as VoIP, can tolerate some loss oI packets, but not
the reordering or delay that could be caused by retransmission.

The applications at any given network address are distinguished by their TCP or UDP port.
By convention certain ell knon ports are associated with speciIic applications. (See List of
TC! and UD! port numbers.)

Application Layer
The Application Layer reIers to the higher-level protocols used by most applications Ior
network communication. Examples oI application layer protocols include the File TransIer
Protocol (FTP) and the Simple Mail TransIer Protocol (SMTP).
Data coded according to
application layer protocols are then encapsulated into one or (occasionally) more transport
layer protocols (such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol
(UDP)), which in turn use lower layer protocols to eIIect actual data transIer.
Since the IP stack deIines no layers between the application and transport layers, the
application layer must include any protocols that act like the OSI's presentation and session
layer protocols. This is usually done through libraries.
Application Layer protocols generally treat the transport layer (and lower) protocols as "black
boxes" which provide a stable network connection across which to communicate, although
the applications are usually aware oI key qualities oI the transport layer connection such as
the end point IP addresses and port numbers. As noted above, layers are not necessarily
clearly deIined in the Internet protocol suite. Application layer protocols are most oIten
associated with clientserver applications, and the commoner servers have speciIic ports
assigned to them by the IANA: HTTP has port 80; Telnet has port 23; etc. Clients, on the
other hand, tend to use ephemeral ports, i.e. port numbers assigned at random Irom a range
set aside Ior the purpose.
Transport and lower level layers are largely unconcerned with the speciIics oI application
layer protocols. Routers and switches do not typically "look inside" the encapsulated traIIic to
see what kind oI application protocol it represents, rather they just provide a conduit Ior it.
However, some Iirewall and bandwidth throttling applications do try to determine what's
inside, as with the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). It's also sometimes necessary Ior
Network Address Translation (NAT) Iacilities to take account oI the needs oI particular
application layer protocols. (NAT allows hosts on private networks to communicate with the
outside world via a single visible IP address using port Iorwarding, and is an almost
ubiquitous Ieature oI modern domestic broadband routers).
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Hardware and software implementation
Normally, application programmers are concerned only with interIaces in the Application
Layer and oIten also in the Transport Layer, while the layers below are services provided by
the TCP/IP stack in the operating system. Microcontroller Iirmware in the network adapter
typically handles link issues, supported by driver soItware in the operational system. Non-
programmable analog and digital electronics are normally in charge oI the physical
components in the Link Layer, typically using an application-speciIic integrated circuit
(ASIC) chipset Ior each network interIace or other physical standard.
However, hardware or soItware implementation is not stated in the protocols or the layered
reIerence model. High-perIormance routers are to a large extent based on Iast non-
programmable digital electronics, carrying out link level switching.

3 Computer Network
A computer network, oIten simply reIerred to as a network, is a collection oI hardware
components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing oI
resources and inIormation.
Networks may be classiIied according to a wide variety oI characteristics such as the medium
used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational
The rules and data Iormats Ior exchanging inIormation in a computer network are deIined by
communications protocols. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet, a hardware
and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet Protocol
Suite, which deIines a set oI protocols Ior internetworking, i.e. Ior data communication
between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transIer, and application-speciIic data
transmission Iormats.
Computer networks:
1. acilitate communications : Using a network, people can communicate eIIiciently
and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls,
and video conIerencing.
2. Permit sharing of files, data, and other types of information : In a network
environment, authorized users may access data and inIormation stored on other
computers on the network. The capability oI providing access to data and inIormation
on shared storage devices is an important Ieature oI many networks.
3. Share network and computing resources : In a networked environment, each
computer on a network may access and use resources provided by devices on the
network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer. Distributed
computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks.
4. May be insecure : A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy
computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to
prevent these devices Irom normally accessing the network (denial oI service).
5. May interfere with other technologies : Power line communication strongly disturbs
certain Iorms oI radio communication, e.g., amateur radio.
It may also interIere with
last mile access technologies such as ADSL and VDSL.

6. May be difficult to set up : A complex computer network may be diIIicult to set up.
It may also be very costly to set up an eIIective computer network in a large
organization or company.
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Network topology
Common layouts
A network topology is the layout oI the interconnections oI the nodes oI a computer network.
Common layouts are:
O bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium.
This was the layout used in the original Ethernet, called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2.
O star network: all nodes are connected to a special central node. This is the typical
layout Iound in in a Wireless LAN, where each wireless client connects to the central
Wireless access point.
O ring network: each node is connected to its leIt and right neighbor node, such that
all nodes are connected and that each node can reach each other node by traversing
nodes leIt- or rightwards. The Fiber Distributed Data InterIace (FDDI) made use oI
such a topology.
O mesh network: each node is connected to an arbitrary number oI neighbors in such
a way that there is at least one traversal Irom any node to any other.
O fully connected network: each node is connected to every other node in the

Bus network layout

A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set oI clients are connected via
a shared communications line, called a bus. There are several common instances oI the bus
architecture, including one in the motherboard oI most computers, and those in some versions
oI Ethernet networks.
The bus topology makes the addition oI new devices straightIorward. The term used to
describe clients is station or workstation in this type oI network. Bus network topology uses a
broadcast channel which means that all attached stations can hear every transmission and all
stations have equal priority in using the network to transmit
In a bus network, local processors share the same communication channel. Synchronous data
transmission is used to transmit messages along the channel in a bus network. A device
address in each data Irame (packet) oI the transmitted message identiIies the recipient oI the
O Easy to implement and extend.
O Well-suited Ior temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quick setup),
resulting in Iaster networks.
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O less expensive than other topologies (But in recent years has become less important
due to devices like a switch)
O Cost eIIective; only a single cable is used.
O Easy identiIication oI cable Iaults.
O Limited cable length and number oI stations.
O II there is a problem with the cable, the entire network breaks down.
O Maintenance costs may be higher in the long run.
O PerIormance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traIIic (shared
O Proper termination is required (loop must be in closed path).
O SigniIicant Capacitive Load (each bus transaction must be able to stretch to most
distant link).
O It works best with limited number oI nodes.
O Commonly has a slower data transIer rate than other topologies.
O Only one packet can remain on the bus during one clock pulse
Ring network

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other
nodes, Iorming a single continuous pathway Ior signals through each node - a ring. Data
travels Irom node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.
Because a ring topology provides only one pathway between any two nodes, ring networks
may be disrupted by the Iailure oI a single link. A node Iailure or cable break might isolate
every node attached to the ring.
Sometimes, aring network is also called a peer network because each network is oI equal, or
'peer status with others. This typology does not rely on the host computer Ior its operations.
The entire network remains operational even iI one computer in the network Iails
lg neork
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O Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity
to transmit
O PerIorms better than a bus topology under heavy network load
O Does not require a central node to manage the connectivity between the computers
O One malIunctioning workstation can create problems Ior the entire network
O Moves, adds and changes oI devices can aIIect the network
O Communication delay is directly proportional to number oI nodes in the network
O Bandwidth is shared on all links between devices

Star network

Star networks are one oI the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest
Iorm, a star network consists oI one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit
to transmit messages. This consists oI a central node, to which all other nodes are connected;
this central node provides a common connection point Ior all nodes through a hub. Thus, the
hub and leaI nodes, and the transmission lines between them, Iorm a graph with the topology
oI a star. II the central node is passive, the originating node must be able to tolerate the
reception oI an echo oI its own transmission, delayed by the two-way transmission time (i.e.
to and Irom the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node. An active star
network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related
The star topology reduces the chance oI network Iailure by connecting all oI the systems to a
central node. When applied to a bus-based network, this central hub rebroadcasts all
transmissions received Irom any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network,
sometimes including the originating node. All peripheral nodes may thus communicate with
all others by transmitting to, and receiving Irom, the central node only. The Iailure oI a
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transmission line linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation oI
that peripheral node Irom all others, but the rest oI the systems will be unaIIected.

It is also designed with each node (Iile servers, workstations, and peripherals) connected
directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator.
Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator beIore continuing to
its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all Iunctions oI the
network. It is also acts as a repeater Ior the data Ilow. This conIiguration is common with
twisted pair cable. However, it can also be used with coaxial cable or optical Iibre cable.
O Better performance: star topology prevents the passing oI data packets through an
excessive number oI nodes. At most, 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any
communication between any two devices. Although this topology places a huge
overhead on the central hub, with adequate capacity, the hub can handle very high
utilization by one device without aIIecting others.
O Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to
the hub. This makes the isolation oI individual devices straightIorward and amounts
to disconnecting each device Irom the others. This isolation also prevents any non-
centralized Iailure Irom aIIecting the network.
O Benefits from centralization: As the central hub is the bottleneck, increasing its
capacity, or connecting additional devices to it, increases the size oI the network very
easily. Centralization also allows the inspection oI traIIic through the network. This
Iacilitates analysis oI the traIIic and detection oI suspicious behavior.
O Easy to detect Iaults and to remove parts.
O No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
O High dependence oI the system on the Iunctioning oI the central hub
O Failure oI the central hub renders the network inoperable

Mesh Topology

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Each computer is connected delicately to every other computer on the network Iorming a
O A mesh oIIers several advantages over both network topologies:
O Use oI dedicated links guarantees that each connection can carry its own data load,
thus eliminating the traIIic problems that can occur when kinks must be shared by
multiple devices.
O It is robust topology. II one link becomes unusuable, it does down the entire system.
O It provides a lot oI privacy and security as every message travels along a dedicated
line. Only the intended receipients can see the data.
O Fault tolerance and identiIication is very easy in this topology.

O As every device is connected to every device, installation and reconIiguration in mesh
topology are very diIIicult.
O A good amount oI cabling and the no. oI IO ports are required.
O It is very expensive than other topologies.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

Filename extension .html, .htm
Internet media type Text/html
Type code TEXT
UniIorm Type IdentiIier Public.html
Developed by World Wide Web Consortium & WHATWG
Type oI Iormat Markup language
Extended Iorm SGML
Extended to XHTML
Standards ISO/ IEC 15445
W3cHTML 4.01
W3cHTML5 (draIt)

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the predominant markup language Ior web
pages. HTML elements are the basic building-blocks oI webpages.

HTML is written in the Iorm oI HTML elements consisting oI tags, enclosed in angle
brackets (like html~), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in
pairs like h1~ and /h1~, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, Ior
example img~. The Iirst tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are
also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text,
tags, comments, and other types oI text-based content.

A web browser reads HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages.
The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content oI the
page. HTML elements Iorm the building blocks oI all websites. HTML allows images and
objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive Iorms. It provides a means to
create structured documents by denoting structural semantics Ior text such as headings,
paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as
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JavaScript which aIIect the behavior oI HTML webpages. Web browsers can also reIer to
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to deIine the appearance and layout oI text and other material.
The W3C, maintainer oI both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use oI CSS
over explicitly presentational HTML markup.

HTML markup consists oI several key components, including elements (and their attributes),
character-based data types, character references and entity references. Another important
component is the document type declaration, which triggers standards mode rendering.

HTML documents are composed entirely oI HTML elements that, in their most general Iorm
have three components: a pair oI 9,8, a "start tag" and "end tag"; some ,997-:908within the
start tag; and Iinally, any textual and graphical content between the start and end tags,
perhaps including other nested elements. The HTML element is everything between and
including the start and end tags. Each tag is enclosed in angle brackets. The general Iorm oI
an HTML element is thereIore: tag attribute1"value1" attribute2"value2"~content/tag~.

Most oI the attributes oI an element are name-value pairs, separated by "" and written within
the start tag oI an element aIter the element's name. The value may be enclosed in single or
double quotes, although values consisting oI certain characters can be leIt unquoted in HTML
(but not XHTML).

There are several common attributes that may appear in many elements:
O The id attribute provides a document-wide unique identiIier Ior an element. This is
used to identiIy the element so that stylesheets can alter its presentational properties,
and scripts may alter, animate or delete its contents or presentation. Appended to the
URL oI the page, it provides a globally unique identiIier Ior the element, typically a
sub-section oI the page. For example, the ID "Attributes" in
O The class attribute provides a way oI classiIying similar elements. This can be used
Ior semantic or presentation purposes. For example, an HTML document might
semantically use the designation class"notation" to indicate that all elements with
this class value are subordinate to the main text oI the document. In presentation, such
elements might be gathered together and presented as Iootnotes on a page instead oI
appearing in the place where they occur in the HTML source. Class attributes are used
semantically in microIormats. Multiple class values may be speciIied; Ior example
class"notation important" puts the element into both the 'notation' and the 'important'
O An author may use the style attribute to assign presentational properties to a particular
element. It is considered better practice to use an element's id or class attributes to
select the element Irom within a stylesheet, though sometimes this can be too
cumbersome Ior a simple, speciIic, or ad hoc styling.
O The title attribute is used to attach subtextual explanation to an element. In most
browsers this attribute is displayed as a tooltip.
O The lang attribute identiIies the natural language oI the element's contents, which may
be diIIerent Irom that oI the rest oI the document. For example, in an English-
language document:
p~Oh well, span lang"Ir"~c'est la vie/span~, as they say in France./p~
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Character and entity references
As oI version 4.0, HTML deIines a set oI 252 character entity reIerences and a set oI
1,114,050 numeric character reIerences, both oI which allow individual characters to be
written via simple markup, rather than literally.

A literal character and its markup counterpart are considered equivalent and are rendered
identically. The ability to "escape" characters in this way allows Ior the characters and &
(when written as < and &, respectively) to be interpreted as character data, rather than
markup. For example, a literal normally indicates the start oI a tag, and & normally
indicates the start oI a character entity reIerence or numeric character reIerence; writing it as
& or & or & allows & to be included in the content oI an element or in
the value oI an attribute. The double-quote character ("), when not used to quote an attribute
value, must also be escaped as " or " or " when it appears within the
attribute value itselI. Equivalently, the single-quote character ('), when used to quote an
attribute value, must also be escaped as ' or ' (not as ' except in XHTML
documents|55| ) when it appears within the attribute value itselI. II document authors
overlook the need to escape such characters, some browsers can be very Iorgiving and try to
use context to guess their intent.
ata types
HTML deIines several data types Ior element content, such as script data and stylesheet data,
and a plethora oI types Ior attribute values, including IDs, names, URIs, numbers, units oI
length, languages, media descriptors, colors, character encodings, dates and times, and so on.
All oI these data types are specializations oI character data.

ocument type declaration
HTML documents are required to start with a Document Type Declaration (inIormally, a
"doctype"). In browsers, the doctype helps to deIine the rendering modeparticularly
whether to use quirks mode.

The original purpose oI the doctype was to enable parsing and validation oI HTML
documents by SGML tools based on the Document Type DeIinition (DTD). The DTD to
which the DOCTYPE reIers contains a machine-readable grammar speciIying the permitted
and prohibited content Ior a document conIorming to such a DTD. Browsers, on the other
hand, do not implement HTML as an application oI SGML and by consequence do not read
the DTD. HTML5 does not deIine a DTD, because oI the technology's inherent limitations,
so in HTML5 the doctype declaration, !doctype html~, does not reIer to a DTD. An
example oI an HTML 4 doctype is


Semantic HTML
Semantic HTML is a way oI writing HTML that emphasizes the meaning oI the encoded
inIormation over its presentation (look). HTML has included semantic markup Irom its
inception,|57| but has also included presentational markup such as Iont~, i~ and center~
tags. There are also the semantically neutral span and div tags. Since the late 1990s when
Cascading Style Sheets were beginning to work in most browsers, web authors have been
encouraged to avoid the use oI presentational HTML markup with a view to the separation oI
presentation and content.
Inteinet, BTNL anu Computei Netwoik

age | 16

HTML documents can be delivered by the same means as any other computer Iile. However,
they are most oIten delivered either by HTTP Irom a web server or by email.

The World Wide Web is composed primarily oI HTML documents transmitted Irom web
servers to web browsers using the Hypertext TransIer Protocol (HTTP). However, HTTP is
used to serve images, sound, and other content, in addition to HTML. To allow the Web
browser to know how to handle each document it receives, other inIormation is transmitted
along with the document. This meta data usually includes the MIME type (e.g. text/html or
application/xhtmlxml) and the character encoding (see Character encoding in HTML).

HTML e-mail
Most graphical email clients allow the use oI a subset oI HTML (oIten ill-deIined) to provide
Iormatting and semantic markup not available with plain text. This may include typographic
inIormation like coloured headings, emphasized and quoted text, inline images and diagrams.
Many such clients include both a GUI editor Ior composing HTML e-mail messages and a
rendering engine Ior displaying them. Use oI HTML in e-mail is controversial because oI
compatibility issues, because it can help disguise phishing attacks, because it can conIuse
spam Iilters and because the message size is larger than plain text.

Naming conventions
The most common Iilename extension Ior Iiles containing HTML is .html. A common
abbreviation oI this is .htm, which originated because some early operating systems and Iile
systems, such as DOS and FAT, limited Iile extensions to three letters.

HTML pplication
An HTML Application (HTA; Iile extension ".hta") is a MicrosoIt Windows application that
uses HTML and Dynamic HTML in a browser to provide the application's graphical
interIace. A regular HTML Iile is conIined to the security model oI the web browser,
communicating only to web servers and manipulating only webpage objects and site cookies.
An HTA runs as a Iully trusted application and thereIore has more privileges, like
creation/editing/removal oI Iiles and Windows Registry entries. Because they operate outside
the browser's security model, HTAs cannot be executed via HTTP, but must be downloaded
(just like an EXE Iile) and executed Irom local Iile system.

Inteinet, BTNL anu Computei Netwoik

age | 17

W Miller, Michaeil, Absolute Beginner`s Guide to Computer Basics, FiIth Edition,
Pearson Education, Inc., pg 202
W IT & Systems-I, ICFAI University Press, 2003, pg 46, 47, 50
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W, 04:35 am, 19-11-2011

W Hyslop, Bruce, The HTML PocketGuide, Peach Pit Press
W Wikibook - HTML
W, 09:00 am, 19-11-2011

Computer Network and Network Typology
W O`Brien, James A., Management InIormation Systems (Tata McGraw-Hill, 1999) pg
W Goel, Ritendra and Kakar, D.N., Aomputer Applications in Management, New Age
International Publications, 2003, pg 296-298
W network, 04:00 am, 19-11-2011
W network, 04:02 am, 19-11-2011
W network, 04:05 am, 19-11-2011
W network, 04:08 am, 19-11-2011