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Criza din Libia I. Humanitarian Crisis and Civil War I. criz umanitar i Rzboiul Civil II. Al II-lea.

Responding to the Crisis Rspunsul la criza a. a. Regional and Sub-regional Response Regional i sub-regionale de raspuns b. b. The UN Response ONU de rspuns c. c. Civil Society Response Societatea civil de rspuns d. d. Justice and Accountability - the role of the ICC Justiie i responsabilitate rolul Curii Penale Internaionale III. III. Ongoing Debates: The Future of Libya Dezbateri n curs de desfurare: Viitorul Libia The situation in Libya, with clear gradual implementation of diplomatic, economic, humanitarian, and coercive means, showed that (in the words of Ramesh Thakur), R2P is coming closer to being solidified as an actionable norm. A turning point in the response to mass atrocities; the debate among Member States around the situation in Libya was not on whether to act to protect civilians from mass atrocities but how best to protect the Libyan population. Situaia din Libia, cu punerea n aplicare treptat clare de mijloace diplomatice, economice, umanitare, i coercitive, a artat c (n cuvintele lui Ramesh Thakur), "R2P se apropie de a fi solidificat ca o norm de atac." Un punct de cotitur n ca rspuns la atrociti n mas; dezbatere ntre statele membre n jurul valorii de situaia din Libia nu a fost dac s acioneze pentru a proteja civilii de la atrocitile n mas, dar cum cel mai bine pentru a proteja populaia libian. The swift and decisive action of the international community demonstrated how Member States prioritized the protection of civilians and acknowledged their commitment to the RtoP principles agreed to in 2005. O aciune rapid i decisiv a comunitii internaionale a demonstrat modul n care statele membre prioritate protecia civililor i a recunoscut angajamentul lor fa de principiile RtoP convenite n 2005. However historic and unanimous the reaction of the international community was in the face of imminent mass atrocities, the threat to the population of Libya remains. Cu toate acestea istorice i unanim reacie a comunitii internaionale a fost n faa atrocitilor n mas iminent, ameninarea la adresa populaiei din Libia rmne. Governments, regional institutions, and the UN must remain engaged and united in their efforts to protect civilians from the deteriorating humanitarian situation. Guvernele, instituiile regionale i ONU trebuie s rmn implicat i unii n eforturile lor de a proteja civilii de situaia umanitar de deteriorare. I. Humanitarian Crisis and Civil War I. criz umanitar i Rzboiul Civil Political protests demanding an end to Muammar Gaddafi's 41-year reign began on February 15, 2011 in the capital of Tripoli and spread across the North African state, ultimately descending into a civil war. Proteste politice exigente capt Muammar Gaddafi este de 41 de ani de domnie a nceput pe 15 februarie 2011 n capitala Tripoli i rspndite n toat stat din Africa de Nord, n cele din urm descendent ntr-un rzboi civil. The government of Libya responded

forcefully by dispatching the national army to crush the unrest. Guvernul din Libia a rspuns prin trimiterea de for armat naional s-i zdrobeasc nelinite. Gaddafi, in a speech broadcasted on February 22, 2011, said he would rather die a martyr than to step down, and called on his supporters to attack and cleanse Libya house by house until protestors surrendered. Gaddafi, ntr-un discurs difuzat pe 22 februarie, 2011, a declarat c mai degrab ar muri ca un martir dect s demisioneze, i a cerut susintorilor si s atace i s "curee Libia din cas n cas" pn la protestatari restituite. Across Libya, members of the government, military, tribal leaders, and army units defected and joined the opposition. Peste Libia, membrii guvernului, lideri militari, tribale, i unitile armatei defectat i sa alturat opoziiei. An interim opposition government was established on February 26, 2011 under the leadership of former Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil, the first government official to break ties with Gaddafi. Un guvern interimar de opoziie a fost stabilit pe 26 februarie 2011 sub conducerea fostului ministru al Justiiei Mustafa Abdul Jalil, oficial primul guvern s rup legturile cu Gaddafi. The government, which was renamed the Transitional National Council, officially met for the first time on March 5 and was recognized as the legitimate ruling body of Libya by states such as France and Qatar . Guvernul, care a fost redenumit Consiliul Naional de Tranziie, oficial sa ntlnit pentru prima dat n 5 martie i a fost recunoscut ca organism de guvernmnt legitim din Libia de ctre state, cum ar fi Frana i Qatar . The European Union also recognized the Council, and as of March 12, 2011 the Arab League stated it would cooperate with the Interim government and was in discussions to possibly recognize the Council as the legitimate government of Libya. Uniunea European, de asemenea, a recunoscut Consiliului, i ca din 12 martie 2011, Liga Arab a declarat c va coopera cu guvernul interimar i a fost n discuii s recunoasc, eventual, Consiliului ca guvernul legitim al Libiei. The uprising, which was reported as the bloodiest yet against a long-term ruler in the Middle East, caused a domestic and regional humanitarian crisis. Revolta, care a fost raportat ca cel mai sngeros mpotriva nc un conducator pe termen lung n Orientul Mijlociu, a provocat o criz intern i regional umanitar. On 24 March, the Human Rights Council announced that the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances expressed deep concern that, hundreds of persons have been taken to undisclosed locations where they might have been submitted to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatments or executed. La 24 martie, Consiliul Drepturilor Omului a anunat c Grupul de lucru privind dispariiile forate sau involuntare a exprimat ngrijorarea profund c, "sute de persoane au fost luate n locaii care nu trebuie divulgate n cazul n care acestea ar fi fost supuse la tortur sau alte tratamente crude, inumane sau degradante executat ". NATO reported on April 6 that forces loyal to Gaddafi were using human shields in the city of Misrata, and had hidden weapons in civilian areas. NATO a raportat pe 6 aprilie ca fortele loiale Gaddafi au fost folosind scuturi umane n oraul Misrata, i a avut arme ascunse n zonele civile.

Meanwhile, Luis Moreno-Ocampo's ICC investigation into Libya found evidence that the killing of civilians was a pre-determined plan to quash the protests. ntre timp, Luis Moreno Ocampo a CPI-anchet n Libia descoperit dovezi c uciderea civililor a fost un plan de pre-determinat s anuleze aciunile de protest. OCHA reported in June 2011 that over 650,000 people had fled to neighboring countries, with an additional 243,000 people remaining internally displaced due to the fighting, as reported by UNHCR on 24 June. OCHA a raportat n iunie 2011 c peste 650.000 de persoane au fugit n rile vecine, cu o suplimentare de 243 de mii de persoane rmase intern deplasate din cauza luptelor, astfel cum a raportat UNHCR de la 24 iunie. The indiscriminate and widespread use of force by Gaddafi's government against the Libyan population clearly turned the situation into one where human rights violations constituted crimes against humanity, one of the crimes included in the RtoP framework. Nediscriminatorie i utilizarea pe scar larg a forei de ctre guvern Gaddafi mpotriva populaiei libiene avansat n mod clar situaia n care ntr-o singur nclcare a drepturilor omului a constituit crime mpotriva umanitii, una dintre crime sunt incluse n cadrul RtoP. II. Al II-lea. Responding to the Crisis Rspunsul la criza a. a. Regional and Sub-regional Response Regional i sub-regionale de raspuns The African Union Uniunea African The African Union (AU) on 10 March 2011 denounced that the violence posed "a serious threat to peace and security in that country and in the region as a whole, as well as to the safety and dignity of Libyans and of the migrant workers, notably the African ones, living in Libya". Uniunea African (UA) la 10 martie 2011 a denunat faptul c violena reprezentat "o ameninare grav la adresa pcii i securitii n aceast ar i n regiune n ansamblul su, precum i pentru sigurana i demnitatea de Libienii i a lucrtorilor migrani, n special cele din Africa, care triesc n Libia ". While AU Member States called for the creation of a High-Level Committee on Libya to engage with all parties and facilitate dialogue, they expressly rejected any form of foreign military intervention. n timp ce statele membre UA a cerut crearea a unui Comitet la nivel nalt privind Libia s se angajeze toate prile, cu i de a facilita dialogul, ei au respins n mod expres orice form de intervenie militar strin. On 25 March the African Union met with a delegation of the Libyan government where a Roadmap for a political solution was adopted, including the adoption and implementation of political reforms necessary to meet the aspirations of the Libyan people, initiation of a political dialogue between the Libyan parties in order to arrive at an agreement on the modalities for ending crisis, and the establishment and management of an inclusive transnational period. Beyond its efforts at a calling for a political solution, the African Union was criticized, including by Rwandan president Paul Kagame and former minister for Trade and Industry of Kenya Dr. La 25 martie, Uniunea African sa ntlnit cu o delegaie a guvernului libian n cazul n care o foaie de parcurs pentru o soluie

politic a fost adoptat, inclusiv "adoptarea i punerea n aplicare a reformelor politice necesare pentru a ndeplini aspiraiile poporului libian", "iniierea unui dialog politic ntre pri libian pentru a se ajunge la un acord cu privire la modalitile de ncetare de criz ", i" crearea i gestionarea unei perioade de transnaionale inclusive "Dincolo de eforturile sale de la o chemare pentru o soluie politic., Uniunea African a fost criticat, inclusiv de ctre preedintele rwandez Paul Kagame i ex-ministrul pentru Comer i Industrie din Kenya Dr. Mukhisa Kituyi , for a slow and weak response to the Libyan crisis. Mukhisa Kituyi , pentru un rspuns lent i slab la criza din Libia. The African Court on Human and People's Rights issued its first ruling against a state and announced on 31 March that it had declared that massive human rights violations had been carried out by the Gaddafi regime. Curii Africane a Drepturilor Omului i Popular a emis hotrri primul su mpotriva unui stat i a anunat la 31 martie c a declarat c "nclcrilor masive ale drepturilor omului" au fost efectuate de ctre regimul Gaddafi. The court issued an order for provisional measures which declared that the government must refrain from action that would violate human rights or result in deaths, and required the regime to appear before the court within 15 days to explain what measures it has taken to abide with the Court's order. Instana de judecat a emis un "ordin de msuri provizorii", care a declarat c guvernul trebuie s se abin de la aciuni care ar nclca drepturile omului sau rezultat n decese, i a cerut regimului s se prezinte n faa instanei n termen de 15 zile pentru a explica ceea ce msurile pe care le-a luat s respecte cu obligarea Curii. In response to the ruling, Human Rights Watch stated that the African Union should now work to ensure that Libya abides by the order of the Court. Ca rspuns la hotrrea, Human Rights Watch a declarat c Uniunea African ar trebui s lucreze acum pentru a se asigura c respect Libia prin ordin al Curii. The Arab League Liga Arab Statements by regional and sub-regional bodies were crucial for the international community to move forward with stronger measures to protect civilians, especially after indications by Western countries and NATO that they would not move forward with coercive options without approval from regional organizations. Declaraiile de organismele regionale i sub-regionale, au fost cruciale pentru comunitatea internaional pentru a merge mai departe cu msuri mai puternice pentru a proteja civilii, n special dup indicaiile de ctre rile occidentale i NATO c nu vor merge mai departe cu optiuni coercitive fr aprobarea din partea organizaiilor regionale. The Arab League took a strong position against the use of force by the Gaddafi regime, and at a meeting on March 3 suspended Libya from the League and began to consider imposing a 'no-fly zone'. Liga Arab a luat o poziie puternic mpotriva utilizrii forei de ctre regimul Gaddafi, i la o reuniune pe 3 martie suspendat Libia din Liga i a nceput s ia n considerare de instituire a unui "nofly zone". The Arab League convened an extraordinary session on 12 March

2011. Liga Arab a convocat o sesiune extraordinar la data de 12 martie 2011. It called on the Security Council to bear its responsibilitiesand to take the necessary measures to impose immediately a no-fly zone on Libyan military aviation, and to establish safe areas in places exposed to shelling as a precautionary measure that allows the protection of the Libyan people and foreign nationals residing in Libya, while respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of neighboring States. Acesta "a solicitat Consiliului de Securitate s suporte responsabilitile sale ... i s ia msurile necesare pentru a impune imediat o zon nu-acoperi privind aviaia militar libiene, i s stabileasc zone sigure n locuri expuse la decojirea ca o msur de precauie care permite protejarea poporul libian i cetenii strini cu reedina n Libia, respectnd n acelai timp suveranitatea i integritatea teritorial a statelor vecine ". It also indicated that it would cooperate with the Transitional National Council of Libya and coordinate with the UN, African Union, Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) as well as the EU, and called on all States, international organization and international civil society to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the people of Libya. Este indicat, de asemenea c va coopera cu Consiliul Naional de Tranziie din Libia i coordonarea cu Organizaia Naiunilor Unite, Uniunea African, a Conferinei Islamice (OIC), precum i UE, i a invitat toate statele, organizaiile internaionale i societatea civil internaional, pentru a furnizeze asisten umanitar de urgen pentru oamenii din Libia. The Gulf Cooperation Council met on 7 March 2011 and expressed in a statement that the UN Security Council take all necessary measures to protect civilians, including enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya, and also condemned the "crimes committed against civilians, the use of heavy arms and the recruitment of mercenaries" by the Libyan regime. Consiliul de Cooperare al Golfului sa ntlnit la data de 7 martie 2011 i-a exprimat ntr-o declaraie c "Consiliul de Securitate ONU s ia toate msurile necesare pentru a proteja civilii, inclusiv impunerea unei zone fr acoperi peste Libia", i a condamnat de asemenea crimele "comise mpotriva civililor, utilizarea de arme grele i recrutarea de mercenari ", de ctre regimul libian. Implementation of Resolution 1973 Punerea n aplicare a Rezoluiei 1973 NATO assumed overall responsibility for the UN-mandated mission on 27 March, and stated that it will implement all aspects of Security Council Resolution 1973 as the mission's goal is to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat from the Gaddafi regime. NATO a asumat ntreaga responsabilitate pentru misiune sub mandat ONU la 27 martie, i a declarat c va pune n aplicare toate aspectele legate de Rezoluia Consiliului de Securitate 1973, cu scopul misiunii este de a proteja civilii i zonele populate civile sub ameninare din partea regimului Gaddafi. Leaders from 35 governments and NGOs met in London on 29 March to discuss implementation of Resolution 1973 as well as the humanitarian needs and political future of Libya. Lideri din

35 de guverne i ONG-uri sa ntlnit la Londra la 29 martie pentru a discuta despre punerea n aplicare a Rezoluiei 1973, precum i nevoilor umanitare i viitorul politic al Libiei. Conference participants agreed that Gaddafi's government had completely lost legitimacy and must be held accountable for its brutal use of force. Participanii la conferin au fost de acord c guvernul Gaddafi a avut pierdut complet legitimitatea i trebuie s fie trai la rspundere pentru utilizarea brutal a forei. It was agreed that a political contact group would be established to provide leadership and overall political direction to the international effort in close coordination with the UN, AU, Arab League, OIC and EU to support Libya. The Transitional National Council was also present at the London conference and issued a statement entitled A Vision of Democratic Libya which stated the Council's commitment to a civil society that recognizes intellectual and political pluralism and allows for the peaceful transition of power through legal institutions and ballot boxes; in accordance with a national constitution crafted by the people and endorsed in a referendum. The Council of Europe welcomed the adoption of UN Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973, as well as the reference to the Responsibility to Protect in both resolutions, in a 10 June 2011 document on the priorities of the EU for the 66 th Session of the General Assembly. Sa convenit c un grup de contact politic ar fi creat pentru a oferi "conducerea i direcia general politic la efortul internaional, n strns coordonare cu ONU, Uniunea African, Liga Arab, OIC i UE pentru sprijinirea Libia." Consiliul Naional de Tranziie a fost, de asemenea, prezent la conferina de la Londra i a emis o declaraie intitulat "O viziune a Democratice Libia", care sa afirmat angajamentul Consiliului de a "o societate civil care recunoate pluralismul intelectual i politic i a permite tranziia panic a puterii prin intermediul instituiilor juridice i urne de vot, n conformitate cu o constituie naional artizanale de ctre oameni i aprobat ntrun referendum. "Consiliul Europei a salutat adoptarea de Rezoluiile Consiliului de Securitate al ONU 1970 i 1973, precum i referirea la responsabilitatea de a proteja n ambele rezoluii, ntr-un 10 iunie 2011 documentul de cu privire la prioritile UE pentru cea de-a 66 sesiune a Adunrii Generale. North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Tratatului Nord-Atlantic (NATO) Two days after the Resolution was adopted, on Saturday 19 March US, French and British forces launched airstrikes against Libyan air defenses, tanks, armored personnel carriers and other military hardware in a military operation called Operation Odyssey Dawn , comprised of a coalition which ultimately included Denmark, Canada, Italy, Qatar, Belgium, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates . La dou zile dup Rezoluia a fost adoptat, smbt 19 martie american, francez i forele britanice au lansat lovituri aeriene mpotriva aprare aer libiene, tancuri, transportoare blindate de personal i alte componente hardware militare ntr-o operaiune militar numit Odyssey Zori Funcionare , compus dintr-o coaliie care n cele din urm a inclus Danemarca, Canada, Italia, Qatar, Belgia, Spania, Norvegia, Suedia,

Qatar i Emiratele Arabe Unite . On 24 March, the US announced that it was transferring command and control to NATO , whose mandate remained limited to the no-fly zone although it could also act in self-defense, in cooperation with other states in the wider coalition. La 24 martie, SUA a anunat c a fost transferul de comand i de control la NATO , al crui mandat a rmas limitat la zona nu-acoperi, dei aceasta ar putea aciona, de asemenea, n auto-aprare, n cooperare cu alte state n coaliie mai larg. Other measures by States Alte msuri de ctre statele States including the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Canada, also displayed strong political will to react quickly to the humanitarian crisis in Libya and took unilateral actions against Gaddafi, such as freezing financial assets, and imposing travel bans and sanctions. Membre, inclusiv Marea Britanie, Elveia, Canada i, de asemenea, afiat o voin politic puternic de a reaciona rapid la criza umanitar din Libia i a luat aciuni unilaterale mpotriva Gaddafi, cum ar fi nghearea activelor financiare, i de impunere a interdicii de cltorie i sanciuni. France, the United Kingdom, and Lebanon had a strong role in drafting Security Council Resolution 1973, and on March 13, the Security Council began deliberations on the issue of implementing a no-fly zone over a draft resolution submitted by France and the UK. Frana, Regatul Unit, i Liban, a avut un rol important n elaborarea Rezoluia Consiliului de Securitate 1973, iar pe 13 martie, Consiliul de Securitate a nceput deliberrile cu privire la problema de punere n aplicare a unei zone nu-zbura deasupra unui proiect de rezoluie prezentat de Frana i Marea Britanie. b. b. The UN Response ONU de rspuns The international response to crisis was firm and swift, with action being taken in a shorter period of time than ever before in a mass atrocity situation. Rspunsul internaional la criz a fost ferm i rapid, cu aciunile ntreprinse ntro perioad mai scurt de timp dect oricnd nainte de a ntr-o situaie atrocitate n mas. On February 22, 2011 the UN Secretary-General Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide and Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect issued a press release on the situation in Libya in which they reminded the Libyan government of its responsibility to protect its population and called for an immediate end to the violence. La 22 februarie 2011, Secretarul General al ONU Consilier Special pentru Prevenirea Genocidului i consilier special privind responsabilitatea de a proteja a emis un comunicat de pres privind situaia din Libia, n care au reamintit guvernului libian de responsabilitatea de a proteja populaia i a solicitat pentru ncetarea imediat a violenelor. The Human Rights Council (HRC) met on February 25 and opened a Special Session on the situation of human rights in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The Council adopted Resolution S-15/2 which called for the Libyan government to cease all human rights violations; an international commission of inquiry to be

established; and recommended that the General Assembly suspend Libya from the Council. Consiliul pentru Drepturile Omului (CDO) sa ntlnit la 25 februarie i a deschis o sesiune special privind "situaia drepturilor omului n Jamahirie Arab Libian." Consiliul a adoptat Rezoluia S-15 / 2 , care a solicitat guvernului libian s nceteze toate drepturile omului nclcri; o comisie internaional de anchet care urmeaz s fie stabilite, i a recomandat ca Adunarea General s suspende Libia din partea Consiliului. In response to HRC Resolution S-15/2, the General Assembly unanimously suspended Libya's membership to the Council on March 1, 2011. Ca rspuns la HRC Rezoluia S15 / 2, Adunarea General n unanimitate, suspendat de membru Libiei de a Consiliului de la 1 martie 2011. The HRC named the high-level panel on March 11, with the responsibility of gathering evidence and testimonies for a full report to the Council in June 2011. CDO a numit panoul de nivel nalt din 11 martie, cu responsabilitatea de strangerea de dovezi i mrturii pentru un raport complet ctre Consiliu n iunie 2011. The Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1970 on February 26 which, in addition to imposing an embargo and financial sanctions, made reference to Libya's responsibility to protect and referred the situation to the International Criminal Court for investigation into reports of crimes against humanity. Consiliul de Securitate a adoptat n unanimitate Rezoluia 1970 la 26 februarie, care, n plus fa de impunerea unui embargo i sanciuni financiare, a fcut referire la Libiei de "responsabilitatea de a proteja" i a trimis situaia la Tribunalul Penal Internaional pentru investigaii n rapoartele de crime mpotriva umanitii. The Prosecutor of the ICC, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, decided on March 2, 2011 to launch an investigation after a preliminary examination of available information. Procurorul CPI, Luis Moreno Ocampo-, a decis la 02 martie 2011 s lanseze o anchet, dup o examinare preliminar a informaiilor disponibile. This announcement was an unexpectedly quick reaction, while prosecutors often take months to announce such a decision. Acest anun a fost o reacie neateptat de rapid, n timp ce procurorii iau adesea luni pentru a anuna o astfel de decizie. The Secretary-General appointed former Foreign Minister of Jordan, Abdelilah Al-Khatib, to the position of special envoy to Libya on March 5 in an effort to address the humanitarian crisis and prepare for a transition of power. Secretarul-general numit fostul ministru de Externe al Iordaniei, Abdelilah Al-Khatib, la poziia de trimis special la Libia pe 5 martie, ntr-un efort de a aborda criza umanitar i s se pregteasc pentru o tranziie de putere. Security Council Passage of Landmark Resolution 1973 Pasajul de Securitate Rezoluia Consiliului din Landmark 1973 In follow-up to Resolution 1970, the Security Council met on 17 March to confront the increasing threat to populations and voted on Resolution 1973 , calling for a no-fly zone as well as a ceasefire. n follow-up la Rezoluia 1970, Consiliul de Securitate sa ntlnit la 17 martie s se confrunte cu ameninri n

cretere a populaiei i au votat n Rezoluia 1973 , de asteptare pentru o zon nu-acoperi, precum i o ncetare a focului. The comprehensive resolution also included provisions for a more robust arms embargo and called for travel bans and asset freezes on additional Libyan individuals, companies, banks and other entities. Rezoluia complet a inclus, de asemenea, dispoziii pentru un embargo asupra armelor mai robust i a solicitat pentru interdicii de cltorie i a blocrii de conturi asupra persoanelor fizice suplimentare Libiei, companii, bnci i alte entiti. Notable sections of the resolution included: Seciunile notabile din rezoluie incluse: -Reiterating the responsibility of the Libyan authorities to protect the Libyan population and reaffirming that parties to armed conflicts bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians, Reiternd responsabilitatea autoritilor libiene de a proteja populaia libiene i reafirmnd faptul c prile la conflictele armate poart responsabilitatea primar de a lua toate msurile posibile pentru a asigura protecia civililor, -Considering that the widespread and systematic attacks currently taking place in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya against the civilian population may amount to crimes against humanity. Avnd n vedere c atacurile sistematice i pe scar larg loc n prezent n Jamahirie Arab Libian mpotriva populaiei civile poate ajunge la crime mpotriva umanitii. - Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, () to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack () while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory, and requests the Member States concerned to inform the Secretary-General immediately of the measures they take() Autorizeaz statele membre care au notificat Secretarului General, care acioneaz la nivel naional sau prin intermediul organizaiilor regionale sau aranjamente, i acionnd n cooperare cu Secretarul General, s ia toate msurile necesare, (...) pentru a proteja civilii i zonele populate civile sub ameninarea unui atac (...), excluznd n acelai timp o for de ocupaie strin de orice form cu privire la orice parte a teritoriului libanez, i solicit statelor membre n cauz s informeze Secretarul General imediat cu privire la msurile pe care le iau (...) Secretary General Ban Ki-moon issued a statement immediately after the meeting highlighting the historic decision achieved by the council and his expectation for immediate action. Secretarul General Ban Ki-moon, a emis o declaraie imediat dup ntlnirea subliniind decizia istoric realizate de ctre consiliu i ateptrile sale pentru o aciune imediat. He said that Resolution 1973 affirms, clearly and unequivocally, the international community's determination to fulfill its responsibility to protect civilians from violence perpetrated upon them by their own government. El a spus c rezoluia 1973

"afirm, n mod clar i fr echivoc, hotrrea comunitii internaionale de a-i ndeplini responsabilitatea sa de a proteja civilii de la actele de violen comise asupra lor de ctre propriul guvern". Three African countries on the Security Council , Nigeria, South Africa and Gabon, supported the resolution. Trei ri africane n Consiliul de Securitate , Nigeria, Africa de Sud i Gabon, n favoarea rezoluiei. The support of Arab States led China and Russia to abstain, as well as Germany, India and Brazil. Sprijinul statelor arabe a condus China i Rusia s se abin, precum Germania, India i Brazilia. Implementation of Resolution 1973 Punerea n aplicare a Rezoluiei 1973 NATO assumed overall responsibility for the UN-mandated mission on 27 March, and stated that it will implement all aspects of Security Council Resolution 1973 as the mission's goal is to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat from the Gaddafi regime. NATO a asumat ntreaga responsabilitate pentru misiune sub mandat ONU la 27 martie, i a declarat c va pune n aplicare toate aspectele legate de Rezoluia Consiliului de Securitate 1973, cu scopul misiunii este de a proteja civilii i zonele populate civile sub ameninare din partea regimului Gaddafi. Leaders from 35 governments and NGOs met in London on 29 March to discuss implementation of Resolution 1973 as well as the humanitarian needs and political future of Libya. Lideri din 35 de guverne i ONG-uri sa ntlnit la Londra la 29 martie pentru a discuta despre punerea n aplicare a Rezoluiei 1973, precum i nevoilor umanitare i viitorul politic al Libiei. Conference participants agreed that Gaddafi's government had completely lost legitimacy and must be held accountable for its brutal use of force. Participanii la conferin au fost de acord c guvernul Gaddafi a avut pierdut complet legitimitatea i trebuie s fie trai la rspundere pentru utilizarea brutal a forei. It was agreed that a political contact group would be established to provide leadership and overall political direction to the international effort in close coordination with the UN, AU, Arab League, OIC and EU to support Libya. The Transitional National Council was also present at the London conference and issued a statement entitled A Vision of Democratic Libya which stated the Council's commitment to a civil society that recognizes intellectual and political pluralism and allows for the peaceful transition of power through legal institutions and ballot boxes; in accordance with a national constitution crafted by the people and endorsed in a referendum. The Council of Europe welcomed the adoption of UN Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973, as well as the reference to the Responsibility to Protect in both resolutions, in a 10 June 2011 document on the priorities of the EU for the 66 th Session of the General Assembly. Sa convenit c un grup de contact politic ar fi creat pentru a oferi "conducerea i direcia general politic la efortul internaional, n strns coordonare cu ONU, Uniunea African, Liga Arab, OIC i UE pentru sprijinirea Libia." Consiliul Naional de Tranziie a fost, de asemenea, prezent la conferina de la Londra i a emis o declaraie intitulat "O viziune a Democratice Libia", care sa afirmat angajamentul Consiliului de a "o

societate civil care recunoate pluralismul intelectual i politic i a permite tranziia panic a puterii prin intermediul instituiilor juridice i urne de vot, n conformitate cu o constituie naional artizanale de ctre oameni i aprobat ntrun referendum. "Consiliul Europei a salutat adoptarea de Rezoluiile Consiliului de Securitate al ONU 1970 i 1973, precum i referirea la responsabilitatea de a proteja n ambele rezoluii, ntr-un 10 iunie 2011 documentul de cu privire la prioritile UE pentru cea de-a 66 sesiune a Adunrii Generale. c. c. Civil Society Response Societatea civil de rspuns Civil society and the media responded swiftly not only by denouncing the use of brutal force by the Gaddafi regime but also referring in hundreds of articles, calls and op-eds to how this situation clearly fell under the framework of the Responsibility to Protect. Societatea civil i mass-media au rspuns rapid, nu numai prin denunarea folosirea forei brutale de ctre regimul Gaddafi, dar, de asemenea, referindu-se n sute de articole, solicit i op-eds la modul n care aceast situaie n mod clar a czut n cadrul de responsabilitatea de a proteja. See some of the following calls for action: A se vedea unele din urmtoarele apeluri de aciune: 22 representatives from NGOs signed an urgent call to stop atrocities in Libya and reminded world leaders of their Responsibility to Protect on 20 February 2011 22 de reprezentani ai ONG-urilor au semnat un apel de urgen pentru a opri atrocitile din Libia i a reamintit liderilor lumii de responsabilitatea de a proteja pe 20 februarie 2011 Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a number of articles, among them Libya: Governments Should Demand End to Unlawful Killings on 20 February 2011, Libya: Africa's Rights Body Should Act Now on 25 February 2011, and End Violent Crackdown in Tripoli on 13 March 2011 Human Rights Watch (HRW) a lansat un numr de articole, printre care Libia: Guvernele ar trebui s cear nchiderea la omoruri ilegale la 20 februarie 2011, Libia: Corp din Africa de drepturile trebuie s acioneze acum la 25 februarie 2011, i nchiderea represiunii violente n Tripoli , la 13 martie 2011 International Crisis Group (ICG) authored numerous reports, among them Immediate International Steps Needed to Stop Atrocities in Libya on 22 February 2011 and A Ceasefire and Negotiations is the Right Way to Resolve the Libya Crisis on 10 March 2011 International Crisis Group (ICG), autor numeroase rapoarte, printre care msuri imediate International necesare pentru a stopa atrocitile din Libia , la 22 februarie 2011 i o ncetare a focului i negocieri este modalitatea corecta de a soluiona criza Libia la 10 martie 2011 Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect wrote a Letter to the Security Council on 3 March 2011 and released an Open Statement on the Situation In Libya on 22 February 2011 Centrul Global pentru responsabilitatea de a

proteja scris o scrisoare catre Consiliul de Securitate la data de 3 martie 2011 i lansat o Declaraie Deschidei privire la situaia din Libia pe 22 februarie 2011 Genocide Alert issued a press release requesting the German government to advocate for sanctions as well as a no-fly zone within the Security Council and European Union on 24 February 2011 Alarma Genocidul a emis un comunicat de pres care solicit guvernului german de a pleda pentru sanciuni, precum i o zon nu-acoperi n cadrul Consiliului de Securitate i a Uniunii Europene la 24 februarie 2011 Amnesty International (AI) released an article Fears Grow for Libya Migrants as Thousands flee and issued report Libya: Detainees, disappeared and missing' on 29 March 2011 Amnesty International (AI) a publicat un articol Temerile Crestere pentru Migrani Libia ca Mii de fug i a emis un raport Libia: Deinuii, a disprut i lips " pe 29 martie 2011 Human Rights Network- Uganda (HURINET) wrote an open letter calling for up scaling the Responsibility to Protect Mechanism in Libya on 28 March 2011 Drepturile Omului de reea-Uganda (HURINET) a scris o scrisoare deschis de asteptare pentru scalarea pn responsabilitatea de a proteja mecanismul n Libia la 28 martie 2011 NATO Watch released a statement calling for NATO to take action only within the UN mandate on 31 March 2011 Uita-te la NATO a lansat o declaraie de asteptare pentru ca NATO s ia msuri numai n cadrul mandatului ONU la 31 martie 2011 Institute for Security Studies wrote an analysis on the refugee situation and the Responsibility to Protect in Libya in March Institutul pentru Studii de Securitate a scris o analiz cu privire la situaia refugiailor i responsabilitatea de a proteja n Libia martie d. d. Justice and Accountability the role of the ICC Justiie i responsabilitate rolul Curii Penale Internaionale Following an investigation by the International Criminal Court (ICC), the Prosecutor requested on 16 May that arrest warrants be issued against Muammar Abu Minya Gaddafi, his son Saif Al Islam Gaddafi and the Head of the Intelligence Abdullah Al Sanousi for crimes against humanity committed in Libya during the first two weeks of the crisis. n urma unei anchete de ctre Curtea Penal Internaional (CPI), procurorul a solicitat la 16 mai c mandate de arestare s fie emis mpotriva Muammar Abu Minya Gaddafi, fiul lui Saif Al Islam Gaddafi i eful de Abdullah Al Intelligence Sanousi pentru crime mpotriva umanitii comise n Libia n timpul primelor dou sptmni de criz. Evidence from the investigation conducted by the ICC showed that civilians were attacked in their homes; demonstrations were repressed using live ammunition, heavy artillery was used against participants in funeral processions, and snipers placed to kill those leaving the mosques after the prayers. Furthermore, the evidence showed that Gaddafi is continuing to persecute

civilians in areas under his control. Dovezile din cadrul anchetei efectuate de ctre CPI a artat c "civili au fost atacai n casele lor; demonstraii au fost reprimate care folosesc muniie vii, artilerie grea a fost folosit mpotriva participanilor la procesiuni funerare, i plasat lunetisti pentru a ucide cei care prsesc moschei dup rugciunile." Mai mult , elementele de prob au artat c Gaddafi continu s persecute civililor n zonele aflate sub controlul su. A report submitted to the Human Rights Council (HRC) on 1 June by the International Commission of Inquiry, stated that Libyan government and opposition forces committed crimes against humanity and war crimes since the start of the crisis. Un raport prezentat Consiliului pentru Drepturile Omului (CDO), la 1 iunie de ctre Comisia internaional de anchet, a declarat c guvernul libian i forele de opoziie au comis crime mpotriva umanitii i crime de rzboi de la nceputul crizei. The Commission stated that the government committed acts that fall under crimes against humanity including murder, torture, enforced disappearance and sexual abuse. Comisia a afirmat c guvernul svrit fapte care intr sub incidena crimelor mpotriva umanitii, inclusiv omucidere, tortur, dispariii forate i a abuzului sexual. Violations amounting to war crimes include intentionally attacking protect persons and targets such as civilians and medical units. nclcarea n valoare de crime de rzboi includ n mod intenionat atac a proteja persoanele i obiective, cum ar fi civililor i unitilor medicale. The Commission received fewer reports relating to human rights violations carried out by opposition forces; however the report concluded that the opposition did commit some acts which would constitute war crimes. Comisia a primit mai putine rapoarte cu privire la nclcri ale drepturilor omului desfurate de forele de opoziie, cu toate acestea, raportul a concluzionat c opoziia a svrit unor acte care ar putea constitui crime de rzboi. As of 8 June investigators for the ICC were in the process of gathering evidence into allegations that the Libyan government used rape as a weapon of war against the opposition. Ca din 8 iunie, anchetatorii TPI s-au n procesul de colectare a probelor n acuzaiile c guvernul libian violul utilizat ca arm de rzboi mpotriva opoziiei. Reports claimed that large quantities of drugs had been provided to soldiers in an attempt to make them more likely to commit sexual assault. Rapoartele a susinut c cantitile mari de medicamente au fost furnizate de soldai ntr-o ncercare de a le face mult mai probabil s comit agresiuni sexuale. The ICC issued three arrest warrants for crimes against humanity for Gaddafi, his son, and his spy chief on 27 June, in accordance with the Prosecutor's May request. CPI a emis trei mandate de arestare pentru crime impotriva umanitatii pentru Gaddafi, fiul su, i a efului su spion la 27 iunie, n conformitate cu procurorul pot solicita. The Court's actions were rejected by the African Union in its Summit Declarations published following the completion of the 17 th Summit held in Equatorial Guinea, as the AU stated that the warrants complicate

efforts to find a political resolution. Aciunile Curii au fost respinse de ctre Uniunea African n Declaraiile Summit-ul su publicat dup ncheierea Summit-ului data de 17 a avut loc n Guineea Ecuatorial, ca UA a declarat c mandatele complica eforturile de a gsi o rezoluie politic. Furthermore, the AU's Chairman, Jean Ping, called the Court 'discriminatory' and the Union recommended that the Member States not cooperate with the warrant. n plus, preedintele Uniunii Africane, Jean Ping, numit Curii "discriminatorii", i Uniunea recomandat ca statele membre care nu coopereaz cu mandat. III. III. Ongoing Debates: The Future of Libya Dezbateri n curs de desfurare: Viitorul Libia The indiscriminate and widespread use of force by Gaddafi's government against the Libyan population has clearly turned this situation into one where human rights violations constitute crimes against humanity, one of the crimes included in the RtoP framework. Nediscriminatorie i utilizarea pe scar larg a forei de ctre guvern Gaddafi mpotriva populaiei Libiei a transformat n mod clar aceast situaie n cazul n care ntr-o singur nclcare a drepturilor omului constituie crime mpotriva umanitii, una dintre crime sunt incluse n cadrul RtoP. The situation in Libya sparked a world-wide debate on the appropriate measures to protect populations according to Member States' commitment to the Responsibility to Protect. Situaia din Libia a strnit o dezbatere la nivel mondial cu privire la msurile corespunztoare pentru a proteja populaia n conformitate cu angajamentul statelor membre de a responsabilitii de a proteja. While the willingness from Member States to take timely action to protect civilians in Libya was welcome, questions remain about how the unfolding engagement in Libya will affect long-term support for RtoP, especially if the intervention leads to an intractable situation with additional civilian deaths. n timp ce voina de la statele membre s ia msuri n timp util pentru a proteja civilii n Libia a fost binevenit, rmn ntrebri despre modul n care angajamentul desfurarea n Libia va afecta pe termen lung de sprijin pentru RtoP, n special n cazul n care intervenia conduce la o situaie greu de rezolvat cu decese suplimentare civile. Questions have been raised about how RtoP can be applied in a consistent manner to other contexts where mass atrocities are imminent or occurring. ntrebrile la care au fost ridicate cu privire la modul n care RtoP pot fi aplicate n mod consecvent la alte contexte n cazul n care atrociti n mas sunt iminente sau apar. In this light, it is worth reiterating that 1) all states have a continuing responsibility to protect their populations from these crimes, and 2) the RtoP toolbox contains a range of measures (diplomatic, economic, political), with use of force only as a last resort. n acest sens, merit a reiterat c 1) toate statele au responsabilitatea de a continua pentru a proteja populaiile lor de la aceste crime, i 2) caseta de instrumente RtoP conine o serie de msuri (diplomatice, economice, politice), cu utilizarea forei numai ca o ultim instan.

The protection of civilians from mass atrocity crimes must remain a priority for all parties involved and for the UN as it continues to monitor the crisis. De protecie a civililor de la crime de atrocitate n mas trebuie s rmn o prioritate pentru toate prile implicate i pentru ONU, deoarece continu s monitorizeze crizei.