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LIBRARY

OF THE

University of California.
Class

HARMONIC ANALYSIS
BYFriedrich Johann

Lehmann

Professor

of Theory

in

Obej-Iin

Conservatory

of

Music^

author of

Treatise

on
in

Simple

Counterpoint

and Lessons

Harmony.

Published by

A. G. Comings

&

Son,

OBERLIN, OHIO
Copyright. 1910. by A.

Comints A Son. Oberlin. O.

PREFACE.

sis

hardly necessary to enter into a discussion as to the value of "Analyin gaining a clearer and more intelligent view of music and a keener appreciation of it. That is taken for granted by all
It is

of

Harmony and Form"

who have made

a serious study of the subject.

There are many students who have undoubted executive ability but who have no power of invention in writing music. It is for the purpose of giving students of this kind a more intelligent view of the structure of music, both as to harmony and form, that a course in the "Analysis of Harmony and Form" was inaugurated in Oberlin C.'onservatory of Music. That this was wise has been proven time and again during the eight years that it has been in use. The student becomes more intimately acquainted with the masters, their peculiarities and mannerisms, thus enabling him to give a much more intelligent interpretation of their works.

As an aid in memorizing music, analysis also has great value. It enables a student at a glance to see the harmonic and formal structure which provides him in a way with guide posts in the shape of harmonic progressions
and formal divisions
It

to lead

him

on.
to

has also been found to be an inspiration study of advanced theory and free composition.
Tt
is

some

to

continue the

analysis; that
its

not the plan of this book to cover the entire ground of iiarmonir is obviously impossible in twenty-four lessons. It is, however,

plan to present material in such a manner that after its own completion may continue the work of analysis by himself, taking up entire compositions where only excerpts have been taken and studying the peculiarities of composers and of schools. If the work has done this its object has been accomplished.
tho student
It is

ing any discussion of points in notation,

primarily a work for the class room, assigning definite lessons, avoidetc., on which there is a difference
is

of opinion, and couched in language that

not too technical.

knowledge of harmony is presupposed, nevertheless chord constructions and a few other points have been explained to some extent.

236370

tlie material to be analyzed the author has endeavored from such sources that the student may come into toucli with many different composers of different schools. Not many of the more complex of the modern compositions have been selected since a still wider experience is needed, both as an analyst and in comprehension, than a student may have at this time.
Ill

the st'loction ot
it

to gather

In the lesson on Enharmonies it was necessary to touch upon modulation before exercises containing modulations were regularly taken up. This lesson

might have been put after modulation but since neither modulation nor Altered Chords can be analyzed without involving Enharmonies it was thought
better to put that lesson in its present location.
Difficulty has been experienced in giving an exact limit to the province of the different harmonic structures, as when a chord should he considered an Attendant chord, or when an Altered chord (chord of the Augmented sixth, Neapolitan sixth, etc.,) and when a change of key has

taken place. Time value, the ear, and, not least, personal opinion have so much weight in the above that the author knows full well that no exact limits can be set to the province of these chords. Differences of opinion will also occur as to whether a change of the lowest part affects the ear as change of position of the chord; whether the passing seventh and ninth are heard as such or merely as passing tones; whether, in broken chords, several groups of tones taken together give a single chord effect or if each group represents a chord in itself, and to the above may be added many other points on which
no definite instruction can be given.
himself.

In these the individual must decide for

to

The author has endeavored to give directions that will enable the student make an intelligent analysis of such points as may be in dispute. It is

hoped however that the teacher's view will be broad enough to recognize good and reasonable solutions which have been reached without a rigid adherence to the text.
to be

Under Modulation such material has been considered as will give the student an intelligent view of this field and enable him to explain any modulations which he may meet.
It has been thought well to dwell a little more fully than is customary, on the Greek Modes, especially since they are used so frequently in modern

music.

In a few instances the exercises have been slightly altered or marked so as not to present material for analysis that is in advance of the lesson.

The
June

lessons

have been outlined primarily for use in Oberlin Conservatory

of Music.
2,

1909.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

HARMONIC ANALYSIS
ERRATA
Ex.

2nd measure 3d measure 29, 2nd measure


23,

3<.l

beat, natural before a.

27,

1st beat, shift 1st beat, shift

natural up to

c. c.

sharp

down

to

38, 4th meas..re 2nd beat a in bass should be 39,

marked app.

Cap.

for

name

of key.

53, 6th measure 1st beat, natural for a.


55, 6th measure 3d beat add b in alto.

105, 6th measure 3d beat, a sharp not a natural. 141, 9th measure

2nd beat, a not g

in sop.

161, 1st measure 1st beat, flats for f 167, 3d

& ^.

>

measure

1st beat, natural for/.

177, 1st measure 1st beat naturals for both g's. 184,

190, 7th measure

192,

232, 247, 256, 257,

2nd measure sharp for first a & natural for second a. 2nd & 3d beats c not h, in alto. 3d measure lower stafT treble clef, 7th measure ^^ sharp in sop. not b. 7th measure 4th beat g (1st line) in bass. 9th measure 2nd beat natural for g in bass. 6th measure 3d beat, alto a natural sharp not a sharp

&/

&/ natural.

Lesson

XIX.

Reduction

128-136

Lesson

XX-XXIV.

Review Exercises

136-156

la the selection of the material to be analyzed the author has endeavored it from such sources that the student may come into touch with many different composers of different schools. Not many of the more comto gather

plex of the motlern compositions have been selected since a still wider experience is needed, both as an analyst and in comprehension, than a student may 1"5ti at thie fimp

befo

migt
tere(
bett.

prov
l;e
c

Aug
take

muc
limi
also

off
sucl:

torn
choi

him
to

to

goo adh

stU'
lati

on

mu

of Music.

June

2,

1909.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Lesson

INTRODUCTION.
Harmonic analysis
is

the art of accounting for everything in

the har-

monic and melodic structure of music.


In analyzing the work in the following lessons everything in its harmonic and melodic structure should be considered and accounted for harmonically. This involves naming the key, marking the chords and their inversions and, in later lessons, the non-harmonic devices used. Be prepared to justify the analysis. It must be clear why the chords have been marked as they are.

The analysis

is

to

be written into the text as illustrated in the examples.

When

several solutions are possible write out each with different colored

inks or pencils, stating your preference however. that no tax on the

Write out

full

enough so

memory

is

necessary.

Since the exercises to be analyzed are but excerpts of larger works the
signature does not always indicate the key.
nature.

Always notice before marking the


it

key, whether accidentals have been used changing

from that of the

sig-

carefully.

The lessons are accompanied by many analyzed examples. Examine these They are not only valuable as illustrating the points in question,
Spell chords accurately.

but will no doubt also prove helpful in the general matter they contain.
In constructive work in harmony the student of disregarding the sharps or In analysis it is absolutely flats since the signature takes care of those. necessary for a correct solution, to make the spelling complete, always to
often forms the habit

when

spelling chords

mention the sharp or flat. To illustrate, in spelling the dominant seventh chord in the key of D major, spell it A, Cg. E, G, and not A, C, E, G, thinking that the signature will take care of the sharp.

Grace notes are to be analyzed the same as any others.

Ornamentations that are written out fully should also be analyzed. When these are indicated by a sign only they are not to be recognized in the analysis.
Signs used for marking will be mentioned as the occasion demands.
It is often well to begin working backwards since it sary to see the progression of a chord to tell what it is.
is

sometimes neces-

As a further aid in the following work the author recommends that, heginning with Lesson II, the student take up compositions of different kinds and find in them the particular points of the lessons and mark them. A list of references might have been added to each lesson, but it has been found more valuable for the student to find the points in question for himself. This
is

particularly true in constructions thtit are less frequently used since he

liave to look over

many measures before

finding them, thereby gaining

may much in

sight analysis.

Harmonic
Tri^vds

Analysis.
I.

Lesson

and Chords op the Seventh.


Triads.
letters.

Major keys are indicated by capital


Fig.
I.

Minor keys by small

letters

In major keys the triads on the different degrees are I, II, III, IV, V, VI, vii.

marked

as follows

In minor keys

i,

ii.
:

III', iv,

V, VI, VII^

The signs

of inversion are

First inversion (3rd in the lowest part) 6.

Second inversion (5th

in the lowest part)

The
follows
:

sign of the inversion


ii|, IJ, etc.

is

placed to the right of that of the degree as

of position of the upper voices while the lowest voice remains the same, does not affect the harmony and need not be marked. Fig la.

Change

=:ifc

^m
ij-

-^^^4-

<

mb-iS
1/
1

Hi
J.

[m

saztfc

Bb

f^ V

^^E^ ^1
.;. j
1

/J7

^^
CoKELLi.

I,

IV

le Vii le

EXERCISES.
Gavotte.
Allegro. Aisai.

2. {

feP^PI^^I^iiPS^

Brahms.

Eequiem.

Chords of the Seventh. Adding a third above the 5th of a triad (7th above the

root) forms a chord

of the seventh. Signs for marking these chords and their inversions are as follows Root position (root in the lowest part) 7.
First inversion (3rd in the lowest part)

or 5
4.

*
J

Second inversion (5th

in

the lowest part) 3 or 4.

Third inversion (7th in the lowest part)


I

2,

I or 4.
\-

^^

^^t:^=^^^P-

^tzit

0-

^
=t
nil
VI,

-M
'-f==^-

Ab

If

IV|

iij

V|

-^.
tfe:

TT
IV
y\\%
11I7

;^i
i

IS
vi^

ivt

It often occurs, with harmony nwnaitiinj,' the same, tluit the lowest part "moves to different chord members, a broken chord, without affecting the ear as a real change of the position of the chord. This is particularly true in quick tempo. 'I'he first note usually marks the position of the chord. In doubtful eases mark each change of the lowest part In Fig. 6a no change of inversion is felt, while 6^^ must be recognized as a

change

of inversion.

Karganopp.

WlHTOL.

mi^M
EXERCISES.
Mozart.

Sonata.

s^feiiE^E^^^i^B
7.

Bach.

Choral.

8. (

mM

Jlj

^Sj^ i ^

^^^^m^
4-

J^-U-Jj
1

Chopin.

Op. 25, No.

4.

9.

it-'-^0^-i-j

^1

- i-t

It f# Ii J

'-

--

Andantt

Sos/enuio.

Kiel.

Mass.

:&i^

Siz
=1--"

Sz::

^Siip l=q:
Broken Chords.

^:

^:=iz -^-

m
Op.
2,

Chords, instead of sounding all parts simultaneously, may be broken into different forms of arpeggios, or the many different forms of accompaniments. Fig. 11. These, in all cases, are analyzed as though all the tones were sounded simultaneously. The lowest tone, whether continuing throughout the chord or This principle is adhered to throughout,^ not, marks the position of the chord.
in analysis.

Beethoven.

No.

3.

In broken chord effects it is often well to consider more than one group of notes as belonging to the same chord formation, rather than to call each group a different chord. While the latter may not be incorrect, the ear, in many instances, accepts more than one group as representing one harmony. This io particularly true of notes of short value. When doubtful mark each group Fig. 12

Bach.

Prelude.

Coleridge-Taylor.

No.

5.

12.

Chords

of the seventh

members omitted,
marking
is

when changing position often appear with different at times forming a triad on another degree as in Fig, 13. No
Mendelssohx.
Song.

necessary for this.

gzffi
13.
I

II
I

^^
Eb JV^
\\%

^
Beethoven.
Op. 109.

EXERCISES.

Cramer.

Study.

15.

^1\^X =:fcL=f ,^_^

^=q=1:
-=^-V-

^#-

m
^
3==^=

c=t=pi
#

-^

t^

^==1:

Passing tone.

Beethoven.

Op. 53

^^z^^
16.

>-

^^.^

Schumann.

Op. 68, No. 14.

:az=z;=^tit
:*==r-f:
17.

:^

:^
:?&

i^EE^^^

AIendelssoun.

^_i::z=^^
18.

SE^ESE^

T=^-

1=?:

-^=^-^'^^.f^

Lesson

II.

The Dominant Ninth, Suspension, Retardation, and Passing Tone.


The Dominant Ninth.
Adding a
as such
is

third above the 7th of a chord of the seventh (9th above the root)

The only chord of the ninth that is to be analyzed the Dominant ninth. The ninths of other chords will be treated as Fig 19. non-harmonic tones in later lessons
forms a chord of the ninth.

When
upward
III).
'I

the dominant ninth chord has its third omitted, the ninth resolving is to be analyzed as an appoggiatura (see Lesson The present lesson contains none of the above.
to the third, the ninth
for

this

he Dominant ninth often appears with the 5th omitted. Signs chord are as follows
:

marking

Root position

(root in the hnss) 9.

7
First in vet sion (3rd in the buss)

*.

6
Second inversion
iSth in the bass) 5
.

Third inversion {7th

in

the

bass")

4 ^. 7 6

Fourth inversion

(9tli in

the bass)

The

fourth inversion

is

seldom used.

Schumann.
I

Op.

15,

No.

7.

KORESTCHENKO.

^g=^g^^^"
19.

^^^a
US

Op.

1,

No.

1.

m^
II?

IS
Vs

2|fS:

Brahms.

Kequioni.

tes =^^
5=ffcj:
23.

t=flS-*^:

4-J-^-^-4 Sz3=

pi

feSfgUgg^
|3
#
A
Passing tone.

1^=1

The Suspension.
tone foreign to the chord with which it appears, that has been prolonged or continued from the ineceding chord, is a suspension when descending one degree to a chord tone and a retardation when ascending one degree to a chord
tone.
If

Fig

24.

suspensions produce chords of the seventh they should be analyzed as such, unless they are incomplete, when they should be marked as triads with suspensions. Exceptions to this are found in the dominant seventh and in the succession of chords of the seventh in root position resolving to chords a fourth higher, in which case the fifth is omitted in alternate chords. When the suspension or any of the non-harmonic devices used in later lessons appear in octaves it is necessary to mark only one of the tones. Suspensions and retardations may occur simultaneously in several voices. Signs: Suspensions, s; Retardation, r. Beethoven. Op. 10.
1 1

K
:=]:

li=C
24.

ii^HB
1

^:
D.

He

V^

V,

Appoggiatura.

EXERCISES.
Allegro.

Beethoven.

Op.

2,
I

No.
I

3.

1^-^

-.n

r
--if:

>-==f

4=F5:

ei

fi

.^.

_^|

-I

h
Bach.
^

i^ia
Choral.

J^^
-^-1
26.

"^1

b-l

^-

A-X ^=={=1: ^^5 -

:^i
h
^
I

.1

r^

^-

-#

i
Op. 10, No.
2-.

Beethoven.
Allegro.

^^

27.

ISEl^g^^
;|#
It [7S]

I.

["Bl

:t=j:^t:

is=i
:S:
28.

3^gil
MozAUT.
Sonata.

-^-^

I^^Sl
^-r#

saf \m^4 P|3i^iESE?^!i^


^--^-

The Passing Tone.


non-Larinonic tone that is approached and left step. wise in one direction. It may be accented or unaccented, diatonic or chromatic. It is accented when on the accented beat or part of a beat, and unaccented when When it is the first note in triple rhythm or groups of three, it is elsewhere.
is
a,

The Passing tone

accented, when the second or third, unaccented. Notes of shorter values than eighths are analyzed in groups of two beginning with the beat, the first being accented the second unaccented. Fig. 29. When the passing seventh or Passing tones may succeed one another.

ninth of a chord is of short Value, or is one of a series of passing tones, the impression is that of a passing tone and not that of a seventh or ninth, and

should be so marked.
Signs:

Accented Passing

tones.

+ Unaccented

Passing tones.
Op.
2,

Beethoven.

No.

2.

EXERCISES.
Allegro.

Chopin.

Op. 10, No.

2.

^-^ p?3

p55.^J555|^JcLs_^^

>fe:^i=Mz

H^

:ii=^=
Rubinstein.
Op. 26, No.

i
1.

Coleridge-Taylor.

Op. 59, No.

4.

32.

Diatonic Passing Chords. A succession of Chords progressing degreewise over a stationary lowest part as in Fig. 33, is Diatonic passing chords. Mark the first and last chords only, indicating the intervening chords as passing chords. This principle applies to notes of short values only, since the same thing in slow tempo would give a definite chord impression for each chord. Beethoven. Variation.

^~%^
33.
{

r-

^H
zX s^Op. 46, No. 24.

Passing chords.

:^--

EXERCISE

HELLE.i.

M^i^mmm^mma
34.

^mmwmmem^

Lesson

III.

The Embellishment and the Appogglvtura.


The Embellishment. The Embellishment is a tone introduced by stepwise principle tone and its repetition. Fig. 35. Sign e.
E
+
progression between

Mozart.
-

Sonata.
I

^^J)

35.

MozAKT.

Sonata.

^
37.

-'-

-0-

*-r

-0-s

=^m S: 5

'im

-^

i
^-

-^

^=1

s-

m-:=EB~:
Kjerulf.
Cradle Song.

ffii^s 4==
38.

^
^g-

-0- -0- -0- -0-

^^^m^m
t-F

fe^l=?^^=fel^i
The Appoggiatura.

^^r-Mj^-

The Appoggiatura is an unprepared Suspension or (Retardation) approached by a skip of an augmented second or more. Fig. 39. Sign Ap.
:

Chopin.
8va.

Op. 47.

39.


Ait.

4r_

Uj^--^
'

r
I I I

r-

: .^=0*

EXERCISES.
Mozart.
Lar ghetto.
.J^'jt

Requiem.

40.

>=5J^:^^=^

r
-=1-^

't

^ES^S
^- -m

-1

=n-

ir=s^="^ *-^

-^^
=1
gart.

Fl==i^

^=-^1
Schumann.
Op. 82, No.

Lnngsam, sehr

Knut-Baeck.

Op.

7,

Xo.

7.

fe^^^^
\

Moieriio.

^^^af^

Orxamexted Scale Passages. Ascending or descending scale passages (diatonic or chromatic) are often ornamented by Embellishments or Appoggiaturas. In such cases each ornamentation is to be marked as an embellishment or appoggiatura whether it is a chord tone or not. Fig. 4.3 and 44. While the approach to the appoggiatura in 44 is but a whole step the effect is nevertheless that of an appoggiatura.
16

J.

Hoffmann.

Op.

Efc-t^^^Sl

Passing thirds.

fe

^fe%**iMr^-gfe
Ap.
Ap.

fefeij
Ap. Ap. Ap,

Ap.

Ap.

Ap.

Ap.

Ap.

EXERCISES.
iVoWo AUeqro e vetocr.

CZERNY.

Op. 299.

45.

^^^^E^gj
JL

^^^,

#, , J:!?:* ?:#

P^^^^i^tE^'L :.W:^
17

ChopIxV.

Op. 32, No.

1.

A llegro.

46.

Broken Thirds, Sixths and Octaves. Broken thirds, sixths and octaves are analyzed as though both tones were sounded at the same time. Fig. 47.
.*.

+
-0-

T-

-_^_--

_,

CZERNY. +

Op.

299.

T
47.

g!=;^=5=3==^
C
I

IV

EXERCISE.
CZERNY.
-0-

Op. 299.

48.

1^

-0-

18

SCHUBEKT.

Op. 61. No.

4.

49.

i^il^i^^^^^r % ^ f

:?

5:

^i

Lesson IV.

Attendant Chords, and Broken Chords and Suspension


Attendant Chords.

(eon.).

combination of three or more non-harmonic tones form an Attendant Fig 50. These chords usually appear in connection with some fundamental harmony, or are introduced between a chord and its repetition, and most often take the form of a chord of the diminished seventh, but are occasionally found in other forms, the tones at times, having no harmonic relation whatever to one another. When these chords appear in broken form mark as usual, and in addition indicate by letters the chord members. Sign At. chd.
chord.
:

Chopin.

Op. 32, No.

1.

50.

<


Jexsex.
Op. 45.

b.

Ap.

^=^1=^^^
I

1,

g^^^^^^

-^^-^
IV

^
1
It

1^

-ii*-

V,
Beetho\'ex.
Op. 22.

Eb

L
(HOPix.
At. chd. At. chd.

Op. 34, No.

1.

\Al

1__^

L^

s_,-

JJ

Ab

V
EXEECISES.
Brahms.
Xanie.

Op. 82.
i

51.

fmmm
l^i^-

f:

iit

It

^E^fei^^feEF^^^=Et

:^J

If:

_^_i

--:i-z;^*
-5*--

iiiii
Atidante.
1

Spoiir.

Last Judgment.

^ I :*=z*z:#x:
I

^=*:
52.

=C&r

-^-tr
0-.

-^^mm:
53.

--

-*-

J.

^
-0-_

i
Schumann.
Op. 23, No.
3.

iii^=J|Eg^=iE^=|#i
i

V^

Parker.

Hora Novissima.

^^
54,
<

:SS-

BSig:

g
S=^

3^

lif:
:-:ttii
I
i

:p=f=t

W.

E=S^

ir*^

Cramei;.

ytudy.

[^^^i^i'^l;^^^^
56.

^'s^^
Bb
IV V,

-I

1
\

--^=^^' *
g-

--^^^^i
I

IV

Reduction of

56a.'

EXERCISES.
A. LiADOw.

Op.

17.

57.

CZKRNY.

Op

5499.

58.

E. orna.

The Suspension (con.). The suspension may not only be prepared by a chord tone
but may
also

(see

Lesson III)
No.

be prepared by any non-harmonic tone.


a.
,

Fig. 59.

Henisz.

Op.

8,

1.

,^^

.,

-0-

Vg

Schumann.

Op. 23, No. 4.

^He
i_.^

pjei^i^iliiE^i^JlI
Ab
VI

Chopin.

Op. 64, No.

L'.

nt
J^
:l

-^-r^

fe^^^=
D
J

:ci=it=:

Eilgi^ie^;
Jensen.
Op.
4.3.

KXf:RCISES.

fc^
60.

g
0^^M^^

^_^-^J:

P ^ P

-<&'-

ll=S^l=E^=l=^gg=E=i^^
Allegretto

CE.SAR

Cui.

Intermezzo.

61.

^^=3?=-J^
^^
:?t=^=?=gi:

3t=t

:t::tjt

1^=^
:i^'--^
-4

=:

Pl^
laizat

urnt

^^
k

(i

Series op Once Repeated Notes ascending or descending, with harmony

remaining the same, is analyzed as S's. (or R's.) and their resolutions, as in Fig. 62. This, however, is done only when the first of the repeated notes is It is quite possible to analyze such passages as anticipations unaccented. The author, however, prefers to analyze (later lessons) and their resolutions.

them

as suspensions

and their

resolutions.

Beetho\'En.

63.

Lesson V.

The Anticipation and the Pedal


The Anticipation.

Point.

An

Anticipation

is

chord to which it belongs. Fig. 64. Sign a.

a tone introduced immediately before the entry of the It may be tied into the next chord or be repeated.

Beethoven.

Op.

2,

No.

2.

64.

Kamea c
E

Gavotte.

V
Fig. 65.

When the Anticipation instead of remaining stationary skips to some other tone of the chord to which it belongs it is a Free Anticipation. Sign fa.
:

Any

or

all

tones of a chord

may

be anticipated.

McFarren.
F A.

Bourree.

1V|

EXERCISES.
A.

KORESTCHENKO.
^

Op.

1.

Xo.

1.

w^^m^w^
66.

L^l

tt

Mendelssohn.

Op.

14.

67.

ij: ^: :$ It -- -- -- -#- --

J-_T
mE:

^S^^Si^^^J
-=r

Adolphe Schloesser.
:3:=i

Op.

19.

3t=f:

-'

-ii

*-^^^-r-na
\-

^
^5

E oma.

68.

i^

Grieg.
Allegretto

Op. 40, No.

3.

tr-

Pi
(^
as anticipations.

^S=5t
I

^
1

Non-harmonic tones resolving sooner than expected should be analyzed


Fig. 70

Beethoven.

Op. 20.

i^
70.

* jEt?E?L^

f-L -

n
fzfc^:

bi

^-r^i-^J^-J-^ ^E
Chopin.
Ap.

1
1.

Eb
Op. 59, No.

t:
:it

i=#

^
(

4=f:
V^
AP.

eI

^.

^
-*-i=

Backer-Groendahl. Op.
^.

15,

No.

1.

tr

rnt=z=t=t

t=t

r-^rr t:=rti

E
r

i^-^

m=^^m ^^=^
if" cl

#it=:t

^f=t=s1^^ ti=P^ t^
V

V,

VI
29

VI:

Beethoven.
d.
S

Op.

2,

No.

2.

-li"^-

Two
Point.

tones

may be

sustained in the above manner forming the double Pedal


in

The Pedal Point may be on any degree and

any

voice.

the lowest part it has harmonic relation only with the chords with which it begins and ends. In all intervening chords the part above it indicates the position of the chord.
in

When

In marking the Pedal Point indicate also the degree, Point is marked D. P. P., the Tonic, T. P. P., etc.

i.

e.

Dominant Pedal

EXERCISES.
Fr. Liszt.
Allegro moderalo.

Christus.

^t^m
#?
?-

-0e

\^)t-:=l===|

=4^-t-

4l1,|^;^._i

Wagner.

Tristan.

^
75.

=4:

z^zz^zzr"^-^^

SX^-1:l^i4:l r=?=
:|i^-

-i?'-

fekri

^3:

=1^=^

-^-4

E^=i==^

te^T^^E^BE^E^EgEK^
^i=a Si^=EEl
Chopin.
Op.

gar,B ^^=^
77.

=^p=^

?=P=:

=i=^*=t ?i?i=SE*EE^

=1

Lesson VI.

The Ohxa.mental

Resoli'tion and the Free Tone.

The Ounamental Kesolution.

Auy 111)11 luiiiiioiiic tone may have one or more tones interpolated between it and its resolution. This is called an Ornamental resolution. Fig. 72 Double and Triple Appoggiaturas (Fig. 78 e. f.) are to be analyzed as Ornamentally Signs S orna., E. orna resolved non-harmonic tones. Ap. orna. A. orna.'
:

o orna.,

orna.
FiBic'H.

Op. 44, Xo.

2-7.

orna.

78.

:=zt=5iiit::i=zE

:*zzt:

^g
Elgak.
Caraetacus.

Bb

Chovan.
c.

Op.

6,

No.

1.

Vsii^
-tt?-

iia
Ap.

F. A. orna.

Ap.

?e==
:i:0-p:-

^3i

eb

Vf
.35

(h)

n
FriAXCK.
Beatitudes.

D'b'l. ap.

;feEE^

i->--f^
S. orna.

i
&.
I

Vlg

ii

vii?o

VI,
TiNEL.
Francis.

Trip.

Trip. ap.

"^
(psSziq
F.

Ap.oma.

^p^^^

HE;:
VII"

:E

EXERCISES.
A. Li.\DOAV.
Allegro non troppo.

Op.

3,

Xo. 4

;^sEE^c7E?Ea:Er=^^
79.

is

sa-

JE^P=^=^^=^i^ ==^e

:4=:t

:r^:=^
:?=f=

n
Allegro.

jL

Mozart.

Sonata.

t^r=p=f==?- il
80.
I

^^^feil^E^^
tt-r_

KORESTCHENKO.
Andantino.

Op.

1,

No.

1.

M
81,

^:^g--t=Qp=f:

ii
:e=t=:

.iL

-*i

JLj^^J.

:Ct^

-^m

(M

Jit.

i:

-St.-

p^fm
37

L'OLEPJDGE- Taylor.
Allegro.

Op. 59, No.

^^m^m^^^
82.

'M~_:^

m
6.

in^zzf:
^^^

r
free tone.

Not a

^"T"
Op. 10, No.

A ndante.

Chopin.

lii: :,

-s--#

j-^ - * ^

Lg^
I I I

g=*=
I

i^
I

s
\

^*-^-^
Pr-rt
=li:

^^^-^

Mil

-i'-

i
I

The presence of rests immediately before a Suspension, Embellishment or Passing tone does not atiect their nature, and they should be analyzed as though no rests were present. A rest of considerable length may. however, give the This must be decided by the ear since effect of an appoggiatura to these notes. no exact rule can be given as to the length of the rest. Fig. 84.
Beetho\-ex.
Op.
7.

^t

t:

'U*.

EXERCISES.
Rebikoff.
Tempo di Mazurka.

Op.

8,

No.

85.

(
-

7^

-A HV
r

-^

^^JE^^gH^^^i,
^^fl l^S ^=t
Tempo
di Minuetto.

^^
KORESTCHENKO.
Op. 22, No.
5.

I.

A.

^r^ .r
.
I.

i^^gH^^
-#

.1

1: >_

jL

>_

p^
!^i:

?-

fi^

F^-^^

^^^=
liJL

^E^
#

-^

5?

^ A-
i=

jL

:^^E^
Beethoven.

-=i->?"

Op. 22.

Allegretto.

^Eg^

^i=^^^l3^m
39

i^^#=i!=i=#-

35=ii

The Free Tone. Non-harmonic tones that are left by a skip and do not resolve ornamentally The use of Free Tones is comparatively rare. are Free Tones. Fig. 88. Do not analyze a tone as a Free Tone except as a last resource. Sign F. T.
Chopix.
C|L.

Op. 11.

'4

1/

ki^

^
F.T.

^-

m
Ap.

88.

He!
c
v:

Backer-Groendahl. Op.
-0-ti
-m-

15,

No.

1.

'

"*

~^ ^^^ ^^i

Chopin.

Op.

10,

No.

i
thus from the key of G flat, it goes to E double flat, involving ten flats, much harder to read than the key of D, its enharmonic equivalent, which, therefore, is
ordinarily used.

through carelessness,

exasperating use of enharmonics is their substitution, either willfully or in spelling chords, at times so distorting them as to make them almost unrecognizable. The exercises in the present lesson will deal only with enharmonic change
for the sake of simplicity in reading.

An

Misnotations will be taken up in later lessons. Analyze the passages as written, only indicating the actual key. In cases of single chords give their correct spelling, and analyze in the corrected form. This will be sufflcient recognition that the chords are enharmonics.

Schumann.

Op. 19.

i^
91.

bi,

V-

V,

le

Ab

1|

V,

Coleridge-Taylor.
-O-

Op. 59, No.

^^^^m.
1-zkz^
^.
E,

lie

E^
-ttg?-^-

itz:

:^==t

1
3

^
8.

G#. B,=Fb. Ab. Cb.

Ab

visl?

42

KXKKilSKS.
Cesek.
Poco
utlagio.

Op, 24, No.

3.

r_z;*=fc

a^
I

^
I
I

^-,.

&^

g- -

:^-=i^-=^bt=MH
I

VA -iJi^H
:t=

^^:3:
-rr-A-

niiy
it.

-a.-

p.

Wagner.

Lohengrin.

93.

:_JI.S

J^
I
^-#

W^

EE

-^^=i=l^^^^t^^E^^^i^^S=^
zfe:

LlADOW.
AUtgro.
-f-

Op. 27, No.

in
t-

^^^-

Beetho\'en'.
Adagio.

Op. 13.

^jme=ie:-=i^
95.

=1:

;^^^ ^^

-*-#-^

&^^=4=:

^S=

Altered Chords.
one that contains one or more chromatically altered tones, but does not modulate.
altered chord
is

An

The Minor Sub-dominant and the Diminished Seventh on the Leading Tone
IN

Major Key.

There are two chords which, though regularly found in minor keys, are frequently used in major keys. They are the minor triad on IV (minor sub <lominant) and the diminished seventh on vii^. Fig. 96 a b. The lowering of the sixth degree in major keys which brings about the alteration of these chords
is

quite

common

as will be seen in further analysis.

45

Gounod.

Galli

?^%=a#Ti:i:^=n=qJM3r:^=^.
96.

m^
G
le

1
[%]
T

Mendelssohn.

Op.

5.

i^=M=d?: i-:1:S*J *^H?^


::

^=

q:^:^:4=q:^ii::^:=:t=*

^-

iiii^
ESte

-ij*^

S^
D
VII?

ii
Lazarus.

EXERCISES.
Perosi.

97.

--jf=55^

=g*=^

=gi-

RosiNNi.

Stabat

Mater

68.

u^'^n^^ i^^^ei
0.

^l^i^ga3z-r:-sa^N^FFr=r-'i5^S^j

P^f

-I

al

al:

feliS=l

Chopin.

Op. 32, No.

1.

99.

^g^

100.

<

^-

'W-

i
II .^
I

m^ Bi^=t
r

"=J

Gounod.

Gallia.

101.

48

Lesson VIII.
Alterations of the Supertonic Seventh and of Cohrds of the

Seventh on Other Degrees.


The Supertonic Seventh with Raised
Third.

This chord is identical with the dominant seventli of a key a fifth higher, but a single appearance of chords of this kind are analyzed as altered chords since they do not induce a modulation. The Dominant seventh as modulating chord is fully treated in lesson LXII. Mark these chords as usual, and indicate the alterations in brackets, as in
Fig. 102a.

Beethoven.
Ap. orna. Ap. orna. Ap. oma.

Op.

102.

EXERCISES.
H. Parker.

Hora Norissima.

103./

ttg

-^-

M
J-

3^

J
-f^

Wz

=1^^=
7C]

>aj- >

j-

3-# n
tP=t
Fig. 102b.

The Supertonic Seventh with Lowered Fifth.

EXERCISES.
Coleridge-Taylor.
Lento.

Op. 59, No.

^^^

10.

f^i^^z104.

US

The Diminished Seventh on the Raised Second Degree. This chord is the enharmonic equivalent of the diminished seventh on raised fourth, but is used in major keys only. As in the case of the super tonic seventh chord, a single appearance of this chord as well as of other chords of the diminished seventh, does not induce a modulation, and should be analyzed as altered chords. It is sometimes difficult to tell whether chord formations of this kind and those following in this lesson are really altered chords or merely Attendant chords such as are described in Lesson IV. It is in fact difficult to give exact limits to these chords, as tempo, mode of introduction and resolution play so important a part. The following directions will on the whole serve in most As was said in Lesson IV, an attendant chord usually appears in instances connection with a fundamental harmony, or is interpolated between one and its To be an altered chord then, a chord should stand by itself and repetition. resolve to a chord other than that which precedes it. When doubtful mark as altered chords. Fig 106.
:

Ap.

Thoma.

Op.

.58.

106.

107.

The Diminished Seventh on the Kaised Fourth Degree. This chord, although the enharmonic equivalent of the preceding chord is, however found in both major and minor keys Some writers hold that the toimer chord is but a misspelt diminished seventh chord on the raised fourth degree. A discussion of this is not necessary here. Fig. 108.
Calkin.
Op.
89.

EM:
108.

^3^ r
z.

* s J

Ap.

'^

I*

^
i=

U,l i

IV

i
IV, V,
I

VII'

Is

(I)

(ii)

EXERCISE
Mendelssohn.
Presto.
I

Capriccio.

0-

Chorus of the Diminished Seventh

(cuu.).
first, fifth,

Chords

of the diminished seventh are also

found on the raised

and

sixth degrees in major keys,

usually resolve respectively, to

and on the raised third degree in minor. ii, vi, or some form of V7 and to IV.

'J'hese

EXERCISES.
Schumann.
Animalo. -0-

Op.

1.

A^.^^^^^^
-j-xi/a^-a*
I
I

^
U^

Lj

110.

r-f

r\r-^

gE^ZHgj^feif=^i^=

=^:

fe==g

pl^:^y^^^^F^^^^Ejj

V.4^.

-0-

-i^tr.

53


ChopixX.
^
I

Op. 32, No.

1.

;?3t;E
111.
-t.
Ttj
j-j1

^^-^
4
i:f:

pii:i=:p=i=i=i:pi:i=q tt=t:=t:

,^=i=q
,
Cf^|

J-

.i:t*
*r-

--^* ^-^5: l-^l

k=i

1-^!

I F-H

^b

zzz^
Calkin.

:i=p-

Op.

112.

-^==^;

Chopin.
Moderato.
,

Op. 23.

t=4:
113.

5^
fc^ifi:

i
_^tL^-^

^p:
-#*-

i^^:fci:

'^-

fe
54

Lesson IX.

Chords of the Augmented Sixth.


Augmented
Probably the most frequently used of the Altered chords are those of the Sixth, so called because of the interval of an augmented sixth above

their lowest part.

As far as the spelling of these chords is concerned they are chords of the seventh, but are seldom thought of as such. They are so often used in the inversions, which give them their names, that these are looked upon as their
conventional forms, and they are usually thought of as built, not on a root, but on the note that is in the lowest part. There are four kinds of these chords The Augmented Sixth marked 6+ ) comprising a major third and an augmented sixth above the lowest part (a)
(

The Augmented six four three, (marked *+J comprising a major third, fourth, and augmented sixth above the lowest part (d) The Augmented six-five (marked I"*") comprising a major third, perfect fifth, and augmented sixth above the lowest part (c) and 6+ \ The Doubly Augmented Fourth, (marked *++ comprising a major third, doubly augmented fourth, and augmented sixth above the lowest part (d).
augmented
; ; )

6-I-.

Fig. 114.

Chords
sidered, by

of the

Augmented

many

writers, to be

sixth with doubly augmented fourth are conmisnotated Augmented Six-five chords. What-

ever one's opinion


4-[_l_

may be

it will

help the clearness of the solution to analyze the

chords as such.

114.

in

The following exercises contain no misnotations. These will be taken up later. Mark the chord regularly, indicating also the altered intervals as directed previous lessons. Put the sign of the chord (6+, *+, etc.) directly above.
a.

^
i-^}
:ii -t=:

Beethoven.

Op.

2,

No.

3.

115.

Jj^rj
t=t:
MZ
IV,

(5)

KoPYLOw.

Etude.

^ms
^Mozart.
--^

Sonata.

r-\r^

=i=ittzzi=iitlt:tl:}^

:1=^ itzi:

m
IV,
Chopin.
Op. 47.

^=i^=

^fcS:
5

^r^=-x
:e!=sE5-

r?^^*
S
1

^1

g|=?
Ab

^ir^

-7^--^:
15

V,

EXERCISES
MozAKT.
Eequiem.

,iggl^^ ^gF^
FT
116.
\

^
-.-tt*-

:s:
>i:3.

iEf=f=^^=fEggg

"u^^

:r=: t==*^^*
56

:^1==fi!:

1^^
H=
M&T^

r^-^t^ =E

(i

-^f=3=f

m
il/ofto

^
^r^
Allcoro.

iw

iS^i
Op.
7.
I

t^

'^^
Beethoven.
^
1

1^^.* -

-^wifi

L'

117.

zfciii:

b&S:
-Jtf

-t^

:p^*-

Beethoven.
Jllegr

Op. 31, No.

3.

=fl?t*-:Ct*

ft
118.
{

t:

T It

r9-rr-

wt

:t

*
>X~

:t

^-=tS^:^
t

1
,#-

--^=q=:lEEj
g0

pZrE

i_=i3t:^:

m
l^:^^
Hoffmann.
Cantata.

AVegro. Moderato.

:?'

4=i

q^=

'^j=i=*^:

119./

:^

z]=q:

_4

^.
I

-i^-I
I

1^1

rr.i

'^

fl
-|

Colekidge-Tavlok.

Op. 59, No. 16.

%r-^
120.
{

'-^-J-fHEE'^stw^:
=t^Si^

^iiz^M
^-

If:

-f:^

S5E:

tiif:
:z:ttpitit=:U=:z:

"F^rj

(Sk
ifeEE?^""^
121.^

ii^i^^^i^p
Elgar.
Light of Life.

lig&iiippiplpsp
^^1
I

^H

siSii^iiipi
^lozART.
Allegro.

Sonata.

122.

^1^2=

:^tittit^-i--

-F=^^g=^^

5f-

i|3i?=i=i=l
59

^
Jonas.
Op. 58.

123.

(pn^

*
Chopix.
Op.
23.

124.

^--T^-*
:1r
v^--

:ii=tti:

^H
Op. 23, No.
1.
!

i^i^^b==t
Moderalo.

^^^J-; :t=M==^==M.-^tt|=^:
Schumann.
4
1

-#-

*
^

-^t:^^
^
t'

^^

^
u

^T

125.

15^3^:3^*
"^

-N 1

:^^ T
q

^^^3

^3

?
60

-M:

W-

r
itt^t:

^-=^=^==^

t^^

f
Lesson X.

Chords of the Augmented Sixth in Other than Their Conventional Form.


Augmented sixth are often used in other than their convenwith some other interval of the chord in the lowest part than that given in the preceding exercises. Fig. 127. In order to recognize them in these forms it is necessary to know their structure from the root. Fig. 126. In chords that do not agree with those in preceding lessons, it is necessary to find the spelling from the root and compare
Chords
of the
i.

tional forms,

e.

with the following table: From the root the 6+ comprises a diminished 3rd and diminished 5th.

(a.)
(ft.

4+ 6+
5

comprises a major 3rd, diminished 5th and minor 7th.

comprises a diminished 3rd, diminished 5th and diminished 7th.

(c.)

4++ comprises a minor 3rd, doubly diminished 5th and diminished 7th. 3
126.

(d.)

mm^^m
Bendl.
Gipsy Melodies.

t-?if^127.
<

fs*^

mm
ft-

w -^^
d.
II,

^_j..
"7 Vt
I

Iee^^^^I
5
lift

61


EXERCISES.
Fraxck.
Andante.
I

Beatitudes.
I
I

>

-I-

J-5^ <^4^

128.

S|jg;g
^ llegro

i=5f^:*.i*_:

m
Op. 17, No.
8.

Blumenfeld.

^^: Tl1^^=^=*--fc
129.

^s=l^ -t^

"51

^~

ms
Fi

icznf-cs^cpii:

-fe-

m
:

^=-^:^-Pi--r_^^=-

^
J

"^-;i:

,=di^:

iq-jt

W. Rebikoff.
Tempo di Mazurht.

Op.

8,

No.

130.

Chords of the Augmented Sixth Misxotated.


There are many instances of misnotation in chords of the Augmented Sixth. It occurs most often with the |+ chord in which the upper note of the interval of the augmented sixth is made a minor seventh, giving the chord the appearance of a dominant seventh. The resolution of the chord, however, shows immediately that it is a misnotated augmented sixth chord. In cases where the spelling is still more distorted, the ear and eye must combine to detect the chord. It may be necessary to change diflFerent intervals of the chord enharmonically, until a result is secured that agrees with some chord construction. It may also be necessary to add the test of resolution to
this to

make the result sure. Mark the chord as if spelled

correctly,

and indicate the correct

spelling as

in

Fig 1316.
Beethoven.
s

Op. 57.

mLmmmm^^^m^

:iq=:

'e^

^?
^li^

^1
3

Db

?
Beethoven.
s

Op. 57

:?i
3

i
a=b|j|j

s^-i ^i^ii
:i:>

A=i
I

^-.
Vt

IV

Figs. 131a. and

b.

are passages from the variations in Beethoven's Op. 57.


in spelling the

They

are parallel passages in succeeding variations.

Note the carelessness

Doubly Augmented 4th chord.

EXERCISES.
Eduard Schuett.
moto.

Op. 17, No.


J

2.

gg"=3-^
4=a:
132.
<

^=\-

53 Hi

1^

m^^^^
^-

-EQk

*
:!;

-|2_=.-

1
i
1

pi

.^.^-i:

TSCHAIKOVV^SKI.

Op. 40, No. 12.

piE
=1^
133.
{

i^

(^n^
-I

'^:^=!i3^
-!

:^=^^
-I

-
I

64

J ^^-

^^iai^

s
S
J^

f;

Ji

If:

H.

W. Parker.

Op. 30.

134.

ii"

vii;^

Bb

i
The Neapolitan The Neapolitan inversion. Marked To simplify the
sixth
is

Sixth.
its first

degree in a major triad on the minor second


,

N6. Fig. 135. u . , .i, i is often these chords ;= r,fton reading, the enharmonic equivalent of D F# A the the chord would spell Ebb Gb Bbb, used. In the key of Db ,, enharmonic equivalent, is almost always used instead. position, and occasionally The Neapolitan sixth is also often used in root
.

its

second inversion.

Mark

as directed in the

Augmented

sixth chords.

Mendelssohn.

Op. 33.

^--?y135. (

^=^-^

-U^-

>

'^

9-1^

N^

i
cp
cij:
II
,

m=^-^
m.
il

-^

v^

tp^n

VII

EXERCISES.
Brahms.
Co mo<o moderalo.

Op. 45.

136.

^^
.If^-.
Allegro.

fl^J
:ttt

t^

lafe

.-r^j^

Chopin.
Sva.

Op. 10, Xo.

2,

Up
137.

^^^ti:^:k^ t

-^^

i"^"""

SSSSSS

^^m

W^
5^
Assai allegr

Beethoven.

Op. 57.

2^ n-^i?:
138.

:&:^s:a:

Wc^:r^
>t25:fi
i^^4m5' -:^

i^fEEti

>^=fc5:

=
p#

:g--|:-Q#-ti--^>-1^
^zrt:

#---

:^:

:&itzzzi^zitz=*zi

-9-0t

fi^

S:=^

-^^^^.^f:

^^
.:r:-.f:

Cesar Cui.

139.

<

Lesson XI.

The Skip Resolution.


In the resolution of dissonant chords, the approach to the note or chord of is, in many instances, made freely, no regard being paid to the melodic tendency of the voices. Fig. 140. The chord of resolution in many instances is incomplete, nothing more than This occurs most often in the resolution the root being present at times
resolution
of

Vj

to

I.

In cases of misnotated chords, with the skip resolution, it is often difficult It may require experimental enharmonic to find the nature of a progression. changes, and even then it may be necessary to write the chords in root position
to see their progression.

Eavel.

Sonatine.

F-A.

.^*
140.

r-,

r^r
iii'-

.^
Free
resol. I

:t=t-=:t=

EXEKCISES.
Bendl.
Gipsy Songs.

Cn poeo piu

lento.

Max Bruch.

Op. 41.

142.

=1:

q:

^n=|E^^a

^^^

Agitato,

Chopin.
dJis:^:

Op. 20.

=ez^
143.

=3fe:

r-ft-

-.fel

mititzz

-5?^-

na
K
-(2-

tep^^^
(

u^
t^
-iX r

Franck.

The Beatitudes.

144.

^^f'^f^*70

Schumann.

Op.

'20.

145.

^
^fc^ -4--^-

I I

Coleridge-Taylor.

Op.

59.

_&^

^-

fe

Ej:

m-

mm
IVe
it

m^
-^

t^--^
-0-t&-

IV
L3b]

^=1

EXEECISES.
Coleridge- Taylor.
Andante, moderato.

Op. 59, No.

^iEi
147.

^=l^t
.^1

rtz:^
{

-^-

i
L/!

r-

r EColeridge-Taylor.
Op. 59, No.
17.

Larghetto

ma

non

nioto.

148.

<

m
Coleridge-Taylor.
Allegro molto.

Op. 59, No. 18.

feii
S

"'^"

mm

^*-

'^

1
-(g-

--

if

Perosi.

I.azziiro.

150.

-^#P*^=PiNisi
<

Lesson XII.
Modulation.
the art of progression from one key to another. means by which modulations are made from one key to another will be taken up with necessary explanations accompanying them. It has been the endeavor of the author to present the fundamental principles in modulation, so that when the student analyzing on his own account meets

Modulation

is

A number

of

modulations that are different from those given in the text, he will be able to explain them. Heretofore it was only necessary to compare a chord with the key of the composition to mark it, now it will be necessary to study its environment and note its tendency, since a chord may belong to any one of several keys. A few words of explanation regarding terminology may not be out of place
here.

number of sharps or flats between keys the Next related keys are those in which the difference is only one sharp or flat. Going to keys with more sharps or fewer flats is going to the dominant side; going to keys with fewer sharps or more flats is going to the sub-dominant side. The difference in the number of sharps or flats is the number of removes (the number of fifths) distant. To illustrate, the difference between Bb and Db is three flats, hence Db is three removes to the sub-dominant side.
greater the difference in the
are.

The

more distantly related they

Enterixg the Key through Its Domin.xnt Seventh. key may be entered abruptly through its V- chord. Care, however, is necessary in deciding whether a single appearance of a dominant seventh

73

(when resolving to I of a new key is a modulation or only an altered chord. In deciding whether a modulation is real or not the student is asked to consider the following To make such a modulation permanent the new V, chord (and its resolution to I should be followed by a complete cadence in the new key. In slow tempo the mere repetition of a progression V, I in a new key at times gives a strong enough key impression to be called a modulation. After all
)
:

the ear must decide, and since ears differ in acuteness there will be differences as to what a permanent modulation is. There is and always will be a diversity of opinion as to just what constitutes a permanent modulation, since no exact
rules can be set

down

for this.

Passages progressing through many keys without periodic return to the tonic key must be analyzed differently and are taken up in later lessons. The VII" chord permits of the same treatment as the V7 but is not often used for purposes of modulation. Fig 152a modulates, while 1526 does not. CzERNY. Op. 335, No. 4.
a.
I

152.

R. orna.

:-^^^=i^ES^ 5=
_0^
'

-4J-JAp. orna.

:=1-

:=!=:=;

-^i:
'

'

Spohk.

r*i

J\

0gr

m--

-^s-

s
IV,

-1^-^I

:^
Last Judgment.

--,

IflVIe

II,

' 5

"4

[If]

=1:

:|==*-=4E;-=5^=--3=b^_U=J
I
I

EI3

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(Y.))

i=^^
III I

:ttt
I|
(ill

::
II.1

vii%

le

"e

[3

'^"

EXERCISES.
Backer^Groendahl. Op.
Andaviino.
15,

No.

1.

:3
153.

^^=^-\2^-

mm^^^
E#

f t

f^

h:2^:z=z^g ^P^i

EXERCISES.
Mozart.
Sonata.

154.

AndarUe.

.^^

^e

T=^t

:tiiit

tei ^=^2F

^j3E Tt==ti

=it=g:

4-4

111=

:f=-i-J-z

m
P
S=B

^g^^

^^"-^^^^^jfej^

-^
----#(

^-

:t^Ltt

-y

-J:-.

Ui^-

i=t ^^"

-d

i^^ii^^iiilis r
-I

_i*

.0.

76

Wagnek.
Sim Lento

Loheugrin.

A ^

:l'

155.^

P.n^53=^^^J==E^=^=E^^ * Si3

i^^H
Hi ^; 4: i>^r:g
-
I
!

J-

(p^
(S
1=<:

^^=j=zt^^

r=ii-^

r
JL

^=
I

^^

IJI^'

J J^

S1)

f:t

t
-r^

:^

ittjzezti:

iJ
^1

pEjgE^g^Sg^

I*

l-i-

^ "-=#1
Bit*

77


Allegro.

Beethoven.

Op.

2-,

No.

3.

fT-i(

m^N^
i-^-

J-*'-

^^
f^

156.

=q ^

"^

1
jg

^It
ar

f:

^
^.

if:

^^

1^-=^

t^

:f=ttF
I

-^
:

-I

3^eS l^jr^SEE^3E5EiE5S=^^

i^-d-

m^^^=^: Tiz=H~t

^^^
1 ^

Schumann.

Op. 82.

S^=i^^ *
+=^
^
157.

LilJl-^^i

^|5=

:$^

ii
n*

tfc2=t

:3=F^;

1f*=n-

Common Chord Modulations.


chord modulation is one in which the transition to the new key If the key is so far is made by means of a chord that is common to both keys. distant that there is no common chord, then a modulation is made to an intermediate key and from it to the final key, always, however, by the use of common chords. To illustrate in going from C major to F:^ major there is no common chord, hence a modulation is first made to E miner or B minor, which contain chords common to F:^, and then to F^. These intermediate keys are often only touched upon, sometimes not containing more than two chords. The final key is made permanent only by an extended final cadence, i. e. a cadence containing more than the progression V-, I. In marking indicate the location of the chord that is common to both keys Mark all intermediate in either key. and continue marking in the new key.
:

A common

keys.

Fig. 157.

Brahms.

Eequiem.

158.

<

IV

The minor sub-dominant

in

major keys and enharmonics

are used as

common

chords.
or vice versa, the altered chord be-

A major triad may be altered to minor coming a chord in the new key. Fig. 159.

"Wagxer.

Lohengrin.

i ^m
j^=t
159.

'-m^^.

^km-^-m ^
#^-p^

'bJM =^

i
I

VI

I|

Y,
Mexdelssohx.
Op. 14.

EXERCISES.

160.

P^w*^

w-

3=dt=r.

I I

^^^S^*:^-"-,

-^^^=^

i^-^^;,^ %\ t:f*ti
%-t^-^^

~*^^^^^^^sJ^
:Ct^

^^
1=:

:i=^

-4

1^iT-^^

~R*-

Wagner

Lohengrin.

m^m
'

^^J?^ -gp?

L.tt^ll:J: j| J-^^4^-

161.

i^gS

Schumann.

Op. 23, No.

3.

^
^r-

^i^^Si=E^
162.

fe|liii=1^3=^J
81

^i

Lesson XIII. Modulating by Means op the Diminished Seventh on the Raised Fourth Degree, and by Me.vns of the Augmented Sixth Chords. By Means of the Diminished Seventh on the Raised Fourth Degree.
The Diminished Seventh on the
ing I| followed by V7, Fig. 163a. tion.
I

raised fourth degree of the new key resolv(sometimes to V7), makes a strong permanent modula-

In major keys this chord is sometimes notated like a diminished seventh on the raised second degree. Fig. 1637^. Beethoven. Op. 7.

'^
-^

!iE5=*^
163.

:ttt

--f=

f-tF x ^pf-nr-^

:^=t

:p=

Schubert.

Memnon.

sm^^mmm^'m^^^^^^
1
'

titt^-i^

^_j- g-^^
tr^VI?

Db

ni

Vt

le

Ab

111

I4

V,

164.

83


i^^g^
t&:

=5^

f-

f-F-

4-^

^- "^

-tts

^-

t^^E^ii^E^^^^E^^E^^t^^^Eti-,.
tit=:

S^feE^E^Efefei ==t
^:

te^a
Chopin.
Op. 42
I

165.

::

:t=t:

J -t

M2-

Schumann.
Einfach.

Op. 23,

A'o. 4.
-ft-

j>l

-#-t i:
I

tE^
166.
{

Wagner.

Lohengrin.

:BEE=^^
167.
I

-I^r

^j:E^-|E:^i_^g::iiE^|E^iE:-^SE^

::,

^V

.1

By Means

of ax Augmented Sixth Chord.

A
its

key

may be

entered through the 5


its

4+
3

or

4++
3

of the

new

key.

When

an Augmented sixth chord in

k)west note a major third below the key-note

is called its conventional position, and when strong feeling for the new key, and forms a permanent modulation. Fig. 168. Misnotations occur often with these chords when used for modulatory purposes. When they occur note them.

conventional form is located with This it resolves naturally to If. so located and resolved gives a very

Liszt.

Christus.

168

EXERCISES.
Chopin.
Op. 59, No.
1.

^:

4=f:

'^=i-r-

:?=

S=

^
^-

Franck.
I.

Beatitudes.
-I-

M=:f=^=t=tr
170.

m=M^^^ =^pteE|s#^^^^
-?'-T-

-&2^

-^

^=-=^=ii^i
:^A
;=*=^ ^T
:3I

-Sii:i==3

^MT"-'

'^
-I

4-^
*-*=fcis:3EI?Et n ^=5351
:t:!^l-=t

Beethoven.
Allegro

Op.

13.

171.

fetEtat^(PE^i
Allegro

^^iiB
Chopin.
Op.

F^=P&|
it--

172.

p
^-5=ii^:^
*
ai

jJTil,

Schumann.
Marcato.

Op. 28.

:S5^^= ri=
173.

I-

:p=t

"*~L^t~#"

^S^t^=^^
^3=i=J
lififi:

l3^

WT~F

38!

=?^

itt

Sittti^S
:

a*,

^
I
'

w^
-.

z^
t^l^:^"

R^S^^=^^^r=Ff#r T^''
T|-?1
'

T-I-Pl

tr

3=

R.

Strauss.
I

Op. 15, No.

5.

174.

5S^==P^||g^fg
Lesson XIV.

^Modulating by Means of the Neapolitan Chord, Alteration op THE Diminished Seventh, and Deceptive Resolution of V?.

By Means

of a Major Triad onvthe Minor Second Degree (Neapolitan Sixth).

A
close.

key

may be

(N6 orNS).

entered through the major triad on the minor second degree This chord and its regular resolution forms a strong i)ermaneut
in the

Mark
key.

the modulating chord (N6 or N8


in reading, this

new

key,

and continue

in

new

Fig. 175.

For sake of simplicity

when going

into keys with

many

flats.

chord is often enharmonically changed In such cases give its true spelling.

Brahms.

Nanie.

^s-^i
175.

:H^=t

^=TJ1

Vt^

4 ,j=:_^:
=1:

-^ 5?Vt

-J^ ^-

m^

EXERCISES.

176. <

^tT^

&-

tt

^^=^^^^E^
t+#-

t^

=t*-

^1
Christnacht.

WoLF.

177.

Alterations of the Diminished Seventh to a Dominant Seventh.

Lowering only one tone, or raising any three tones of a diminished seventh a half step, changes it to a dominant seventh. Unless such progressions and
their resolution to
I

are followed by a final cadence,


Fig. 178.

mark these chords


Schumann.
Op. 12.

as

directed in previous lessons.

At. chd.

Pass. chd.

-e-hi?=

i
178.
<
b[j

nr-f

= F$

^^m^

G1j

viiSo

viio
5

ig

^
as the

Reduction of the lower

staff.

Diminished sevenths are often altered as above, and notated and resolved 5+ or 4-h- chord of the new key. They are also altered so as to become * 6+

4+ chords
3

in

the new key.

Fig. 179.

Mark the diminished seventh as an altered chord in the old key (if it is not The Dominant seventh and the Augmented sixth chords are marked as vii2o).
being in the new key. Misnotations often occur
in
in

these modulations.

Indicate correct notation

such cases.
Spohr.
Last

Judgment.

EXERCISES.
Chopin.
Presto.
,

Op. 54.

t^180.
{

m^
1^

^-^--^rtt^^-

-^-

^^f=
l-"^tf-^''

Sfe

:^i

E^i
if
:it

I^S

=-^=

^:

:=pt

_fs_^

i^:

:lg^_jC-[-=g

^S=^:^

181.

fetf:

i-j^se

r't^ttt^.^-,-,.

-\y

-^f^mJ^f*rffi-rii^
92

Bendl.
Andante.

Gipsy Songs.

:i^i-n-t1

182.

>
-I

iSH

ll.

The Deceptive Besolution of the Dominant Seventh.

A Dominant
ing.

seventh

may

resolve to any chord in any key,


of modulation.

and

is

valuable

as well as interesting as a
Its resolution to

means

V,

or I of the

new key

is

most frequently used

in

modulat-

Fig. 183.

Schubert.

Symphony

in C.

r
183./

1^17
r E

r E
J^i f-z^t

i^=it ~t=t=LT

^SS33^
Bb
I

O-

rrr
VI vn

^=^

"^

[#

,-

Beethoven.
Op. 54.

K^=-:e^
A
i

vug

Is

EXEECISES.
Allegro agitato.

ChOPIN.

Op. 66.

^
184.
<

t=.t

:titt3^=ti

.^

1
\

r^
1 \

+r r-\
I

Hr-n

r^
1

h-

m^.

p^^f^=Fg; r-r^

=:z^t:--=t=t=

94

Bendl.
Allegro con brio.

Gipsy Songs.

(tei
185.
<

:J,i==z!bj

w-

i
-tti!-

5=^

-n-

j?5^3^

-^-1

ii^;::p5

^^i
tzr.*T

(^
Allegro.

i
Op. 14, No.
i
1

Beethoven.

1.

&5 3l
186.
<

^=^
I

S
I I

f^^iL-^-^-q

^1

J*=l^
:4f*:

fr^-

n: yp-

psa
Hugo Wolf.
Christnacht.

FiG**Lebhaft bewegt.

Fil3^'

g I
187.
<

i^r^^^^
:*:

S=t:

Lgp=JgzzEE^

IE&

Elgar.
Allegretto.

Light of Life.

^'

188.

Lesson XV.
Succession of Keys without Modulating,- and Successive Tonics. There are instances when the transition to the new key is made abruptly,
there being no apparent connection between the two keys. Transition of this kind are strongest when the material on entering the new key is an imitation of the preceding phrase. This, however, is not necessary. Fig. 189.

Elgar.

Caractacus.

189.

EXERCISES.
Elgar.
AWgro.
=1"

Caractacus.

'M^--^ ^5190.
1 I

^^:4

^=t
=1=

q q=

S"-

:g:

:E3:_J2zi3

it

:=^
-I


I
i

p ^. * pr^fri^lfer^^J^i^^
'-T-

Haydn.

Creation.

191.

i^;s^^^ig=^y|i

Schumann.
Langsam.

Op. 82, No.

192.

<

1^

t^

W^ J

lE
97

Passages Modulating through Maxy Keys.


In passages modulating through many different keys in which the feeling for the old key is entirely lost, mark all chords in their different keys. Place, however, as many chords as possible in one key before changing. Moving through different keys in this manner destroys all feeling for the tonic key, and since no one key has been clearly established, marking in the above manner is the most satisfactory. Care must be taken when apparent modulations occur within modulations. A clear modulation may have been made to a key, and in this new key altered chords may have been introduced that touch upon still other keys, but immedi. ately return to the new key without having made a definite key impressionThese must of course be marked as altered or attendant chords in the new key. It is only when the modulations follow in quick succession that each change of key is to be noted. This is at times necessary with every chord.

Consecutive Dominant Sevenths.


Passages of successive dominant sevenths of different keys often occur. The most common progression of this kind is to the sub-dominant key. Other successions of dominant sevenths are not uncommon. When three or more of these chords succeed one another mark each dominant seventh in its apparent key, otherwise mark as altered chords.
Fig. 192.

^lozART.

Quartette

Minor.

WMmm
I I

i-,'^

*^-F-j^^ r,^

\ri
J?

-f--r5^.

193.

a^' Mi
I

--t:
lle i|

-I

-^

W^^
c
V,

V,

D V.
98

V,

=^^^'-4

2^

TT
bb

t^
T-

^=lpia
-^1
I

itziitz:

.1

t/

ivt

EXERCISES.
CZERNY.
Op. 335.

l^.^A^&&:tr^^&3^l :^fe#i^^iil^ili=||^i
194.
-P

|||^aEi:t^g*gr^*t^=J^i^ip^

lli-_|=fc=fi-

-!-

^^

*.

*t

Jfe||:fejr^i^cgji^|:feg ^^^i^i=M
5-=-.-^a
99

195.

^^

--

-*-

fed;

^
*!^

-^

I.

J
i-

^^^1
1

1^
t
.-zfi

f*

-I

H-r\-^0-^-w t-r

Cramer.
Prestissimo

Study.

196.

1^?^

:i=i=r=--=i^

:^ttcitL--EE:
C^if:

^f^

&:^i
tts

^EES^

P=^^=^=feii
=^:

^-=^~u-"1*-

=1=

teiiis^i
i|^

If:

fc=^:

Consecutive Toxics.
Passages also occur in which there is a succession of triads that have no These are to be analyzed as consecutive tonics, i. e. relation one to the other. Do not, however, misuse this call each chord the tonic of a key, Fig 197. Many passages that appear like consecutive tonics may, after a closer privilege. examination or enharmonic change of some of the chords, prove to be in one key.

Wagneu.

Tristan.

197.

=tt^=

^^-

t-3^:
1-^-

E^^^"^^^^
^^^'-n*

1.

Ebiie

Ble
EXERCISE.
Wolf.
Christnacht.

198.

#-

-^

B--

101

'

t^i iU
-^

jit
^%>
"
_

/71^

Ss

:fic

^g t

,^

:^r!t

U-.

4? *-?
f5^

^?^

^=-ii=
.

=ifc

^--

S^
^*-

iT-

T^

^
^?^^-^-^
?^

^^$i
;?^

^ ^-EL-A^EaEjEjEJ^r^E^^

3*

ii#g

5E^ I
Wagner.
Parsifal.

102

WiTHOL,
Andaniino.

Op. 10, No.

1.

m^^
Z^Z
200.
<

1^
j^p
.

tt^-

itikzl

^
^

ei^

^__f

^_#

1=

>i::
"J31

S
'
I

^eii^:
Bf
i
I

103

Lesson XVI.
Consecutive

Diminished Seventh Chords, Chromatic Chords, and the Sequene.


Passing Diminished Seventh Chords.

Passing

In passages of passing diminished seventh chords merely indicate

them

as

such, marking only the

first

and

last chords.

Fig. 200.

Beethoven. E E

Op.

10,

No.

3.

m^^^^^^
201./

-^^-^~$^^-^

im^^^i
ri"

fK^-^-^f^wSp^
Passing dim. 7th.T

Consecutive chords of the diminished seventh occur occasionally in which more than two members of the chords are present. These are harder to analyze. Examine Fig. 201, where apparently there is a progression of broken minor sixths and diminished sevenths alternating. If, however, the two intervals necessary to complete these chords of the seventh are added, a very Passages like this clear succession of passing diminished sevenths will result.
possibly not
really

come under the head

of

two point writing.


104

Beethoven.

Oi>.

10,

No.

:?.

202.

^ Pt

d.

I,

Cons. dim. 7ths.

Each group

of 2 notes one chord.

'-^^-

'^^^^^m^^. i
^^-

..^---

P^^
:

-P
I

r-

F'
Vv
Beethoven.
Op. 111.

EXERCISES.
2i

203.

Schumann.

Op. 111.

i^eEs:
^

204.

^r

-7

M^3:
i=e:^!z=

J-^^J-i

j^at &iL_
I

TiNEL.
Allegro.

Francis.

^-ft-^^?^^
205.
<

"-fij

-Q

-^^

%r

-&-

A^
:z*E5E^;

PE^^piHii
Chromatic Passing Chords.
Introduce passing tones
result.
If in

more than two voices and a passing chord

is

the

some

of these tones are

chromatic passing tones, then the chords are

chromatic passing chords.


Progressions of this kind in Lesson
In the present lesson a succession of

IV had
is

to

such

treated.

do only with a single chord. The upper voice usually

moves

by a step or half-step.

Fig. 206.

Mark the principal chord as usual, and the chromatic passing chords as such, taking up the usual marking of the principal chords when they reappear.
Chopi.v.

Op. No.

4.

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206.
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107

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Op. 23, No.

3.

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Chopix.

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Chopin.
8t;a,

Op.

33,

No.

4.

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207.

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Op.

3,

No.

5.

I
208.

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:g=|:

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Sequence.

Sequence

is

the repetition and transposition of a melodic figure-

The

interval of transposition should be the

same with each

repetition

Fig. 209.

The
another.

transposition

may

be from one degree to another, or from one key to

The sequence
ies.

is

usually accompanied by a sequential

movement

of

harmon-

This should be borne in mind when analyzing the harmony of sequential

In modulatory sequences the dominant or leading tone chords of some of the keys are occasionally altered.

There

is,

nevertheless, a strong key impression

because of the sequence.


alteration

Indicate the key in each of such cases as though no


altered chords as usual.

had been made, and mark the


of the figure,

Fig. 2096.

Find the extent

mark

it

with a bracket

as in Fig. 209,

and

mark each
figure.

repetition of this figure in a like manner.


in

Should the figure be

changed and be carried out sequentially, proceed

the same

way with the new


In
a,

single repetition

is

usually sufficient to establish a Sequence.

very short figures, however, those having not more than two to four notes

second repetition

may be

necessary.

110

Liszt.
a.
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Christus.

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209.

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Chopin.

Ap.

Ap.

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EXERCISES.
Mendelssohn.
.0.

Op.

14.

:ttt#-

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210.


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Study.

212.

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Lesson XVII.

Two Simultaneous Harmonies, One and Two Part


Two Harmonies Appearing Simultaneously.

Writing.

It sometimes occurs that there is a definite impression of two simultaneous harmonies, one of which is other than an Attendant chord, Fig. 213. Mark each chord separately. In cases where the second chord is but an Attendant chord, mark as usual.

fa

LiADOW. E FA

Op.

9,

No.

2.

213.

m
1

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Ap.

Ab

V,

EXERCISE.
Mendelssohn.
Op. 14.

214.

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Wagner.

Parsifal.

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215.

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Two Part

Writing.

Under two part writing only such compositions are considered, both parts of which have equal melodic individuality. Those in which one part is clearly a broken chord effect have already been analyzed. Fig. 215.
sometimes necessary to supply missing The tempo must, however, always progressions are often heard as change of they would give the impression of but one accented note of two notes belonging to the same harmony decides the position of the lowest part of the chord, but in slow tempo both may have to be marked. A root with passing seventh in the lowest part gives the impression of the third inversion only. A chord with the passing seventh in an upper voice unless one of a series of passing tones, mark as a chord of the seventh.
it

In analyzing two part writing

is

group several notes In slow tempo, be considered. harmony, where in quick tempo chord. (See also Lesson I). The
intervals or to

together.

ScHUMAXX.

Op. 72, No.

2.

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CZERNY.
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Op. 335.

217.

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A'legro.
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Sonata.

218.

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Allegretto.

Bach.

Prelude.

219.

118

^s-S.-

gi^Vit=^i==ri

i^^^E^g^
One Part Writing.

In analyzing unaccompanied melodies, the harmonies in

many

instances are

conjectural, since possibly only two tones of the chord appear,


either one of

and they may be

two chords.

The same
Fig. 219
is

general plan given for analyzing two part

writing holds good here.

an interesting example of one part writing.

Chopin.
Ap. orna.

Op. 23.

Ap.

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Op. 39.

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Lesson XVIII.

The Church Modes.


so far,

In addition to our modern modes (major and minor) that have been analyzed much music is written in the "Church Modes." There are six of these the Ionian (our major mode), the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian and the Aeolian. The last being the original form of our minor mode. These modes
are written as in Fig. 224
Ionian.

(Our major mode.)

224,

-<

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Phrygian.

T^r~g?"
Lydian.

-S^

s
I
The

^
Mixolydian.

S^

g-

s?

?3^~3

E--^-^--^---Aeolian.

(Our original minor mode.)

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following are a few of the above with other signatures.

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122

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h^^-^-

A. Phrygrian,

Lydian.

On anal.vzing the ab6ve it will be found that the Dorian mode begins on the second degree of a major scale and progresses upward an octave, the Phrygian on the third degree, the Lydian on the fourth, the Mixolydian on the The starting point of each mode being its fifth, and the Aeolian on the sixth.
tonic.

modes

Since some of the modern writers are making such frequent use of these in producing many of their unique effects, it has seemed advisable to ask for an analysis of the mode as well as the harmony of the following exercises.

In order to find the mode of a composition assemble the different notes of the melody and harmony if necessary find the point of repose, put the notes in alphabetical order and compare with Fig. 224.

mode beginning with

not rely on the signature as a clue to the mode. While e.g. the Dorian d, usually found with the signature of C major, it may also be found with the signature of F major, the b, however, always being natural.

Do

This is easily recognized by Occasionally modes modulate to other modes the appearance of tones foreign to the mode, or by the cadence at the end of the Fig. 225a begins in C, Dorian, makes a digression to C Aeolian at the first line. hold and returns to C Dorian in the next line.

The seventh degree is raised freely in final cadences, particularly in the Dorian, Mixolydian and Aeolian modes. Always indicate it in the analysis.
Tones are sometimes altered
to induce a modulation.
for the

sake of color, but are not used enough

Mark

these as indicated in previous lessons.

Passing embellishing tones etc. are also often used in altered forms in the harmonization. This does not affect the mode.

The final chord was usually written major, no matter what the mode. This does not affect the analysis of the mode. In analyzing give the name of the mode and analyze the harmonies in this mode.
tones,

In marking the mode give also the key from which the mode takes e. g., C Dorian, F Phrygian etc.
illustrations with regard to

its

Examine the
alterations, etc.

marking keys, chords, modulations,

Bach.
C. Aeolian.

Choral.
C. Dorian.

225.

#-

EXERCISES.
Bach.
Choral.

(
:26.

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Ballade.

Cl.

Debussy.

227.

125

Maukice Eavel.
Moderat'i.

Sonatine.

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228.
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Allegretto.

22,

No.

2.

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229.

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Chopin.
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Op. 24, No.

2.

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230.

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1430-1506. Salve Regina.

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232.

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^"
Lesson XIX.
Reduction.
the eliminating of all non-harmonic and unessential chord tones, and the retaining of only those necessary for a simple and clear harmoniIt will be seen from this that after an example has been analyzed harzation. monically, the matter of reducing it is comparatively simple. As regards the melody to be reduced, as far as possible follow it in the

Reduction

in

An absolute adherence to this is, however, not necessary. Melodies which transgress the limits of four part writing should be raised or lowered so as to come within the limits. The reduction should be made in four part writing, even though the example to be reduced is only in one, two or more parts. Fig. 232 contains several examples reduced and analyzed. An examination In "6" it has been necessary to introduce of these will no doubt he suggestive. five voices in the fourth measure owing to the presence of a complete Vg chord.
reduction.

i28

233./

C. IVi
1

m
5,

lit
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Chopin.
Ap.

Op. 28. No. 19.

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c.

Op, 106.

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Consecutive dim. 7ths.

Franck.

Beatitudes.

234.

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106.

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Tempo
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Op. 30.

236.

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Op. 26, Xo.

4.

237.

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238.
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Lesson XX.
The remaining
lessons consist of exercises,

which

will serve as

a review

of the preceding lessons.

EXERCISES.
Franck.
Moderato.

Beatitudes.

1=t^
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239.

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Op. 23.

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Op.

72.

241.

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243.

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Chopin.

Op.

14.

244.

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Lesson XXI,
EXERCISES.
Tranquillo

Richard Strauss.

Op.

10,

No.

8.

245.

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Op.
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Lesson XXII.
EXERCISES.
Beethoven.
Allegro risoluio.

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249.

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250.

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Beatitudes.

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252.

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Elgar.
Op. 29.

253.

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