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ANSWER SCHEME BIOLOGY STPM PAPER 1 TRIAL/ OTI 2 2009 Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ANSWER B B A B B A A C D B B C A D D A B C D A B D C C C Q 26 27 28 29 30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

ANSWER C A B A D
B C C B A A C D B D

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

A C A B A C D C C C

Marking Scheme- Trial STPM 2009 Paper 2 1(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) Dissacharide 1,4 glycosidic bond Condensation Act as energy source/ storage Glycogen It is not dissolve in water/compact Does not increase the osmotic pressure of the cell Store more energy -Humans do not have the cellulose enzyme - that can digest the 1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose monomer that made up glucose TOTAL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(g)

10M

2(a)(i)

Step 1 : Transcription Step 2 : Translation A : DNA B : mRNA C : Polypeptide

1 1 1 correct = 0m 2 correct = 1m 3 correct = 2m Max =2 m

(ii)

(b)

-The double helix DNA unzip and one of the strand act as the template. -(The template) is used to form (a single stranded) mRNA. -The free nucleotides are attached together based on the complementary base pairing principles ( between DNA and RNA ) - by the role

1 1 1 1 Any2=2m 1 1 1 Any2= 2m 1 1 1

(c )(i)

Enzyme can be reuse/repeatedly The product is not contaminated with enzyme The enzyme can be used at a wider temperature and pH

(ii)

Trap in an carrier matrix such as resin Place in gel like silica Bind by covalent bond in matrix like cellulose TOTAL

10M

3 (a)

(b) (c)

P :aceytil coA Q : ketoglutarat R : malat S : 0xaloacetat The matrix of the mitochondria it function as coenzyme,to carry out oxidation-reduction reactions acts as hydrogen acceptor to remove hydrogen atom and electron from a substrate Then passed to the electron transport system for ATP production

3-4= 2m 1-2= 1m 1 1 1 1 Any2=2m 1 1 1 1 1 10M

(d)

5 , 3, 3 Glycerate-3-phosphate - transfer energy Ribulose phosphate - supplies phosphate (and transfer energy) NADPH and ATP /products of light-dependent reaction needed to convert -glycerate 3-phosphate to triose phosphate TOTAL

4 (a) (b)

M : Sigmoid curve // Limited growth N : Intermittent growth M : The growth of the organism continues throughout life N : The growth patern shows periods of extremely rapid growth follow by periods where there is little or no growth // Discontinuos growth

1 1 1 1

Growth as represented by increase in organic materials such as proteins is continuous Growth curve which uses length as a parameter is therefore not a true reflection of growth

1 1

(d) (i)

- Germination occurred in darkness ( not photosynthesis ) - Starch had been hydrolysed into sugar - (which was) used for cellular respiration / other metabolic Activities - Embryo needs energy - Cellulose was synthesized to make new cell wall (during the process of growth )

1 1 1 Any 2 = 2m

(ii) (iii)

1 1

TOTAL

10M

NO. 5(a)

SUGGESTED ANSWER Fibrous proteins Globular proteins -do not have a tertiary structure. The -have a tertiary structure. Quaternary secondary structure is the most structure may or may not be present important -polypeptide chains are cross-linked at -polypeptide chain is tightly folded to form a spherical shape interval (to form long fibers//sheet) -dissolve in water (to form colloidal -insoluble in water, due to the large solutions), due to the hydrophilic R groups number of hydrophobic R groups -amino acid sequence may vary slightly -amino acid sequence is highly specific (never varies) between two samples -the length of polypeptide is identical in two -the length of polypeptide may vary in samples two samples of the same fibrous protein -amino acid sequence rarely exhibit -amino acid sequence is remarkable regularities regular -perform metabolic functions -perform structural function. -e.g. enzymes/I -e.g. keratin/fibroin/collagen total

MARK 1/0

1/0 1/0 1/0

1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 8M max 7

5(b)i

diffusion -net movement of solute /solvent molecules down a concentration gradient -membrane may or may not be present. If present it is a fully permeable

osmosis -net movement of water molecules down a water potential gradient 1/0 -involves a partially permeable membrane (permeable to water but not solute molecules total

1/0 2M MARK

NO. 5(b) ii.

SUGGESTED ANSWER Phagocytosis -material taken into cell is in solid form -selective process (cell can discriminate between particles taken into the cell and those not taken into cell -particles are taken into cell by invagination of membrane or by pseudopodia Pinocytosis -material taken into cell is in liquid form -not selective (substances dissolve in surrounding medium will be taken into cell

1/0 1/0

-liquid is taken into cell by invagination of membrane total 1/0 3M 1 1 1 3M

5(b) iii.

-molecular size of the substance -solubility of the substance in lipid -charge on the particle of the substance total

6 (a)

F
D1 L1

D E
(b) -the biological cell membrane acts as barrier and are selectively permeable -the membrane consists of a fluid bilayer of phospholipids and various protein molecules embedded in it. Some of this protein molecules act as ion channels, carrier protein or pumps -the phospholipids bilayer has a hydrophobic middle region made up of hydrophobic fatty acids tails -the phospholipids bilayer is permeable to very small uncharged molecules like oxygen, and carbon dioxide, Steroid based hormone, fatty acids and alcohol(simple diffusion) - simple diffusion of water molecules across the semipermeable cell membrane is called osmosis. -some integral membrane protein form hydrophilic ion channels. This allows diffusion of various charged ions e.g. K+, Na+, Ca+, and HCO3-, down their concentration gradient. -some of this ion protein channels can open or close and are called gated channels e.g. voltage-gated channels and ligandgated channels -other large sized hydrophilic molecules such as glucose are transported across the cell membrane through facilitated diffusion using a protein carrier molecules - in facilitated diffusion, the binding of substances to the specific protein carrier causes the carrier to changes its shape and the substance is released into the cell -transport protein on the cell membrane can also transport substance across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient through active transport. -in active transport, the shape of protein carrier changes using energy (ATP) -exocytosis and endocytosis are active transport processes that move material in bulk across the cell membrane -excocytosis involve the transportation of substances out of the cell in bulk through the fussion of vesicle membrane with the cell membrane 1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1

-in endocytosis the bulk substances is transported into the cell through the invagination of the cell membrane -pinocytosis occurs when the cell membrane invaginates to actively transport a small amount of fluid into the cell -in receptor- mediated endocytosis, ligand (cholesterol molecules) bind to specific receptors in coated pits on cell membrane. -all these structures and its related process enable the cell membrane to function as semipermeable membrane as well as enable the cell membrane to regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell 7(a) (i)

1 1 1

1 max13

H2O K+ H2O H+

H2O K+ H+ H2O

Diagram Label (a) (ii)

- 1 marks - 1 marks

2m

The mechanism of stomatal opening (during day) -potassium ion (K+) are pumped from subsidiary cells into the guard cell, H+ are pumped out of the subsidiary cells to maintain the electro neutrality -the increase of ion K+ and sugar(from photosynthesis) concentration makes the water potential of the guard cells more negative (lower), therefore -the water from subsidiary cells moves into the guard cell -the resultant increase in hydrostatic pressure causes the guard cells to become turgid -the uptake of water causes increased bowing of the guard cell (owing to the greater expansion of the outer walls than the inner wall ) and the stoma open the mechanism of stomatal closing (during night) -K+ ion are actively transported out from the guard cells into the subsidiary cells, H+ ions are transported into the guard cells -photosynthesis does not occur and the carbon dioxide concentration increases and the pH of the guard cell fall -sugar is converted into insoluble starch, therefore the water potential of the guard cell increases

Max =8m

(b)

--light/blue light stimulate guard cells to accumulate potassium and become turgid, stoma open; or by driving photosynthesis in guard cells chloroplast, making ATP available for active transport of H+ -temperature increased temperature stoma opens -air movement -dehydration(water stress) in case of water deficiency, guard cells lose turgor and stoma closes. Mesoplhyll cells produce hormone abscisic acid which signals the guard cells to close. -concentration of carbon dioxide depletion of CO2 within the air spaces of the lesf causes the stoma to opens -moisture/humidity

Max = 5m

8(a)

Three hypotheses were suggested to explain how DNA replication occurs: Semiconservative replication Conservative replication Dispersive model The procedure of the Meselson and Stahl experiment are as follows: - Escherichia coli were cultured for many generations in medium containing heavy nitrogen isotope 15N in order to label all DNA in E. coli with the heavy (15N ) nitrogen isotope. - Bacteria with 15N -DNA were then transferred to medium containing normal nitrogen isotope 14N. - Samples were removed at fixed intervals corresponding to the generation time of E.coli at a specific temperature - DNA from different generations were extracted and centrifuged in a solution containing caesium chloride ( CsCl) to separate denser DNA containing 15N from the ordinary DNA containing 14N - The position of DNA with 15N and DNA with 14N was measured in ultraviolet The results of the Meselson and Stahl experiment are as follows: - Generation 0 : All the DNA molecules contain 15N on both strands of the double helix,forming a dark band near the base of the centrifuge tube. - Generation 1 Generation 1: All the DNA were hybrids containing 15N in one strand and 14N in another strand,forming a band between the heavy and light DNA band - Generation 2: Half of the DNA were hybrids and another half were light DNA with 14N - Generation 3 : Third generation onwards,DNA with 14N increases but the number of hybrid DNA remain unchanged The result of the first generation eliminated the conservative hypotheses because this hypothesis does not explain the presence of hybrid DNA. Max 8m

15

15

Gen 0
Heavy DNA
15 14 14

15

N
Hybrid DNA

Gen 1

15

14

14

14

14

14

14

15

N
Light DNA Hybrid DNA

Gen 2
Hybrid DNA Hybrid DNA

Light DNA

Diagram = 2m

The result of the second generation eliminated the dispersive hypothesis because this hypothesis does not explain the presence of light DNA in the second generation Meselson and Stahl proved that DNA replicates semiconservatif DNA helicase enxyme unwinds the parental double helix by breaking the weak hydrogen bonds between the complementary base pairs Exposed base sequence on DNA strand acts as a template to enable the assembly of new complimentary DNA strand DNA polymerase elongates the DNA strand by adding new deoxyrbonucleotides one by one through complementary base pairing Adenine (A) base is paired with thymine (T) base, while guanine (G) paired with cytosine (C) base The leading strand is formed continuously from 5 to 3 Replication on the other complementary strand occurs discontinuously The short strands of DNA formed are called Okazaki fragments Okazaki fragments are joined by ligase enzyme to form lagging strand When replication is complete, two molecules of DNA are produced,each with one parental strand and one new complementary strand DNA replication occurs semiconservatively

Total =10m 1
1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Any 5 = 5m

9 (a)

- The kidney controls the blood osmotic concentration equilibrium through its control on the amount of water expelled from the body as urine. - When blood osmotic concentration increases, for example when there are inadequate water in the diet or excessive sweating occurs or excess salt is ingested, - the cells of the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated to secrete the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). - ADH increases the permeabilities of distal convoluting tubules and collecting ducts resulting in an increase in the reabsorption of water. - This increase the water content in the blood and body fluids and the osmotic concentration of blood and body fluid decrease. - A small volume of concentrated urine is produced. - When there is a high intake of water, the osmotic concentration of blood decrease. - The posterior pituitary gland secretes less ADH. - The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule remain impermeable to water. - Less water is reabsorbed as the filtrate passes in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts. - Excess water is expelled through the kidney - and a large volume of dilute urine is produced.

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 max: 9

(b)

- Almost 80% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed at proximal convoluted tubules. - Al the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones are reabsorbed actively into the peritubular capillaries. - Almost 70% of the sodium and chloride ions in the filtrate are reabsorbed actively into the peritubular capillaries. - This reduces the solute potential in the tubular filtrate. - Hence, 70 80% of the water is reabsorbed through osmosis. - About 50% of the urea in the filtrate diffuses into the peritubular capillaries. - This urea is then transported to all over the body. - The remaining urea in the tubule is excreted in the urine.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

- Small protein molecules that have passed into the tubule during ultrafiltration are digested into amino acids that can diffuse into the peritubular capillaries.

1 max: 6

10(a) Carriers for the disorder: For the first cousin:

0.02 /2/100 2(0.02) = 0.04 =1/25 probability that one of the two common grandparents is a carrier

1 1

if one is the carrier, the offspring of a first-cousin marriage have a 1/16 probability of being homozygous for the disorder. The overall probability is : =1/25(1/16) = 1/400 For second-cousin offspring : p = (1/25)(1/64) = 1/1600 For the population at large, p = 1/10000 = 0.0001

1 1 1

1 Max 4

The number of Drosophilla with ebony body = 250-195 = 55 The frequency for homozygous recessive genotype (ebony body) q2 = 55/250 = 0.22 q = 0.22 = 0.469 p = 1q = 1 0.469 = 0.531

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Frequency for KK (grey body) = p2 = 0.531 x 0.531 = 0.282 Frequency for Kk = 2 pq = 2 (0.282)(0.469) = 0.498 Genotype ratio = 0.282 (KK) : 0.489 (Kk) : 0.220 (kk)

1 1 1 1 1 Max 10

10(b)(i)

Possible genotypes of blood groups of the childrens Blood group Possible genotypes A IA IA or IAIO AB IA IB O IO IO Allele A causes production of antigen A on red blood cell Allele B causes production of antigen B on red blood cell Allele O causes no production of antigens on red blood cell Alleles A and B are codominant and allele O is recessive to both As the first child is group A, its only possible genotype is IAIA or IA IO It must therefore have inherited one IA allele from one parent and IO allele from the other parent (IA IO) As the second child is group AB, its only possible genotype is IAIB. It must therefore have inherited one IA allele from one parent and the other IB allele from the other parent As the third is group O its only possible genotype is IOIO. It must therefore have inherited one IO allele from each parent. The mother, if IAIO, could donate such an allele and so, the father possible genotype is IBIO So, the genotypes of the parents are: father blood group B Phenotype Parents Genotype IBIO

mother blood group A I AI O

1 Max: 5m

10(b)(ii)

A genetic diagram to show the inheritance of ABO blood groups in the family. father mother blood group B blood group A Phenotype Parents Genotype IBIO IAIO Meiosis Gametes Offspring: Meiosis 1

IO

IB

IA IA

IO
Male gametes

IO
IAI O IOIO 1

Female Gametes

IA IO

I AI B IBIB

1 Max: 2m

25 % blood group A (IAIO) 25% blood group B (IBIO)

25% blood group AB (IAIB) 25% blood group O (IOIO)