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Prezentul simplu {Present Tense 8imple_

Cnd se foloseyte
Prezentul simplu (Simple Present) desemneaz un eveniment (o actiune sau stare) care se ntmpl simultan cu
momentul vorbirii (prezentul instantaneu) sau care include momentul vorbirii (prezentul generic si habitual).
Prezentul simplu este Iolosit n urmtoarele situatii:
O actiuni generale care au loc ntr-un interval de timp nespeciIicat (ce include momentul vorbirii): Water
-oils at 100C
(adverbe de Irecvent tipice: always, never, regularly, ever etc)
O actiuni obisnuite repetate: I o to school every day.
(adverbe si locutiuni adverbiale utilizate n mod regulat: 419en, seld42, 1requen9ly, 4nce a week/24n9/year,
4ccasi4nally etc.)
O actiuni vzute ca avnd loc n ntregime n momentul vorbirii (comentarii demonstratii exclamatii)
Valori temporale:
1) Valoare de viitor:
O exprimarea datei: Tomorrow is December 21st.
O actiuni planiIicate pentru viitor (mai ales cu g4, c42e, leave, re9urn, begin, s9ar9, end, 1inis etc.)
2) Valoare de trecut:
O n naratiuni (prezent istoric): One day the princess finds the burried ring.
Cum se formeaz
Din punct de vedere al Iormei prezentul simplu este identic cu inIinitivul la toate persoanele (singular si plural) cu
exceptia persoanei a III-a singular care adaug e)s
Majoritatea verbelor adauga -s la persoana a III-a singular: He swims. She stays.
Desinenta devine -es atunci cnd verbul se termin n s x z sh ch tch sau o: She watches. He goes.
Verbele terminate in -y precedat de consoan schimb pe y n i si adaug -es: I cry - he cries
Exemple
I play tennis. She does not play tennis. Does he play tennis?
The train leaves every morning at 9 a.m.
She always forets her keys.
Prezentul continuu{Present Continuous_
Cum se formeaz
Afirmativ
Verbul auxiliar apare de cele mai multe ori in Iorma sa contrasa:
I`m running
You`re runnning
He`s running
We`re running
They`re running
nteroativ
Se inverseaza ordinea dintre subiect si auxiliar:
Am I running?
Are you running?
Is he running?
Is she running?
Are we running?
Are you running?
Are they running?
Neativ
Cuvantul not precedat de auxiliar apare de cele mai multe ori in Iorma sa contrasa (dar niciodata dupa am):
I`m not running
You aren`t running
He isn`t running
She isn`t running
We aren`t running
You aren`t running
They aren`t running
nteroativ-neativ
Am I not running?
Aren`t you running?
Isn`t he running?
Isn`t she running?
Aren`t we running?
Aren`t you running?
Aren`t they running?
Cnd se foloseyte
1. Pentru a descrie o actiune in curs de desIasurare in momentul vorbirii.
In acest caz este insotit adesea de o indicatie temporala cum ar Ii now at the moment.
Look! He`s washing his car. Priveste! El isi spala masina.
What are you doing there? Ce Iaci acolo?

2. Pentru a descrie pozitiile corpului:
She`s standing. Ea sta in picioare.
He`s leaning against a wall. El sta sprijinit de un perete.

3. Cand e vorba de o actiune viitoare prevazuta sau programata:
They`re buying a new house in May. Ei isi cumpara o casa noua in luna mai.
What are you doing next Monday? Ce Iaci lunea viitoare?

4. Cand e vorba de ceva care s-ar putea produce in orice moment:
He looks Iunny when he`s playing his trumpet. Arata comic atunci cand canta la trompeta.

5. Impreuna cu always pentru a exprima iritarea sau dezaprobarea:
She`s always coming in when we talk something
important.
Intotdeauna trebuie sa intre in camera Iix cand vorbim noi
lucruri importante

Prezentul perfect {Present Perfect_
Cnd se foloseyte
Prezentul perIect (Present PerIect) desemneaz o actiune trecut care Iie tocmai s-a ncheiat Iie c se desIsoar
ntr-un timp deschis nedeterminat.
Spre deosebire de trecut care desemneaz tot o actiune trecut la prezent perIect momentul ncheierii actiunii nu e
necesar s Iie cunoscut.
Prezentul perIect corespunde n limba romn trecutului (perIectul compus). De exemplu:
O A nins. It has snowed. 242en9ul nu es9e de9er2ina9 precis)
Dac momentul ar Ii Iost determinat traducerea devenea:
O A nins acum o or. It snowed an hour ago.
Cum se formeaz
Shave\hasverb la aIII-a
Afirmativ
subiec9 have / has verb la forma a III-a (participiu trecut)

!ersoana
Ver-ul auxiliar la
prezent
Ver-ul de conjuat la
participiul trecut
Continuarea
propozi(iei
Traducere
I have seen her lately.
Eu am vzut-o de
curnd.
You have seen her lately.
Tu ai vzut-o de
curnd.
He/She/It has seen her lately.
El/Ea a vzut-o de
curnd.
We have seen her lately.
Noi am vzut-o de
curnd.
You have seen her lately.
Voi ati vzut-o de
curnd.
They have seen her lately.
Ei/Ele au vzut-o de
curnd.

Observatie: Nu este determinat precis momentul cnd a Iost vzut.
Neativ
subiec9 have / has not verb la forma a III-a (participiu trecut)

nteroativ
have / has subiec9 verb la forma a III-a (participiu trecut)

Adver-e specifice
Adver-e de frecven(
ntre cele 2 verbe (verbul auxiliar si verbul conjugat) pot aprea:
O adverbe de Irecvent deIinit: oIten seldom ever never usually sometimes
O adverbe de Irecvent indeIinit: just recently already
Exemplu: I have just met her.
Adver-ul "yet"
Adverbul 'yet se aseaz doar pe Iinalul propozitiei si numai n propozitii interogative si negative.
n propozitii interogative are sensul de 'deja. De exemplu:
Have you met her yet?
Dac ar trebui transpus n propozitie aIirmativ 'yet ar deveni 'already:
I have already met her.
n propozitii negative are sensul de 'nc. De exemplu:
I haven`t met her yet.
Adver-ul "for"
Adverbul 'Ior cu sensul de 'timp de arat durata actiunii Ir a preciza momentul de nceput si de Iinal. n
propozitie are pozitie aproape Iinal. De exemplu:
I haven`t met her Ior 2 years.
Adver-ul "since"
Adverbul 'since cu sensul 'ncepnd din arat momentul de nceput Ir a preciza durata sau momentul de Iinal.
Pozitia este spre Iinalul propozitiei. De exemplu:
I haven`t met you since Monday.
Dup 'since urmeaz ntotdeauna trecut dac mai urmeaz o propozitie. De exemplu:
I haven`t met her since I came. es9e 4 actiune 2ai 9recu9g deca9 cea cu in9alnirea)
Adver-e de timp deschis
Pe pozitia Iinal mai pot Ii adverbe de timp deschis: lately today this year this month this week etc.
Exemple
Afirmativ I have worked here since last year.
Afirmativ (forma contras) Ive worked here since last year.
Neativ I have not worked here since last year.
Neativ (forma contras) I haven`t worked here since last year.
nteroativ Have I worked here since last year?
Rspuns pozitiv Yes I have.
Rspuns neativ No I have not.
Rspuns neativ (forma contras) No I haven`t.

Prezentul perfect continuu {Present Perfect Continuous_
Cum se formeaz?
Have/ Has been verb '-ing
Exemple:
O I have been writing Ior 2 hours now.
O She has been reading Ior 20 minutes.
Afirmativ
I have been writing
You have been writing
She has been writing
He has been writing
It has been writing
We have been writing
You have been writing
They have been writing
Neativ
I have not been writing
You have not been writing
She/he/it has not been writing
We have not been writing
You have not been writing
They have not been writing
nteroativ
Have I been writing?
Have you been writing?
Has she/he/it been writing?
Have we been writing?
Have you been writing?
Have they been writing?
Cnd l folosim?
Present PerIect Continuous arat o:
O actiune nceput n trecut si care continu n prezent
O I have -een livin here since 2001. (Locuiesc aici din 2001) nc mai locuiesc n acest loc
O actiune continu nceput n trecut ncheiat recent
O I have -een talkin on the phone until now. (Am vorbit la teleIon pn acum) am nceput s vorbesc la
teleIon mai devreme si de-abia acum am terminat convorbirea.
O actiune continu desIsurat n trecut ncheiat dar care are consecinte n prezent
O I look tired because I have -een workin all aIternoon. (Art obosit pentru c am muncit toat dup-
amiaza) am terminat munca ns acum art obosit din acest motiv
O Oh the kitchen is a mess! Who has -een cookin? (Oh buctria e un dezastru! Cine a gtit?) activitatea
de a pregti mncarea (o activitate continu de lung durat) s-a ncheiat ns consecintele ei (Iaptul c
buctria este murdar) sunt evidente n prezent.
Present Perfect 8imple vs Present Perfect Continuous
!resent !erfect Simple scoate n evident Iaptul c actiunea s-a terminat si/sau consecinta acesteia n prezent.
Pune accent pe cantitate (ca9 de 2ul9 ca9 de des).
O I have written le99ers.
O I have -een to London 9wice.
!resent !erfect Continuous scoate n evident durata actiunii (ca9 9i2p).
O I have -een writin Ior an 4ur.
Adver-e caracteristice
Present PerIect Continuous este Iolosit adesea alturi de majoritatea adverbelor ce-i sunt caracteristice si lui Present
PerIect Simple precum since, 14r, all week, 14r days, la9ely, recen9ly, 4ver 9e las9 1ew 24n9s.
O I have -een studyin English since 2000.
Trecutul simplu {Past Tense 8imple_
Cnd se foloseyte
Trecutul simplu se Ioloseste n una dintre urmtoarele situatii:
1. Pentru a desemna o actiune svrsit si ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut.
Se Ioloseste cu adverbe de timp ca: 9w4 4urs ag4 (acum dou ore) yes9erday (ieri) las9 week (sptmna trecut)
in 1970 (n 1970) .
Exemplu: I went to the opera last week. (Am Iost la oper sptmna trecut.)
n aceast situatie trecutul simplu se traduce prin perIectul compus (de obicei la persoana a I-a si a II-a) si perIectul
simplu (aproape exclusiv la persoana a III-a).
Exemple:
O I lost my umbrella yesterday. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela ieri.)
O He said goodbye and leIt. (Spuse la revedere si plec.)
2. Pentru a desemna o actiune repetat n trecut.
Se Ioloseste cu adverbe de Irecvent:
O deIinite: weekly (sptmnal) 9ree 9i2es a day (de trei ori pe zi) etc
O indeIinite: 419en (des) usually (de obicei) etc
n aceast situatie trecutul simplu se traduce prin imperIect.
Exemplu:
O She oIten leIt her English textbook at home. (Deseori si uita manualul de englez acas.)
Cum se formeaz
Afirmativ
Aici exist o diIerent n Iormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
Subiect verb (inIinitiv
scurt)ED
Subiect Iorma a II-a a verbului
neregulat
To work worked - worked

To write wrote - written

I worked hard yesterday. Am muncit mult ieri. I wrote a letter yesterday. Am scris o scrisoare ieri.
You worked hard yesterday Ai muncit mult ieri. You wrote a letter yesterday. Ai scris o scrisoare ieri.
He/she worked hard
yesterday.
El/ea a muncit mult
ieri.
He/she wrote a letter yesterday.
El/ea a scris o scrisoare
ieri.
We worked hard yesterday.
Noi am muncit mult
ieri.
We wrote a letter yesterday.
Noi am scris o scrisoare
ieri.
You worked hard yesterday.
Voi ati muncit mult
ieri.
You wrote a letter yesterday.
Voi ati scris o scrisoare
ieri.
They worked hard yesterday. Ei au muncit mult ieri. They wrote a letter yesterday.
Ei au scris o scrisoare
ieri.

ED se pronunt astIel:
O D| cnd verbele se termin n vocal sau consoan sonor (- l m n v z dz)
Exemple: play-played arrive-arrived
O T| cnd verbele se termin n consoan surd (f k p s)
Exemple: like-liked cross-crossed
O ID| cnd verbele se termin n t sau d
Exemple: want-wanted nod-nodded
Neativ
Formarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate se Iace identic.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
Subiect DID NOT/DIDN`T
verb(inIinitiv scurt)
Subiect DID NOT/DIDN`T
verb(inIinitiv scurt)
I didn`t work hard yesterday.
Nu am muncit mult
ieri.
I didn`t write a letter yesterday.
Nu am scris o
scrisoare ieri.
You didn`t work hard yesterday.
Nu ai muncit mult
ieri.
You didn`t write a letter
yesterday.
Nu ai scris o scrisoare
ieri.
He/she didn`t work hard
yesterday.
El/Ea nu a muncit
mult ieri.
He/she didn`t write a letter
yesterday.
El/Ea nu a scris o
scrisoare ieri.
We didn`t work hard yesterday.
Noi nu am muncit
mult ieri.
We didn`t write a letter yesterday.
Noi nu am scris o
scrisoare ieri.
You didn`t work hard yesterday.
Voi nu ati muncit
mult ieri.
You didn`t write a letter
yesterday.
Voi nu ati scris o
scrisoare ieri.
They didn`t work hard yesterday.
Ei nu au muncit
mult ieri.
They didn`t write a letter
yesterday.
Ei nu au scris o
scrisoare ieri.

nteroativ
Formarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate se Iace identic.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
DID Subiect verb (inIinitiv
scurt)
DID Subiect verb (inIinitiv
scurt)
Did I work hard yesterday? Am muncit mult ieri? Did I write a letter yesterday? Am scris o scrisoare ieri?
Did you work hard yesterday? Ai muncit mult ieri?
Did you write a letter
yesterday?
Ai scris o scrisoare ieri?
Did he/she work hard
yesterday?
El/Ea a muncit mult
ieri?
Did he/she write a letter
yesterday?
El/Ea a scris o scrisoare
ieri?
Did we work hard yesterday?
Noi am muncit mult
ieri?
Did we write a letter yesterday?
Noi am scris o scrisoare
ieri?
Did you work hard yesterday?
Voi ati muncit mult
ieri?
Did you write a letter
yesterday?
Voi ati scris o scrisoare
ieri?
Did they workhard yesterday? Ei au muncit mult ieri?
Did they write a letter
yesterday?
Ei au scris o scrisoare ieri?

Trecutul continuu {Past Tense Continuous_
Cnd se foloseyte
Trecutul continuu se Ioloseste n una dintre urmtoarele situatii:
1. Pentru a desemna o actiune n desIsurare ntr-un moment trecut. Momentul n trecut poate Ii exprimat
prin:
1. adverbe de timp ca: 9w4 4cl4ck yes9erday (la ora 14.00 ieri) a9 9is 9i2e las9 week (la ora aceasta
sptmna trecut) - ce exprim un moment speciIic. Exemple:
I was writing a letter at two o`clock yesterday. (Scriam o scrisoare ieri la ora dou)
I was writing a letter at this time last week. (Scriam o scrisoare sptmna trecut la ora
asta.)
2. o alt actiune n trecut exprimat prin un alt timp trecut (past simple). Exemplu:
Mother arrived when I was writing a letter. (Mama a venit pe cnd eu scriam o scrisoare.)
2. Pentru a desemna dou actiuni paralele n desIsurare n trecut. Exemplu:
o She was eating while I was writing a letter. (Ea mnca n timp ce eu scriam o scrisoare.)
Pentru a desemna o actiune repetat n trecut iritant pentru ceilalti; urmat de always (ntotdeauna) 14rever
(mereu) c4n9inually (continuu) all 9e 9i2e (tot timpul). Exemplu:
o He was always coming late to the English lesson. (Totdeauna ntrzia la ora de englez).
Pentru a desemna o stare actiune trecut cu caracter temporar. Exemplu:
o He was living in Brasov when I met him. (El locuia n Brasov cnd l-am ntlnit).
Toate situatiile se traduc prin imperIect.
Cum se formeaz
Afirmativ
Enlez Romn
Subiect WAS Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING (la PERS IIII SG)
Subiect WERE Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING
I was writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Eu scriam o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
You were writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Tu scriai o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
He/she was writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. El/ea scria o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
We were writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Noi scriam o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
You were writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Voi scriati o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
They were writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Ei/ele scriau o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.

Neativ
Enlez Romn
Subiect WAS NOT Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING (la PERS IIII SG)

Subiect WERE NOT Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING
Subiect WASN`T Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING (la PERS IIII SG)
Subiect WEREN`T Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING
I wasn`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Eu nu scriam o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
You weren`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Tu nu scriai o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
He/she wasn`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. El/ea nu scria o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
We weren`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Noi nu scriam o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
You weren`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Voi nu scriati o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.
They weren`t writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday. Ei/ele nu scriau o scrisoare ieri la ora dou.

nteroativ
Enlez Romn
WAS Subiect Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING (la PERS IIII SG)
WERE Subiect Verb (INFINITIV SCURT) ING
Was I writin

Were you writin a letter at two o`clock yesterday? Scriai o scrisoare ieri la ora dou?
Was he/she writin

Were we writin

Were you writin

Were they writin

Trecutul perfect {Past Perfect Tense 8imple_
Cnd se foloseyte
Trecutul perIect simplu se Ioloseste n una dintre urmtoarele situatii:
1. Pentru a desemna o actiune trecut ncheiat naintea unui moment trecut. Exemplu:
o I had Iinished my lessons by ten o`clock yesterday. (mi terminasem lectiile nainte de ora zece
ieri.)
2. Pentru a desemna o actiune trecut ncheiat naintea altei actiuni trecute. Exemplu:
o I had Iinished my lessons by the time mother arrived home.( mi terminasem lectiile cnd mama a
ajuns acas.)
3. Pentru a desemna o actiune trecut ncheiat imediat naintea unei alte actiuni trecute. Se Iolosesc
adverbele: us9 ardly n4 s44ner (tocmai de-abia)...9an. Exemple:
o I had just/hardly got into the classroom when the bell rang. (Tocmai/de-abia intrasem n clas cnd
a sunat clopotelul.)
o No sooner had I got into the classroom than the bell rang. (De-abia intrasem n clas cnd a sunat
clopotelul.)
4. Pentru a desemna o actiune trecut ncheiat ntr-o perioad de timp anterioar unei alte actiuni trecute dar
care ajunge pn la aceasta. Se Iolosesc adverbele: 14r (arat perioada de timp n care a Iost Icut actiunea)
si since (arat momentul nceperii actiunii). Exemple:
o He had been in the classroom Ior two minutes when the teacher came in. (Era n clas de dou
minute cnd a intrat proIesorul.)
o He had lived in Bucharest since 1975 when I met him. (Locuia n Bucuresti din 1975 cnd l-am
cunoscut.)
Toate situatiile se traduc cu mai-mult-ca-perIectul (Iolosit mai Irecvent n englez pentru exprimarea anteriorittii)
n romn se Ioloseste adeseori si perIectul compus cu valoare de mai-mult-ca-perIect:
O The passengers got out as soon as the train had stopped. (Pasagerii au cobort de ndat ce s-a oprit trenul.)
Cum se formeaz
Afirmativ
Exist o diIerent n Iormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
Subiect HAD verb (inIinitiv
scurt)ED
Subiect HAD Iorma a III-a
a verbului neregulat
To wash washed - washed

To write wrote - written

I had washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Eu splasem dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
I had written a letter when
mother arrived.
Eu scrisesem o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
You had washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Tu splasesi dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
You had written a letter
when mother arrived.
Tu scrisesesi o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
He/she had washed two
shirts when mother arrived.
El/ea splase dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
He/she had written a letter
when mother arrived.
El/ea scrisese o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
We had washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Noi splaserm dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
We had written a letter
when mother arrived.
Noi scriseserm o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
You had washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Voi splaserti dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
You had written a letter
when mother arrived.
Voi scriseserti o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
They had washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Ei splaser dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
They had written a letter
when mother arrived.
Ei/ele scriseser o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.

Neativ
Exist o diIerent n Iormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
Subiect HAD NOT verb
(inIinitiv scurt)ED
Subiect HAD NOT Iorma a
III-a a verbului neregulat
Subiect HADN`T verb
(inIinitiv scurt)ED
Subiect HADN`T Iorma a
III-a a verbului neregulat
To wash washed - washed

To write wrote - written

I hadn`t washed two shirts
when mother arrived.
Eu nu splasem dou
cmsi cnd mama a venit.
I hadn`t written a letter
when mother arrived.
Eu nu scrisesem o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
You hadn`t washed two
shirts when mother arrived.
Tu nu splasesi dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit.
You hadn`t written a letter
when mother arrived.
Tu nu scrisesesi o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
He/she hadn`t washed two
shirts when mother arrived.
El/ea nu splase dou
cmsi cnd mama a venit.
He/she hadn`t written a
letter when mother arrived.
El/ea nu scrisese o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit.
We hadn`t washed two Noi nu splaserm dou We hadn`t written a letter Noi nu scriseserm o
shirts when mother arrived. cmsi cnd mama a venit. when mother arrived. scrisoare cnd mama a
venit.
You hadn`t washed two
shirts when mother arrived.
Voi nu splaserti dou
cmsi cnd mama a venit.
You hadn`t written a letter
when mother arrived.
Voi nu scriseserti o
scrisoare cnd mama a
venit.
They hadn`t washed two
shirts when mother arrived.
Ei/ele nu splaser dou
cmsi cnd mama a venit.
They hadn`t written a
letter when mother arrived.
Ei/ele nu scriseser o
scrisoare cnd mama a
venit.

nteroativ
Exist o diIerent n Iormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate si cele neregulate.
Ver-e reulate Ver-e nereulate
Enlez Romn Enlez Romn
HAD Subiect verb (inIinitiv
scurt)ED
HAD Subiect Iorma a III-a
a verbului neregulat
To wash washed - washed

To write wrote - written

Had I washed two shirts
when mother arrived?
Splasem dou cmsi cnd
mama a venit?
Had I written a letter
when mother arrived?
Scrisesem o scrisoare cnd
mama a venit?
Had you washed two shirts
when mother arrived?
Tu splasesi dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit?
Had you written a letter
when mother arrived?
Tu scrisesesi o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit?
Had he/she washed two
shirts when mother arrived?
El/ea splase dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit?
Had he/she written a letter
when mother arrived?
El/ea scrisese o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit?
Had we washed two shirts
when mother arrived?
Noi splaserm dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit?
Had we written a letter
when mother arrived?
Noi scriseserm o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit?
Had you washed two shirts
when mother arrived?
Voi splaserti dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit?
Had you written a letter
when mother arrived?
Voi scriseserti o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit?
Had they washed two shirts
when mother arrived?
Ei/ele splaser dou cmsi
cnd mama a venit?
Had they written a letter
when mother arrived?
Ei/ele scriseser o scrisoare
cnd mama a venit?


'iitorul simplu

Viitorul Simplu se formeaza cu auxiliarul will urmat de infinitivul
verbului de conjugat.
1. Viitorul Simplu l Iolosim n legtur cu asteptri predictii opinii sau presupuneri care se
vor desIasura n viitor.
Don`t worry. She`ll come back. Nu te ngrijora. Se va intoarce.
My son will be ten next month. Fiul meu va mplini zece ani luna viitoare.
2. Viitorul Simplu se Ioloseste pentru a descrie actiuni obisnuite ce vor avea loc n viitor.
Drivers will always have to pay their speed tickets. SoIerii intotdeauna vor trebui sa-si achite
amenzile pentru depsirea vitezei.
Babies will be born and old people will die as usual. Copii tot se vor naste si batranii se vor
stinge ca de obicei.
3. Viitorul Simplu se Ioloseste in cadrul propozitiilor conditionale de tip 1 precum si n
propozitii temporale.
We will punish him iI he does it again. l vom pedepsi dac va mai Iace acel lucru din nou. He will
come home when he Iinishes his work. El va veni acas dup ce si va termina treaba.
4. Viitorul Simplu se Ioloseste pentru a descrie actiuni ce exprim intentia (mai ales cele luate
in momentul deciziei).
I will have some Pepsi please. As dori un Pepsi v rog.
I like this car. I will buy it. mi place aceast masin. O voi cumpra.
1. Forma afirmativa:
I will come
You will come
He will come
We will come
You will come
They will come
2. Forma interogativa :
Will I come ?
Will you come ?
Will he come ?
Will we come ?
Will you come ?
Will they come ?
3. Forma negativa :
I will not come
You will not come
He will not come
We will not come
You will not come
They will not come
4. Forma interogativ-negativa
Will I not come ?
Will you not come ?
Will he not come ?
Will we not come ?
Will you not come ?
Will they not come ?
Viitorul continuu
Viitorul continuu (will be + ING). Se foloseste:
1. pentru a exprima actiuni n desIasurare n viitor cnd timpul este mentionat sau dedus:
Cathy will be wearing her red dress at the party on Saturday night.
This time next week I will be lying on a hot sunny beach.
2. pentru a exprima ceva ce a Iost deja plnuit sau decis Ir intentia vorbitorului si Ir
a se mentiona un timp anume:
I`ll be going to the supermarket soon. Do you want something?
3. pentru a intreba politicos despre planurile altora:
'Will you be using your car this evening? 'No why? 'Could I borrow it?
4. pentru a exprima o supozitie n legtur cu actiune ce are loc n present:
He`ll be swimming now.
Acum o Ii nnotnd.
'iitorul de intenie
Going to Future
Cnd se foloseyte
Going to Future se Ioloseste n urmtoarele situatii :
1.Cnd avem o actiune viitoare apropiata de momentul vorbirii
Exemplu :
We are going to see a Iilm tomorrow.
Vom vedea un Iilm mine.
2.Cnd avem o actiune viitoare ce va avea loc ca urmare a unei intentii
prezente.
Exemplu :
We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains .(We`ve already booked a room in Poiana Brasov.)
Avem de gnd/intentionm s ne petrecem vacanta la munte.(Am rezervat deja o camer la Poiana Brasov)
3.Cnd avem o actiune viitoare care va avea loc ca rezultat al unei cauze
prezente.
Exemplu :
It`s going to rain. Look at the clouds.
Cred c o s plou./Are s plou. Uit-te la nori.
Cum se formeaz
Se Iormeaz cu ajutorul Iormei -e oin to la prezent urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat.
Afirmativ
Enlez Romn
I am going to write Eu intetionez s scriu
You are going to write Tu intentionezi s scrii
He/She is going to write El/Ea intentioneaz s scrie
We are going to write Noi intentionm s scriem
You are going to write Voi intentionati s scrieti
They are going to write Ei/Ele intentioneaz s scrie

Neativ
Enlez Romn
I am not / I`m not going to write Eu nu intentionez s scriu
You are not/ You aren`t going to write Tu nu intentionezi s scrii
He/She is not / She isn`t going to write El/Ea nu intentioneaz s scrie
We are not / We aren`t going to write Noi nu intentionm s scriem
You are not/ You aren`t going to write Voi nu intentionati s scrieti
They are not / They aren`t going to write Ei/Ele nu intentioneaz s scrie

nteroativ
Enlez Romn
Am I going to write ? Intentionez eu s scriu ?
Are you going to write ? Intentionezi tu s scrii ?
Is he/she going to write ? Intentioneaz el/ea s scrie ?
Are we going to write ? Intentionm noi s scriem ?
Are you going to write ? Intentionati voi s scrieti ?
Are they going to write ? Intentioneaz ei/ele s scrie ?


Forme de viitor apropiat
E A&T T + NFNTV& VER&&
Cnd se foloseyte
Aceast Iorm exprim un viitor imediat.
Exemplu : We are a-out to leave. Suntem pe punctul de a pleca.
Cum se formeaz
E A&T T INFINITIVUL VERBULUI
Afirmativ
Lng|ez komn
l am abouL Lo leave Lu sunL pe puncLul de a pleca
?ou are abouL Lo leave 1u e;Ll pe puncLul de a pleca
e/She ls abouL Lo leave Ll/La esLe pe puncLul de a pleca
We are abouL Lo leave nol sunLem pe puncLul de a pleca
?ou are abouL Lo leave vol sunLe(l pe puncLul de a pleca
1hey are abouL Lo leave Ll/Lle sunL pe puncLul de a pleca

Neativ
Lng|ez komn
l am noL abouL Lo leave Lu nu sunL pe puncLul de a pleca
?ou aren'L abouL Lo leave 1u nu e;Ll pe puncLul de a pleca
e/She lsn'L abouL Lo leave Ll/La nu esLe pe puncLul de a pleca
We aren'L abouL Lo leave nol nu sunLem pe puncLul de a pleca
?ou aren'L abouL Lo leave vol nu sunLe(l pe puncLul de a pleca
1hey aren'L abouL Lo leave Ll/Lle nu sunL pe puncLul de a pleca

nteroativ
Lng|ez komn
m l abouL Lo leave ? SunL eu pe puncLul de a pleca ?
re ?ou abouL Lo leave ? L;Ll Lu pe puncLul de a pleca ?
ls e/She abouL Lo leave ? LsLe el/ea pe puncLul de a pleca ?
re We abouL Lo leave ? SunLem nol pe puncLul de a pleca ?
re ?ou abouL Lo leave ? SunLe(l vol pe puncLul de a pleca ?
re 1hey abouL Lo leave ? SunL el/ele pe puncLul de a pleca ?

E T + NFNTV& VER&&
Cnd se foloseyte
Aceast Iorm exprim :
a. un aranjament.
Exemplu : I am to move house soon. Urmeaz s m mut n curnd.
b. un ordin.
Exemplu : You are to return beIore nightIall. Trebuie s v ntoarceti nainte de cderea noptii.
Cum se formeaz
E T INFINITIVUL VERBULUI
Afirmativ
Lng|ez komn
l am Lo move soon urmeaz s m muL in curnd
?ou are Lo move soon urmeaz s Le mu(l in curnd
e/She ls Lo move soon urmeaz s se muLe in curnd
We are Lo move soon urmeaz s ne muLm in curnd
?ou are Lo move soon urmeaz s v muLa(l in curnd
1hey are Lo move soon urmeaz s se muLe in curnd

Neativ
Lng|ez komn
l am noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu m muL in curnd
?ou are noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu Le mu(l in curnd
e/She ls noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu se muLe in curnd
We are noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu ne muLm in curnd
?ou are noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu v muLa(l in curnd
1hey are noL Lo move soon urmeaz s nu se muLe in curnd

nteroativ
Lng|ez komn
m l Lo move soon ? urmeaz s m muL in curnd ?
?ou are Lo move soon ? urmeaz s Le mu(l in curnd ?
e/She ls Lo move soon ? urmeaz s se muLe in curnd ?
We are Lo move soon ? urmeaz s ne muLm in curnd ?
?ou are Lo move soon ? urmeaz s v muLa(l in curnd ?
1hey are Lo move soon ? urmeaz s se muLe in curnd ?
Viitorul !erfect
The Future Perfect 8imple Tense
Cnd se foloseyte
Viitorul PerIect desemneaz un eveniment anterior unui moment sau eveniment care este la rndul su posterior
momentului vorbirii.
Viitorul PerIect este Iolosit pentru a exprima :
1. o actiune viitoare care va avea loc naintea unui moment viitor
Exemplu : He will have finished the book by Monday. El va Ii terminat cartea pn Luni.
2. o actiune viitoare care va avea loc naintea unei alte actiuni viitoare
Exemplu : He will have finished the book by the time you come back home. El va Ii terminat cartea pn cnd te
ntorci tu acas.
3. o actiune viitoare care va avea loc ntr-o perioad de timp anterioar unei actiuni viitoare dar ajungnd pn la
aceasta
Exemplu : He will have worked in this Iactory Ior Iorty years when he retires. Va Ii lucrat n aceast Iabric timp de
40 de ani cnd se va pensiona.
Not : Viitorul perIect este o Iorm verbal caracteristic limbii scrise Iiind rar Iolosit n vorbirea curent.
Cum se formeaz
Se Iormeaz cu ajutorul Iormei de viitor simplu al verbului auxiliar To HAVE participiul trecut al verbului de
conjugat (VerbEd verbe regulate; sau Forma a III-a a verbului neregulat verbe neregulate)
Afirmativ
Enlez Romn
I shall/will have worked/written Eu voi Ii lucrat/scris
You will have worked/written Tu vei Ii lucrat/scris
He/She will have worked/written El/Ea va Ii lucrat/scris
We shall/will have worked/written Noi vom Ii lucrat/scris
You will have worked/written Voi veti Ii lucrat/scris
They will have worked/written Ei/Ele vor Ii lucrat/scris

Not : n limba englez contemporan Iormele cu Shall de la persoana I singular si plural au Iost nlocuite cu Iorma
Will.
Neativ
Enlez Romn
I shan`t/won`t have worked/written Eu nu voi Ii lucrat/scris
You won`t have worked/written Tu nu vei Ii lucrat/scris
He/She won`t have worked/written El/Ea nu va Ii lucrat/scris
We shan`t/won`t have worked/written Noi nu vom Ii lucrat/scris
You won`t have worked/written Voi nu veti Ii lucrat/scris
They won`t have worked/written Ei/Ele nu vor Ii lucrat/scris

Not : Forma Shan`t este prescurtarea Iormei Shall Not iar Iorma Won`t este prescurtarea Iormei Will Not.
nteroativ
Enlez Romn
Shall/Will I have worked/written ? Eu voi Ii lucrat/scris ?
Will You have worked/written ? Tu vei Ii lucrat/scris ?
Will He/She have worked/written ? El/Ea va Ii lucrat/scris ?
Shall/Will We have worked/written ? Noi vom Ii lucrat/scris ?
Will You have worked/written ? Voi veti Ii lucrat/scris ?
Will They have worked/written ? Ei/Ele vor Ii lucrat/scris ?

'iitorul Perfect Continuu
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Cnd se foloseyte
Viitorul PerIect Continuu exprim o actiune n desIsurare n viitor nainte si pn la o alt actiune viitoare (si poate
si dup aceea).
Exemplu :
When the bell rings we sall/will ave been wri9ing Ior IiIty minutes. Cnd va suna clopotelul noi vom Ii Iost
ocupati cu scrisul/noi vom Ii scris de 50 minute.
Not : actiunea svrsit n aceast perioad de timp viitoare anterioar unui moment sau unei actiuni de asemenea
viitoare es9e la vii94rul per1ec9 c4n9inuu dacg se speci1icg lungi2ea peri4adei de 9i2p sau incepu9ul ei (By 6 o`clock
p.m. se will ave been selling blouses 14r 8 4urs. Pn la ora 18.00 ea va Ii vndut bluze timp de 8 ore.) i la
vii94rul per1ec9 si2plu dacg es9e pre:en9g 4 preci:are nu2ericg in legg9urg cu actiunea.(By 6 o`clock p.m. se will
ave s4ld 80 blouses. Pn la ora 18.00 ea va Ii vndut 80 de bluze.)
Not : Viitorul PerIect Continuu este rar Iolosit n vorbire Iiind o Iorm caracteristic limbii scrise.
Cum se formeaz
Viitorul PerIect Continuu se Iormeaz din vii94rul per1ec9 al verbului auxiliar To BE urmat de Iorma Verb de
conjugat ING.
Afirmativ
Enlez Romn
I shall/will have been writing Eu voi Ii scris
You will have been writing Tu vei Ii scris
He/She will have been writing El/Ea va Ii scris
We shall/will have been writing Noi vom Ii scris
You will have been writing Voi veti Ii scris
They will have been writing Ei/Ele vor Ii scris

Not : n limba englez contemporan Iormele cu Shall de la persoana I singular si plural au Iost nlocuite cu Iorma
Will.
Neativ
Enlez Romn
I shan`t/won`t have been writing Eu nu voi Ii scris
You won`t have been writing Tu nu vei Ii scris
He/She won`t have been writing El/Ea nu va Ii scris
We shan`t/won`t have been writing Noi nu vom Ii scris
You won`t have been writing Voi nu veti Ii scris
They won`t have been writing Ei/Ele nu vor Ii scris

Not : Forma Shan`t este prescurtarea Iormei Shall Not iar Iorma Won`t este prescurtarea Iormei Will Not.
nteroativ
Enlez Romn
Shall/Will I have been writing? Eu voi Ii scris?
Will You have been writing? Tu vei Ii scris?
Will He/She have been writing? El/Ea va Ii scris?
Shall/Will We have been writing? Noi vom Ii scris?
Will You have been writing? Voi veti Ii scris?
Will They have been writing? Ei/Ele vor Ii scris?
Enlez: Gramatic: Fraza condi(ional
Tipuri de -az
O fraz condi(ional este Iormat din 2 tipuri de propozitii:propozitia subordont conditional (II Clause) care
exprim o conditie si propozitia principal sau regent (Main Clause) care exprim rezultatul conditiei. In limba
englez exist patru tipuri de -az de conditionale:
O Tipul 1
O Tipul 2
O Tipul 3
O Tipul 0
Structura unei fraze condi(ionale
O Iraz conditional poate avea o structur de tipul:
F Condi(ie Rezultat
II she has time she will help you.

sau
Rezultat F Condi(ie
She will help you iI she has time.

Observati Iolosirea virgulei n primul exemplu.
Fraza condi(ional de tipul 1
O fraz condi(ional de tipul 1 se reIer la o condi(ie posi-il si la rezultatul pro-a-il al acesteia.Ea implic
obtinerea unui anumit rezultat prin indeplinirea unei conditii date. Folosim timpul prezent in subordonata
conditionala(pentru exprimarea conditiei) si viitorul in regenta (pentru exprimarea rezultatului).
De exemplu pentru a trece un examen un student trebuie s invete.In cazul in care studentul invatprobabilitatea ca
el sa treac examenul e ridicat.Am putea asadar Iormula urmtoarea Iraz:
F Condition Result
Present Tense Simple Future Tense
II he studies he will pass the exam.
Dac nvat el va trece examenul.

In exemplul de mai sus Iacem reIerire la doua actiuni viitoare realizarea primei dintre ele ( 'Daca invat)Icand-o
posibila pe cea de-a doua (el va trece examenul).
Fraza condi(ional de tipul 2
O fraz condi(ional de tipul 2 se reIer la o condi(ie impro-a-ila sau ipotetica si la rezultatul pro-a-il al
acesteia. Folosim acest tip de conditional pentru a exprima o situatie imaginara contrar realittii prezente sau
pentru a exprima o situatie improbabil intr-un moment viitor. Folosim timpul trecut in subordonata si Conditionalul
prezent in regent.
F Condition Result
Past Tense Simple Present Conditional
II I had money I would buy a car.
Dac as avea bani as cumpra o masin.
II he won the lottery he would travel all over the world.
Daca ar castiga la loterie ar cltori in toata lumea.

Primul exemplu se reIer la o si9uatie i2aginarg c4n9rarg reali9gtii pre:en9e: eu nu am bani in prezent asadar nu voi
cumpra o masin.
Al doilea exemplu exprim o si9uatie i2pr4babilg in vii94r: sansele ca el s cstige la loterie sunt reduse asadar e
putin probabil cltoria lui n toat lumea.
Fraza condi(ional de tipul 3
O fraz condi(ional de tipul 3 se reIer la o condi(ie ireal trecut si exprim o si9uatie i2aginarg sau c4n9rarg
reali9gtii in9run 242en9 9recu9.Folosim mai mult ca perIectul in subordonat si conditionalul perIect in regent.
F Condition Result
Past PerIect Tense PerIect Conditional
II I had known the truth I would have been happier.
Dac as Ii stiut adevarul as Ii Iost mai Iericit.

Exemplul de mai sus se reIer la o situatie contrar realittii trecute- eu nu am stiut adevarul si nu am Iost mai
Iericit.
Fraza condi(ional de tipul 0
Fraza conditional de tipul 0 se reIer la un rezultat care este intotdeauna vala-il pentru o anumit
condi(ie.Folosim timpul prezent atat in subordonat cat si in regent.
F Condition Result
Present Tense Simple Present Tense Simple
II you heat ice it melts.
Daca nclzesti gheata se topeste.

Tipuri mixte
Atunci cand cele doua prti ale unei Iraze conditionale(conditia si rezultatul)se reIer la perioade diIerite de timp
Iraza rezultant este ceea ce numim o fraz condi(ional mixt. Exist urmtoarele tipuri de conditionale mixte in
limba engleza:
Rezultat prezent al unei condi(ii trecute
Timpul Iolosit in subordonata conditional este mai mult ca perIectul iar timpul din propozitia principala este
conditionalul prezent.
F CA&SE MAN CA&SE
II past perIect present conditional
II he had taken my advice he would be rich now.
Daca mi-ar Ii urmat sIatul acum era bogat

O astIel de Iraz conditional se reIer la o condi(ie trecut ireal si rezultatul pro-a-il al acesteia in prezent
exprimand o situatie contrar realittii atat in prezent cat si in trecut. In exemplul de mai sus 'II he had taken my
advice exprim o situatie contrar realittii din trecut(He did not take my advice/ el nu mi-a urmat sIatul) iar 'he
would be rich now exprima o situatie contrar realittii prezente (he is not rich/el nu e bogat)
Rezultat trecut al unei condi(ii prezente sau enerale
Folosim trecutul simplu in subordonata conditional si conditionalul perIect in regent.
F` CA&SE MAN CA&SE
II simple past PerIect conditional
II you could speak English you would have got the job.
Daca ai Ii stiut/stiai engleza ai Ii obtinut slujba.

O astIel de Iraz conditional se reIer la o condi(ie prezent ireal si la rezultatul trecut pro-a-il- dar ireal- al
acesteia. In exemplul de mai sus II you could speak English este o situatie contrar realittii prezente (you cannot
speak English/tu nu stii engleza) iar 'you would have got the job este contrar realittii trecute ( you did not get the
job/tu nu ai obtinut slujba).
Enlez: Gramatic: Ver-e - su-jonctivul
Forme
Exist trei Iorme ale timpului subjonctiv:
1. subjonctiv prezent 1
2. subjonctiv prezent 2
3. subjonctiv trecut
De asemenea mai exist o Iorm care poate s nlocuiasc subjonctivul: should short inIinitive.
Forma timpului su-jonctiv prezent 1
Cu excepia verbului 94 be subjonctivul prezent 1 este identic n Iorm cu timpul prezent simplu la modul indicativ.
Subjonctivul prezent al verbului 94 be este -e pentru toate persoanele. De asemenea subjonctivul prezent 1 este
ntotdeauna identic n Iorm cu inIinitivul scurt al verbului.
Exemplu:
O Suppose I -e late what then?
Forma timpului su-jonctiv prezent 2
Subjonctivul prezent 2 este identic n Iorm cu cu timpul trecut simplu la modul indicativ. Cu toate acestea
diIerena de sens este major deoarece acest timp Iace reIerire la prezent sau la viitor. De aceea numim acest
subjonctiv prezent 2 pentru a evita conIuzia cu timpul trecut simplu la modul indicativ.
Exemplu:
O II I had money I would give it to you.
Forma timpului su-jonctiv trecut
Acest timp este identic n Iorm cu timpul trecut compus la modul indicativ (past perIect indicative).
Exemplu:
O I wished my brother would be in Romania.
Cnd se foloseyte
Subjonctivul prezent 1 este Iolosit n urmtoarele situaii:
1. n expresii idiomatice care exprim urare sau rug. Exemple:
o God save the Queen.
o The Devil take him.
o God bless you.
2. Dup verbe care exprim o dorint n viitor. Exemplu:
o It is my wish that you go home next year.
3. Dup verbe precum pr4p4se sugges9 4rder de2and insis9 advise. Exemplu:
o I sugges9 that you leave and take care oI your babies.
4. n propoziii subordonate concesive care nu ncep cu o conjunctie. Exemple:
o Cost what it may we`ll go there
o Come what may I`ll go there.
5. Dup expresii impersonale precum i9s i2p4ssible i9s unbelievable i9s s9range i9s na9ural i9s
i2pr4bable. Exemplu:
o 9s i2p4ssible that she win the prize.
Formele timpului subjonctiv sunt Iolosite n urmtoarele situatii:
1. Dup verbe care exprim o dorint n situatii ipotetice:
o Subjonctiv prezent 2. Exemplu:
She wish her sister were here.
o Subjonctiv trecut. Exemplu:
She wished her sister had been here
2. Dup expresiile as i1 as 94ug
o Subjonctiv prezent 2. Exemple:
She looks as i1 she were sad.
She looked as i1 she were sad.
o Subjonctiv trecut. Exemplu:
She looks as i1 she had cried all day long.
3. Dup expresiile i9s ig 9i2e i9s ab4u9 9i2e
o Subjonctiv prezent 2. Exemplu:
9s ig 9i2e we leIt.
4. Dup expresiile w4uld ra9er w4uld s44ner
o Subjonctiv prezent 1: se Iolosete atunci cnd subiectul expresiei coincide cu subiectul
subjonctivului. n acest caz cel de-al doilea subiect este omis. Exemplu:
Id ra9er write my homework.
o Subjonctiv prezent 2: se Iolosete pentru a Iace reIerire la prezent sau la viitor n cazul n care
subiectul este diIerite. Exemplu:
Id ra9er she wrote her homework.
o Subjonctiv trecut: se Iolosete pentru a Iace reIerire la trecut n cazul n care subiectul diIer.
Exemplu:
Id ra9er you had went home instead oI going to the disco.
5. Dup verbul supp4se:
o Subjonctiv prezent 1 - se Iolosete pentru a Iace reIerire la prezent sau la viitor. Exemplu:
$upp4se I be the winner what can I say?
o Subjonctiv prezent 2 - se Iolosete pentru a Iace reIerire la prezent sau la viitor. Exemplu:
$upp4se I were the winner what could I do?
o Subjonctiv trecut - se Iolosete pentru a Iace reIerire la trecut. Exemplu:
$upp4sed I had been the winner could I have said?
Enlez: Gramatic: Ver-e nereulate
Urmtorul tabel prezint verbele neregulate din limba englez. Unele dintre acestea au dou variante de conjugare
regulat si neregulat. n acest caz varianta mai uzitat este trecut prima.
nfinitiv !ast Tense !articipiu trecut Traducerea infinitivului (sensul principal)
arise arose arisen a se ridica
awake
awoke
awaked
awoken
awaked
a se trezi
backslide backslid
backslidden
backslid
a decdea
be was / were been a Ii
bear bore
borne
born
a purta
beat beat
beaten
beat
a bate
become became become a deveni
begin began begun a ncepe
bend bent bent a se ndoi
bet bet bet a paria
betted betted
bid
bid
bade
bid
bidden
a licita a porunci
bind bound bound a lega
bite bit bitten a musca
bleed bled bled a sngera
blow blew blown a suIla a bate
break broke broken a sparge
breed bred bred a creste a educa
bring brought brought a aduce
broadcast
broadcast
broadcasted
broadcast
broadcasted
a diIuza
browbeat browbeat
browbeaten
browbeat
a intimida
build built built a construi
burn
burned
burnt
burned
burnt
a arde
burst burst burst a izbucni a nvli a crpa
bust
busted
bust
busted
bust
a rupe a strica
buy bought bought a cumpra
cast cast cast a arunca
catch caught caught a prinde
choose chose chosen a alege
cling clung clung a se agta
clothe
clothed
clad
clothed
clad
a (se) mbrca
come came come a veni
cost cost cost a costa
creep crept crept a se tr a se Iurisa
cut cut cut a tia
daydream
daydreamed
daydreamt
daydreamed
daydreamt
a visa cu ochii deschisi
deal dealt dealt a trata a se ocupa de
dig dug dug a spa
disprove disproved
disproved
disproven
a inIirma
dive
dived
dove
dived a plonja
do did done a Iace
draw drew drawn a trage a desena
dream
dreamed
dreamt
dreamed
dreamt
a visa
drink drank drunk a bea
drive drove driven a soIa a mna
dwell dwelt dwelt a locui
dwelled dwelled
eat ate eaten a mnca
Iall Iell Iallen a cdea
Ieed Ied Ied a hrni
Ieel Ielt Ielt a (se) simti
Iight Iought Iought a (se) lupta
Iind Iound Iound a gsi
Iit
Iitted
Iit
Iitted
Iit
a se potrivi
Ilee Iled Iled a Iugi a se reIugia
Iling Ilung Ilung a arunca
Ily Ilew Ilown a zbura
Iorbid
Iorbade
Iorbad
Iorbidden a interzice
Iorecast
Iorecast
Iorecasted
Iorecast
Iorecasted
a prevedea
Iorego Iorewent Ioregone a preceda
Ioresee Ioresaw Ioreseen a prevedea
Ioretell Ioretold Ioretold a prezice
Iorget Iorgot Iorgotten a uita
Iorgive Iorgave Iorgiven a ierta
Iorsake Iorsook Iorsaken a prsi
Ireeze Iroze Irozen a ngheta
Irostbite Irostbit Irostbitten a degera
get got gotten a primi a obtine
give gave given a da
go went gone a merge
grind ground ground a mcina
grow grew grown a creste
hand-Ieed hand-Ied hand-Ied a hrni cu mna
handwrite handwrote handwritten a scrie de mn
hang hung hung a atrna
have had had a avea
hear heard heard a auzi
hew hewed
hewn
hewed
a despica
hide hid hidden a (se) ascunde
hit hit hit a lovi
hold held held a tine
hurt hurt hurt a lovi a rni a durea
inbreed inbred inbred a procrea
inlay inlaid inlaid a ncrusta
input
input
inputted
input
inputted
a introduce
interbreed interbred interbred a ncrucisa
interweave
interwove
interweaved
interwoven
interweaved
a (se) ntretese
interwind interwound interwound a se rsuci
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built a construi prost
keep kept kept a tine a pstra
kneel
knelt
kneeled
knelt
kneeled
a ngenunchia
knit
knitted
knit
knitted
knit
a tricota
know knew known a sti a cunoaste
lay laid laid a pune a aseza
lead led led a conduce
lean
leaned
leant
leaned
leant
a se apleca a se sprijini
leap
leaped
leapt
leaped
leapt
a sri
learn
learned
learnt
learned
learnt
a nvta
leave leIt leIt a pleca a lsa
lend lent lent a da cu mprumut
let let let a lsa a permite
lie lay lain a zcea a se aIla
light
lit
lighted
lit
lighted
a aprinde
lip-read lip-read lip-read a citi pe buze
lose lost lost a pierde
make made made a Iace
mean meant meant a nsemna
meet met met a (se) ntlni
miscast miscast miscast a distribui ntr-un rol nepotrivit
misdeal misdealt misdealt a mprti crtile gresit
misdo misdid misdone a Iace gresit
mishear misheard misheard a auzi gresit
mislay mislaid mislaid a pierde
mislead misled misled a ndruma gresit
mislearn
mislearned
mislearnt
mislearned
mislearnt
a nvta gresit
misread misread misread a citi gresit
misset misset misset a aseza gresit
misspeak misspoke misspoken a se exprima gresit
misspell
misspelled
misspelt
misspelled
misspelt
a ortograIia gresit
misspend misspent misspent a risipi (bani)
mistake mistook mistaken a gresi
misteach mistaught mistaught a instrui gresit
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood a ntelege gresit
miswrite miswrote miswritten a scrie gresit
mow mowed
mowed
mown
a cosi
oIIset oIIset oIIset a compensa
outbid outbid outbid a licita mai mult ca
outbreed outbred outbred a ncrucisa cu alt varietate
outdo outdid outdone a ntrece
outdraw outdrew outdrawn a scoate mai repede ca
outdrink outdrank outdrunk a bea prea mult
outIight outIought outIought a lupta mai bine ca
outIly outIlew outIlown a depsi n zbor
outgrow outgrew outgrown a (se) Iace prea mare
outleap
outleaped
outleapt
outleaped
outleapt
a depsi n sritur
outride outrode outridden a ntrece
outrun outran outrun a ntrece
outsell outsold outsold a (se) vinde mai bine ca
outshine
outshone
outshined
outshone
outshined
a eclipsa
outshoot outshot outshot a trage mai bine ca
outsing outsang outsung a cnta mai bine ca
outsit outsat outsat a sta mai mult dect
outsleep outslept outslept a dormi prea mult
outspeak outspoke outspoken a vorbi tare
outspend outspent outspent a cheltui mai mult dect
outthink outthought outthought a Ii mai destept ca
outthrow outthrew outthrown a arunca mai bine ca
outwrite outwrote outwritten a scrie mai bine ca
overbid overbid overbid a supralicita
overbreed overbred overbred a (se) supranmulti
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt a (se) construi n exces
overbuy overbought overbought a cumpra n exces
overcome overcame overcome a covrsi
overdo overdid overdone a exagera
overdraw overdrew overdrawn a depsi
overdrink overdrank overdrunk a bea n exces
overeat overate overeaten a mnca n exces
overIeed overIed overIed a (se) supraalimenta
overhang overhung overhung a atrna peste
overhear overheard overheard a auzi din ntmplare
overlay overlaid overlaid a pune peste
overpay overpaid overpaid a plti prea mult
override overrode overridden a nclca
overrun overran overrun a depsi
oversee oversaw overseen a supraveghea
oversell oversold oversold a supraevalua
oversew oversewed
oversewn
oversewed
a coase marginile mpreun
overshoot overshot overshot a trece peste
oversleep overslept overslept a dormi prea mult
overspeak overspoke overspoken a vorbi prea mult
overspend overspent overspent a cheltui prea mult
overtake overtook overtaken a depsi
overthrow overthrew overthrown a rsturna
overwind overwound overwound a rsuci prea mult
overwrite overwrote overwritten a suprascrie
partake partook partaken a mprtsi
pay paid paid a plti
plead
pleaded
pled
pleaded
pled
a pleda
prepay prepaid prepaid a plti n avans
presell presold presold a vinde n avans
preset preset preset a preconIigura
prooIread prooIread prooIread a corecta
prove proved
proven
proved
a (se) dovedi
put put put a pune
quick-Ireeze quick-Iroze quick-Irozen a ngheta rapid
quit
quit
quitted
quit
quitted
a abandona
read read read a citi
reawake reawoke reawaken a se retrezi
rebroadcast
rebroadcast
rebroadcasted
rebroadcast
rebroadcasted
a rediIuza
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt a reconstrui
recast recast recast a remodela
recut recut recut a tia din nou
redo redid redone a reIace
redraw redraw redrawn a retrasa
reIit
reIitted
reIit
reIitted
reIit
a reutila
regrow regrow regrown a recreste
rehear reheard reheard a reaudia
relearn
relearned
relearnt
relearned
relearnt
a renvta
relight
relit
relighted
relit
relighted
a (se) reaprinde
remake remade remade a reIace
repay repaid repaid a recompensa
reread reread reread a reciti
rerun reran rerun a relua
resell resold resold a revinde
resend resent resent a retrimite
reset reset reset a reaseza
resew resewed
resewn
resewed
a recoase
retake retook retaken a relua
reteach retaught retaught a reinstrui
retell retold retold a repovesti
rethink rethought rethought a regndi
retread retread retread a parcurge din nou
rewake
rewoke
rewaked
rewaken
rewaked
a (se) retrezi
rewed
rewed
rewedded
rewed
rewedded
a se recstori
rewin rewon rewon a recstiga
rewind rewound rewound a derula napoi
rewrite rewrote rewritten a rescrie
rid rid rid a scpa de a se descotorosi
ride rode ridden a clri
ring rang rung a suna
rise rose risen a rsri a se ridica
run ran run a Iugi
saw sawed
sawn
sawed
a tia cu Iierstrul
say said said a spune
see saw seen a vedea
seek sought sought a cuta
sell sold sold a vinde
send sent sent a trimite
set set set a pune
sew sewed
sewn
sewed
a coase
shake shook shaken a scutura a tremura
shave shaved
shaved
shaven
a (se) rade
shear sheared
sheared
shorn
a tunde oi
shed shed shed a vrsa (lacrimi snge)
shine
shone
shined
shone
shined
a strluci
shoe shod shod a potcovi
shoot shot shot a mpusca
show showed shown a arta
shrink shrank shrunk a se strnge a se scoroji
shut shut shut a nchide
sight-read sight-read sight-read a citi la prima vedere
sing sang sung a cnta
sink
sank
sunk
sunk a (se) scuIunda
sit sat sat a sedea
slay
slew
slayed
slain
slayed
a ucide
sleep slept slept a dormi
slide slid slid a aluneca
sling slung slung a arunca
slink slunk slunk a se Iurisa
slit slit slit a (se) crpa
smell
smelled
smelt
smelled
smelt
a mirosi
sneak
sneaked
snuck
sneaked
snuck
a se Iurisa
sow sowed
sown
sowed
a semna
speak spoke spoken a vorbi
speed
sped
speeded
sped
speeded
a grbi a accelera
spell
spelled
spelt
spelled
spelt
a ortograIia
spellbind spellbound spellbound a Iermeca
spend spent spent a cheltui a petrece
spill
spilled
spilt
spilled
spilt
a vrsa
spin spun spun a toarce
spit
spat
spit
spat
spit
a scuipa
split split split a despica
spoil
spoiled
spolit
spoiled
spoilt
a rsIta
spoon-Ieed spoon-Ied spoon-Ied a hrni cu lingurita
spread spread spread a (se) ntinde
spring
sprang
sprung
sprung a izvor a sri
stand stood stood a sta (n picioare)
steal stole stolen a Iura a se Iurisa
stick stuck stuck a lipi
sting stung stung a ntepa
stink
stunk
stank
stunk a mirosi urt
strew strewed
strewn
strewed
a presra
stride strode stridden a merge cu pasi mari
strike struck
struck
stricken
a lovi
string strung strung a nsira (pe o at)
strive
strove
strived
striven
strived
a nzui
sublet sublet sublet a subnchiria
sunburn
sunburned
sunburnt
sunburned
sunburnt
a se arde de soare
swear swore sworn a jura a njura
sweat
sweat
sweated
sweat
sweated
a transpira
sweep swept swept a mtura
swell swelled
swollen
swelled
a se umIla
swim swam swum a nota
swing swung swung a legna
take took taken a lua
teach taught taught a nvta a preda
tear tore torn a rupe a sIsia
telecast telecast telecast a telediIuza
tell told told a spune a povesti
test-drive test-drove test-driven a testa o masin
test-Ily test-Ilew test-Ilown a testa un avion
think thought thought a (se) gndi
thrive throve thriven a prospera
throw threw thrown a arunca
thrust thrust thrust a nIige
tread trod
trodden
trod
a clca
typecast typecast typecast a distribui ntr-un rol tipic
typeset typeset typeset a culege pentru tipar
typewrite typewrote typewritten a dactilograIia
unbend unbent unbent a (se) dezdoi
unbind unbound unbound a dezlega
unclothe
unclothed
clad
unclothed
clad
a (se) dezbrca
underbid underbid underbid a oIeri un pret prea mic
undercut undercut undercut a submina
underIeed underIed underIed a subalimenta
undergo underwent undergone a trece prin
underlie underlay underlain a sta la baza
undersell undersold undersold a vinde mai ieItin dect (concurenta)
underspend underspent underspent a cheltui prea putin
understand understood understood a ntelege
undertake undertook undertaken a lua asupra sa
underwrite underwrote underwritten a subscrie
undo undid undone a anula
unIreeze unIroze unIrozen a dezgheta
unhide unhid unhidden a iesi din ascunztoare
unlearn
unlearned
unlearnt
unlearned
unlearnt
a dezvta
unsew unsewed
unsewn
unsewed
a descoase
unwind unwound unwound a desIsura
uphold upheld upheld a sustine
upset upset upset a tulbura
wake
woke
waked
woken
waked
a se trezi
waylay waylaid waylaid a acosta
wear wore worn a purta
weave
wove
weaved
woven
weaved
a tese
wed
wed
wedded
wed
wedded
a (se) cununa
weep wept wept a plnge
wet
wet
wetted
wet
wetted
a uda
win won won a cstiga
wind wound wound a rsuci
withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se) retrage
withhold withheld withheld a retine
withstand withstood withstood a rezista la
wring wrung wrung a stoarce
write wrote written a scrie



'erbele modale
Verbele modale n limba engleza sunt: can, may, might, must, ought to, will,
would, shall, should, have to, need. Ele se folosesc pentru a exprima:
abilitatea, posibilitatea, probabilitatea, presupunerea logica, necesitatea,
obligatia, permiterea, interzicerea, o oferta, o sugestie, un sfat, o
rugaminte.
Pentru a exprima abilitatea folosim `can'/ `be able to'. `Can' este folosit
n exprimari mai putin formale, pe cand `be able to' este o expresie mai
formala:
I can pay you next week. (less formal)
I will be able to pay you next week. (formal)
Could` este Iorma de trecut a verbului can`. Pentru a exprima posiblitatea Iolosim: may/might/could inIinitivul
prezent I may/might/could pass the exam E posibil s iau examenul. (posibil n viitor sau la momentul vorbirii)
may/might/could inIinitivul perIect He looks very happy. He might have won the lottery. Pare Ioarte Iericit. Poate
c a cstigat la loterie.
Could inIinitivul perIect se mai Ioloseste si pentru a exprima un lucru posibil dar care nu s-a ntamplat:
on't drive so fast! You could have killed that man.
Nu mai conduce asa de tare! Puteai sa-l omori pe omul acela.
Pentru a exprima probabilitatea Iolosim:
ought to/should inIinitivul prezent pentru a exprima un lucru probabil n prezent sau n viitor:
She ought to/should pass her exams.
ought to/should inIinitivul perIect pentru a exprima un lucru care ne asteptm s se ntample dar despre care nu
stim dac s-a petrecut sau nu:
They ought to/should have arrived by now.
Probabil ca au ajuns pna acum.
Pentru a exprima o presupunere logic Iolosim:
can't/couldn't + infinitivul prezent
They can't be at home. Nobody answered the bell. (din moment ce n-a raspuns
nimeni nseamna ca nu sunt acasa)
must+infinitivul prezent
Her Iace is red. She must be angry. E rosie la Iat. Sigur e Iurioas.
can`t/could inIinitivul perIect pentru a exprima un lucru care e imposibil s Ii avut loc n trecut:
He can't/couldn't have lost his dog. I heard it barking.
Imposibil sa-si fi pierdut cinele. L-am auzit latrnd.

must+infinitivul perfect pentru a exprima un lucru care probabil s-a petrecut
n trecut:
You look tired. You must have worked hard.
Pari oboist. Trebuie sa fi muncit din greu.
Pentru a cere permisiunea Iolosim:
can (informal)/could (more polite)
may (Iormal)/might (more Iormal)
Can/could I borrow your pen, please.
Pot/Se poate sa mprumut stiloul tau.
May/might I talk to your manager, please.
Se poate/as putea sa vorbesc cu managerul tau.
Pentru a interzice ceva folosim mustn't/can't n exprimari mai putin formale
si may not pentru exprimari formale, politicoase :
I'm afraid you mustn't /can't come in.
Ma tem ca nu ai voie sa intri. (e interzis)
May I open the window. No, you may not.
mi permiteti sa deschid fereastra. Nu, nu ai voie.
Pentru a cere un lucru folosim: can pentru o exprimare mai putin formala ,
will pentru o exprimare familiara, could n exprimari formale, oficiale:
Can I take your pen.
Pot sa iau stiloul tau.
Will you bring me a glass of water.
mi aduci un pahar cu apa.
May I borrow your pen, miss.
Pot mprumuta stiloul dumnevoastra domnisoara.
Pentru a oIeri ceva Iolosim: will shall would:
I'll wash the dishes for you.
J sa spal eu vasele.
Shall I feed your dog.
i dau eu catelului tau de mancare.
Would you like some more tea.
Mai vrei ceai.
Pentru a Iace o sugestie Iolosim: shall/can/could:
Shall we go to the mountain.
Mergem la munte.
We can?could go to Paris iI you like. Putem/am putea merge la Paris dac-ti place. Pentru a da un sIat Iolosim:
should/ought to inIinitivul present had better:
You should keep a diet.
Ar trebui sa tii dieta.
You'd better go home now.
Mai bine te-ai duce acasa.
Pentru a exprima o critic Iolosim: should/ought to inIinitivul perIect:
You shouldn't have behaved like that yesterday.
Nu trebuia sa te comporti asa ieri.
Pentru a exprima obligatia Iolosim: must/have to:
You must go there.
Trebuie sa te duci acolo. ( e obligatoriu)
Ought to duty obligation
You ought to use a zebra crossing. (it's the right thing to do)
Trebuie sa traversezi pe la trecerea de pietoni.
Need absence oI necessity
You needn't take your umbrella. It's not raining.
Nu trebuie sa-ti iei umbrella. Nu ploua.
You didn't need/didn't have to buy any bread. It was enough.
Nu era nevoie sa cumperi pine. Era destula.