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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background Language in a general sense is associated with communication as a tool of human beings.

As a means of communication, language has sounds, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and discourse structure. Scientifically speaking, these components of language are studied through linguistics, the scientific study of language. Linguistics has several subfields, such as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantic. Sometimes linguistics is also combined with other subjects, such sociology for the field of sociolinguistics, anthropology for the field of linguistic anthropology or anthropological linguistics, ethnology for ethno-linguistics, psychology for psycholinguistics and so forth. In the field of linguistics itself, it is helpful to look to the intersection of the various subfields in order to see how the components interact. For example, morpho-phonology studies the combination of phonological processes and morphological processes. Morph-syntax deals with the interaction of morphology and syntax, for example, number agreement. The present study is concerned with morph-syntax, more specifically, personal pronoun systems in one language in Papua, Indonesia. It is generally known that Papua is very rich in linguistic diversity, which has been divided into two basic groups, Austronesian and (non-Austronesian) Papuan languages. Austronesian languages will be abbreviated with capital letters (AN)

while Non-Austronesian Papuan languages will be abbreviated (NAN). Austronesian languages are generally found in the northern coastal and insular areas such as Ambai, Ansus, Kurudu, Wabo, Wandamen, Biak, and Waropen. Non-Austronesian languages such as Dani, Yali, Hatam, Soub, Meyah, Maybrat, Sentani, and Yawa are found inland and near the coast (Sawaki 2005:1). According to Foley (1998, pg :), based on phonological, morpho-syntactical, and grammatical characteristics, there is a wide range of typological variation between Austronesian and non-Austronesian Papuan languages. For example, Austronesian languages have subject verb object (SVO) word order and agglutinative morphology. Papuan languages on the other hand exhibit subject object verb (SOV) word-order and agglutinative as well as isolated morphology (Sawaki, 2005). The present research aims to describe the forms, distribution, functions, and meaning of personal pronouns in the Kurudu language. Kurudu language is included in the South Halmahera-West New Guinea subgroup of the Austronesian language phylum. Kurudu is spoken in Cenderawasih bay, also called Geelvink bay in the literature, on the island of Yapen and also in the Waropen linguistic area. Kurudu is also the name for the people who speak Kurudu and also the place where it is spoken. On the mainland of the island of New Guinea, Kurudu is located in the mouth of the Mamberamo river in Cenderawasih bay. Administratively, this area is in the Yapen regency (Kabupaten). Yapen regency has been a part of a special autonomy area in the larger Papua province in the island of New Guinea since 2001. Geographically, Yapen regency lies between 134 46 and 137 3 21.964 East

longitudes and 1 27 47. 714 and 1 5836.376 South latitudes. The breakdown of the twelve sub-districts territories in Yapen island regency is shown in the table below as both square kilometers and percentage of the total area.
District 1 1. East Yapen 2. North Yapen 3. Ampimoi Bay 4. Angkaisera 5. Ambai Island 6. South Yapen 7. Kosiwo 8. West Yapen 9. Wonawa 10. Poom 11. Windesi 12. Raimbawi 13. Hutan Negara Land Sea TOTAL Wide Area (Km) 2 172,00 173,00 161,00 51,97 18,55 60.5 44,7 115,81 99,39 69,88 67,30 204,00 785,26 2.023 1.108 3.131 Percentage (%) 3 5.49 5,53 5,14 1,66 0,85 1.93 1,34 3,70 3,17 2,23 2,15 6,53 25,08 64,61 35,39 100%

Table 1 Area of Yapen island regency detailed by District (The State Center of Statistics of Yapen Regency of Papua Province) Kurudu island itself has five sub-districts, or villages, in Raimbawi district. The names of those villages are Kurudu village, Kaipuri village, Kirimbri village, Doreiaimini village, and Andesaria village. The people on Kurudu island are categorized as being of the melanesoid race. This name was given based on the physical appearance of the people who live on the large island of New Guinea and smaller surrounding islands. There are dark-skinned and light-skinned Kurudu speakers. All have curly hair. Most people in Kurudu village have light skin. Some would say they look like Chinese people but with curly hair. Chinese people may

have lived in the area since the end of World War II. They arrived on the island and married with native Papuans there. Intermarriage has led to another physical

appearance type known as Melano-Caucasoid, which can still be called Melanesian. Kurudu speakers usually live around the coast, near the coast, and in the sago forest area.

1.2. Language in Social contact In this section as social cultural function of language in a community, Kurudu language has its own social identity. Linguistically, Kurudu has its own classification that differs from other languages around. Sociolinguistic situation, Kurudu speakers have dialect and multilingualism background. In addition, live in certain ecology Kurudu people has its own environment to interact and survive from.


Names of the Language Kurudu island lies between east Yapen Island and Waropen on the mainland

of New Guinea. In Kurudu language, people use one language that has different lexical elements across several dialects. Kurudu is classified as an Austronesian language. According to Anceaux (1961), this language is spoken on Kurudu island. The villages of Kurudu and Kaipuri each have their own dialects, which differ only a little. He also said that, Biak language has had an influence on Kurudu language. Historically, according to Kurudu folklore, Kurudu island was previously named

Sundi Yendi under Biak influence. Sundi means floating while Yendi means sand. The meaning of the phrase Sundi Yendi is floating sand or drifting island. When missionaries with an interest in language arrived on the island and did research about the language, they asked about the name of the island by using body language and their fingers to point at things like pools in the direction of the coast. At that time it just so happened to be ebb tide, so little pools had formed beside the coast. People on that island may have understood what the missionaries where asking about; but, they provided answers appropriate to the body language of the missionaries. From that time onward, the island was known as kurudu, meaning pool (pc. Wapai 2009).4 The linguistic affiliation of Kurudu is Austronesian. follows: Austronesian> Malayo-Polynesian> Central-Eastern Malahyo-Polynesian> Eastern Malayo-Polynesian> South Halmahera-West New Guinea> West New Guinea> Cenderawasih Bay> Yapen> East> Kurudu> 1.2.2. Sociolinguistics Situation Kurudu island has five villages (Kurudu, Kaipuri, Kirimbri, Doreaimini, and Andesaria) but two main dialects that are only a little different. The two dialects are It is classified as

Kurudu and Kaipuri. In daily life, the Kurudu speakers also speak bahasa Indonesia and Papuan Malay languages. Bahasa Indonesia is using in formal situation such as in education, government, and politics. Papuan Malay is using in expressing emotion, sharing joke, singing and telling story. In socio historical context, the People of Kurudu is dominantly influenced by Biak social dynamic interaction then Yapen or Waropen.


Ecological condition

According to Muller (2008: 67), Papuans have farming and fishing life-style. Most people are farmers, fisherman, or traders. This characterization accords well with the places that Kurudu people live: coastal areas and nearby sago forests. In coastal areas, Kurudu people are fisherman and traders. Fisherman fish and trade the fish they catch.


Research Questions The present research addresses three research questions. 1. What are the forms of personal pronouns in the Kaipuri dialect of Kurudu language? 2. What is the distribution of these pronouns? 3. What grammatical functions, such as subject and object, do the personal pronouns have?


Research Purpose I want to describe part of the Kurudu language so that speakers and scholars

alike have better resources for further research on the Kurudu language. Particularly the research is focus to present; 1. The forms of personal pronouns in Kaipuri dialect of Kurudu ` 2. The distribution of Pronouns. 3. Grammatical function of the personal pronouns. language.



PREVIOUS STUDY ON KURUDU The name of the language is called Kurudu. According to Ancheaux in his

book: The Linguistic Situation in The Islands of Yapen, Kurudu, Nau and Miosnum, New Guinea (1961) mentioned that kurudu language is an austronesian language and its used by the native speakers whose live in the island of Kurudu. The descriptions of some linguistics toward this language such as Voorhoeve (1975), Wurm and Hattori (1981), Silzer and Heiikinen (1984:100), Silzer and Clouse (1991: 59), Comrie (1992oo: 51), Grimes (1992: 576), were explained that kurudu language has 71 % lexical similarity with Woriasi and 46 % with western Yapen, Yapen usually known as name Serui. According to Dorriot (1993) in Grimes (1996), stated that Kurudu language has lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo, 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. The native speakers of this language number nearly 2700.



2.2.1. Pronoun Crystal (1997: 312) defines pronoun as a grammatical classification term for referring a single noun or even a noun phrase. In this definition, he describes pronouns as the grammatical terms used to modify a noun, or a noun phrase which includes article and noun, adjective and noun, adverb, adjective and noun, yet noun and noun. He classifies pronouns into some kinds such as personal pronoun, possessive pronoun, demonstrative pronoun, interrogative pronoun, reflexive pronoun, relative pronoun, indefinite pronoun, and presumptive or shadow pronoun. According to Summer Institue of Linguistics quoted in Waren (2006, pg.14), stated that personal pronoun is a kind of pronoun that expresses distinction of person deixis. The examples of such personal pronoun in English are: I, you, we, they, he, and she. Based on the definition above, personal pronoun can be defined as the general form of pronouns which is always used by people when talking to another people of whom they may refer to themselves as the speakers, to the hearer directly, or even to others who are not joining with them.

2.2.2. Grammatical Function Every language in the world has structure or grammar. The structure or Grammar is showing by the function and the state of the word in the language. Grammatically, personal pronouns have functioned as the subject or agent and also as

the neither object nor patient. According to Ronald Carter and Michael McCarthy (2006), Personal pronouns are most typically used for backward anaphoric reference: The manager phoned me back. He was extremely apologetic. He stated that, occasionally a personal pronoun may be used to refer forward (cataphorically). Such uses are common in openings to written stories: She was walking along a tree-lined suburban road, unaware of what was about to befall her. Gillian Dawson had never been very aware of the people around her."

All of the personal pronouns except you have distinct forms signaling number, either singular or plural. Only the third-person singular pronouns have distinct forms signaling gender: masculine (he, him), feminine (she, her), and neuter (it). (T. Klammer and M. Schulz, Allyn and Bacon, 1992). The Table 01 below can be showing the forms of subjetive and objective personal pronoun: Personal Pronouns Subject form Object form I Me You You He him she her it it we us you you they them

Table 01. The Forms of Subjective and Objective Personal Pronouns Subjective and Objective Personal Pronoun Subjective Personal Pronoun We use the Personal Subject Pronouns to refer to the person who is doing the action of the verb or the verb speaks about. A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. For example in English sentences:

Jhon is listening to music.

=> He listens to music every day. * In this sentence, He substitutes Jhon which is the subject of the sentence. Objective Personal Pronoun We use the Personal Object Pronouns to refer to the person whom the action of the verbs affects. An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. For example:

Seamus stole the selkies skin and forced her to live with him. * The objective personal pronoun her is the direct object of the verb forced and the objective personal pronoun him is the object of the preposition with.

Martince and Adolince will meet us at the newest caf? in the market. * Here the objective personal pronoun us is the direct object of the compound verb will meet.











* Here the objective personal pronoun her is the object of the infinitive phrase to see. A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case. Based on the definition above, personal pronoun can be conclude as the common form of pronouns which is always used by people when talking to other people of whom they may refer to themselves as the speakers, to the hearer, or even to others who are not joining with them. Personal pronouns refer to the person who is doing the action or to whom the action affects. 2.2.3 Personal Pronoun in Morpho-syntax The word morpho-syntax is consisted from morphology: the study of morphemes or words structure (Crystal, 1997: 249); and syntax: the study of how speakers use language in phrases and how they state the phrases into sentences (Stewart and Vaillette, 2001: 150). Thus, morpho-syntax can be concluded as a study of the connection between morphology and syntax. Morphologically, pronouns in general are divided into two forms: free pronouns and bound pronoun. Free pronoun is the pronoun that can stand alone, because it is a free morpheme or word; while bound pronoun is the pronoun which cannot stand alone because it needs to join with other morpheme. The bound pronoun can also be classified as anaphoric clitics (Payne, 1997).
Syntactically, those kinds of prefixed- or suffixed- pronouns can also be identified by structuring them in phrase class, or even sentence. In this view, they are analyzed by observing their functions. Moreover, they are classified as clitics since they are meaningless when standing alone. Clitics is a term used to describe bound morphemes categorized in inflectional affixes, such as: -ed, -ing, -s in English (Katamba, 1993: 245). Dependent pronouns categorized as clitics tend to join with verb in showing subject, and also with noun in expressing ownership or possession.

To summarize, pronoun is a term in grammatical classification used to refer human or thing in one single word or a phrase, in which it has two forms: independent pronoun and dependent pronoun. Therefore, the using of morphosyntax perspective to New Guinea languages is the appropriate approach to study pronouns including possession.


Morphologically, Austronesian languages pronouns are divided into two kinds:

independent pronouns, and dependent pronouns; moreover, these kinds of pronouns have a great agreement to syntactic structure whereas they influence each other. This signifies that the dependent pronoun changes based on the independent pronoun.



Population and Sample The population of this research is native speakers of Kurudu language. The

native speakers are living in Kaipuri village on Kurudu island, Papua Province. As the sample of that language; I choose Kaipuri dialect of Kurudu language as an object of the research. I will use Personal pronouns and example of the sentences in Kaipuri Dialect of Kurudu language. Not only Personal pronouns and example of the sentences, but also I will collect the language data about the nouns, the verbs, the adjectives, and deictics in this language.


Place and Time I will do my research about this language in Kurudu island followed by two

villages. Those villages are Kurudu and Kaipuri villages. I choose them as my focus place of the research because other villages such as Kirimbri, Doreaimini, and Andesaria are seemingly division from them. My plan to do the research about the end of November to December 2010. When I finished my research, I will be analyzing the data in Manokwari from December 2010 till January 2010.


Method of the Research The method of the research is aimed to solve the problem by describing the

facts and data systematically based on the recent fact. Nawawi (1991:61) in his book entitled Metode Penelitian Bidang Sosial says that there are two methods of research. Those are library and field research method. The first is done by collecting the data from books, journals and other written sources, whereas the last one is done by asking such designed questions to a certain group of people in collecting data. I will do library research. Library research is the method which is supplied by collecting data or information from references which have been written by linguists or other experts. In addition to library research, the writer also uses descriptive method. Nawawi (1995:67) states, Metode deskriptif dapat diartikan sebagai prosedur atau cara memecahkan masalah penelitian dengan memaparkan keadaan objek yang diselidiki (seseorang, lembaga, masyarakat, pabrik, dan lain-lain) sebagaimana adanya, berdasarkan, fakta-fakta yang aktual pada saat sekarang. Descriptive method can be conclude as procedure or the way to solve the research problem which explained the situation of the object accurate (someone, organization, society, factory, and so on) in the same manner presence, base on that actual facts now. 3.4 Technique of Collecting Data The techniques that I will use to collect the data are data elicitation, interview, research library, online internet. 1. 2. 3. Data elicitation Interviews Library research

Library research is the method which is supplied by collecting data or information from references which have been written by linguists or other experts. 4. Online Internet


The Instrument of Collecting Data There are the instruments that I will use to collect the data are pencils, pens,

book or paper, word list or swadish list, 3.6 Technique of Analyzing Data