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NITRATE ANB NITRITE

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INTRODUCTION
Nitrogen is the nutrient applied in the largest quantities Ior lawn and garden care and crop
production. In addition to Iertilizer, nitrogen occurs naturally in the soil in organic Iorms Irom
decaying plant and animal residues. In the soil, bacteria convert various Iorms oI nitrogen to
nitrate, a nitrogen/oxygen ion (NO
3
-). This is desirable as the majority oI the nitrogen used by
plants is absorbed in the nitrate Iorm. However, nitrate is highly leachable and readily moves
with water through the soil proIile. II there is excessive rainIall or over-irrigation, nitrate will be
leached below the plant's root zone and may eventually reach groundwater.
Nitrate-nitrogen (NO
3
-N) in groundwater may result Irom point sources such as sewage disposal
systems and livestock Iacilities, non-point sources such as Iertilized cropland, parks, golI
courses, lawns, and gardens, or naturally occurring sources oI nitrogen. Proper site selection Ior
the location oI domestic water wells and proper well construction can reduce potential nitrate
contamination oI drinking water source.
Nitrate in water is undetectable without testing because it is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. A
water test Ior nitrate is highly recommended Ior households with inIants, pregnant women,
nursing mothers, or elderly people. These groups are the most susceptible to nitrate or nitrite
contamination. Nitrate-nitrogen occurs naturally in groundwater, usually at concentrations Iar
below a level oI concern Ior drinking water saIety. An initial test oI a new water supply is
needed to determine the baseline nitrate concentration. ThereIore, iI the water supply has never
been tested Ior nitrate, it should be tested.
Activities near the well can potentially contaminate the water supply. Domestic wells near
potential point sources oI contamination, such as livestock Iacilities or sewage disposal areas,
should be tested at least once a year to monitor changes in nitrate concentration. Depending on
the location oI the well relative to areas where nitrogen Iertilizer is applied, Iollow-up testing to
monitor changes Irom non-point sources may be conducted less oIten. All drinking water
supplies should be checked at least every two or three years to assure that signiIicant increases in
nitrogen compounds (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and TKN) are not occurring. II a Iertilizer or
manure spill occurs, the spill should be cleaned up immediately and any wells near the spill
NITRATE ANB NITRITE

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should be tested. UnIortunately, any nitrate Irom the spill may not move through the soil proIile
quickly and annual testing is recommended to monitor the eIIects oI the spill.

OB1ECTIVE
1. To understand the importance oI nitrate and nitrite in water / wastewater analysis.
2. To identiIy origin oI water samples with regards to nitrate and nitrite concentration.


METHODOLOGY

Nitrate
1. 15 ml oI sample was put into measuring cylinder
2. The reagent NitriVer 5 Nitrat Reagent Powder Pillow was added into measuring cylinder
3. The sample was shake vigorously until 3 minutes
4. The sample was idle until 2 minutes
5. The 10 ml oI the sample was poured into a spectrophometer bottle.
6. The reagent NitriVer 3 Nitrat Reagent Powder Pillow was added into spectrophometer
bottle.
7. The sample was shaking gently until 30 second.
8. The sample was idle until 15 minutes
9. A pink color was developing when the nitrate was presented.
10.For blank preparation, 10 ml oI the sample was taken into spectrophometer bottle.
11.The blank sample was inserted into the cell holder with the Iill line Iacing the user.
12.Pressed ZERO and the display showed 0 mg/L.
13.The prepared sample was inserted into the cell holder with the Iill line user. The 371 N,
Nitrite LR PP program.
14. Reading was taken.




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Nitrite
1. The 10 ml oI the sample was poured into a spectrophometer bottle.
2. The reagent NitriVer 3 Nitrat Reagent Powder Pillow was added into spectrophometer
bottle.
3. The sample was shaking until dissolved or pink color Iorm.
4. The sample was idle until 20 minutes.
5. For blank preparation, 10 ml oI the sample was taken into spectrophometer bottle.
6. The blank sample was inserted into the cell holder with the Iill line Iacing the user.
7. Pressed ZERO and the display showed 0 mg/L.
8. The prepared sample was inserted into the cell holder with the Iill line user. The 371 N,
Nitrite LR PP program.
9. Reading was taken.

RESULT, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
RESULT
Sample Nitrate (mg / L) Nitrite (mg / L)
$ample 1 0.2 -0.01
$ample 2 0.29 0.04
$ample 3 0.35 0.04
$ample 4 0.22 0.04






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DISCUSSION
QUESTION 1

(a)Identification the origin for both sample nitrate and nitrite
Both nitrate and nitrate are present in water and Iood, and it is by these sources that
humans are exposed oI these ions. ThereIore, ingested Iood and water are the main
sources oI nitrate and nitrite exposure in an individual.
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In this lab, we develop our ability to conduct and interpret a test Ior nitrate, and then
determine the nitrate levels in some samples oI water. The chemical reagents that are
added cause a color change in the solution that are testing, and the presence oI nitrate will
cause the solution to turn orange or red depending on the concentration oI nitrate. This
process oI using color to analyze samples is called colorimetry. We will simply be
looking at the samples to judge the color; however, instruments called colorimeters are
much more accurate.

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In this experiment, estimations oI nitrite in water have shown that, when compared to
nitrate , the concentration oI nitrate is generally very low. The average estimated intake
oI nitrite lies between 0.04 and -0.01 mg/l. The contribution oI nitrite in water is
considered to be negligible since generally nitrite is not detected in drinking water
leaving the treatment works.




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(b)The result compare with appropriate standard


Recent legislation, EC Directive 80/778/EEC, has set the maximum permissible
concentrations oI nitrate at 50 mg/l and nitrate at 0.1 mg/l in water at the point oI use.

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The World Health Organization and the Environmental Protection Agency have set a
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) oI 44.3 mg/L oI total nitrogen in drinking water.
In aquariums, it is recommended to have a nitrate level oI no more than 40 mg/L, and
aquarists try to keep nitrate levels as low as possible. For water quality testing, parts per
million (ppm) and milligrams per liter (mg/L) are used as equivalent units as long as the
concentration is below 160 ppm.

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Nitrite (NO
2
-
) is a Iorm oI nitrogen Iound in the soil. It is produced by the chemical
change oI ammonium by special bacteria. Nitrite is Iurther oxidized by bacteria into
nitrate. Water with nitrite levels exceeding 1.0 mg/L should not be used Ior Ieeding
babies. Nitrite concentrations in drinking water seldom exceed 0.1 mg/L.






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Question 2
a) The importance of conducting nitrate and nitrite testing
Nitrogen is an element needed by all living plants and animals to build protein. In aquatic
ecosystems, nitrogen is present in many Iorms. Nitrogen is a much more abundant nutrient than
phosphorus in nature. It is most commonly Iound in its molecular Iorm (N2), which makes up 79
percent oI the air we breathe. This Iorm, however is useless Ior most aquatic plant growth.
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Nitrate (NO3-) is an important parameter oI water quality testing Ior both drinking water
and river/lake water. Nitrate ions in water can come Irom sources like Iertilizers, plant
and animal waste, and urban runoII. Nitrate is an important nutrient Ior plant growth, but
having too much nitrate in water can be problematic. In drinking water, high nitrate
levels can be harmIul to inIant humans under 6 months oI age by causing
methemoglobinemia, commonly called "blue baby syndrome because the baby suIIers
Irom a lack oI oxygen in the bloodstream. Nitrates can be reduced to toxic nitrites in the
human intestine, the United $tates Public Health $ervice established 10 mg/L oI nitrate-
nitrogen as the maximum contamination level allowed in public drinking water.

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Babies younger than six months old may become seriously ill Irom drinking water high in
nitrate. The main threat to babies comes Irom Iormula made with such water. Bacteria in
inIants' digestive tracts convert the relatively harmless nitrate to the more toxic nitrite.
Nitrite in turn combines with some oI the hemoglobin in the blood to Iorm a compound
called methemoglobin, which cannot carry oxygen. The resulting condition,
methemoglobinemia also known as "blue-baby" disease deprives vital organs oI oxygen

NITRATE ANB NITRITE

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(c) The implication of having high concentration of nitrate and nitrite concentration in
drinking water

Nitrate and nitrite are potentially dangerous substances which can have a detrimental
eIIect on the ecological balance oI rivers and lakes, and can cause harm to human health.

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The nitrate concentration in surIace water is normally low (018 mg/l) but can reach
high levels as a result oI agricultural runoII, reIuse dump runoII, or contamination
with human or animal wastes. The concentration oIten Iluctuates with the season and
may increase when the river is Ied by nitrate-rich aquiIers. Nitrate concentrations
have gradually increased in many European countries in the last Iew decades and have
sometimes doubled over the past 20 years. In the United Kingdom, Ior example, an
average annual increase oI 0.7 mg/l has been observed in some rivers (Young &
Morgan-Jones, 1980).

The natural nitrate concentration in groundwater under aerobic conditions is a Iew
milligrams per litre and depends strongly on soil type and on the geological situation.In
the U$A, naturally occurring levels do not exceed 49 mg/l Ior nitrate and 0.3 mg/lIor
nitrite (U$EPA, 1987).

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Nitrite levels in drinking-water in the Netherlands are usually below 0.1 mg/l. In
1993, a maximum value oI 0.21 mg/l was detected (RIVM, 1993).
Chloramination may give rise to the Iormation oI nitrite within the distribution
system, and the concentration oI nitrite may increase as the water moves towards the
extremities oI the system. NitriIication in distribution systems can increase nitrite
levels, usually by 0.21.5 mg oI nitrite per litre, but potentially by more than 3 mg oI
nitrite per litre (AWWARF, 1995).
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SAFETY AND HEALTH



1. Wearing the lab coat in order to avoid any object that can be hurt during the experiment.
2. Handle the equipments that had been use with care to avoid anything been breaking Ior
example cell sample.
3. Wash the equipment beIore and aIter using that kind oI equipment.
4. Always wearing the shoe when entering the lab.
5. Wash the hand aIter Iinished doing the experiment.
6. $ome oI the chemicals and apparatus used in this procedure may be hazardous to the
health and saIety oI the user iI inappropriately handled or accidentally misused.

CONCLU$ION

From the result obtained, the sample 3 contains high concentration oI nitrate and Ior the high
concentration oI nitrite is all the three sample give the same value Ior result oI Nitrite 0.04 mg/L
except Ior sample 1 is -.0.01 mg/L.

REFERENCES:
M.J. Hill (1991), Nitrates and Nitrites in Food and Water.
Environmental Engineering Laboratory (ECW 512)








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APPENDIX


$pectrophotometer bottle, measuring NitriVer 5 Nitrite Reagent Powder
Pillow cylinder and water sample



The water sample with NitriVer 5 Nitrite Reagent Powder Pillow
and NitriVer 5 Nitrite Reagent Powder Pillow