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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
RationaIe
Advertising is a linear communication process in which audiences understand
and acknowledge messages uniformly, rather than an active process of negotiation that
entails emotional processes (Ritson and Elliott, 1999). Audiences tend to focus only on
the explicit messages of advertisements, most especially print or magazine
advertisements, and on certain generalized connotations.
Over the years, researchers in the social sciences have scrutinized role
portrayals in magazine advertisements (Kolbe and Albanese, 1996). Studies on the
representations of the female body in advertising and its corresponding effects have
been the main focus of numerous researchers. Detailed researches regarding women's
images in magazines and the related changes that have occurred as years passed have
been produced. All these and more pertain only to one sector in the society: the women.
Apparently, there are only limited studies about men and their body image. The
male body has been studied as well, but they have been depicted alongside with the
women's body representations. Meanwhile, in the 1980s, men's bodies have appeared
more frequently in advertising, offering a similarly idealized body to that presented to
women (Elliott, R. and Elliott, C., 2005). Majority of these focused on film as a medium
while minimal studies were conducted on magazine advertisements. Studies about the
representations of the female body in magazine advertisements are likewise applicable
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and relevant to the representations of the male body. Female representations are said
to exploit and objectify their bodies and this thought is also applicable to men. Men are
also regarded as sex objects (Kimmel and Tissier-Desbordes, 1999) nowadays. Men
now have to deal with issues such as exploitation and objectification of their bodies just
like what women have been dealing with for a long time.
Responses of men on these issues are about the same with the responses of
women. t has been discussed in a study that exposure to idealized images of men in
magazine advertisements produced lower mean responses on a self-perceived physical
attractiveness scale and on a self-esteem scale. There is a fear of being associated to
homosexuality when it comes to men perceiving magazine advertisements that present
the ideal male body (Elliott, R. and Elliott, C., 2005). Kimmel and Tissier-Desbordes
(1999) found out that there is also a fear of admitting a feminine side to men's image.
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$tatement of the probIem


This study aims to examine: How male magazine advertisements depicting
representations of male bodies in magazine advertising, particularly when men are
portrayed in sexually suggestive poses affect men sophomore students' personal
perception of their masculinity.
This study aims to know if there is an effect on the perception of masculinity of
young Filipino male sophomore readers when exposed to sexually suggestive magazine
advertisements of men.
Objectives of the study
This study aims to uncover if there are significant effects on the young Filipino
men sophomore students' perception of their own masculinity once they are exposed to
print advertisements of men engaging in elicit forms of sexual content.
Specifically, the study has the following objectives:
1. Determine the effects on the perception of the respondents toward
advertisements featuring men in nude or almost naked pose.
2. To find out the dominant impression of men on each advertisement.

Hypothesis of the study
H
1
: Exposure to sexually suggestive male advertisements in men's magazines has an
effect on the male sophomore's perceptions of his masculinity.
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H
0
: Exposure to sexually suggestive male advertisements in men's magazines has no
an effect on the male sophomore's perceptions of his masculinity.
$ignificance of the study
n the Philippines, women in advertisements whether in print or commercial are
often criticized and scrutinized as an ultimate sex object. Numerous studies were
conducted focusing only on the image and effects to women on the society. On one
hand, portrayals of men in advertisement are also very visible but there has been few
critical studies and analysis done in the Philippines. Thus, it is essential to pursue this
study to contribute on the limited number of researches on males done in the Philippine
Context.
General interest magazines had the least amount of sexual advertisements and it
didn't really change over the years. Women's magazines became slightly more sexual
in the past decade, but there was no significant increase. Men's magazines had the
most change out of the three groups; they continued to become more sexually explicit
(2004:830). Thus, males objectified in ads should also be given attention especially on
this generation making this study timely and significant.
The western studies in the past regarding magazines with print advertisements of
men with sexual content will be adapted in this study in order to find the current local
status of the subject at hand. This study will determine the perception of the male
readers based on the portrayal of men in the magazines.
This study will benefit the communication field because it will be an added study
on a topic that has limited researches conducted. On advertisers specifically; it is
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beneficial in a way that they will have further understanding on their target market.
Moreover, media scholars will be able to expand their knowledge on masculinity
and male readers will be aware of the advertisement executions, especially those with
sexual content and find out these advertisements effects to them
Definition of terms
1. Advertisement: is composed of pictures and text which aims to generate
awareness, brand recall, promote a certain brand or product to the general
public.

2. Advertising: is a linear communication process in which audiences understand
and acknowledge messages, uniformly, rather than an active process of
negotiation that entails complex emotional process. (Elliott, R. & Elliot, C., 2005,
pg. 1)

3. Desire: is a theoretical and practisanal category of production translated as
"gusto in Filipino, desire operates at many levels of human consciousness,
translated across the traditional gaps of both agency and structure but its locus is
the benefit that accrued by the desiring of the desirable. (Canete, 2005, pg. 71)

4. IdeaI type of man: an image of Pilipino masculinity as reliably "macho (hence
straight and "brusko(virile), and increasingly, explores the phenomenon of
eroticizing the "macho, hegemonizing it's back/his power within a marix of trans-
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public gazes that desires him as an ambiguous sexual position rather than a an
essentially homosexual one. (Canete, 2005, pg. 70)

5. Image: a view that depends on the perceiver on how he or she responds to what
he or she sees. t conjures up the appearance of something. (Berger, Blomberg,
et al).
6. Magazine: t is a form of print medium that uses that targets specific market and
revolves around a certain subject or topic when it comes to content. t remains
consistent to its market and frames massages as their consumer wishes. Most
magazines focus solely on entertainment.

7. Magazine Advertising: is a form of print advertising focusing in a specific target
market similar to that of the magazine.

8. MascuIinity: is based on the meanings individuals have internalized from their
association with the role of male in society. (Stets & Burke, pg 11)

9. Perception: is defined as a process of registering sensory stimuli. t is also a
limited capacity process and therefore depends on the allocation of attention
(Broadbent, 1958; Treisman, 1960, 1969).

10. Priming: is highlighting a product's attributes in the consumers' knowledge. (Yi,
1993)
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11. $exuaI Content: appears in visual representations of people (Biswas, Olsen,


and Carlet 1992; Soley and Kurzbard 1986). Body display, especially as it
involves clothing, is by far the most common form of sexual visual
representations found in advertising research (Reichert 2002).

12. $exuaIity in Media: the explicit content found in various forms of media that
emphasizes explicit sexual implications of any kind through images and text and
other forms.

13. $ociety: it is an area to which the people shares the same culture, norms and
beliefs


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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND $TUDIE$
Attraction is not based on physical assets but on its intellectuality which can be
seen primarily in Advertising. The cradle of advertising already existed way back 4000
B.C. and now, as it played an immense role in the society, its main purpose is to
persuade the consumers to purchase the product. Advertising is a linear communication
process in which audiences understand and acknowledge messages uniformly, rather
than an active process of negotiation that entails emotional processes (Ritson and
Elliott, 1999).
Advertising also innovate ideas through the use of television, print, radio,
billboard, internet, etc. Their objective is to communicate a certain product with their
target consumer because without it, there will be insufficient knowledge on what product
can offer. Undeniably, advertising has evolved through time and various strategies were
incurred that proved and posed significant effect on consumers' response. t gave
impact on our economy through the expansion of the market and it caters to maintain
and expand our media system. Purportedly, it seeks to generate creativity, image as
well as message.
Mirrored Gender: Depiction of $exuaIity
When human figures do appear in ads, their presence mirrors the singular
detachment from the social world that the landscape suggests (Masse & Rosenblum.
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1988). Seeing comes before word and people looks and recognizes before it can think
and finally speak. Their relationship is indeed never settled. The way people perceive
things is affected by what they know and believe. To look is a choice and in that way,
we only see what we want to see or simply the one that catches one's attention.
Humans never look at just one side but nevertheless, they seek to look at all
perspectives that can relate to them.
Perception is defined as a process of registering sensory stimuli. t is also a
limited capacity process and therefore depends on the allocation of attention
(Broadbent, 1958; Treisman, 1960, 1969). The appreciation of an image depends
mainly upon our way of perceiving and also, upon how the society tends to give us
purveyor of knowledge to adopt and interpret. The meaning then is no longer found on
what it says but in its context in its unique sense. Hence, images were first made to
conjure up the appearance of something that was absent. Gradually, it became evident
that an image could outlast what it represented; it then showed how something or
somebody has once looked and thus by implication how the subject has once been
seen by other people (Berger, Blomberg, et al).
mages as presented in advertising are sometimes primed to create an added
impact in the minds of the consumers mind. A study focused on the thought of priming
in advertising. Priming was strategically used to activate a product's attributes in the
consumers' knowledge. The primed attributes of a product may result to a change of
perception on the advertised brand and their assessment on that particular product (Yi,
1993). n line with this, a study was conducted to fully understand the contextual priming
effect with prior knowledge as the observed variable. t has been proven through this

study that the priming of a brand could affect the accessibility of an advertisement's
effectiveness.
Perception, therefore, is of utmost importance especially in understanding how
the perceivers respond to the stimuli. n this context, with regard to a medium that
explicitly shows the prevalence of sexual content. Hence, this study will illustrate the
perception of how Filipino male readers depend on attention attention found in
magazines that contain print advertisements with sexual contents.
Since the early eighteenth century when magazine was born out of the
newspaper, magazines have truly evolved. (Fang, 1997. p.104) From plain and bare to
now glossy and sophisticated pages of magazines which covers topic from houses,
automotive cars to hairstyles and hand bags. Even with the emergence of new channels
for advertisements, magazine has retained its reputation as a powerful tool for
communicating advertisements.
Undeniably, there are numerous magazines that feature certain topics such as
family, technology, food, celebrities and even sex. Thus, it can be said that the
presence of this medium has thoroughly affected the society and its view of magazines
as an effective tool of communication. Through time, magazines targeting women
increased and eventually, majority of cultures practiced equality and equity in terms of
the roles of men and women. Hence, magazines for men are now readily accepted and
patronized by its respective markets.

What is Man: Depicted by Magazines


Magazine as a PowerfuI TooI
This particular muscular, mesomorphic body type has been over-represented in
TV commercials (Lin, 1998) and magazine advertisements (Kolbe &Albanese, 1996).
Since the medium of magazines are a form that can convey messages rather quickly
and efficiently. As magazines are a powerful tool as they are most revered for their
prestigious images they have produced over the course of its inception. The reason
behind this is for the simple fact that although words are descriptive and more detailed,
images can tell so much in a shorter period of time due to its subtle presentation. For
instance imagine being given written instructions to construct a 1/8 model of a replica
car. Safe to say that would have many, many detailed steps on how to assemble that
kit. Now imagine instructions of that same model with a detailed picture diagrams.
Clearly detailed images would make the task of assembling the model much more
efficient and easier to comprehend even if it is done without the assistance of words.
Magazines are known for being utilized to showcase female models in numerous
advertisements with the intention of exhibiting what the ideally preferred female form is
in society, featured as well in those magazine advertisements are male models that
provide the structured template of what a desired man should be, based on the various
levels of his masculinity he is exposing.


2

Man in his MascuIinity


Traditionally men have and continue to dominate the majority of the aspects in
society. They have been classified to having strength, power and the privilege over
women to confirm their superiority. Ranging from qualities such as keeping their
emotions within, being the main provider, the most courageous, and the one who can
always be aspired up to, these are the traditional characteristics of male that are defined
by the majority of the cultures present in each society. Masculinity refers to the innate
qualities and properties of men that distinguished men from women. This has always
been the basis of the true male; men that have the qualities of being masculine (Greig,
Kimmel and Lang 2000, pg. 3).
.as traditional masculine roles have eroded with women
gaining greater equality in society, men have become more
preoccupied with muscularity because it is still perceived as
a cultural symbol of masculinity (Elliott, R. and Elliott, C.
2005, pg. 4)
Masculinity is a main factor to the stereotyping of men. Thus this is the basis of
their foundation comprising of expectations of how they should act and react, appear
and how to experience certain emotions. Doing otherwise, society will perceived them
as abnormalities and criticize them for deviating from the normal conventions. Having
said this, it can be concluded that the idea of masculinity is formulated by the society.
With evident changes in the society as the years have passed by, the definition of
masculinity has evolved. As Kimmel (2001) notes, the ideal masculine figure has
changed in society and has ranged from an aristocratic archetype to the outdoorsman.
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t has been said that masculinity is influenced, defined and shaped mostly by
family, friends, social leaders and every other male within his proximity. Consequently,
society via media is continuously reshaping the definition of masculinity from its
traditional sense. No longer is man depicted as being biologically being born with the
male genitalia but rather is measured by the amount of his masculinity. Media such as
magazines are an immense influence in instilling what masculinity is nowadays;
generally, it establishes through imagery that masculinity is socially powerful, physically
violent and sexually appealing. The visual nature of this medium makes it simple,
apparent and universal to understand the themes and concept of a man's masculinity.
Effects of Men and $exuaIity in Media Advertising
Through the years, various innovations paved the way to develop contemporary
strategies in advertising. As the era of creative revolution led to more sophisticated ads;
the industry of advertising created a benchmark for new styles of conveying the
message of the products. This has led to a more fierce competition of products in terms
of "advertising. Alongside, the trend of representing products using endorsers also
flourished.
Men, same as women, represented and served as image models of these
products. n line with this; representing these endorsers as objects of desire and as
sexual objects came into picture. Thus, like females, the males were also objectified
and sexually presented in some ads aimed to attract a higher portion of the sex-cultured
society of the present times (Canete, 2005 p.83).
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Several studies regarding advertisements and its part in the society were already
conducted in the past decades. However, only a handful tackled solely on male and
their vital roles in magazine advertisements.
A study was conducted in line with men in terms of their image in magazine
advertisement by Kolbe and Albanese (1996). t dealt with the inappropriateness of the
male stereotype portrayed in magazine advertisements and its prevalence toward the
male audience. (Kolbe and Albanese, 1996) Through the study, it was found out that an
average man did not possess the characteristics of men depicted from the
advertisements. A cowboy's physique- "strong and muscular was dominant in the
studied ads. Among others were: the use of business suit representing an "upscale
lifestyle, a conservative clean-cut hairstyle and other facial hair were in a fashionably
conservative length and style (Kolbe and Albanese, 1996). These characteristics could
not be ordinarily seen to an average man. With this, advertisements give a picture of an
unreal and worked up man. Unlike in real life, these men from the advertisements were
objectified thus an inappropriate and inaccurate illustration of a man. Meanwhile locally
Renato Canete, one of the critics in the Philippine context studied in depth sexual
content analysis of billboard ads.. He conducted a content analysis on Bench
Underwear ads from 2003 to 2004. Focusing on billboard advertising he pinpointed how
this type of advertising easily bombarded the minds of the viewer on the "ideal type of
man coined as the "macho and "brusko. The "macho image that was created by
constant exposure of the audience to the "ideal image of man, according to Canete,
was eroticized through time.
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n recent decades cultural pressures regarding men's bodies


have increased dramatically. Displays of male bodies in
objectifying manners previously reserved for female bodies
are being seen in visual media, with the presentation of
bodies that are headless, unclothed, or in sexually
suggestive positions (Kolbe & Albanese, 1996; Mishkind,
Rodin, Silberstein, & Striegel-Moore, 1986; OASS
[Organized Against Sexism and nstitutionalized
Stereotypes], 1988; Pope, Olivardia, Borowiecki, Cohane,
2001).
Primarily the naked body is seen as form of art with its magnificence found in its
intricacies. Yet a sexual image cannot be seen in the same light as it is suggestive of
something else entirely, the act of or indulging in sex. A very delicate topic that should
not be discussed or displayed so cavalierly but here we are. Women are subjected to
unatainable body of a female peer that lead to eating disorders and such to emulate
them, some men are also falling victim to these exposer. " Men are developing an
"Adonis complex and eating diorders after being overexposed to idealized and
unatainable male bodies in advertising (Elliot, R. and Elliot, C., 2005, pg. 4).
A figure of the male body that displays washboard abdominal muscles, massive
chest, inflated shoulders, a blend of leaness and muscularity that can only be attained
with the assistance of some sort of performance enhancer (Elliot, R. and Elliot, C.,
2005, pg. 4).Through numerous advertisements we have been given an idealized body
to represent what a women's figure should be and since the dawn of the 1980s we have
given that very same thing for what a male's body should appear to be as well (Elliot, R.
and Elliot, C., 2005, pg. 4).
n the early 1980s, a trend called "Sexualization of the Male Body in the Fashion
ndustry emerged among various clothing lines. (Canete 2005 p. 82). Calvin Klein is
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among the signature brands that started the "extreme fetishization of male body as an
index of commodity. Being the first brand that used a male model posing on a bare
background only wearing brief; Calvin Klein was followed by other designers such as
Versace. (Canete 2005 p.83). The Filipino counterpart of Calvin Klein that started the
trend of sexualizing the male body in the fashion industry is Suyen's Corporation's
BENCH Clothing Line.
Bench is a Filipino player in such a system, one that has
developed strategies of enhanced commodification through
the use of sexuality in the locus of desire. (Canete, 2005 p.
83)
This fact turns out to be support evidence to the influence of foreign innovations
in the field of advertising to Filipino advertisers. Most agency executives in the
Philippines are foreign oriented. (De la Torre, 2000 p. 29)
n the Philippine context, critics are starting to notice the increased percentage of
advertisements comprising sexual content. Although only a few studies were found to
exist in the present time; it is important to take note that some scholars already found
significance in this line of study and focused on examining sexual messages found in
ads be it of any medium.
The physiques of the models are always often enhanced:
muscular bodies of handsome young men, sometimes with
armpit hair, indicate a hypervalued index for the male; in
other words, the ideal type of male, which is denoted as
virile, top and macho. (Canete, 2005 p. 79)
Seeing this argument in the line of "desire; the gazes according to him were
born out of "desiring the male body and not the product of clothing. He argued that the
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positions of the models, how they project in the picture, their body language, the colors
used, imagery that's included all contribute in shaping a "desirable sexual object that
the viewers fantasize. Using Bench's advertisements as primary examples, Canete
argued that these advertisements are of utmost significance for it targets a huge market
of males from youth to young adults. Framing what is desirable and showing off explicit
ways of indicating erotic pleasure an insatiable element of an ad; Bench was successful
in magnetizing patrons ranging from all ages.
Canete's essay proves how sexual messages are becoming prevalent even in
the Philippine context. Examining these billboard ads, more or less, the readers had
further knowledge in noticing how the images of advertising are slowly imposing sexual
elements as sources of desire. t also supports the claim of creating the "ideal image of
men even in the context of male advertisers. Canete's study is just one of the proofs for
the existence and prevalence of these sexual messages among the advertisements in
the country.
A study by Patterson and England (2000) classified two depictions of the male
body as found in lifestyle magazines the entomorphs (the thin and lightly muscled) and
endomorphs (soft and round). The ectomorphs were utilized mostly in advertisements of
clothing to enhance the appeal of the product being displayed on an attractive fit man.
Yet the endmorphs whom were not used as much and not showcased in the same
context, adversely they were used in more as humorus insert for the advertisement.
Twelve male respondents in a traditional UK University were shown advertisements
from various men's lifestyle magazine there were six primary ads with four of them
displaying a bare chested man, while two of the four have strong suggestion of
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sexuality. The reactions of the respondents towards the advetisments were


accompanied with "homophobia and "gender stereotyping. They felt that men in the
ads were either viewed as being "too femine, "too sexual and "not manly enough or
"gay. While they felt that glamour was more of a femine trait since they worry and try to
emulate female model's bodies, whereas they felt a bit smarter than women for being
less susceptible to advertising (Elliot, R. and Elliot, C., 2005).
Another western study on men in relation to sexuality presented in media
focused on how these affects men's attitudes. Centering on sexual decision making
effects; the study made by Schooler and Ward concluded how regular consumption of
media sources tend to contribute into the greater acceptance of the shape and shape
and performance of the body but decreased comfort in aspects of one's real body;
comfort with the "real body tend to affect one's physical assertiveness when it comes to
making love. (Schooler, Ward 2006 p. 27) The study found out relations between media
use and men's body attitudes to effect into positive and negative relations. Effects like
being more uncomfortable with the aspects of the real body such as sweat and body
hair emerged significant. On self-esteem issue, findings showed increased and
decreased esteem regarding the V-shaped muscular body ideal more specifically a
decreased comfort with aspects of the real body such as body hair and sweat.
(Schooler, Ward p. 37)
More specifically focused in advertising as a medium, another study taken in
western context tackled how images from magazines depict objects and figures, sex
segregation, and sex differentiation in the posing of figures through smile, touch and
gaze. (Masse, Rosenblum 1988 p. 127) The authors emphasized how endorsers, either
9

male or female, contribute to depicting a certain product by "representing it. This


representation is done through various ways. From body positions, projections, stance,
gaze smile and other aspects. The image therefore of the man and or woman in
advertisements creates a character of which the product endorsed is attributed by.
Thus, endorsers tend to be objectified.
ConcIusion
Applying the study, the social uses of advertising: an ethnographic study of
adolescent advertising audiences by Ritson and Elliott which tested how idealized
images of the male body, specifically those depicted with sexual content that were
perceived by male readers, this study aspires to observe if same responses and themes
will emerge from the study under the scrutiny of a Philippine perspective.
Over-all, the study proved significant effects on the targets perception of their
masculinity. The reasearchers became aware of emergent themes that can be found in
the foreign study became evident amongst the sample tested. Another theme also
emerged originally from the respondents which makes the study more sound and
interesting.
Male readers, when presented male ads of males with sexual content react either
positively of negatively. As males, they affirm their masculinity by products and ads they
look at. Thus, males personal perceptions of their masculinity are significantly affected
by materials that include male endorsers and how they are portrayed in the magazines
tagetting their fellow males.

2

CHAPTER III
FRAMEWORK OF THE $TUDY
TheoreticaI framework
As with the continuous evolution and changes in media, different strategies and
interpretations of messages are conveyed by print advertisements all the while has also
attracted theorist in the field. Our study can be buoyed by several theories that
communicate message content and interpretations concerning images in print
advertisements. The redesigned reader-response by Scott (1994) is the main theory
that is applicable to this ongoing study. n relation to this, this is the same theory used in
the foreign context of this study.
Originally, the reader response theory is used a literary criticism therefore it is
used as a method of formal textual analysis. Literary theory for reader-response
pertains to the movement to open text-centered theories onward into the study of
reading (Scott, 1994). nitially, scholars tent to the theory outside the context of media
Formalism model coincide with the former reader-response theory. This New Criticism
defers text as an independent object that continuously triggers response. Having said
this, text was treated as the key in producing a result. They believed interpretation
should focus on what was concretely available to the critic-the text itself (David and
Schleifer 1989, pp 20-22). n line with the Formalism model, another theory emerged.
Structuralism is the model that emerged from the Semiotic theory or the theory of
making meanings through signs as symbols. Structuralism, although still text based,
2

allows different interpretations and deeper meanings of a text that is shaped by the
reader. Structuralism, proposes a language scheme that is embedded beneath the
actual message. t is the perceptions and considerations we have of the world
pertaining to certain scenarios based on a construct that we have become conditioned
into because of these type of arrangements. Structull interpretations focus on brushing
away "the surface elements, removing situational considerations related to both the
writing and the reading of the text, in search of this study underlying evolved from
simply being simply axiomatically to something that is of diverse interpretations.
Scott(1994), aiming to build a better bridge between textual theory and consumer
research, innovated the reader-response theory by applying it to certain image-created
media. The re-designed reader0response theory of Scott specifically focuses on
advertisements and transforming it into an image dependent advertisement. Since the
vocalpint of our study is to recognize and analyze the responses of the male reader's to
this particular king imagery.
Furthermore, scholars started to incorporate reader-response theory to various
media making it more flexible, applicable to almost every medium and not restricted to
the only text. Advertising, being one of these media, paved why into incorporating the
readers as consumers and vice versa.

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Figure 1. HypotheticaI interpretation of Reader-Response Theory


23

ConceptuaI Framework
With all these theories stated, it can be seen that the proponents focused on the
receiver thus the reader or how they create meanings or respond to both textual and
image context. The evolution of the theory on reader response as seen in Scott's article
(The Bridge from Text to Mind adapting reader-response theory to consumer research)
explained how the original concept of reader-response which is focused on literary
criticism (text-centered) shifted to images as it was applied to media like television and
advertising. Scott's effort to coincide consumer research in the midst of adapting reader
which aims to identify the perception of male readers on male's print advertisement with
explicit sexual content.
There is no correct reading of advertisements. Readers have their own
interpretations of both text and images they see and factors such as education, culture
and social status affect their interpretations. As Scott (1994) stated, advertising text
interacts with the knowledge, expectations, emotions, and motives of the reader and
that each reader may make an individual interpretation of the meaning of an image.
When it comes to meanings that are shaped by the readers, Mick and Buhl
(1992) suggested allowing interpretations to emerge freely from respondents. Thus
consumer's response is not merely based on axiomatically formulated meanings but on
how these meanings are utilized in the readers' everyday lives (Scott, 1994). The
redesigned reader-response theory alongside with the consumer research implies the
individualistic approach as the better way to interpret meanings rather than group
responses which is usually the axiomatical or generalized meaning.
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Stem's (1993) article on feminist theory alludes to reader-response theory as one


basis for conceptualizing group differences in reading: the influences of the reader's
gender upon reading strategies. Reader response theory can also be a good way to
analyze the different ways of thinking and making meanings of the people in terms of
their gender; on how they perceive things because of their gender. This statement
aforementioned leads to the focus of this ongoing study which is the male gender and
their perceptions.
Scott (1994) also proposed in her paper that we begin to unify this work toward a
common goal: creating "consumer-response theory. n applying the unification of the
reader-response theory and consumer research, the people regarded as readers are
also pertained to as the consumers. n connection with the consumer-response theory,
the male readers or viewers of print advertisements in magazines with explicit sexual
content who are the main subject of this study, are also the consumer of the said
magazines.
Having said all these, the reader-response theory best suits this ongoing study.
The approach serves the purpose of framing research questions in a manner
appropriate to the real-world phenomenon being studied, lending itself to testing
alteration and elaboration (Wells 1993, p. 496) Thus, making it a flexible theory for the
study. Moreover, a reader-response approach to the literature of consumption would
help us situate advertisements in the world of our own experiences, connecting the way
we think about advertising in our work to the way we know it in our lives (Scott, 1994).

23















Figure 2. ConceptuaI Framework
26

CHAPTER IV
RE$EARCH METHOD
Research Design
The researchers will use a goal-oriented type of research. This process will be
conducted through explaining the responses of the male readers regarding their
perceptions toward sexually implicit male advertisements in magazines. n the attempt
to properly evaluate the selected Filipino male readers in the Faculty of Arts and Letters
of the University of Santo Tomas, the researcher will also employ the use of qualitative
research designed for this study. Hence, the qualitative research is best applied when
the study aims to focus on the nature of communication to fully determine the subject's
perception.
The study premised on the formulated problem How male magazine
advertisements depicting representations of male bodies in magazine advertising,
particularly when men are portrayed in sexually suggestive poses affect men
sophomore students' personal perception of their masculinity.
At the onset, the study aims to know if there is an effect(s) on the male
sophomore students' perception of masculinity when exposed to these advertisements.
n addition, the primary goal is to conduct in-depth interviews and based on the actual
responses of the interviewees, the researcher then will use it as the primary source of
data. The method that will be used is a case-study which was based primarily in the
27

foreign study that the researcher would like to localize. And in line with this method, the
researcher will be able to get the best and accurate results.
Research Instrument
Focus Group Discussion or "FGD is a form of qualitative research wherein it
study and focus on the perceptions, beliefs and attitude of a selected set of
respondents. Respondents are asked in an interactive group setting to basically identify
their perception towards the presented materials by the researchers. The researchers
used this powerful means to generally investigate the perception of each and every
respondent when they are exposed in a social peer pressure. t would enable the
researchers to ask variety of questions as they arise during the discussion. Finally,
researchers could examine the answers of the group to thoroughly assess and evaluate
them. Meanwhile, after conducting such group discussion, the researcher will also
conduct one-on-one in-depth interview to the randomly chosen respondents. The one
on one in-depth interview is one of the most common types of interviews. The purpose
and the focus of the one-on-one interview is to basically identify each of the randomly
chosen respondents if they will alter their responses when they are not faced with other
participants of the same sex. This is only to observe the changes towards their answers
and to thoroughly determine the differences when randomly chosen respondents are
not embodied by group communication. Likewise, the researchers will be able to
systematically investigate their beliefs, attitudes and feelings based on the presented
visuals.
28

Furthermore, the researchers chose this research instruments to analytically


identify their perception while exploring the depth and nuances of the presented
advertisements.
$ources of Data
The researchers collected twenty-five (25) different print advertisements from five
top men's lifestyle magazines in accordance to the issue of year 2009 such as Men's
Health, FHM, Gadget, Playboy Philippines and Maxim. Out of 25 men advertisements
containing sexual materials, 5 were chosen to represent as a stimulus material to the
respondents which allowed them to critically examine the pictures. Another additional
advertisement will be shown intentionally to the respondents to basically prompt the
discussion among them. The advertisements will be first projected by a female model
which instigates the differences between male and female body. Next, multiple sets of
the five (5) male sexually stimulated printed advertisements will be simultaneously
placed on a table in front of the respondents. The advertisements will be shown to
participants in an A-4 sized colored picture. The respondents are usually readers and
consumers of these particular magazines and are usually highly involved with fashion
as well as brand conscious.
Through the given print advertisements, the researchers should be able to
determine if sexual messages have the ability to persuade the respondents to act
positively or negatively. Moreover, the process may affect on the manner by which the
respondents react on the given advertisements whether they are exposed in a group
29

discussion and randomly selected respondents in group to conduct one-on-one in-depth


interviews.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers used the process of Focus Group Discussion and one-on-one
in-depth interview to the sophomore students are members of the communication arts
degree program of the Faculty are readers of magazines. The researchers requested
permission to Arts and Letters' Professors to excuse their male students for the focused
group discussion. The researchers facilitated the group and one on one in-depth
interview in a quiet room. Six multiple sets of advertisement were presented to each set
of participants. The researchers used a video camera in gathering their answers in
order to capture not only their responses but their facial reactions as well. Analyzing the
data that were gathered through out the FGD and one-on-one in-depth interviews, the
researchers assessed and corroborated connected answers and the themes that
emerged.
Criteria for $eIection of Printed Advertisements
The criteria for the five (5) print advertisements include
1. The first print advertisement will contain an image that will spin-off a
discussion on an assessment between male and female bodies.
2. The second print advertisement will provoke reader response through the
semi- sexual position of the endorsers in the ad.
3

3. The third print advertisement will show implication sexually suggestive facial
expression and posture in connection with a consumable product. .
4. The fourth print advertisement will give an idea of the classical male beauty
that will balance out sexual content in the other four print advertisements.
5. The fifth and final print advertisement will contain an image of a traditional
and ideal masculine body.
PopuIation and $ampIing Techniques
Generally, the male respondents will be taken using selection criteria because it
does not provide that every member of the population has a chance to be selected as
part of the sample. The researchers determine the choice of the selection wherein the
conclusion derives from an intentional choice. Thus, the basic criterion includes the age
raging from 18-22 years old, all male biologically, a sophomore student, a member of
the communication arts degree program of the Faculty and a reader of magazines. The
bases of these intentional criteria of selection are as follows:
1. n the Faculty of Arts and Letters, the sophomore class of communication arts
has the largest student population in its degree having five (5) sections that is
within the age range of the study.
2. The sophomore male students are presently in the early and developing stages
of learning about their program as well as reaching the mature phase of their
adolescence; which makes their reactions and opinions to advertisements more
authentic.
3

3. These sophomore male respondents are highly aware in fashion, give a high
value on the brand of the apparel and are the main target readers of the top five
(5) men's lifestyle magazines according to the age range of the publications'
target market.

$TATI$TIC$
TabIe 1

The researchers will conduct one-to-one in-depth interviews and focus group
discussions with a total of forty-three (43) male respondents from the sophomore batch
of the communication arts degree program in the Faculty of Arts and Letters. All in all,
fifty-two (52) is the total figure of sophomore male students of communication Arts.
Forty-three (43) of them are readers of male magazines and are qualified under criteria
of the study. Seven (7) of them are not included because they are not readers of male
SECTON NUMBERS OF
STUDENS
PER SECTON
FGD
PARTCPANTS
ONE-TO-ONE
N-DEPTH
NTERVEW
PARTCPANTS
NON-
READERS OF
MALE
MAGZNES
STUDENTS
WHO REFUSED
TO PATCPATE
2CA1 11 6 1 4 1
2CA2 8 6 1 2 ___
2CA3 9 8 1 1 ___
2CA4 13 13 1 ___ ___
2CA5 11 10 1 ___ 1

52

43

5

9
32

magazine and thus, they are not qualified by the criteria. Nonetheless, two (2) of the
remaining students refused to join the interview due to their gender preference even
though they are qualified respondents. A total of nine (9) sophomore students were not
included in the interviews. Hence, the researchers preferred to conduct the study in a
college that is known for its encouragement of one's personality and beliefs, as well as
a college that has male students coming from all walks of life.
The focus group discussions were gathered into five (5) groups in accordance to
the number of sections in the sophomore level. This is done to thoroughly instigate their
beliefs as with their peer and also, to build confidence in rendering opinions when
respondents are face in unnecessary interrogations among their fellow male classmates
when the researchers present advertisements to them. The researchers conducted the
focus group discussions in an approximately forty-five (45) minutes one (1) hour per
group/section.
The researchers will then randomly select one participant in each section's focus
group discussion for the one-to-one in-depth interview. n total, five (5) out of forty-three
(43) respondents were chosen from the five (5) sections. The chosen five (5)
respondents who will undergo one-to-one in-depth interview rages from approximately
twenty (20) minutes thirty (30) minutes in length.
The said focus group discussion, as well as the one-to-one in-depth interview will
be conducted in a small quiet room. This is to avoid interruptions and to allow the
researchers to directly observe the participants. The five (5) respondents who will
33

undergo the in-depth interview are also complying with the same criteria done in a focus
group discussion.
Notwithstanding, it is expected that the focus group discussion would result in a
social peer pressure which the researcher would have an ambiguous responses from
the participants. The respondents are assumed to be uncomfortable when expressing
themselves regarding situation. These two types of interpretive approach are the
recommended research strategy in an audience research and also widely used to
gather empirical data. This abovementioned approach was the strategy used in the
foreign context of this study.
$cope and Limitations
The research focused on the study of Richard and Christine Elliot's idealized
images of the male body in advertising using a reader-response exploration. The
ultimate aim of this research is to localize the approaches and methods used in the
foreign context while the only exploration that the researcher will study is on male
readers of sophomore student's perception to representation of male bodies in
advertisement with sexual content. The goal of the researcher is to identify the reaction
of the respondents that is why the research stresses on the beliefs, attitudes and
feelings towards the advertisement. Thus, the only focus will be the male respondent or
the receiver of the image.
However, in conducting the interpretive approaches, it is decided to choose a
college in a university because the researcher wanted to extensively cover the age
bracket of target male respondents who are conscious of the way they look and are
34

aware of the fashion trends found in magazines. Moreover, covering the study in a
university that caters to students from all walks of life, would resort to majority of the
readers who actually take time to look at advertisements but have different experiences
and backgrounds. Hence, it would be easy for the interviewers to establish the
assumptions correctly because the participations are most probably well- aware of the
happenings around them.

33

CHAPTER V
PRE$ENTATION, ANALY$I$ AND INTERPRETATION OF
DATA
With the objective of knowing the perception of male towards male
advertisements with sexually suggestive elements, all the target respondents were
asked to assemble in a vacant classroom where advertisements were shown to them
one by one along with support questions. The sample covers all sophomore male
students taking up Communication Arts.
Their answers varied in the in-depth interviews conducted right after the focus
group discussions. Most of the respondents were able to express their opinions
comfortable during the in-depth interviews.
The data below presents the summarized trend of answers given by each group
of respondents on every ad that was shown to them. The focused group discussion is
divided per FGD group and a summary and analysis of the data is presented right after
the detailed discussion of the respondent's answers

FGD AN$WER$
The researchers were able to identify the general attitudes of the chosen targets
towards the sexually suggestive male ads presented to them. As communication arts
majors, the respondents are more exposed to the medium thus, they are active and
highly responsive towards the advertisements exhibited to them. Being in an
36

environment with their fellow males around, the targets are careful in sharing their
thoughts towards the ads. They are conscious of their answers and they usually don't
negate the side of the majority.
Their reactions on advertisements with sexual content shown to them is diverse,
depending on the impact of the sexual content present in the advertisement and the
"use of sexual element in each of the ad. All in all, there are common dominant
impressions that emerged in the findings. Males were threatened to be labelled as
homosexual once caught glancing at male ads with explicit sexual content. Peer
pressure plays a big role in this finding. When their peers challenge their masculinity,
they feel the pressure of being viewed as a homosexual. On an ad showing an explicit
position, majority agreed that males in ads obtain the dominating role and the woman is
always the objectified subject. Most of them agreed that for ads targeting males, they
feel that women endorsing with sexual content is more effective than seeing a fellow
male endorsing a product to them. This impression is summed up as Gender
Stereotyping. Moreover, some male respondents said that using sex as an element in
the ads is just normal because it is an effective selling tool in the market nowadays.
Also because of the open-mindedness of the modern world; a lot of respondents
affirmed liberated ads. Thus, the researchers can firmly say that legitimization of
exploitation and the use of sexuality as a marketing tool is also another dominant
impression that emerged. Another dominant impression the researchers found out is
that some males view male ads with sexual content as a form of art and they said that is
not offensive. They viewed liberated ads in its aesthetic value. They said that unusual
poses are just normal and contributes to the over-all beauty of the ad. Moreover, other
37

respondents said that male ads depicting the ideal male body motivates them to
achieve and become like the models and endorsers. This is the last theme that
emerged in the findings. The researchers found out those male endorsers whether
directed to a male or female target affects their masculinity in general. Some of them
said that advertising had already corrupted the minds of people and depicted the perfect
alpha male which they obliged to portray. They said that, the ideal male presented in
ads whether with explicit content or not affects them by dictating to them what kind of
man they should be like to attract the opposite sex.
Over all, using the focused group discussion as one of the research instruments,
it was found out that dominant impressions expressed by the Filipino male audience is
the same with some of the dominant themes that emerged in the foreign study
specifically in the thesis of Richard Elliott and Christine Elliott entitled dealized images
of the male body in advertising. However, the last dominant impression that emerged is
unique among the Filipino male targets which is: male ads depicting the ideal male
body motivates them to achieve and become like the models and endorsers.
The interview data presented below quoted and explained the best answers
given by the individuals selected per FGD group. A summarized interview data analysis
follows right after data presentation and analysis per person.

38

TabIe 2.1 - BLI$$ ICE











"UE$TION$ FGD 1 FGD 2 FGD 3 FGD 4 FGD 5
FamiIiarity with
the endorser and
product
Familiar with
the endorser
and product
Familiar with
the endorser
and product
Familiar with
the endorser
and the
product
Familiar with
the endorser
and the
product
Familiar
with the
endorser
and the
product
Attractiveness of
the endorser
Affirmed that
the endorser
is attractive
Affirmed that
the endorser
is sexy and
attractive
Affirmed that
the endorser
is sexy
Affirmed that
the endorser
is sexy
Effective
and
attractive
endorser
but
distracting
Appropriate or
not: ways of
endorsing
products with
sexuaI content
Not
appropriate;
they
suggested
that Robin
Padilla's
condom ad
is more
effective
Appropriate;
majority
affirmed that it
is sexually
suggestive,
appropriate,
effective
Not
appropriate;
the body of
the endorser
gets all the
attention
thus the
product gets
left behind
Not
appropriate;
controversial
; female
endorser is
not effective;
suggested
Robin
Padilla's ad
Appropriate
; affirmed
that it is
sexually
suggestive
and
effective


















39


Generally, all of the 5 groups of respondents are familiar with the endorser and
the product. 3 out 5 groups saw the advertisement as appropriate and effective. ennis
Rodriguez said that, "nviting yung ad. Panalo. Effective. The other 2 dissented
because of the pose and the endorser per se. Toto Vasquez even said that, "Mukhang
ice cream yung hawak niya. Parang 'di bagay. Gian agreed and stated, "Pag wala kang
idea sa product, 'di mo gets yung ad. 2 groups raised the topic of Robin Padilla's
effectiveness as an endorser of products for sexual activities. The objectives of the first
advertisement are to stimulate and excite the senses of the respondents to engage
them in a good conversation and also to test their masculinity. LaTour (1990) opined
and found that as nudity of an unclothed woman increased, males experienced general
activation (positive arousal), and females experienced high activation/tension (negative
arousal). All these objectives were manifested in the FGD because they freely
expressed their opinions, made suggestions, and majority of the explicit homosexuals in
the group made lesser to no comments on the advertisement.

Opinions
regarding women
who endorse
contraceptive
products and the
Iike
Part of their
professional
work only
Plain work of a
lady featured
in the
advertisement
Professional
work only
Part of their
work
Negative
perception
on these
women
4

TabIe 2.2 - VON DUTCH










"UE$TION$ FGD 1 FGD2 FGD3 FGD4 FGD5

FamiIiarity to
the product

Familiar with
the brand
and product
Familiar with
the brand and
product
Familiar
with the
brand
and
product
Familiar with
the brand and
product
Familiar with the
brand and
product
Assessment
on the femaIe
modeI
"rebellious
and sexy

The woman
depicted the
independenc
e of women
nowadays.
"seductive,
"rugged and
"distracting and
has an
"orgasmic facial
expression
"rugged
and
"enticing


"independent
and "rough
woman
"sexy
Assessment
on the maIe
modeI


Unnecessary
element of
the ad
Sexually
suggestive
Noticed
the
absenc
e of the
Noticed the
absence of
the man's
head;
Noticed the
absence of the
man's head;
4

man's
head;
Assessment
on the
advertisement
as a whoIe

Too sexual
for the
product
Too sexual for
the product
Too
sexual
for the
product
Too sexual for
the product
Too sexual for
the product
FeeIings
triggered by
the
advertisement
Found the
advertisemen
t too sexy
Found the
advertisement
inappropriate
for the product
- - Found the
advertisement
inappropriate for
the product
making the
viewers focus on
the sexual
content of the ad
Dominating
factor of the
advertisement
Male model Male model Male
model
Male model female model

The advertisement contained a man and woman riding a motorcycle, advertising
Von Dutch biker jeans for both sexes. All the participants in the discussion agreed that it
was a sexually suggestive advertisement due to the position of the man and the woman
and Reichert and Ramirez (2000), Givens (1983), and Tinkham and Reid (1988) stated
that other types of sexual content include provocative actions by models, sexual
language/referents, and sexual interaction between two or more people. This affirms the
observation that it is an ad with sexual content. n this advertisement, the male model's
head was cut off and in this regard, Stutts (2005) opined that the males in the ads were
sometimes "objectified," defined as any presentation emphasizing sexually suggestive
body parts or not including the head of the model in the picture. Only the first and
second group didn't notice the absence of the male model's head, while the remaining
three noticed it and had different opinion regarding the matter. FGD 3 focused on the
42

technicality of the advertisement thus leading them to their conclusion that the man was
unnecessary element of the advertisement. However, FGD 4 concluded that the man
was headless for the viewers to focus on the jeans and on the model. FGD 5 agreed
that the underlying message of the advertisement was to give the viewers a 'hint' that in
wearing the product, you could be the man of the advertisement and be with an
attractive woman like in the advertisement. Victor Romeroso interpreted the headless man
saying, "Parang sinasabi niya na 'this guy could be you' and 'you can hook up with a girl like
this'". Over all, the groups assessed that the advertisement was inappropriate because
of the sexual content which was not necessary for a jeans.








43

TabIe 2.3 - CHOCO LAVA







Questions/Keywo
rds
FGD1 FGD2 FGD3 FGD4 FGD5

Effectiveness of
the Endorser

Not
effective
Sexual
element not
essential


Not effective
sexual
element not
essential

Awkward for
male targets
Not Effective,
it doesn't
appeal to the
male target
market
Not Effective,
ad is not
appropriate to
the product
Not effective,
execution
dubbed as
"gay and
"lame


Product being
endorsed isn't
part of the
advertisement,
what do you
think is being
endorsed?

Clothing
because
body is
shown
Clothing
because
male
endorser
and not
product is
the focus of
the ad
Gym
Advertisement
because body
is shown


Clothing
because of the
positioning of
male endorser
Body Building
or Gym Ad
because body
is shown
Appropriateness
of the ad for a
chocoIate drink



Appropriate
Faithful to
its unique
selling
proposition
"You can't
resist
Choco
Lava
Appropriate
Faithful to its
unique
selling
proposition
"You can't
resist Choco
Lava
Not
Appropriate
Doesn't
appeal to
males as the
target market
Not
appropriate
Execution not
effective to
promote the
product


Not
Appropriate
Awkward for
males to see
44


To sum up, the ad by Choco Lava was chosen under the criteria of an ad with a
male model/endorser which poses or portrays the product in an inappropriate manner
using the element of sex and lust to stimulate readers' interest. Stutts' (2005) findings
corroborated this specific ad which stated that modern day ads feature provocative
images of men and women in revealing outfits and postures selling a variety of
products, many of which have no association with sex. Renato, one of the respondents
opined and said, "Masyadong alluring and seductive yung endorser siguro
kinocompaere nila sa drink. Out of the 5 groups that responded 4 of them assessed the
ad as inappropriate and not appealing to males as target market. . et Masaya said that,
"Di na kelangan bakit ganun pa yung itsura nung lalaki, halatang may sexual element
na pinapasok. Nomer Gatchallian agreed and said that, " hindi essential yung sex para
maging effective yan. Majority are not interested with the execution done and said that
they will not entertain or purchase the product. Richmond and Hartman (1982) found
that brand-name recall was significantly lower when sexual content in the ad was not
functionally related to the product. Over-all, we can assess that male viewers have a
unique view on the incorporation of sexual element. They are smart buyers and have a
unique taste and preferences considered in purchasing a product. Ads like this do not
appeal to them and they are after ads which indicate more straightforward executions
and the male endorsers must be in an acceptable pose of role for them to entertain it.
"Okay yung may sex minsan pero diyan ang pangit ng naging dating nyan (pertaining to
Choco Lava). John, one of the endorsers opined and said.
43

TabIe 2.4 - VAN HEU$EN









The fourth ad "Totally hot with Van Heusen innerwear was unanimously
accepted as being straight to the point as it was very clear and precise that it was
promoting an innerwear. For Patrick Alcaraz "Ganyan naman talaga kasi brief yung
inaadvertise. They were split on positioning or gesture of the male model as they
"UE$TION$ FGD1 FGD2 FDG3 FGD4 FGD5
Effectiveness of
the endorser to
the product
Effective;
not
seducing
Effective;
not
seducing
Effective;
not
seducing
Effective; but
seducing
Effective; not
seducing
Appropriateness
of the ad to the
product
Appropriate Appropriate Appropriate nappropriate Appropriate
Feeling when
caught looking
at the ad by
peers
Awkward Awkward,
feared their
sexuality
would be
doubted
Awkward;
feared to
be labeled
as gay
Awkward
and
inappropriate
for a man to
do so
Awkward
46

thought that his posture was strange and awkward but not offensive while others made
no comments about the model. To the exemption of one group FGD4, the
advertisement was deemed appropriate or a good ad, however all mentioned the
discomfort of looking at the advertisement too long as that would be considered ogling
the male model rather than the product being displayed. TJ Veloso said "pag ikaw lalaki
tapos titingnan mo yan, diba parang awkward padin?. To stare at the advertisement too
long and not taking a quick glance would deem that appreciating the male's presence
was becoming the real motive. Hopper, Rill, Smith, and Aubrey (2008) opined
that males are now being persuaded to purchase products typically associated with
females and as such advertising has begun to target males in much the same way as it
has long targeted females, by sexually objectifying the male body. nsinuations were
made that a great amount of teasing masculinity would be the result of both "straight
and "gay.

47

TabIe 2.5 - BENCH UNCUT





Questions/K
eywords
FGD1 FGD2 FGD3 FGD4 FGD5



Endorser's
body and
they way he
uses it to
pose for
the
advertisem
ent


Portrays the
ideal macho
image

Pose is just
enough, not
sexually
suggestive

Portrays the
ideal macho
image

Pose not
awkward for
the males to
look at

Portrays the
ideal macho
image

Simple,
appealing to
the targets,
not distracting
to the male
audience
Model lacks
the qualities of
a perfect ideal
man because
his body figure
isn't "macho
enough
Pose is
worth
looking at

Not
distracting
to the eyes
of the male
audience

Is it done in
an
artisticaIIy
or with a
sexuaIIy
suggestive
intention?

Pose isn't
too special,
not creative
enough
Pose is
simple and
direct

Pose is not
sexually
suggestive
Pose is done
creatively, for
the sake of art
Pose is
simple and
not
distracting

Is his
appearance
achievabIe
?


Majority
said yes

Majority said
yes

A few said yes

A few said yes

Majority
said yes
























48


All groups found this advertisement by Bench to be in line of what the company
has done throughout the years, although one group (2CA4) was not pleased with the
model that was used possibly because of his famous teen persona/image. Despite
accepting Bench's traditional style of showcasing ideal physical male body one group
admitted it lowered their self esteem while another group deemed this kind of body as
"not normal stating that they prefer to be normal. There was a shared agreement that
the male body was not exploited and was not too sexually suggestive. . Ruel opined and
said "Mas decent at mapapatingin ka kasi hindi suggestive yung pose niya, basta
pinapakita niya lang yung damit. Yet one group (2CA4) felt that male's pose was phallic
symbol. Reichert (2002) stated that body display, especially as it involves clothing, is by
far the most common form of sexual visual representations found in advertising
research hence majority of the FGDs were very understanding citing this as a normal,
WouId you
Iike to be
Iike the
person in
the ad?







Majority
said yes
Majority said
yes
Majority said
no.

Note: The
group has
more
homosexuals
than straight
guys.
Majority said
no
A few said
yes, other
have no
opinion
about it

$exuaI
Content

Doesn't
imply
sexual
content
Doesn't
imply
sexually
suggestiven
ess
Not explicit.
Very minimal
sexual
element

Sexual
element not
too evident, it
is concealed
in the form of
art

doesn't
imply
explicit
sexual
content
49

acceptable and typical "fashion advertisement. "Tama lang, ako bilang lalaki ayos lang
yung ganyang ad saakin. said ino Tan. The group classified the advertisement as a
"fashion ad. "Dinidisplay niya lang yung damit niya. That's it. Fashion shot yan, Nikki
Romero added.







3

TabIe 2.6 - FOLDED AND HUNG













"UE$TION$ FGD 1 FGD 2 FGD 3 FGD 4 FGD 5
FamiIiarity with
the endorser and
the product
Familiar with
the brand
but not with
the endorser
Familiar with
the brand but
not with the
endorser
Familiar with
the brand
but not with
the endorser
Familiar with
the brand
but not with
the endorser
Familiar
with the
brand but
not with the
endorser
Do you want to
have a body Iike
his?
Majority said
that they are
not inspired
The body is
achievable but
majority
claimed they
do not want to
have that
physique
Motivating
yet
intimidating
and insulting
They are not
motivated to
have the
ideal
physique
They are
envious of
the ideal
body
Effectiveness of
the
advertisement
Physique of
the male
model has
an effect
Minimal effect
Physique of
the male
model has
an effect
Minimal
effect
Physique of
the male
model has
an effect
Do you get
conscious when
you see ads Iike
these?
They get
conscious
They don't get
conscious
They get
conscious
They don't
get
conscious
They get
conscious
3

The material used for exhibit 6 is an ad which shows a male model with a body type
that is inspirational and motivational. He is Daniel Matsunaga and he's modeling a pair
of board shorts from the brand Folded and Hung. The objective of this exhibit is to test
the perceptions of the respondents towards a male ad targeting them; if they will be
inspired or motivated to achieve the male model's body. Most of the groups were
motivated while others felt envious over Daniel's body and said that whenever they see
male models depicting the "perfect" male body type, they feel insulted and less
confident of their own body shape. ennis said, "Hindi namin kaya 'yan. Nakakainis
lang.; that is it not achievable. Chester Sevilla disagreed with the ad and said, "Paano
naman kaming matataba? Hindi naman siguro magiging hadlang yung taba ko pag
maghahanap ng partner kahit na yung ibang mga babae ngayon gusto yung mga
maskulado. A certain group (FGD 4) felt defensive when this ad was shown. ulius
opined, "Maghahanap nalang kami ng ibang way para mag-excel. Wienke (1998)
opined that men develop a number of complex strategies to negotiate the meaning of
their bodies in view of cultural ideals of male physiques. This denotes that men may
either strive to achieve the ideal male body or be contented with their own physique.
This ad, over all, has an effect towards the respondents both negatively and positively.
n a way, they feel threatened to achieve the same body type while others blame
advertising for the images of the perfect male body being dictated by these ads.

32

CHAPTER VI
$UMMARY OF FINDING$, CONCLU$ION$, AND
RECOMMENDATION$
Males have also faced a changing image in advertising. Traditionally, females
have been associated with sex in advertising, but today males are also being used to
show or imply sexual situations in many ads (Stutts, 2005). The research was
conducted as male models doing sexually suggestive poses radically emerged in the
industry. The main objective of the researchers is to find out how Filipino male readers
respond on these sexually suggestive advertisements of men. Such advertisements are
present in the the industry today as stated by Stutts (2005) Modern day ads feature
provocative images of men and women in revealing outfits and postures selling a variety
of products, many of which have no association with sex. Thus, Boni argues "men pay
more attention to their physical and emotional health, and today the male body is
subject to a continuous scrutiny it is objectified, exploited and monitored (p. 467).
This objectification, exploitation and monitoring has resulted in increased attention paid
to male consumption by marketers. (Miller, p. 107)

Reader Response theory was used to further understand the matter. Originally,
this theory is used as a literary criticism therefore it is used as a method of formal
textual analysis. However, scholars started to incorporate reader-response theory to
various media making it more flexible, applicable to almost every medium and not
restricted to the only text. Advertising, being one of these media, paved way into
33

incorporating the readers as consumers and vice versa. Scotl (1994) showed how
an advertising text interacts with the knowledge, expectations, emotions and motives
ofthe reader and that each reader may make an individual interpretation of themeaning
of an image: "... pictures have been treated as producing affect by theirmere
presenceas opposed to eliciting a response on the basis of what they signify'(p.477).
She pointed out that images that relate to the self'... can inspire feelings
ofhopelessness, frustration and the like' (Scott. 1994. p. 477).
This study aimed to uncover if there are significant effects on the male Filipino
readers of magazines which promotes print advertisements of men engaging in elicit
forms of sexual content. However, there is much debate over what "sex in advertising"
encompasses (Stutts, 2005). Definitions range from "sexuality in the form of nudity,
sexual imagery, innuendo, and double entendre" (Courtney and Whipple 1983) to a
more formal definition of "mediated messages containing sexual information with the
persuasive purpose of selling branded goods (Reichert, Heckler, and Jackson 2001).
Sexual content, as used in this study, may pertain to both definitions; the former
depicting an explicit definition of sexual content and the latter giving a more implicit
definition.
An increase of male models in these sexual ads appears to be more prevalent
yet limited research has been done in the area (Stutts, 2005).The study discussed the
advertisements which emanate sexual content in the Philippine context and the effects
of the male readers pertaining to the sexually suggestive advertisements. t is aimed to
highlight the male body, exploitation and sexuality, and its bearing with the young
34

Filipino readers and to provide awareness to male readers on the effects of provocative
male advertisements in magazines.

$UMMARY OF FINDING$
This research study posed a similarity with a foreign study's emergent themes
conducted by R. Elliott and C. Elliott (2005). Four emergent themes in the foreign study
also appeared among the male respondents of this study and a new theme
materialized.
1. Homophobia Male nudity should be avoided at any level in ads targeting men
(Stutts, 2005). Males were threatened to be labelled as homosexual once
caught glancing at male ads with explicit sexual content. Peer pressure plays a
big role in this finding. Whenever sexually suggestive advertisements were
presented, they will crack jokes, make comments, and in the end they will
affirm their masculinity. According to Vares and Braun (2006), "as sexuality is
acknowledged as a central site in men's struggle to become masculine and in the
enactment of masculinity, representations of masculine sexualities can be seen
as integral to the production of gender identities and sexual subjectivities

2. Gender $tereotyping Male respondents were used to seeing females
for advertisements directed to men in particular. So when they were
presented the Choco Lava ad, they suggested that the male endorser should
be replaced with a female to be more effective. This also corroborates with
33

the objectifying of the female bodies which makes women perceived as the more
effective and appropriate object of the gaze.


3. Legitimization of expIoitation and the use of sexuaIity as a marketing
tooI Some male respondents said that using sex as an element in the ads is
just normal because it is an effective tool in selling in the market nowadays.
Also because of the open-mindedness of the modern world, they simply
affirmed with more liberated ads. According to Reichert (2002) ads containing
sexual content, such as an attractive female in an automobile ad, can be used to
draw attention to the product (low association) or can be an integral part of the
brand message (high association) such as ads for cologne, cigarettes, alcohol,
and some clothing.

4. Naked body as art Some respondents viewed liberated ads in their aesthetic
value. They said that unusual poses are just normal and contributes to the over-
all beauty of the ad.
5. Motivation to attain a muscuIar body Many respondents said that
male ads depicting the ideal male body motivates them to achieve and become
like the models and endorsers. Lemish and Lehav (2004) explain, "The new
roles of men do not replace the old ones, but develop side by side, through the
creation of tension (p. 149). Thus,although males may choose among the
differing types of masculinity, they are still being confronted with the
contradictions these new types pose to the traditional "macho male (Lemish and
36

Lehav 2004). t is likely that individuals will also experience wishful identification
with models presented in ads. For example, prior research indicates a desire
among young females to be the models they see depicted in ads (Hobbs, Broder,
Pope, & Rowe, 2006; Martin & Kennedy, 1994).Although some of them feel
envious towards the endorsers, they claimed that they are willing to make an
effort to have better physique. According to Lemish and Lehav (2004), other
types of men such as the "sensitive man and the "sensual man have surfaced
in advertising in the last two decades to contrast with the "macho type of man.
Although these contrasting types have served to challenge existing models of
men, the authors state that patriarchal masculinity remains the dominant ideal in
advertising.
CONCLU$ION
Themes emerged in the foreign study materialized in the results of this study in
the Philippine Setting; and these include homophobia, gender stereotyping, naked body
as art, marketing/legitimization and motivation to muscular bodies.The following themes
only prove that the male audience is affected by advertising in a unique way apart from
females which are usually the objects of study. Focusing on one medium which is print
specifically the magazines; the researchers were able to screen advertisements that are
communicating media message affecting men's masculinity one way or another. t was
observed that men always want to secure their masculinity. Sexual element is not
essential for ads targeting men. Although not in all set-up does it apply, but sexual
element usually triggers their fear of being branded as a homosexual. Thus, men
generally prefer male endorsers merely wearing a clothing of product and not
37

suggestively posing while a certain product is on them. Also, the researchers were able
to find out that the "ideal macho image still affects the male ego. This makes them aim
for the same body types they see in advertisements be it on TV and print media.
Moreover, the present depictions still portray males in a dominating position
against females. Thus, generally, men tend to think that males will always have a more
powerful portrayal in ads and women will always be an object of their gaze. Lastly, it
became evident that men are aware of the marketing efforts and schemes done
inserting "sex to make the ads more appealing. The researchers were able to gather
insights supplementing the idea that "sexual ads tend to appear normal nowadays
because everyone knows that "sex will always sell especially in the present generation.
Having said all of this, the researchers were able to prove their hypothesis that
indeed, perception of males on male print ads targeting them posits a significant effect
on their masculinity as a whole.

RECOMMENDATION
After the analyzing the data gathered, the researchers suggest that the study be
furthered. For future researches, we wish to recommend that the scope of male targets
to be assessed be widened, first, in the age-bracket. Given the limitation that this study
focused only on males from 18-22 years of age, it will be more effective if future studies
will get a more diverse audience from the age bracket ranging from tweens to young
adults. Aside from the age, since the researchers only gathered insights from college
students it will be more efficient if the research be done on a nationwide scale featuring
not only students but working professionals as well. This will create light for more
38

mature insights on same set of ads with different levels and implications of sexual
content. On the methodology used, future studies can utilize other research methods
like surveys and questionnaire. This can help them in proper profiling of respondents to
be interviewed.
Furthermore, since the study focused only on consumer perception towards
advertisements; it is highly recommended for future studies to focus more on the effect
of these perceptions to advertising, like brand recall and brand identity of
advertisements depicting males with sexual content. This will provide a more concrete
groundwork for advertisers and marketers to know how they will execute
advertisements on their male audience and how does sexual content affect their brand
image as a whole.
Moreover, while this study focused on perceptions per se, future studies can
focus on buying patterns which were being affected by such perceptions. Thus,
marketers and advertisers will also be able to assess the effect of advertising
executions on their business matters.
Lastly, a more specific approach could focus on homosexuals and their
perceptions. This type of male is said to endorse equal-opportunity vanity, through
cosmetics, softness, women, hair-care products, wine bars, gyms, designer fashion,
wealth, the culture industries, finance, cities, cosmetic surgery, and deodorants (Miller,
p. 107). Future studies can create a more concentrated set of perceptions from them
who represents a segment from the male target audience. According to Clarkson
(2005), advertisers have focused on targeting what he terms a "consumer masculinity or
metrosexual, just as they helped to construct a hegemonic depiction of gay identity
39

BIBLIOGRPAHY
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of Prior knowledge . ournal of Advertising .
6

APPENDICE$
APPENDIX A
"uestions for the Focus Group Discussion
Chosen advertisements will be shown to the Focus Group and one-to-one interview.
The respondents will be asked the questions below. Also, the researchers may ask
follow up questions, if the need for it arises.
Advertisement 1 (Bliss ce Advertisement)
a. Do you know who this endorser is? What about the product?
b. Do you find her sexy?
c. What are the usual ways of endorsing contraceptive products and the
like?
d. What are your opinions regarding women who endorse or pose for these
kinds of products?

Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
a. Are you familiar with the product or brand?
b. What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
c. How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
d. As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
e. What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
f. Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?

Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)
a. s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
b. f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
62

c. s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?

Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
a. s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
b. f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
c. s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why
not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
d. What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?

Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)
a. Do you know who this endorser is?
b. What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
c. s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?

Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)
a. Do you know who this endorser is?
b. Do you want to have a body like his?
c. How are you affected by the advertisement?
d. Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?

63

APPENDIX B
FOCU$ GROUP
DI$CU$$ION
FINDING$ (FIR$T ADVERTI$EMENT - BLI$$ ICE)
FGD 1 Both the endorser and the product were familiar to the first group of
respondents. They felt like the advertisement is not appropriate to the
product. Toto Vasquez even said that, "Mukhang ice cream yung hawak
niya. Parang 'di bagay. Gian agreed and stated, "Pag wala kang idea sa
product, 'di mo gets yung ad. At feeling ko walang appropriate na ad para
sa isang sexual ad. ButToto opposed and suggested an appropriate
sexual ad, "Pero effective yung ad ni Robin Padilla. Sexual product siya,
condom, tapos lalaki siya na nag-eendorse dahil lalaki naman yung
gumagamit noon. So effective iyon.ohn Revilla added, "Mas gusto ko
yung kay Robin kasi simple and direct. With regard to their perception on
females doing alluring poses on advertisements, they see it as
professional work only, "Okay naman yung hitsura niya eh, Toto said
and Paul Asuncion added, "t's their line of work.

FGD 2 Again, they were familiar with the endorser and product. They described
the advertisement as sexually suggestive, appropriate, and
effective. Lawrence Bernabe said, "Appropriate naman yung ad kasi sexy
si Gwen tapos lubricant yung inaadvertise niya. But Francis
Luna seemed to be confused with the advertisement and he disagreed
saying, "Pero bakit parang wala naman connection yung advertisement
sa lubricant? Hindi ko gets. Para sa akin hindi appropriate. et
Masaya added a new insight regarding the effectiveness of the
advertisement, "Unnecessary iyong gender sa pag-aadvertise ng
lubricant. But oserebutted et's insight and said, "Okay siguro kung si
lalaki yung magaadvertise pero kung too much skin pala, okay din na
babae nalang. With regard to their honest opinions on women like Gwen
Garci doing sexually suggestive poses for ads, they see it as the plain
work of a lady featured in the advertisement andLloyd de esus affirmed,
"Okay lang naman. Trabaho lang naman nila iyon. ba naman yung
pagmomodel sa totoong buhay nila.
FGD 3 As early as the showing of the first advertisement, they started teasing a
classmate; peer pressure was evident. As the FGD was about to
start, Russel ose entered and the group shouted in chorus, "Uuuyyyy!
Apparently, Russel has evident issues with his sexuality. Going back to
the advertisement, they said that they were familiar with the endorser and
the product. They described the advertisement as sexy and
provocative, Caleb Villena exclaimed as the first ad was presented,
"Wow, sexy!ason even stood up just to take a good look at the model,
Gwen Garci. But they claimed collectively that the body of the endorser
gets all the attention in the ad, thus the product gets left behind and Carlo
Bustamante supported their claim saying, "Walang kinalaman yung
katawan sa product. Hindi na naka-focus sa product yung mga tao.Mike
Ramos added, "Pang-attract lang naman yung yung mga models. Pero
64

minsan nakaka-distract na sila. Again, they see the job of the endorser
as professional work only. Matthew Salazar said, "Okay lang naman.
Work lang naman nila yan eh. Pero wag lang over.
FGD 4 They were familiar with the endorser and the product just like the first
three groups. While the ad was being presented, there were lesser
reactions compared to the other groups. When asked about their opinions
on the model, Ariel Flores said, "Sexy siya, and ulius Andrade added,
"Ay wala pala siyang suot! Mas maganda kung hindi ko nakikita yung
mukha. This statement started the discussion; they said that the
advertisement can be considered as controversial. ustin Rebeta said,
"Pag una ko siyang nakita, hindi mo alam kung tungkol saan yung ad eh.
while he was pertaining to the effectiveness of the advertisement as a
whole. ulius was the first to answer when they were asked if the
advertisement was appropriate for a sexual product like the lubricant
advertisement presented. He said, "Hindi siya appropriate eh. Mas malaki
pa si Gwen Garci kaysa sa product. They also claimed that the endorser
isn't very effective. ulius supported the claim and said, "Hindi effective
yung endorser. ustin affirmed with ulius'statement and said, "Mas
gusto ko yung ad ni Robin Padilla, yung Trust. With regard to their views
on women who do sexually suggestive poses on ads,ulius answered and
said, "Wala namang masama sa ginagawa nila. Pero babae pa rin sila.
Parang binebenta nila yung sarili nila.
FGD 5 This last group was also familiar with the endorser and the product. The
advertisement was again described as very sexually suggestive and
effective, ennis Rodriguez said that, "nviting yung ad. Panalo.
Effective. Chester affirmed that the endorser was effective but distracting
at the same time, "Nadistract ako sa endorser. Nawala yung product,
lumubog kasi nga nakakadistract yung babae. Though the endorser was
framed as distracting, they still see her as an appropriate endorser to the
product. Regarding the product, an Estacio said, "Yung lubricant dapat
hindi framed sa mga ads na ginagamit lang siya ng mga babae.
Maraming klase ng lubricant pero dito pinapakita yung lubricant ay para
sa sexual na bagay. When asked how they wanted the product to be
endorsed, ames Vicedo suggested, "Pakita dapat nila yung practical
applications. For their view on women who pose for sexual
ads, Gab Hermoso stated, "Para silang mga babaeng pang-romansa
lang. ominic Orsal added, "Katawan lang yung habol sa kanila. Parang
ganoon. Peer pressure is evident in this set of respondents.


FOCU$ GROUP DI$CU$$ION FINDING$ ($ECOND ADVERTI$EMENT - VON DUTCH)
FGD 1 The group was familiar with the brand and found the sexual
element of the advertisement inappropriate for endorsing the rider
jeans. "Di naman kelangan talaga na sexy yung ad. Gets na naman
pag biker jeans tapos rugged siya at may motorbike siya ohn
Sanchez pointed out in the discussion.
John also noticed that the advertisement depicted the "rebellious
63

spirit of the product and exhibited the tough side of women however
he concluded that with such, the man was still the dominant factor
saying:
"Pinapakita niya na rebellious yung babae but still hindi niya
napigilan na lalake pa din ung dominant
From the discussion it was agreed by all that the man, even with
the absence of the head from the frame was the dominating part.
They solely focused on the sexual element of the advertisement.

FGD 2

The group was familiar with the brand and described the woman
from the advertisement as, "seductive, "rugged and "distracting.
"Pati facial rection nung babae, parang orgasmic, hahaha... said
Lawrence Bernabe. "Ganyan ang kaakit-akit na babae! on
Mendoza agreed. From the discussion, the group agreed that the
position of the models were sexually suggestive and that it failed to
promote the product as it focused solely on the sexual element.
"Kahit bali-baligtarin mo, ganun sex padin padin yung gustong
sabihin eh. Henry Geronimo added. Para siguro bumenta, kaya
may sexual element talaga, Milo Martinez opined and said. The
group failed to notice the absence of the man's head.
FGD 3 The advertisement was described by the group as "rugged and
"enticing and that the position of the models was sexually
suggestive. Supposing that there was no man in the advertisement,
the advertisement containing only the woman, although seductive
would be more effective as the readers would focus on the brand
and not on the sexual element of the advertisement. Christian
omingo critiqued the advertisement by saying "Hindi na tlga
kelangan na may sexual content pa un ad. Biker jeans, pakita mo
na lng na biker siya. Ganon lang But he himself was also
convinced that the sexual content was essential, "sex sells nga lang
talaga, as it gets more attention. The group noticed the headless
man and found him unnecessary for the advertisement. Ali Torres
said that "Db sabi pag hindi makikita ung mukha ng model, bakit ka
pa ba maglalagay ng momodel. Which was backed up by Rico
Balindo saying, "Kung hindi naman kita yung ulo ng model, wag na
lang.. However, Jason Reyes believed the otherwise stating that
"Hindi na nila kelangan yung face ng guy kase ung body lang
naman enough na
FGD 4 The group questioned and noticed the absence of the head of the
male model. They suggest that the absence of the head of the male
model is generally to focus on their product since they only sells the
jeans. "Ah, kaya siguro wala, para para maka-focus ka sa product.
said Leo Aragones. However, ustin Rebeta opposed and said,
"hindi, kaya walang ulo para isipin mo ikaw yung nasa posisyon ng
lalaki, ikaw yung rumaride. This was presented to nonetheless
create malice. They used sex as the main concept of the
advertisement. Thus, the male model is perceived as the dominant
figure between him and his female partner. "Siyempre yung lalaki,
66

kahit walang ulo, kasi naka-angkas lang yung babae eh, yung lalaki
siya naka-control dun sa motor kung san papunta. said ean
ohnson.
FGD 5 One of the members of the group, Victor Romeroso, felt envious
and questioned the position of the two models. "Parang sinasabi
niya na 'this guy could be you' and 'you can hook up with a girl like
this' pero hindi naman kase hindi naman ganiyan ang katawan ko"
The group wondered why the advertisement is presented
unnecessarily since the concept only conveys the idea of biking.
"Bakit ba ganiyan? Naka-pantalon lang tapos walang ulo.
Unnecessary eh."Banjo Go questioned the logic of the print ad.
Nevertheless, they were all familiar with the brand and noticed the
flat chested female model. "It shows na girls don't need to have
those boobies to be hot. Ang hot niya kahit flat siya, di ba?" an
Estacio observed.
All of the members of the group then agrees. Moreover, the
position is basically unnecessary to them by which conveys a
sexually suggestive position. Unlike other group, they particularly
perceived the female model more dominating than the male model.
According to Rey Berdal,"Mas dominating ung babae kasi siya yung
nagdadala talaga ng ad, kung wala siya dyan, alang sense"

FOCU$ GROUP
DI$CU$$ION
FINDING$ (THIRD ADVERTI$EMENT - CHOCO LAVA)
FGD 1

The respondents find the ad appropriate in the sense that it is just being
faithful to its unique selling proposition that Choco Lava is the chocolate
drink you just can't resist. Toto Vasquez said that, "Parang nang-aakit
ng babae eh. Carlo Baldovino agreed and stated,Parang directed sa
babae ang ganyang ad eh,tapos yung shirt oh, nakaladlad talaga Miko
Santos opined and said that it could've been more appropriate if the ad
doesn't have a sexual part in it. think hindi na iyon essential. But
Carlo opposed and said that, "eh ang lame kasi pag walang sex eh.
ohn added, "Okay yung may sex minsan pero diyan ang pangit ng
naging dating nyan (pertaining to Choco Lava). The discourse became
more active and some of the persons opposed that the ad is effective.
Majority of the students said that the sexual element added is not
essential and it only made the ad inappropriate. According to the
respondents, showing off skin and the element of "seductive gaze" is
applicable to the product. Being a small group only consisting 5
members, the respondents usually follow the set of answers shared by
the dominating opinion leader. The opinion leader first said that since
the chocolate drink has 0 grams trans fat, using a model with an alluring
67

body is appropriate. Other boys in the group agreed to his assessment


and supported his belief.

FGD 2 This group consisting 6 respondents also agreed that the ad is
appropriate to the product. The product according to them,sex is
parralled to the endorser being "hard to resist". Kasama talaga ang sex
diyan,Lawrence Bernabe said. et Masaya opposed and said that, "Di
na kelangan bakit ganun pa yung itsura nung lalaki, halatang may
sexual element na pinapasok. Nomer Gatchallian agreed and said that,
" hindi essential yung sex para maging effective yan. t is evident that
the element "lust" is included to catch more attention of the target
market. They also assessed that the ad may be targeting women more
than men because they used a male endorser with a seductive and
alluring pose. The respondents are all familiar to the brand Choco lava
and said that they are using a different approach to the market veering
away from the wholesome, family, energy, themes used by other
chocolate drinks focusing more on the younger market. "Baka parte ng
marketing strategy nila said oco avid. Being a trans free choco drink,
they are after yuppies who are body-conscious so the attack is
appealing to an older market inserting "sex" as an element to catch
attention. Like FDG1, there is an opinion leader which leads the
opinions of the group towards a single thrust
FGD 3 The bunch collectively said that the execution is not good for the
product making it a bad advertisement of Choco Lava. According to
one of the respondents, using a male endorser doesn't appeal to the
males as target market. "Di bagay na lalaki nasa ad. Said Russel
ose. The pose of the guy according to one respondent is awkward and
disturbing. "Di bagay yung pose niya sa product. Henry Estubio added.
t is also evident, according to several respondents that the element of
sex and lust was used to engage readers attention. "Kaya lang naman
may ganyan kasi para makuha attention ng tao. said Veron Vergara.
However, o Castillo opined and said that, "Wala namang mali diyan,
that's pure marketing. They said that a male ad using a male endorser
is not appropriate for the brand. "Di bagay yung male endorser, ang
awkward. said Fred Tan, one of the respondents..
FGD 4 The group attended by 13 boys was not fully aware of the product. The
ad gave them the perception that Choco Lava is not a wholesome
brand. For them, the ad is inappropriate. Ay, bakit naka-ganun yung
lalaki, said ustin Rebeta. Von Erni reacted and said that, "marketing
nila yan kaya ganyan The pose of the male endorser and his sexually
suggestive facial reaction makes the product look liberated. "Parang di
bagay sa choco lava. said George. The presence of "sex" and "lust"
was evidently present in the way the male endorser gazes and his
unbuttoned shirt, according to the respondents gave an effect of
seducing the readers. Since it is a consumption brand, the respondents
said that inclusions of such elements are already inessential.
"Chocolate drink tapos napaka-seductive naman niya, parang di
bagay. said Ernesto. Renato opined and said, "Masyadong alluring
68

yung endorser siguro kinocompaere nila sa drink. Same with other


groups, presence of opinion leaders also dominate the course of
discussion of the respondents.
FGD 5 The group unanimously said that the ad is inappropriate the moment
they saw it. "Di ko gusto yung ad. t doesn't appeal to me. said ennis
Rodriguez . Ruel Laguna agreed and said that, "di okay yung ad, di din
effective kung males ang target. However, Nelson opposed and said
that, okay lang naman yung ad para saakin, napapakita naman yung
product. Most of the respondents said that the male endorser doesn't
appeal to male audiences like them. "Kung para sa men yan, di yan
patok said Rico imenez. They also noticed that the unbuttoned shirt of
the male model and his facial reaction suggests a sexually suggestive
reaction to the spectator. "Parang nang-aakit" was the exact words
uttered by Miguel Saavedra, one of the respondents. They were also
very negative to the usage of a male endorser and find it "gay" and
"lame". The group gave violent and negative reactions towards the
product.

FOCU$ GROUP
DI$CU$$ION
Findings (FOURTH ADVERTI$EMENT - VAN HEU$EN)
FGD 1
The group agreed that the endorser is effective because it's simple
nature of advertising underwear. "Ganun talaga, kasi brief eh, edi
ipapakita talaga yung katawan. said Ramon. George agreed and said,
"okay naman iyan kasi, brief alangan namang naka-damit diba?.
However, some of them negated and said, still, the ad contains explicit
sexual content , TJ said, " hindi padin bagay, pag ikaw lalaki tapos
titingnan mo yan, diba parang awkward padin?.
Some of them also observed that even without the use of the text
that it is apparent and normal to see an exposed model because he is
promoting the underwear. However the male that was gay was very
uncomfortable for he was mocked for looking at the advertisement since
his attentiveness would be presumed to be looking at the male and not
the underwear.
FGD 2
The group found this type of advertisement to be good and familiar,
since this type of advertising for male underwear is common. "Ganyan
naman talaga kasi brief yung inaadvertise. said Patrick. But Raymund
Per opposed and said "pwede namang product shot lang diba? They
felt that the model's posture or positioning was okay. "Di naman siya
naka-bukaka or what. Pwede na. said Marco. Majority agreed that
looking at the advertisement too long is awkward, yet one interjected
that he is ok with that since he knows what he is really looking at.
"Siyempre, naka-brief lang kaya parang ayaw mong tingnan, pero
depende naman yun sa tao eh, kung alam mo naman talaga yung
tinitngnan mo, dapat yung fit nung product lang talaga, Angelo
explained.
69

t was corroborated that with this ad, the product suggests the execution
to be sexier and to show off more skin. majority of them think that
theexecution is just appropriate to the product but when caught by
others looking on that ad, still, some of them will feel their masculinity
being challenged. "Siyempre pag tiningnan mo, saglit lang, baka kung
ano sabihin ng tao diba. said eyo Salamat. "Akala fina-fantacize mo
pre', said Jill. The crowd laughed with what ill ungo said which made
Jeyo looked a little embarrassed.
FGD 3


This group said that this advertisement hurts their eyes and that it's not
appealing, despite being a good advertisement.Ayaw ko lang tingan ng
matagal. said Henry Estubio. They understood from the visual that
this was an underwear advertisement even without the help of the tag.
n agreement that looking at the ad was ok because the man needs an
underwear but a prolonged stare means that something else is being
focused on. "Siguro kasi brief eh, kaya ganyan talaga, said Bryan
Sionco. Cause it is simply just a man in an underwear but what is the
need of looking for too long. They feel that their masculinity was being
challenged when caught by other people gazing on another's male
body. "Ayaw ko ngang masabihang bakla. Saidet Masaya. Russel
ose opposed and said, "Pre ikaw lang nag-iispin niyan. Lalo ka lang
paghihinalaan.. This only goes to show that the time they will spend to
gaze of the ad and the presence of a third party who will see them do it
is a concern that affect their masculinity.
FGD 4 This group was very uncomfortable with the advertisement and added
that it would be awkward if they were caught looking at such an
advertisement. "Wohooo. Nakatitig sila sa balls! Ryan jokingly said.
Lloyd said that . "Awkward naman yan, naka-brief lang.. This particular
group found this advertisement unusual as it was relaying something
other than the product and more inclined to a sexual innuendo. "Yung
tingin nung lalaki, para pading nang-iinvite sa kama eh. " said Ronald. t
was supported by Redo's statement saying that, "yung lalaki, sensual
padin yung itsura eh. However, some of them agreed that the
execution is just appropriate to the ad. "Tama lang naman, eh brief kasi
yung product eh. said Brix. "May sex nga pero ayos padin generally.
said Timothy.
f the teaser were removed it seemed more like a teaser advertisement
and not for the brief. "Bakit mo naman kasi titingnan ng matagal diba?
argued Ken. They also deemed it inappropriate to look at the
advertisement too long.
FGD 5 Familiar with the brand they thought that advertisement was just right
since it was after all an underwear advertisement. "Brief ad siya natural
ipapakita yung brief. said Harold. There was this insinuation that if
you wear this it would improve the physique of the male's midsection
"Yung fitting kasi, gusto nila ipakita na di masyadong bulky kaya
nakahubad yung model. SaidChester Sevilla. However they also made
mentions as well that looking for too long would start teasing of one's
masculinity and being deemed "bakla. "Wag mo lang iinternalize yung
7

lalaking model diba, haha. dun ka lang sa brief. said ino Tan.
"Unless iba yung gusto mong tingnan diba? Hammer de Guzman
joked and the class laughed in unison.
The Van Heusen ad, over-all has an appeal of appropriateness given
that it required body exposure because it is an undergarment. Yet, as a
threat to their masculinity, majority of the respondents agreed that the
spectator, mustn't look on the sexual element of the ad but rather on the
product only. t can be awkward for them to be seen gazing on
another's male body.

FOCU$ GROUP
DI$CU$$ION
Findings (FIFTH ADVERTI$EMENT - BENCH UNCUT)
FGD 1 From the discussion it was found out that a certain number of
participants felt insecure of the male model's body but was hesitant to
admit. Dennis said, "Siya na. His classmate Ronald agreed and said,
"Sana ako din ganyan katawan, Leon agreed and said, "ganyan lang
yung tamang katawan, di masyadong bukol-bukol. Accordingly,
advertisements like these set the ideal body for men which were not
acceptable because they are not achievable. "Yung iba kasi, akala mo,
ang macho macho, di naman ganun dapat.Saul added. This kind of
advertisement puts down their self esteem as they do not fit in the
description of how a man must look like. "Kaya ayaw kong tumitingin ng
magazine eh. said Pj, one of the respondents Jed supported the
statement and said, "Ganyan na kasi ngayon yung basehan ng macho.
Pio added and said, "Yung mga babae tuloy, ganyan na yung ineexpect
at hinahanap.

Aljur's appearance, over-all, doesn't imply too much the perfect man
with over-muscled bodies. The group found the advertisement good and
appealing as the nude body doesn't suggest any sexual content.

FGD 2


The group found the advertisement good and appropriate for the
product as it didn't exploit the male model's body although he was
nude. "Okay si Aljur diyan , di masyadong explicit.said Elvin Gopez.
Nakatayo lang siya at tama lang pagtiningnan ng lalaki, Marco added.
Nonetheless, they all agreed that they do want muscled body and it is
achievable. "Kaya kong magmukhang ganyan. said Raymund Per.
"Ganyan lang naman yung typial na achievable male body so, ok lang.
Sam Valentin declared.
FGD 3

The group discussion revolved around the appropriateness of the ad to
the theme and they all agreed that it was a good ad as it didn't deviate
much from the brand's traditional advertisements while sticking with the
campaign. "Compared dun sa iba, mas okay ito. Simple lang at hindi
nakaka-distract said ack Solano, one of the respondents. "Tama lang
iyong itsura ni Aljur, not provoking unlike the previous ads. Fred Lao
added. Majority of the respondents said that they will purchase the
product being endorsed because the ad is appropriate and that they
7

want to be affiliated on a product utilizing decent and ads.



FGD 4 The group was not pleased with the advertisement as they found it
"unappealing and the model was not perfect for he lacked the abs and
the sex appeal. "Wala masyadong dating. Said Arnold Ruiz. Added in
this, they got "turned off with the male model who was also a famous
teen icon for this ad. A participant found that the pose of the male
model was a phallic symbol. "Parang may nabasa akong ganyan,
phallic symbol yung pag-pose niya.

FGD 5 One of the participants perceived the male model as "sexier than nude
while making clear that he is not gay. Mas okay yung ganyan, di
nakakadistract sa mata said Harold. Ruel opined and said "Mas decent
at mapapatingin ka kasi hindi suggestive yung pose niya, basta
pinapakita niya lang yung damit. The group found a connection with
the advertisement through the model and admitted that it was "worth
looking at and could convince them to actually try the product
advertised. t was catchy but wasn't sexually suggestive. "Tama lang,
ako bilang lalaki ayos lang yung ganyang ad saakin. said ino Tan.
The group classified the advertisement as a "fashion ad. "Dinidisplay
niya lang yung damit niya. That's it. Fashion shot yan, Nikki Romero
added.

FOCU$ GROUP DI$CU$$ION FINDING$ ($IXTH ADVERTI$EMENT - FOLDED AND HUNG)
FGD 1 For the last advertisement, the respondents were familiar with the
brand but not the endorser. They said that the physique of the male
model has an effect on them; that they get conscious while looking
at it. Paul stated, "Hindi ako na-iinspire. get
conscious. Toto added, "Pag minsan (na-co-concscious), pero hindi
naman lagi. Despite the latter's defense, the advertisement still had
an adverse effect on them.
FGD 2 The respondents described the ad as maangas and open to
interpretation. An explicit homosexual, et, said that the ad is
inviting. He further explained, "Yung hitsura niya parang binuksan
yung pinto tapos parang sinasabi sa'yo na pumasok ka. They all
claimed that the male model's body is achievable and that they don't
get conscious at all while looking at it. et also commented on being
conscious and achieving the ideal body presented, "Ako kasi,
contented nako sa body ko. Not skinny. Yung lean lang. Mas okay
na ako dito kaya don't get conscious at all.
FGD 3 When they were asked if the advertisement has an effect on their
outlook on ideal male bodies, ason said, "Nakakamotivate naman
pero at the same time, nakaka-intimidate din. Calebadded,
"Nakakainsulto eh. Ganda ng katawan. Parang perfect. Motivating
yet intimidating and insulting these are the words used by this
group to describe the advertisement. They claim that this specific
advertisement stereotypes men who do not have muscular bodies.
72

As Russel stated, "Maganda yung katawan niya. deal. Pero mahirap


magkaroon ng ganiyan. Tapos yung mga katulad namin, kawawa
naman. Some of them were envious of the endorser's body.
FGD 4 Everyone in this group agreed that they do not feel down and
conscious with the endorser's body supported by ulius' statement,
"Maghahanap nalang kami ng ibang way para mag-excel.
But ulius countered his own opinion and suddenly felt a slight
insecurity, "Naaasar nga ako minsan, kasi sa perception ng babae,
yung mga may magaganda ang katawan sila lang yung pogi. When
they were asked again if they have been affected with
advertisements depicting the perfect and ideal male
body, Arielnodded his head signifying that he hasn't been affected
with such ads but ulius blurted out, "Siya na, which denotes a
slight insecurity once more.
FGD 5 This group commented that the advertisement is appropriate for the
product endorsed. They said that the ad is good and effective. They
also claimed that they cannot have that type of
body,ennis said, "Hindi namin kaya 'yan. Nakakainis lang.; that is
it not achievable. Chester Sevilla disagreed with the ad and said,
"Paano naman kaming matataba? Hindi naman siguro magiging
hadlang yung taba ko pag maghahanap ng partner kahit na yung
ibang mga babae ngayon gusto yung mga maskulado. Because of
the classic beauty of the model, majority stated that they felt
envious. But M Garcia disagreed and said, "Hindi naman ako
maiinggit kasi trip ko maging mataba. They also said that this ad
stereotypes men who do not have muscular bodies. Garry Yuson
even stated an example, "Yung media kasi, magaling sila mag-
frame. t's either gwapo ka or pangit ka to be able to enter media. So
kung hindi ka gwapo, mag-isip-isip ka. Baka sa pangit ka naka-
classify.

73

APPENDIX C
IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW 1
"James Acosta
2CA1
Advertisement 1 ( Bliss ce Advertisement)
nterviewer: Kilala mo ba sino nageendorse ng product na ito?
nterviewee: Oo naman si Gwen Garci yan.
nterviewer: Tama ka po. Hahaha. So, do you find her sexy in this ad?
nterviewee: Oo naman. Hindi lang sexy seductive pa. Hahaha.
nterviewer: Haha. Diba nagbabasa ka naman ng mga male magazines? Sa pagalala
mo pano nila normally pinopromote o eniendorse yung mga ganitong sexual products
tulad ng condoms at lubricants?
nterviewee: Sa mga male magazines tulad ng FHM gumgamit sila ng kakaibang
pagpromote..ahh..gumagawa sila ng kwento gamit ang mga comics strips minsan din
isang buong page nakalaan para sa isang condom o kaya may isang article tungkol sa
sex tapos sa dulo may product tulad yung dati kay Asia Agcoalili mga ganun.
nterviewer: Mas napapansin mo ba na babae yung nageendorse ng mga ganitong
products?
nterviewee: Parang.
74

nterviewer: Ano naman tignn mo sa mga babae tulad ni Gwen Garci at Asia Agcoalili
na nagpopose o nageendorse ng mga products na ito?
nterviewee: Parang awkward lang minsan na babae yung nageendorse pero parang
wala di naman talagang tamang ad para sa mga ganitong product. Hmmm, well for me,
wala naman masama na babae yung nageendorse parte ng trabaho nila yan eh, nya, ni
Gwen Garci magendorse or magmodel ng mga products, may it be a sexual product or
not.
Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
nterviewer: Are you familiar with the product or brand?
nterviewee: Oo naman nakikita ko yan sa mga malls.
nterviewer: What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Medyo aggressive sya at nakikita yung pagiging rebellious ng babae.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Nakakatwa na walang ulo yung lalaki pero kahit ganun halata paren na
mas malakas o masnagdodominate yung lalaki.
nterviewer: As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
nterviewee: Sobrang seductive yung poses nga nila parang they are doing it na nga eh
yun nga lang may damit lang.
73

nterviewer: What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
nterviewee: Ahh, parang ang ragged lang yung dating. Parang ang O.A. para sa isang
ad ng damit.
nterviewer: Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?
nterviewee: Yung lalaki talaga.
Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Diba yung tagline ay parang yung product you can't resist the drink? Tapos
ganyan yung itsura ng lalaki na nagseseduce ng mga nagbabasa at na parang you
can't resist his charm ganun dahil don oo, effective yung endorser para sa product.
nterviewer: f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
nterviewee: Kung hindi lahat yung prouct? Parang pangdamit sya kasi kitang kita yung
latawan eh parang sinasabi na sexy ka pagito suot mo.
nterviewer: s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?
nterviewee: Oo, appropriate naman sya kasi you can't resist the drink nga diba?
Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
76

nterviewee: Oo naman underwear ad yan eh. Ganun yan naman yung mga normal na
underwear ads.
nterviewer: f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
nterviewee: Underwear ad paren kasi ganyan naman talaga yung itsura nila.
nterviwer: s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why
not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
nterviewer: What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?
Wala lang tatawanan ko lang siguro sila pag inasar nila ako kasi alam naman nilang
tinitignan ko lang talaga yung ad.
Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Yes. Nakikita ko sya sa mga commercials.
nterviewer: What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
nterviewee: Yes, maganda yung katawan niya parang creative yung pag pose at pag-
advertise niya nung jeans.
nterviewer: s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?
As what said, creative yung pagpose so think it is artistic.
77

Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)


nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: No, but he looks familiar.
nterviewer: Do you want to have a body like his?
nterviewee: Pwede, mukha kasi siyang fit at healthy.
nterviewer: How are you affected by the advertisement?
nterviewee: Wala naman ako masyang pakialam.
nterviewer: Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?
nterviewee: Not really.





78

IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW 2
"Justin De Vera
2CA2
Advertisement 1 (Bliss ce Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Yes, this Gwen Garci Viva Hot Babe.
nterviewer: Do you find her sexy?
nterviewee: Yes. Look at the curves.
nterviewer: Will you buy this product because of she is endorsing it?
nterviewee: Oo nakakakit yung babae hindi ko gagamitin yung product.
nterviewer: What are the usual ways of endorsing contraceptive products and the like?
nterviewee: Hmmm, celebrities with alluring photos
nterviewer: What are your opinions regarding women who endorse or pose for these
kinds of products?
nterviewee: They are sexually active.
Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
nterviewer: Are you familiar with the product or brand?
nterviewee: Oo pero hindi ko trip yan mga ganyan na damit.
79

nterviewer: What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Sexy yung dating provocative yung pose nya.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Wala akong paki alam sa kanya. Hindi naman sya pansin na pansin sa ad.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Wala akong paki alam sa kanya. Hindi naman sya pansin na pansin sa ad.
nterviewer: As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
nterviewee: Siguro panget yung lalaki hindi pinapakita yung ulo eh.
nterviewer: What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
nterviewee: Katulad ng sinabi ko kanina kapatid ko yung nagsusuot ng ganitong damit,
so dahil hindi ko sya type na damit nga hindi ako mapapabili.
nterviewer: Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?
nterviewee: Female.
Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: No, hindi ko nga sya kilala eh. Nagyon ko lang nga din na laman na may
chocolava eh.
8

nterviewer: f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
nterviewee: Feeling ko yung polo na suot nya.
nterviewer: s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?
nterviewee: No dahil tignn ko sana mas effective ito na pinapakita nya na nasasarapan
sya sa iniinum nya by actually showing that he is drinking it.
Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Oo kasi nakikita ko sarili ko sa kanya.
nterviewer: f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
nterviewee: Feeling ko gym kasi ganda ng katawan yung model.
nterviewer: s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why
not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
nterviewee: Oo apprioprate naman sya. Pagtitignan mo sya una mo mapapansin ay
yung underwear.
nterviewer: What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?
nterviewee: Grabe baka isipin pa nil bakla ako.
8


Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Oo, nakikita ko sat TV.
nterviewer: What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
nterviewee: Ok naman, ganda ng arms pare.
nterviewer: s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?
nterviewee: Wala akong interes dyan.
Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: No
nterviewer: Do you want to have a body like his?
nterviewee: Mas gusto ko mas malaki kesa sa kanya.
nterviewer: How are you affected by the advertisement?
nterviewee: Wala naman ako masyadong pakialam.
nterviewer: Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?
nterviewee: Hindi. Wala naman akong pakialam dyan sa ad na yan eh.
82

IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW 3
"Christopher Chan
2CA3
Advertisement 1 (Bliss ce Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Gwen Garci ito napanood ko yung first movie nya yung first time
nterviewer: Do you find her sexy?
nterviewee: Pwde na rin inggit ako sa belly ring nya.
nterviewer: Will you buy this product because of she is endorsing it?
nterviewee: Yes kasi nadadala akong ng ad.
nterviewer: What are the usual ways of endorsing contraceptive products and the like?
nterviewee: They are using attratve colors lalo pag may favourites yung sexual
products.
nterviewer: What are your opinions regarding women who endorse or pose for these
kinds of products?
nterviewee: Adventurous ang mga ate mo.
Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
nterviewer: Are you familiar with the product or brand?
83

nterviewee: Yes yan ang sinonout ng kapatid ko na lalaki.


nterviewer: What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
nterviewee: like the way she poses her figure is noticeable, sexy talaga sya kaso yung
facial expression nya medyo hindi ko alam ano pinapahiwatig.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: like the way his body is position, it's very sexy.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: like the way his body is position, it's very sexy.
nterviewer: As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
nterviewee: Mas magugustuhan ko itong ad na ito pagnakikita yung muka yung lalaki.
nterviewer: What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
nterviewee: Ahmm, don't see myself wearing these kinds of clothes kahit okay naman
yung ad nila.
nterviewer: Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?
nterviewee: Male lalo na sa katawan nya.
Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
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nterviewee: Sana hubad na lang sya pabitin pa eh.


nterviewer: f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
nterviewee: Feeling ko lip balm.
nterviewer: s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?
nterviewee: love the campaign sex really sells.
Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Oo kasi masarap.. masarap isuot yung underwear.
nterviewer: f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
nterviewee: Para syang poster ng inde films.
nterviewer: s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why
not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
nterviewee: Okay sya, actually don talaga ako una napatignn sa underwear nya.
nterviewer: What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?
nterviewee: Wala lang. Dedma lang.
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Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)


nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Oo nMn napanuod ko sya sa fashion show at nabasa ko din sya sa cosmo.
nterviewer: What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
nterviewee: Parang gusto siyang biglang yakapin.
nterviewer: s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?
nterviewee: Artistic or not, for as long as he's half naked 'll go for it.
Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: No, pero hot naman siya.
nterviewer: Do you want to have a body like his?
nterviewee: Pwedeng lean na lang ako tapos yung boyfriend ko na lang yung ganyan.
nterviewer: How are you affected by the advertisement?
nterviewee: Parang gusto kong lagging pumunta ng f&h kahit wala akong bibilhin para
lang Makita yung photo.
nterviewer: Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?
nterviewee: No. 'm loving it.
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IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW 4
"Joseph Bueno
2CA4
Advertisement 1 (Bliss ce Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Si Gwen Garcia yung dating girl friend ni Andrew Wolfe.
nterviewer: Do you find her sexy?
nterviewee: Yes hot talaga sya
nterviewer: Will you buy this product because of she is endorsing it?
nterviewee: Oo kasi hot yung babae eh.
nterviewer: What are the usual ways of endorsing contraceptive products and the like?
nterviewee: Parang may mga kwento ginagamit tulad ng comic strips sa FHM
nterviewer: What are your opinions regarding women who endorse or pose for these
kinds of products?
nterviewee: Nakakacatch ng attention mapapaisip ka bigla kung virgin pa ba sya o
hindi.
Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
nterviewer: Are you familiar with the product or brand?
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nterviewee: Naman nadadaan ko yan lagi sa mall nappatignn pa nga ako sa mga ads
nila pagdumadaan ako.
nterviewer: What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Ah, ano sexy sya sana ako yung lalaki ng nasa ad. Hahaha.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Mas maganda pa nga katawan ko jan eh. Kaya nga dapat ako na lang
yung nasa ad eh.Haha.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Mas maganda pa nga katawan ko jan eh. Kaya nga dapat ako na lang
yung nasa ad eh.Haha.
nterviewer: As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
nterviewee: Parang okay naman na yung both sexes inaadvertise nya yung pangbabae
at pabglalaki na dami. This only shows na may pangbabae at paglalaki line ang Von
Dutch kaya ganyan yung campaign nila o ad.
nterviewer: What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
nterviewee: Mukang imported mahal yung damit.
nterviewer: Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?
nterviewee: Female
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Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)


nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Kahit hindi ganyan yung pose nya mas okay kasi chocolava eh, pwde
naman iadvertise yung chocolava kahit hindi ganyan eh. Sana iniium na lang nya yung
choco drink.
nterviewer: f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
nterviewee: Feeling ko ayun condom siguro kasi parang nagseseduce yung lalaki
nakaganun pa yung kamay nya sa labi nya.
nterviewer: s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?
nterviewee: Hindi kasi sa itsura ng model para hindi connected yung pose nya sa
inaadvertise nya. Katulad ng sinabi ko kanian sana iniium na lang nya yung choco drink.
Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Oo parang kasi feeling sexy ako pagsuot ko yan.
nterviewer: f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
nterviewee: Yun paren. Yung underwear.
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nterviewer: s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why


not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
nterviewee: Oo naeemphasize namna na underwear ad sya kasi iba yung kulay ng
product keysa sa buong ad don ka mapapatignn ng una.
nterviewer: What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?
nterviewee: Baka asarin nila ako na bading ako pero sasabihin ko na gusto ko bilhin
yung brief talaga.
Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Oo, artista sya sa GMA 7.
nterviewer: What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
nterviewee: Maganda naman yung katawan niya parang dala naman niya yung jeans.
nterviewer: s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?
nterviewee: Mukha naming artistcic. hindi naman mukhang nangaakit yung model.
Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: No.
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nterviewer: Do you want to have a body like his?


nterviewee: Oo, syempre mas attractive pag may ganyang katawan.
nterviewer: How are you affected by the advertisement?
nterviewee: Parang gusto ko ng bilhin yung product.
nterviewer: Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?
nterviewee: Hindi, lamang lang sila ng onting paligo sakin.











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IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW 5
"Mark Cortez
2CA5
Advertisement 1 (Bliss ce Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: saw her, Gweb Garci in FHM.
nterviewer: Do you find her sexy?
nterviewee: Pwede na. Hindi sya sobrang sexy dala naman ya yung katatawan nya.
nterviewer: Will you buy this product because of she is endorsing it?
nterviewee: Maybe it's quite handy din naman.
nterviewer: What are the usual ways of endorsing contraceptive products and the like?
nterviewee: Sa mga billiards hmmm. They tickle my imagination.
nterviewer: What are your opinions regarding women who endorse or pose for these
kinds of products?
nterviewee: Women nowadays are more liberated to try new things.
Advertisement 2 (Von Dutch)
nterviewer: Are you familiar with the product or brand?
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nterviewee: Yeah, whenever feel like to look more edgy and rocker shop at this
store.
nterviewer: What can you say about the female model? What can you about her pose
in the advertisement?
nterviewee: Well think in this pose the girl manage to look sexy without being slutty.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: This guy is really fit he must be going to the gym twice or thrice a week to
maintain that figure.
nterviewer: How about the male model? His pose in the advertisement?
nterviewee: This guy is really fit he must be going to the gym twice or thrice a week to
maintain that figure.
nterviewer: As a pair what can you say about them and their pose?
nterviewee: Well, was really focusing on the clothes, this made me think that the acid
wash jeans looks great on both male and female sexes.
nterviewer: What do you feel when you look at these kinds of advertisements?
nterviewee: 'm pretty sure that it would sexy on me because can relate to the ad and
the way it makes me think that might be looking like that when wear their clothes.
nterviewer: Who is dominating the advertisement? Male or female model?
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nterviewee: Know what? just realize that the bike is quite sexy pero to chose between
the two, sympre yung babae may muka sya eh.
Advertisement 3 (Choco Lava)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: 'm not really into sweets because it wil make me fat but it's the model
slightly showing his abdominal part that show how depicts that even if you consume or
drink this product you can still maintain a good physique.
nterviewer: f the product being endorse isn't part of the advertisement, what do you
think is being endorse?
nterviewee: Shaving cream or razor because he is taouching his mouth area, chin,
telling me that his facial skin is smoth and makinis.
nterviewer: s the ad appropriate for a chocolate drink? f not, how can you make it
appropriate?
nterviewee: Yeah 'm okay with this ad.
Advertisement 4 (Van Heusen)
nterviewer: s the endorser effective for the product? Why or why not?
nterviewee: Of course, use that brand and it makes me feel m damn sexy.
nterviewer: f the brand isn't part of the ad what do you think is being endorsed?
nterviewee: t might be a portfolio of a good photographer.
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nterviewer: s this advertisement appropriate for a undergarment brand? Why or why


not? f not, what can be done to the ad to make it more appropriate?
nterviewee: Yup, 'm cool with it.
nterviewer: What is your reaction or what will you feel when your friends catch you
looking at this ad?
nterviewee: Alam naman nila na ganya talaga yung sinusuot na underwear kaya para
lang akong nagsasalamin dahil nakikita ko ang sarili ko sa kanya.
Advertisement 5 (Bench Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: No don't know him. Looks familiar but don't know the name.
nterviewer: What can you say about his body and they way he uses it to pose for this
advertisement?
nterviewee: t was a good way of posing. He was able to show how good his abs and
biceps look like.
nterviewer: s it done in an artistically or with a sexually suggestive intention?
nterviewee: t was not really the type of photo that will love.
Advertisement 6 (Folded & Hung Advertisement)
nterviewer: Do you know who this endorser is?
nterviewee: Nope
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nterviewer: Do you want to have a body like his?


nterviewee: Well, my body is better than his.
nterviewer: How are you affected by the advertisement?
nterviewee: Not really affected.
nterviewer: Do you get conscious when you see advertisements like these?
nterviewee: No. why should ?


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APPENDIX D
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