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NORDTEST METHOD

NT VVS 131

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Approved 2004-11

NT VVS 131

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UNCERTAINTY CALCULATIONS FOR CALIBRATION OF WATER AND HEAT FLOW METERS

Key words: Intercomparison, uncertainty, water and heat flow, test method

1 SCOPE

The aim of this method is to provide a basis for uncertainty calculations for testing/calibrating/verifying the flow measurement part of water and heat meters.

The method is designed for being used as a guideline in combination with existing standards for flow measurement and uncertainty calculations.

2 FIELD OF APPLICATION

The method is based on knowledge and experience from 4 national water flow laboratories covering flow measurements from 5 to 500.000 l/h and at temperatures ranging from 15 to 80 °C. The re- commended values of uncertainties are however based on experience and comparisons only at a flow range of 60–2000 l/h and at temperatures in the range 20 ± 3 °C.

3 REFERENCES

European co-operation for Accreditation including Example S12 Calibration of a household water meter.

ISO/CD 5168: Statistics – Vocabulary and Symbols. Part I: Probability and General Statistical Terms, 1st edition, 1993, International Organisation for Standardisation.

ISO 4185:1980/Cor 1:1993: Measurement of liquid flow in closed conduits – Weighing method (with description of diverters and the determination of the uncertainty of the diverter), 1993, International Organisation for Standardisation.

Various

working groups.

documents from standardisation

working

4

DEFINITIONS

Terms in relation to general uncertainty distribution and calculation: EA-4/02.

Standing start/stop calibration:

A shut off valve is used to start and stop the

GUM: Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in
Measurement, 1st edition, 1993/1995, International
Organisation for Standardisation
calibration. The liquid is stationary in the pipe when the
calibration is started and stopped. The meter reading
is
made before the valve is opened and after it is
EA-4/02:
Expression
of
the
Uncertainty
of
Measurement
in
Calibration,
December
1999,
closed. The flowrate is not constant during the
calibration due to the start up and shut down of the
flow.
Nordic Innovation Centre
Stensberggata 25
NO-0170 OSLO
Norway
Telephone +47 47 61 44 00
Fax +47 22 56 55 65
info@nordicinnovation.net
www.nordicinnovation.net
ISSN: 1459—2762
Project: 04032 (1672-04)

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Flying start/stop calibration:

The flowing liquid is shifted (diverted) from bypass to volume reference and visa versa by a diverter system or valve arrangement. This gives a constant flowrate during the entire calibration. The meter reading is controlled by the diverter system.

5 SAMPLING

This method does not include specific sampling guidelines. The samples can be selected meters for test/calibration/ verification.

 6 TEST METHOD 6.1 Principle

This method for uncertainty calculation can be used when testing / calibrating / verifying flow meters using test rigs according to the following principles:

– static weighing

– volume tank

– comparing with reference flow meters.

The static weighing principle is shown in Figure 1. The
principle can be used both for the standing start/stop and
the flying start/stop method with a diverter system.
T 1
T 2
Flow
Test meter(s)
Water temperature and
volume difference
U
diverter
Diverter/
U m
Valve
U wt
U wvdiff
T
3
Weighing tank
U
rw
U misc
Reservoir
Pump
C
Diverter/
Valve
Timer
Weighing
tank
Weighing
machine
(Scale)
Bottom
valve
Weihing tank details

Figure 1. Static weighing.

The volume tank principle is shown in Figure 2. It can be used both for the standing start/stop and the flying start/stop method with a diverter system.

T 1
T 2
Flow
Test meter(s)
Water temperature and
volume difference
Diverter/
U m
Valve
U wt
U wvdiff
T 3
Volume tank(s)
U
U
rv
vst
U misc
Reservoir
Pump

Diverter/

Valve
Measuring
pipe
Temperature
(scale)
sensor
Volume
tank
Bottom
valve
Weihing tank details

Figure 2. Volume tank.

The reference flow meter(s) principle is shown in Figure 3. The principle can be used both for the standing start/stop

and the flying start/stop method with a diverter system.

T 3
T 1
T 2
Reference
Flow
Test meter(s)
meter
Water temperature and
volume difference
U m
U wt
U wvdiff
U misc
Reservoir

Pump

Figure 3. Reference flow meters.

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 6.2 Equipment 6.7 Uncertainty 6.2.1 Volume determination 6.7.1 Uncertainty contributions

The volume can be determined by usingeither of following equipment:

– Weighing on a scale

– Using a volume tank

– Reference flow meter.

6.2.2

Other equipment

Depending on the actual test rig and flow meter to be tested the following equipment can be necessary:

– Temperature sensor

– Pressure sensor

– Timer

– Environmental parameters in laboratory (temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity)

– Equipment for reading the meter under test e.g. counter, multimeter.

6.3 Testing environment

The environment for the test has to be within the limits stated in the laboratory’s quality system.

If

the

uncertainty

requires

special

limits

for

the

environmental parameters it has to be fulfilled.

6.4 Pre-conditioning of test samples

The stated pre-conditions from the manufacture of the meters have to be fulfilled. If it is not possible to fulfil these requirements the reason(s) why must be documented.

6.5 Test procedure and data processing

The procedures for performing the calibration/verification of the meters are not a part of this method. This should be done according the normal procedure for the laboratory.

6.6 Applicability

The method has been developed on the assumption that measurements will be taken at a water temperature of 20 ± 3°C and validated in an intercomparison between 4 different water flow laboratories.

Contributions to the overall uncertainty are shown in Tables 1–6, where number definition 0,0 (comma) has been used as decimal divider:

Table 1. Uncertainty from the meter (U m ).

 Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard Contribution Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty incl. alternatives from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Meter Alt. 1 1 pulse out of Rectangular 0,001% 0,001% resolution 100.000 pulses Alt. 2 0,01 dm 3 out of 100 dm 3 Rectangular 0,0006% 0,001% Alt. 3 1 pulse out of Rectangular 0,01% 0,01% 10.000 pulses Influences 0,04% Rectangular 0,023% from water Vibration and 0,05% Rectangular 0,029% 0,03% flow pulsation (summation) Compress- 0,01% Rectangular 0,006% ibility Meter 0,08% Normal 0,04% Standard repeatability deviation and Student t; or Value from experience; or Stipulated value. 0,05%

U m : The contribution to the uncertainty from meter under test consists of:

– Resolution of the meter in the range 0,0006% to 0,01%, depending on the volume collected under test

– Repeatability of the meter in the range 0,0% to 0,04%. This can be calculated or stipulated

– Influence from the flowing medium, stipulated values in the range 0,006% to 0,029%.

Overall the standard uncertainty from these types of meters is in the range 0,0006% to 0,041%. The figure can vary considerably for other types of meters, e.g. mechanical meters with low resolution, and meters with poor repeatability.

For determining the reference value of the volume two different methods are used:

– Volume standard, with calibration uncertainty, reading error and Standard Deviation for filling the standard

– Weighing system, uncertainty of the scale including calibration, reading, repeatability and drift, buoyancy correction, water density calculation.

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Table 2A. Uncertainty of reference volume using the weighing standard (U rw ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Water mass 0,004 kg Normal 0,002% 100 kg Scale 0,001 kg Rectangular 0,001% resolution Water 1,5 kPa Rectangular 0,000005% pressure Mass of 2,5E-05 Normal 0,0012% weights Drift of 2,5E-06 Rectangular 0,0001% weights 0,02% (summation) Density of weights 0,0E+00 Normal 0,0% Reading of 1,67E-05 Rectangular 0,001% scale Internal 1,7E-06 Rectangular 0,0001% resolution of scale Repeatability 6,6E-05 Normal 0,003% of scale Drift of 3,3E-04 Rectangular 0,02% scale Buoyancy Alt. 1 0,00055% Rectangular 0,00032% correction 0,01% (summation) Correction factor for Alt. 2 0,00015 Rectangular 0,01% buoyancy Density of Alt. 1 7,0E-09 Rectangular 0,00004% water 0,05% Alt. 2 0,0009 kg/dm 3 Rectangular 0,05% (summation)

U rw : The contribution to the uncertainty when using a weighing system consists of:

– Scale: (calibration, resolution, repeatability, drift) in the range 0,002% to 0,02%

– Buoyancy corrections in the range 0,00032% to 0,01%

– Water density determination in the range 0,00004% to

0,05%.

Overall the standard uncertainty when using weighing standard reference is in the range 0,021% to 0,051%.

Table 2B-1. Uncertainty of reference volume using the volume standard (U rv ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Calibration of Alt. 1 0,02% k=2 0,01% 0,01% volume standard Alt. 2 0,022 dm 3 out of 500 l volume Normal 0,002% Reading of Alt. 1 0,005% Rectangular 0,002% 0,05% water level Alt. 2 0,124% Norm al 0,062% STDV for 0,357 dm 3 k=1 0,07% 0,05% filling the volume

U rv : The contribution to the uncertainty when using a volume standard consists of:

– Calibration of the volume standard in the range 0,002% to 0,01%

– Reading of the volume standard in the range 0,002% to

0,062%

– Repeatability of the volume standard in the range 0,0% to 0,07%.

Overall the standard uncertainty when using volume standard reference is in the range 0,01% to 0,09%.

Table 2B-2. Uncertainty of volume standard temperature

(U vst ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Calibration of ±0,14°C k=2 0,0004% 0,002% temperature (summation) sensor Uncertainty ±0,5°C Rectangular 0,0016% in wall temperature

U vst : The contribution to the uncertainty from the determination of the volume standard temperature is due to:

– Calibration of the temperature sensor and in measuring the actual wall temperature.

With the uncertainty of the determination of the wall temperature of 0,5°C and a calibration uncertainty of 0,14°C, there will be an overall standard uncertainty from wall temperature of 0,0017%.

Table 3. Uncertainty of water temperature (U wt ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Temperature ±0,05°C Triangular 0,0009% difference sensor to water in standard Repre- ±0,8°C Rectangular 0,014% Using sentative volume of sensor standard position 0,02% in standard (summation) Calibration of ±0,14°C k=2 0,0021% temperature sensor Resolution ±0,1°C Rectangular 0,0009% of sensor Temperature Alt. 1 ±0,3°C Rectangular 0,0009% Using scale 0,02% of water Alt. 2 ±0,5°C Rectangular 0,019%

the

U wt :

determination of the water temperature is due to:

– Calibration of the temperature sensor and in measuring the actual water temperature

– The formula chosen to calculate the water density.

The

contribution

to

the

uncertainty

from

With the uncertainty of the determination of the water temperature in the range from 0,3°C to 0,8°C, there will be an overall standard uncertainty from water temperature in the range from 0,0009% to 0,019%.

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Table 4. Uncertainty in water volume between meter and standard (U wvdiff ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Leakage ±0,01 litre Triangular 0,008% 0,01% between meter and volume standard Undetected k=1 0,0018% 0,002% air Change in ±0,5°C Rectangular 0,009% 0,01% buffer volume (summation) due to temperature Temperature drop in test line 0,005% k=1 0,005% Correction 0,01 dm 3 Rectangular 0,006% for water evaporation 0,01% and splashing (summation) Evaporation Alt. 1 0,001% Rectangular 0,0007% Alt. 2 k=1 0,0001%

U wvdiff : The contribution to the uncertainty from the determination of the difference in water volume between meter and volume standard is due to:

Leakage, undetected air, change in buffer volume, evaporation and splashing.

All these contributions can be stipulated, and there will be an overall standard uncertainty from difference in water volume between meter and volume standard in the range 0,005% to

0,012%.

Table 5. Uncertainty from diverter and time measurement

(U diverter ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Valve: 0,11 dm 3 Rectangular 0,063% 0,1% Instability in operation Diverter: 0,01% – Time ±2,0E-05 s Rectangular 0,00001% (summarised) measure- ment (timer) – Diverter ±7,0E-03 s Rectangular 0,006% error

U diverter : The contribution to the uncertainty from the diverter operation and time measurement.

All these contributions can be calculated or stipulated, and there will be an overall standard uncertainty from these parts in the range 0,006% to 0,063%.

Table 6. Uncertainty from test rig, environment and operator

(U misc ).

 Contribution Contributions/ Uncertainty Standard Standard incl. alternatives Assumptions distribution uncertainty uncertainty from from recom- laboratories laboratories mended Flow due to layers of different temperature 0,005% Grounding, 0,05% Rectangular 0,029% 0,05% voltage (summarised) differences, transients Reading 0,03% Rectangular 0,017% error

U misc : The contribution to the uncertainty from the test rig, environment and operator are due to:

– Flow due to layers of different temperature, grounding, voltage differences, transients, reading errors.

All these contributions can be calculated or stipulated, and there will be an overall standard uncertainty from these parts in the range from 0,005% to 0,029%.

6.7.2 Uncertainty calculation

The calculation of the overall uncertainties are made according to the formulas (1) and (2) given here:

Overall Standard uncertainty

U standard

=

2
(U
)
2 + (U
)
2 + (U
)
2 + (U
)
2 + (U
)
2 + (U
)
2 + (U
) + (U
)
m
rv
vst
rw
wt
wvdiff
diverter
misc

Overall Expanded uncertainty

U expanded = 2

U standard for k = 2

(1)

(2)

6.7.3 Examples of uncertainty calculations

In the following values of uncertainty are calculated according to Formulas (1) and (2) for the values given in Tables 1–6. This has been done for both the recommended values and the laboratory examples.

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Recommended values:

When using a volume standard with a good diverter system:

U standard =

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(0,06)
+
(0,05)
+
(0,002)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,01)
+
(0,05)

=

0,1%

U expanded = 2 0,1% = 0,2% for k = 2

The main contributions are from the meter itself (0,06%), the volume standard (0,05%) and from the miscellaneous contributions (0,05%).

When using a volume standard with a not so good diverter or valve system:

U standard =

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(0,06)
+
(0,05)
+
(0,002)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,1)
+
(0,05)

=

0,15%

U expanded = 2 0,15% = 0,3% for k = 2

The main contributions are from the meter itself (0,06%) and the valve/diverter system (0,1%).

When using a weighing machine with a good diverter system:

U standard =

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(0,06)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,06)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,01)
+
(0,05)

=

0,1%

U expanded = 2 0,1% = 0,2% for k = 2

The main contributions are from the meter itself (0,06%), the weighing system (0,06%), and the miscellaneous con- tributions (0,05%).

When using a weighing machine with a good diverter system and poor resolution or repeatability from the meter under test:

U standard =

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(0,25)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,0)
+
(0,06)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,02)
+
(0,01)
+
(0,05)

=

0,26%

U expanded = 2 0,26% = 0,52% for k = 2

The main contribution is from the meter itself (0,25%).

 Overall: Standard uncertainty Expanded uncertainty Recommended: When using a volume standard or weighing machine with a good diverter system: k=1 0,1% K=2 0,2% Recommended: When using a volume standard or weighing machine with a not so good diverter or valve system: k=1 0,15% K=2 0,3% Recommended: When using a weighing machine with a good diverter system and poor resolution or repeatability from the meter under test: k=1 0,26% K=2 0,52%

6.8 Test report

When stating uncertainty in reports and certificates it has to fulfil the accreditation requirements given in EA L-R2.

6.9 Acceptance or rejection of the results

Not relevant for this method.

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