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Hooke 1665

Leeuwenhoek 1670s

While I was talking to an a snakelike motion of the tail and moving "forward with old man (who leads a sober life, never drinks brandy or tobacco, and very seldom any wine), my eye fell upon his teeth, which were all coated over; so I asked but he had not obtained the sample by "any sinful contrivance" him when he had last cleaned his mouth? And excess with which that his "observations were made upon the I got for answer that he'd never washed his mouth in all his life. Nature provided [him] in [his] conjugal relations". I took some of the matter that was lodged between and against his teeth, and ... I also found an unbelieveably great company of living animalcules, a-swimming more nimbly than any I had ever seen up to this time. The biggest sort (whereof there were a great plenty) bent their body into curves in going forwards, as in Fig. G. Moreover, the other animalcules were in such enormour numbers, that all the water seemed to be alive. (1683)

Cell Theory (1839)


1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the structural unit of life. 3. Omnis cellula e cellula (1855)
Who are responsible for stating the tenets of the cell theory?

1. Cells are highly complex & organized

2. Cells possess a genetic program and the means to use it.

3. Cells are capable of producing more of themselves

4. Cells acquire and utilize energy.

5. Cells carry out a variety of chemical reactions

6. Cells engage in mechanical activities

7. Cells are able to respond to stimuli

8. Cells are capable of self-regulation

9. Cells EVOLVE

How did life evolve from this common ancestor cell?

4 Modes of Genetic Innovation

Origin of Eukaryotic Cells:

What evidence suggests that organisms are derived from a common ancestor?

Cyanophora paradoxa

photosynthetic organelle that resembles a cyanobacterium

Mitochondrion resembles aerobic bacteria

nucleus

Earths biogeologic clock

Compare Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells

PROKARYOTES
Bacteria Archaea Protists

EUKARYOTES
Plants Fungi Animals

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Viruses

e Lysis of host cell is induced; infectious particles escape.

d The coats get tail fibers, other parts.

Lytic Pathway
a Virus particle injects genetic material into a suitable host cell after binding to its wall.

c Viral proteins are assembled into coats around viral DNA.

b Viral DNA directs host cell to make viral proteins and replicate viral DNA.

a-1 Viral DNA is integrated into the hosts chromosome.

a-4 Viral DNA is excised from the chromosome.

Lysogenic Pathway
a-2 Before prokaryotic fission, the bacterial chromosome with the integrated viral DNA is replicated.
a-3 After cell division, each daughter cell will have recombinant DNA.

Model Organisms

eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes (genome size): gene number non-coding DNA

Mutation Analysis

genomics