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Guides/ManualsMagazines/NewspapersRecipes/MenusSchool Work+ all categoriesFeaturedRecentPeopleAuthorsStudentsResearchersPublishersGovernment & NonprofitsBusinessesMusiciansArtists & DesignersTeachers+ all categoriesMost FollowedPopularSign Up Log In 1First Page Previous Page Next Page / 32Sections not available Zoom Out Zoom In Fullscreen Exit Fullscreen Select View Mode View ModeSlideshowScroll Readcast Add a Comment Embed & Share Reading should be social! Post a message on your social networks to let others know what you're reading. Select the sites below and start sharing.Readcast this Document Login to Add a Comment Share & EmbedAdd to Collections Download this Document for FreeAuto-hide: on 1Aliah Universit2011Seminar Report On e-Business ByyyyMohammad Ehtasham AkhtarRoll No- 08mba20017Stream-IMBA 2Acknowledgement.11. Introduction ...32. Objective.5Goal of e-business.....8Purpose of e-business....93. Methodology.......10Strategy.11 Analysis..11 Design............12 Implementation..13Training...13Project Management ..144. DetailsDetailsDetailsDetails.............15Type of e-business... ..16Characterization of e-business..24Front office & Back office.....,.......255. Conclusion......26 Advantages.. ..27 Disadvantages.........39 Problems.....396. Bibliography ..31 Contents 3Apart from the efforts of me, the success of any projectdepends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. Itake this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have beeninstrumental in the successful completion of this project.I II I would like to show greatest appreciation to Prof.Mrinalkranti Chakma. I cant say just thank you for his tremendoussupport and help. I felt motivated and encouraged every time I attendedhis meeting. Without his encouragement and guidance this project would nothave materialized.The guidance and support received from all the facultymembers ofIMBA department who contributed to this project, was vitalfor its success. I am grateful for their constant support and help.Name Of Student- Mohammad Ehtasham AkhtarStream- IMBARoll No- 08IMBA20017Place- KolkataDate- 18thMay,2011 Acknowledgement 4INTRODUCTION1 E-business is an acronym for Electronic BUSINESS. The word e-business hasbeen derived from terms such as "e-mail." As the name implies, e-business meansconducting or operating business through the Internet.It also

pertains toany form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact. The main aim is to establish apositive reputation of the enterprise as well as sell goods and services. Internet is usedas a medium like print and broadcast to promote business and earn profits. It is alsoused to collaborate with business partners.In e-business, on the other hand, ICT is used to enhance ones business. Itincludes any process that a business organization (either a for-profit, governmental ornon-profit entity) conducts over a computer-mediated network. A morecomprehensive definition of e-business is: The transformation of an organizations processes to deliver additional customer value through the application of technologies, philosophies and computing paradigm of the new economy. Threeprimary processes are enhanced in e-business.1.Production processes, which include procurement, ordering and replenishmentof stocks; processing of payments; electronic links with suppliers; and productioncontrol processes, among others;2.Customer-focused processes,which include promotional and marketing efforts,selling over the Internet, processing of customers purchase orders and payments, andcustomer support, among others; and3.Internal management processes, which include employee services, training,internal information-sharing, video-conferencing, and recruiting. Electronicapplications enhance information flow between production and sales forces toimprove sales force productivity. Workgroup communications and electronicpublishing of internal business information are likewise made more efficientE-business has received much attention from entrepreneurs, executives,investors, and industry observers recently. As information technologies (IT) develop,novel ways of business process redesign (BPR) emerged, creating turmoil in theindustry. Organizations today frequently integrate Internet technology to redesignprocesses in ways that strengthen their competitive advantages. Success breedsimitation and invites more entries. The rapid expansion of e-commerce values in the 5past few years convinced many people that a new economy has emerged. Chairman of Microsoft, Bill Gates, frequently expressed his fear that Microsoft is about 2 yearsaway from failure, that somewhere out there is a formidable competitor, unborn andunknown, who will use better business models to put companies like Microsoft intoobsolescence. And the most successful new business models are probably those thatcan integrate Internet technology to all activities of the enterprise-wide value chain. The three principal categories of e-business applications are:-1. Electronic markets or e-marketplaces: buying and selling goods and services.2. Inter-organizational systems: facilitating inter and intra-organization flow of goods,services, information, communication, and collaboration.3. Customer service: providing customer service, help, handling complaints, trackingorders, etc.As information technologies developed, novel ways of business processredesign emerged. Most organizations today use Internet technology to redesign theirprocesses in ways that provide new competitive advantage. Through the infrastructureof existing B2B exchanges in the e-marketplaces, many organizations will eventuallybe able to integrate activities of their value chain encompassing suppliers, customers,and distribution channels within an industry or across industries. The potential of e-business is so great that many believe that e-business is the new economy that decidesthe success of future business organizations . Andy Grove, Chairman of Intel boldlystated in 1998: Within 5 years, all companies will be Internet companies or theywould not be companies .It is widely acknowledged today that new technologies, in particular access to theInternet, tend to modify communication between the different players in theprofessional world, notably: relationships between the enterprise and its clients, the internal functioning of the enterprise, including enterprise-employeerelationships, the relationship of the enterprise with its different partners and suppliers. 6OOOOBJECTIVESBJECTIVESBJECTIVESBJECTIVES2 E-Business ObjectivesObjectives

give the business aclearly defined target. Plans can then be made toachieve these targets. This can motivate the employees. It also enables the business tomeasure the progress towards to its stated aims.The objectives of e-business can be summarise as below:- improve service save time time taken by customers elapsed time for processes reduce process errors reduce the cost of core service provision free staff to provide value added services improve morale give people the tools and time they need The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria:S Specific objectives are aimed at what the business does, e.g. a hotel might havean objective of filling 60% of its beds a night during October, an objective specific tothat business.M Measurable the business can put a value to the objective, e.g. 10,000 in salesin the next half year of trading. 7A - Agreed by all those concerned in trying to achieve the objective.R Realistic the objective should be challenging, but it should also be able to beachieved by the resources available.T- Time specific they have a time limit of when the objective should be achieved,e.g. by the end of the year.The main objectives that a business might have are:Survival a short term objective, probably for small business just starting out, orwhen a new firm enters the market or at a time of crisis. Profit maximisation try to make the most profit possible most like to be the aim of the owners and shareholders. Profit satisfying try to make enough profit to keep the owners comfortable probably the aim of smaller businesses whose owners do not want to work longerhours.Sales growth where the business tries to make as many sales as possible. This maybe because the managers believe that the survival of the business depends on beinglarge. Large businesses can also benefit from economies of scale.A business may find that some of their objectives conflict with one and other:Growth versus profit: for example, achieving higher sales in the short term (e.g. bycutting prices) will reduce short-term profit.Short-term versus long-term: for example, a business may decide to accept lowercash flows in the short-term whilst it invests heavily in new products or plant andequipment.Large investors in the Stock Exchange are often accused of looking too much at short-term objectives and company performance rather than investing in a business for thelong-term. 8Alternative Aims and Objectives Not all businesses seek profit or growth. Some organisations have alternativeobjectives.Examples of other objectives: Ethical and socially responsible objectives organisations like the Co-op or the BodyShop have objectives which are based on their beliefs on how one should treat theenvironment and people who are less fortunate. Public sector corporationsare run to not only generate a profit but provide a serviceto the public. This service will need to meet the needs of the less well off in society orhelp improve the ability of the economy to function: e.g. cheap and accessibletransport service. Public sector organisationsthat monitor or control private sector activities haveobjectives that are to ensure that the business they are monitoring comply with thelaws laid down. Health care and education establishments their objectives are to provide a service most private schools for instance have charitable status. Their aim is theenhancement of their pupils through education.Charities and voluntary organisations their aims and objectives are led by thebeliefs they stand for.Changing Objectives:- A business may change its objectives over time due to the following reasons:A business may achieve an objective and will need to move onto another one (e.g.survival in the first year may lead to an objective of increasing profit in the secondyear).The competitive environment might change, with the launch of new products fromcompetitors.Technology might change product designs, so sales and production targets might needto change.

9 Goal of e-BusinessThe goal of any e-Business project is to create value. Value can be created in differentmanners: As a result of an increase in margins, i.e. a reduction in production costs or anincrease in profits. E-Business makes it possible to achieve this in a number of different ways: Positioning on new markets Increasing the quality of products or services Prospecting new clients Increasing customer loyalty Increasing the efficiency of internal functioning As a result of increased staff motivation.The transition from a traditional activityto an e-Business activity ideally makes it possible to motivate associates to theextent that: The overall strategy is more visible for the employees and favors acommon culture The mode of functioning implies that the players assume responsibilities Teamwork favors improvement of competences As a result of customer satisfaction. As a matter of fact, e-Business favors: a drop in prices in connection with an increase in productivity improved listening to clients products and services that are suitable for the clients needs a mode of functioning that is transparent for the user As a result of privileged relationships with the partners. The creation of communication channels with the suppliers permits: Increased familiarity with each other Increased responsiveness Improved anticipation capacities Sharing of resources that is beneficial for both partiesAn e-Business project can therefore only work as soon as it adds value to thecompany, but also to its staff, its clients, and partners. 10The purpose of e-business:The e-business services have been introduced to search for business partners andexplore more opportunities. It is used to fetch potential customers, retain presentcustomers and even locate old customers. Entrepreneurs build business relationshipswith the partners through the means of Internet. A marketer can invite the clients toenter into mergers and acquisitions or contracts to expand the business. A marketershould build an online presence in order to initiate and establish the online business.This is possible by building a website for the company. You should optimize thecontent in the site so that it becomes easily accessible to the search engines.For this purpose, keyword rich content should be used. The presentation of thecompany website always reflects the image of the company. Therefore, thepresentation of the website should not only be search engine friendly but alsoattractively presented. This is done to allure the customers and potential businesspartners towards your organization. The website should become accessible to thecustomers and the presentation should be visually emphatic. The wide use of Internethas given a boost to the growing trend of online shopping. A marketer can exhibitlucrative offers and his products and services on his website. Make the payment andpurchasing procedure easy on the Internet. You can also provide contact details suchas phone number or contact details of the call centre of the company.These details are useful to serve the customers at the time when they encounter anydifficulty of payment. The presentation of your products should appeal to thecustomers at a glance. For this purpose, you should study your target customersthoroughly. E-business solutions establishes your online presence which enables youto boost the sales and revenue. 11MMMMETHODOLOGY ETHODOLOGY ETHODOLOGY ETHODOLOGY 3333There are some key differences between the development approach that sappropriate for building e-business systems and the approach that s appropriate forbuilding traditional client/server systems. However, the differences are not as great asmany people imagine.Too many inexperienced e-business project managers think that they re simply"knocking together" a Web site. Faced with ever-tightening deadlines and pressurefrom ignorant clients or users, these project managers believe that it will be okay toskip key stages in the systems development lifecycleonly to find out later howwrong they were to do so. Such an approach is doomed to failure, because the skippedstages tend to be those that ensure quality in the final product.By using of e-business we can differentiate our new economy relationship

fromthe old ones.Figure . Old Economy Relationships vs. New Economy RelationshipsThe above figure shows that in Old Economy Relationship consumers were notconnect directly to the producer, so it has a lack of closeness of a producer to hisconsumer because it is a linear function of consumer and producer in which retailerwas a medium. But in New Economy Relationship a customer can directly connect tohis producer and producer can interface with his customer. There is no third party 12medium like Old Economy System. So in this system, a customer is not depent on hisretailer.In fact, it s arguably even more essential to adhere closely to a systems developmentmethodology when building e-business systems, which can cut across organizationalboundaries, across country boundaries, and can involve the integration of a greatnumber of systems.1Without the correct planning and methodologies applied, an e-business system is likely to fail.However, implementing a solid methodology doesn t necessarily mean that it willtake longer to create a working system; it can actually help improve the chances of meeting tight deadlines. In cases where the chances of meeting such deadlines werenonexistent in the first place, a solid methodology can help the clients or users tounderstand the reasons that the deadlines are not feasible and can help them to takesome ownership for some of the timescale issues. StrategyIt s important that user/client expectations be managed early on in the process of building an e-business system.Facilitated workshopsinvolving users/clients as wellas knowledgeable e-business staff can help. Users/clients need to realize that e-business strategy is still about working out the best mission statement, goals, andobjectives to enable a retailer to be an excellent retailer or a financial institution to bean excellent financial services provider. It s not about working out how to be anexcellente-business.2Encourage clients/users to use e-business systems to carry outtheir current business better, rather than trying to do something newthere willalmost always be someone else who can do the new thing bigger and better becausethey have more experience or money. AnalysisUsers/clients should not be allowed to think that requirements analysis can beskipped for e-business systems because "there s not enough time." Studies show thatspending more time on analysis up front considerably reduces the chances of thesystem failing later on. Because requirements for e-business systems can be criticalcustomer or business partner expectations often include reliable, available (24 * 7 *365), secure systems that are scalable, able to perform under high load, and able tocope with cross-country and cross-organizational transactionsit s vital to spendplenty of time up front getting these systems right. 13It s a good idea to design, build, and prototype the technical architecture for critical e-business systems ahead of writing any other code, to ensure that the technicalarchitecture really can support the requirements.Architecture can be a massive task, for example involving getting a Web server, anapplication server, a content-management system, and a customer-relationshipmanagement system talking to one another. Or it might involve constructing anarchitecture that will support a collaborative workflow across many organizations,integrating a number of systems.A typical e-business system may need to support any or all of the following: CRM features.A great deal of interaction with the user; building up a personalprofile of each customer and tailoring Web site features to meet that profile;providing self-service facilities, chat rooms, discussion groups, rating facilities. PRM facilities.Shared processes/workflows across many organizations;sending parts of or whole transactions securely between organizations (Web EDI,XML); sharing data and ideas securely between organizations.After the technical architecture requirements are gathered, the business requirementsneed to be gathered. Initial broad-brush impressions can be gathered in brainstormingmeetings and JAD sessions. Iterative prototypingis a good way of subsequentlyrefining requirements quickly when under pressure to

meet tight deadlines, while stillmaintaining close interaction with users to ensure that the system does what it should. Design Iterative prototyping is also a good way of identifying issues with Web pagedesign. Human/computer interaction (HCI) issues are key when designing e-businesssystems because the system must be intuitive, designed for nave users, given that theuser of the system is unlikely to get any training in how to use it.Design of an e-business system should involve more than just visual design, however.Just as it s important during the design phase of "traditional client/server computing,"it s crucial that the design makes clear where the processing is taking placeclientside or server side (or in some middle tier, or on the database). It should also identifycommon code/libraries to be developed to reduce duplication, and should identifystandards and guidelines to enhance maintainability. 14 Implementation Because implementation of e-business systems is more likely to involveincremental development, it s vital that code development andenvironment/installation planning be tightly controlled to ensure that defects don tcreep into the various releases. Coding standards should be adhered to, codeinspections/walkthroughs should be carried out regularly, and quality should beensured through effective testing. Testing should be carried out in all supportedbrowsers and with all PC (or other client) configurations/screen resolutions, andalthough there may be anemphasison performance/stress/security/cross-system/cross-organizational testing, in general, theapproachto testing should be much the same fore-business systems as it has been for traditional client/server systems. Configurationmanagement and source code control can also be vital throughout the implementationphase.Installation/delivery must still be thoroughly plannedan e-business system might bedeveloped and working very effectively in-house, but deployment might involvefitting the code around a live environment provided by an ISP. Allow time in theschedule for ISP incompetence, as it s rife! Of course, the client side of e-businessinstallations is often far easier than traditional client/server installations because allthe user needs to run the system is a Web browser. TrainingInstallation of a new system always causes change-management issues, but e-business systems can involve total cultural revolution. Effective leadership isnecessary so that staff see the changes in a positive light. Managers of employees whohave been used to hoarding information must encourage those employees to share datawith external business partners. Contrary to popular belief, it s productive to an e-company to encourage employees to play computer games, surf the Web, and use chatrooms and discussion groups, so that they re not paralyzed by technofear when theyreceive the new e-business system. This strategy also encourages employees to "think out of the box" about new ways in which technologies can be exploited to improve thebusiness. They need to be taught that in the competitive, ever-changing e-businessworld, change must become a way of life. This can be done by encouragingemployees to think of new and innovative ways of beating the competitionor tothink of new and innovative ways in which the competition might beat them! 15 Project ManagementProject management of e-business systems implementations can be difficult due tothe complexities involved, but often not much more complex than many of theclient/server projects that experienced project managers have already managed.Iterative development and phased releases are issues that typical project managershave experienced, and time box approaches make it easier for managers to set andstick to deadlines.New, untried, and untested technologies and unstable development products are notnew to the IT world! Lack of technical skills/training has also been an issue for manyyears. Project

managers are accustomed to adding in contingency due to factors likethis, and are also accustomed to locating bright sparks within the team who can pick up the essential skills and get those technologies working in a timely fashion. 16DDDDETAILETAILETAILETAILSSSS4444 In recent years, the business community and the public have been confused bydistorted market signals of many dotcoms, such as the exponential growth in numberof customers, artificially-low operation costs, and inflated revenues. Some companieseven resorted to dubious accounting methods to inflate revenues and deflate costs.Somehow these distorted signals have misled many people into a belief that the e-marketplaces have rendered old rules of competition obsolete. As a consequence,many companies decided to shift their fundamental ways of doing business fromquality, feature, innovations, service, and profits toward mainly low price and revenuegrowth. Without long-term profits, they failed. To succeed, companies will need tosearch and implement innovative strategies that capitalize on both the power of theInternet and the changes in both traditional and electronic markets. Companies thatrun e-business should have tight supply chain relationships with customers, suppliers,and distributors. In addition, the supply chain within e-business companies alsocontinues to change. Businesses need to be sure that customers and suppliers caneasily gain access to their websites to gain important product information for decisionmaking. Currently, the major barrier to customers and suppliers access to the web isease and speed of access, e-loyalty, and e-trust. Because the use of ecommercetechnology tends to reduce the switching cost, it is important for e-business companiesto build its strategic position by focusing on e-loyalty which encompasses goodrelationships and trust with value chain partners. B2B procurement of direct goodsrequires a relationship, usually long-term, with a vendor who will deliver a knownquality of goods. With mission critical buying, companies cannot just buy fromanyone in the e-marketplace. If an order for supplies goes unfilled, the missing goodscould shut down a production line or an entire factory. In B2B procurement of directgoods, tight integration with major suppliers along the supply chain is absolutelyessential . Major success factors for e-business include :- Internet technology fully integrated into the companys overall strategy. Competitive advantage maintained in both operational efficiency anddistinctive strategic positioning. Basis of competition not shifted from traditional competitive advantage, suchas cost, profit, quality, service, and features. Companys strategic positioning well maintained. 17 Support from top management. Buyer behavior and customer personalization. Quick time to market. Right systems infrastructure. Good cost control. Good e-business education and training to employees; management andcustomers. Customers and partners expectations well-managed. Good products and services offered by e-business. Current e-business systems expanded to cover entire supply chain. New competitors and market shares tracked. Website of high quality that meets or exceed user expectations. Companys virtual marketplace established. TYPE OF e-BUSINESS The Different Types of e-business:-E- Business is the process of buying and selling of various products and services bybusinesses through the Internet. It deals various kind of business concern, from retailsite of the consumer, which includes auction. The main focus is to concentrate onbusiness substitutes involving goods and services between various corporations.E- Business is the purpose of Internet and the web to Conduct business but when weconcentrate on commercial deals among organizations and individuals demandingselective information systems under the guarantee of the firm it accepts the form of e-business. Nowadays, the word e

is hitting momentum. If youre looking to get intothis business, one of the fore most thing you have to have is a Virtual Private CloudHosting keeping the traffic in mind and respecting customers valuable time.Business to Consumer (B2C) 18B2C stands for Business to Consumer as the name suggests, it is the model takingbusinesses and consumers interaction. Online business sells to individuals.The basicconcept of this model is to sell the product online to the consumers. B2c is the indirecttrade between the company and consumers. It provides direct selling through online.For example: if you want to sell goods and services to customer so that anybody canpurchase any products directly from suppliers website.Directly interact with the customers is the main difference with other business model.As B2B it manages directly relationship with consumers, B2C supply chains normallydeal with business that are related to the customer.B2C (Business to Consumer): Refers to a business communicating with or selling toan individual rather than a company. B2C e-commerce jumped from $11.2 billion in1998 to $31.2 billion in 1999, Doing business online no longer requires a hugeinvestment by retailers, thanks to developments in template-based online storeswhich are based on packaged applications that are delivered over the internet.As nearly all online stores will require the same functions: catalogues, order baskets,payment processing, content management and member management, it makes sensefor those components to be created once and shared by all stores, with each storeeffectively renting its own copy of the applications.The one area where it s important for online stores to differentiate is their look andfeel, and naturally retailers feel very strongly about their business branding. So theability to create a unique skin for each site is an important part of a template-basede-store offering.Using the latest internet application technology, individual sites can be created withinminutes of the retailer selecting a template and supplying graphics such as logos.Typically, retailers will pay only a modest monthly rental charge and retailersrequire no specialist hardware or software, other than internet access.Anyone who wants to sell products and services over the internet, or who wantscustomers to be able to research their purchases on the internet, should consider anonline store.These days, a web site should be a standard part of the promotional and advertisingmix for every business, along with other tools such as Yellow Pages, newspaperadvertising and signage.Advantages:- B2C e-commerce has the following advantages: Shopping can be faster and more convenient. Offerings and prices can change instantaneously. Call centers can be integrated with the website. 19 Broadband telecommunications will enhance the buying experience.Challenges faced by B2C e-commerce:- The two main challenges faced by B2C e-commerce are building traffic andsustaining customer loyalty. Due to the winner-take-all nature of the B2C structure,many smaller firms find it difficult to enter a market and remain competitive. Inaddition, online shoppers are very price-sensitive and are easily lured away, soacquiring and keeping new customers is difficult.A study of top B2C companies by McKinsey[citation needed] found that: Top performers had over three times as many unique visitors per month thanthe median. In addition, the top performer had 2,500 times more visitors thanthe worst performer. Top performers had an 18% conversion rate of new visitors, twice that of themedian. Top performers had a revenue per transaction of 2.5 times the median. Top performers had an average gross margin three times the median. There was no significant difference in the number of transactions per customerand the visitor acquisition cost.Business to Business (B2B) 20B2B stands for Business to Business. It consists of largest form of Ecommerce. Thismodel defines that Buyer and seller are two different entities. It is similar tomanufacturer issuing goods to the retailer or wholesaler. Dell deals computers andother associated accessories online but it is does not make up all those products. So, ingovern to deal those products, first step is to purchases them from unlike businessesi.e. the producers of those products. It

is one of the cost effective way to sell out product through out the worldB2B is the selling between companies, wholesale rather than retail. But it meansmore than that. Efficient use of capital demands small inventories, which entailsanticipating demand, and so maintaining detailed information flows between allparties involved in today s complex manufacturing processes. B2B involves wideningthe circle of suppliers (for safety and competition), and of centralizing control (forrecords and discounts).B2B ecommerce is an important part of any online business. Leaving aside thesimple transfer of funds covered here many businesses need some combinationof: Credit worthiness assessment. guarantee of quality and delivery of goods (escrow services). safeguards against fraud. fast collection of funds, with ability to vary the collection period. reporting: approval of sale, invoicing, delivery, payment. procedures to handle disputes. Information of all types corporate, technical, identity-building has to beinterchanged across the scattered divisions of large companies, and new ideasfostered, assessed and disseminated. Speed is vital, as are improvedcommunication, collaboration, and customer understanding. All theserequirements can be handled by IT, and software has been developed to meetthe challenge customer relationship management, enterprise resourceplanning, online auction, supply chain management, etc. Little of it is off-the-shelf, but is devised as systems to be extended and built round individualcompany requirements.Hence many problems with surveys. B2B has reportedly done better than B2C steadier growth, higher profits but is it software sales or savings in companies withB2B-enhanced management that have been measured? Even within the B2B market,there are marked differences between types of software and their successes. Recordsof some are distinctly spotty, and sales of the more advanced systems have beenbadly hit by the dotcom bust and US recession. Improved management is not simply amatter of installing new software: extensive company reorganization and retrainingare required to obtain even a modest payoff. These points need to be borne in mindwhen following up the information briefly noted below. 21B2B Ecommerce History An Anderson survey found that America accounted for 67% of worldwide B2Brevenues in 2000, and Europe 14%. Towards the end of 2000, a gloomy period forecommerce in America, executives remained confident about the digital marketplace.Some 45% of suppliers reported an average 31% increase in sales over the previous 6months, and 66% of customers responding said they had increased purchases over theperiod. A June 2001 IDG survey came to a similar conclusion, noting that B2B tradein Brazil should near $2 billion in 2003. . Even in the B2C ecommerce slump of August 2001, the larger US retailers were planning to invest in B2B to improvecustomer service and supply chain management.Benefits: Encourage your businesses online Products import and export Determine buyers and suppliers Position trade guidesConsumer to Consumer (C2C)C2C stands for Consumer to Consumer. It helps the online dealing of goods orservices among people. Though there is no major parties needed but the parties willnot fulfill the transactions without the program which is supplied by the online marketdealer such as eBay. 22The introduction of the new economy has helped to create a very individualistic andindependent society. Consumers are no longer totally reliant on corporations and areincreasingly looking to conduct their own business transactions. This is evident inWestern Australia where the number of small businesses has doubled from 1983 to1999 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2001). At the forefront of this movement areConsumer-to-Consumer (C2C) applications within eBusiness. C2C applications areany transactions between and amongst consumers (QUT School of InternationalBusiness, 2003, p. xv). They are often described as Peer-to-Peer (P2P) (QUT School of International Business, 2003, p. xv). When eCommerce was first introduced, itredefined the traditional structure

of business by giving small firms and individuals thesame opportunity as multi-national corporations. As a result, many individualsestablished online organizations that encouraged and assisted commerce betweenconsumers.There are many sites offering free classifieds, auctions, and forums whereindividuals can buy and sell thanks to online payment systems like PayPal wherepeople can send and receive money online with ease. eBay s auction service is a greatexample of where person-to-person transactions take place everyday since 1995.Companies using internal networks to offer their employees products and servicesonline--not necessarily online on the Web--are engaging in B2E (Business-to-Employee) ecommerce.G2G (Government-to-Government), G2E (Government-to-Employee), G2B(Government-to-Business), B2G (Business-to-Government), G2C (Government-to-Citizen), C2G (Citizen-to-Government) are other forms of ecommerce that involvetransactions with the government--from procurement to filing taxes to businessregistrations to renewing licenses. There are other categories of ecommerce out there,but they tend to be superfluous.The most famous and successful example of a Consumer-to-Consumer applicationis Ebay. Ebay.com is an online auctioning site that facilitates the trade of privatelyowned items between individuals (May, 2000, p.109). The website claims that throughEbay, practically anyone can trade practically anything ? (Ebay, 1995-2004). Thecompany began in September 1995 when Pierre Omidyar decided to establish the firstonline marketplace (Ebay, 1995-2004). Since that time, the company has continued togrow both in size and popularity. Ebay is now considered one of the most successfulC2C e-Businesses ever.Other examples of Consumer-to-Consumer applications are service and employmentwebsites such as Monster.com, Seek.com.au and CareerOne.com.au. These websitesprovide a valuable service to consumers looking for jobs. Employers can advertise onthese websites and potential employees can contact their organization for an interview.Web-based communication organizations are one final example of a C2C operation.Sites such as Sastashopping.com ICQ.com and MSN.com act as a communicationsmedium for peer-to-peer deliberations. Although there is no commercial benefit to the 23website, they do provide the facilities for Consumer-to-Consumer exchange.Consumer-to-Consumer applications are a growing area of eCommerce. As onlinebusiness expands, peer-to-peer transactions will continue to grow in popularity and theindustry will become highly profitable.BUSINESS TO EMPLOYEE (B2E)B2E (Business to Employee) E-Commerce generally refers to the requisitioning of supplies by employees for use in their jobs, but this really has grown to encompass muchmore. For example, B2E makes it very easy for an employee to requisition a new tonercartridge and printer paper - the order is entirely electronic, and supervisors are asked toapproved the requisition in the event that the total order exceeds preset limits for thatparticular employee. However, B2E has grown into technologies that allow theemployee to access their employee records to update address information, shiftinvestments in the 401K plan, or maintain their internal resume. Many companies havefound that B2E technologies have dramatically reduced the administrative burdens withthe human resources department. Admittedly, maintaining employee information haslittle to do with commerce, but this term has grown to encapsulate this activity into theB2E definition.The Complete Business-to-Everyone E-Business Solution. Creative Web Store is a complete Web store solution that integrates closely and easilywith Creative Web Store End-to-End E-Business Solutions. This powerful packageprovides businesses with powerful business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer(B2C) e-commerce capabilities in a single, robust, and easy-to-use business-to-everyone(B2E) solution.Creative Web Store makes your e-commerce transition easy by providing out-of-the-box integration with your accounting system, adaptability to the way you do businesstoday, and flexible deployment options. And, of course, Creative Web Store offers allthe

customization features you expect from a premier Web store solution.CONSUMER TO BUSINESS (C2B)A consumer posts his project with a set budget online and within hours companiesreview the consumer s requirements and bid on the project. The consumer reviews thebids and selects the company that will complete the project. Elance empowers consumers 24around the world by providing the meeting ground and platform for such transactionsC2B is a rather peculiar Internet phenomenon. An example of C2B e-commerce could bethe following. A student wants to fly from London to New York, but has only 200($320) in the bank to pay for this round trip. They put up an ad in an Internet C2B site,seeking airlines that are willing to offer the transatlantic round trip for 200 or less. Thebeauty of the Internet is that it brings together a large number of customers to create amarketplace that a number of airlines (that will have to otherwise fly with empty seats)will be interested in.Many analysts state that C2B and C2C e-commerce will thrive in the near future. It is achallenging task, however, to construct these e-commerce systems because of theirdiverse nature. The existing EC construction tools, which usually focus on B2B and B2Ce-commerce schemes, were designed for constructing specific e-commerce systems,making them unsuitable for developing consumer-initiated e-commerce systems. In thispaper, we propose a trading model that supports C2B and C2C e-commerce through theuse of digital media called vouchers and the trading system VTS. We show how theintroduction of vouchers simplifies the procedures of C2B and C2C e-commerce, andshow that vouchers, together with VTS, can be utilized to form a trading framework thatuniformly realizes the delivery/payment phase. We demonstrate that a wide range of matching phase implementations, in which the characteristics of specific e-commercesystems such as market coordination are implemented, can be integrated into thisframework. Peer to Peer (P2P)It is a discipline that deal itself which assists people to instantly shares relatedcomputer files and computer sources without having to interact with central webserver. If you are going to implement this model, both sides demand to install the 25expected software so that they could able to convey on the mutual platform. This kindof e-commerce has very low revenue propagation as from the starting it has beentended to the release of use due to which it sometimes caught involved in cyber laws.m-BusinessIt deals with conducting the transactions with the help of mobile. The mobile deviceconsumers can interact each other and can lead the business. Mobile Commerceinvolves the change of ownership or rights to utilize goods and related services.CHARACTERIZATION OF THE e-BUSINESS 26A company can be viewed as an entity providing products or services to clients withthe support of products or services of partners in a constantly changing environment.The functioning of an enterprise can be roughly modeled in accordance with a set of interacting functions, which are commonly classified in three categories: Performance functions, which represent the core of its activity (core business),i.e. the production of goods or services. They pertain to activities of production,stock management, and purchasing (purchasing function); The management functions, which cover all strategic functions of managementof the company; they cover general management of the company, the humanresources (HR) management functions as well as the financial and accountingmanagement functions; The support functions, which support the performance functions to ensureproper functioning of the enterprise. Support functions conver all activities relatedwith sales (in certain cases, they are part of the core business) as well as allactivities that are transversal to the organization, such as management of technological infrastructures (IT, Information Technologyfunction).FRONT OFFICE & BACK OFFICEThe termsFront

Officeand Back Officeare generally used to describe the parts of thecompany (or of its information system ) that are dedicated, respectively, to the directrelationship with the client and proper management of the company.TheFront-Office(sometimes also calledFront line) refers to the front part of theentrepriser that is visible to the clients.In turn,Back Officerefers to all parts of the information system to which the final user does not have access. The term therefore covers all internal processes within theenterprise (production, logistics, warehousing, sales, accounting, human resourcesmanagement, etc.) 27CONCLUSION5 Market volatility makes understandinglet alone predicting strategic movementsvery difficult. Practicing managers, consultants, investors, and students all face theproblems associated with analyzing a dynamic market environment. As theenvironment changes, it becomes important to ask the following fundamentalquestions:Do we understand the emerging business models?Are we investing in the right business opportunities?Are we attacking these opportunities using the right business model?Are these opportunities ever going to be profitable?In today s environment more than ever, managers of "old economy" companies needthe right tools to support and improve their effectiveness when making major strategicmoves, allocating scarce resources, and managing risk. Why? Because the large "oldeconomy" companies from consumer products to industrial manufacturing have begunto see relatively small pieces of their markets taken away by new, Web-enabled firms.As a result, they re waking up to the e-business threat (and opportunity) and havestarted to push toward more efficient digital strategies based on optimizing customerexperiences, integrating their value chains, and accelerating information flow.Clearly, we re in the early stages of a revolution that s changing the businesslandscape. As with any revolution, there will be moments of extreme optimism whenthe potential reveals itself; there will also be moments of extreme pessimism whenskepticism rules. However, one thing is certain. E-business. 28Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Business Advantages of E-BusinessWhether on or off line, customers in todays marketplace want quality products andinformation in a quick and easy manner. Ive typed it before and Ill type it again, theinternets main benefit is that of speed and convenience. Therefore e-business, whichuses the internet as the core for business dealings, can help make a company morecustomer-friendly in addition to many other things, such as creating a more efficientexchange of information and/or products and services.Worldwide Presence:-This is the biggest advantage of conducting business online. A firm engaging in e-business can have a nationwide or a worldwide presence. IBM was one of the firstcompanies to use the term e-business to refer to servicing customers and collaboratingwith business partners from all over the world. Dell Inc. too had a flourishing businessselling PCs throughout the US, only via telephone and the Internet till the year 2007.Amazon.com is another success story that helps people buy internationally from thirdparties. Hence, worldwide presence is ensured if companies rethink their business interms of the Internet.Cost Effective Marketing and Promotions:-Using the web to market products guarantees worldwide reach at a nominal price.Advertising techniques like pay per click advertising ensure that the advertiser onlypays for the advertisements that are actually viewed. Affiliate marketing, wherecustomers are directed to a business portal because of the efforts of the affiliate who inturn

receive a compensation for their efforts meeting with success, have emerged onaccount of e-business. Affiliate marketing has helped both the business and theaffiliates. Firms engaging in e-business have managed to use cost effective onlineadvertising strategies to their advantage. Developing a Competitive Strategy:-Firms need to have a competitive strategy in order to ensure a competitive advantage.Without an effective strategy, they will find it impossible to maintain the advantageand earn profits. The strategy, that the firms can pursue, can be a be a cost strategy ora differentiation strategy. For instance, till the year 2007, Dell Inc. was sellingcomputers only via the Internet and the phone. It adopted a differentiation strategy byselling its computers online and customizing its laptops to suit the requirements of the 29clients. Thus, e-business resulted in Dell Inc. managing to capture a vast segment of the market using the differentiation strategy. Better Customer Service:-E-Business has resulted in improved customer service. Many a times, on visiting awebsite, the customer is greeted by a pop-up chat window. Readily available customerservice may help in encouraging the customer to know more about the product orservice. Moreover, payments can be made online, products can be shipped to thecustomer without the customer having to leave the house. Removes Location and Availability Restrictions:-Users need not be in the same physical location as an e-business and the exchange of information and transactions may take place at any given time, twenty-four hours aday, seven days a week and from any location in the world with Internet access. Aphysical location is restricted by size and limited to only those customers that can getthere, while an online store has a global marketplace with customers and informationseekers already waiting in line.Reduces Time and Money Spent:-In e-business, there is often a reduction in costs required to complete traditionalbusiness procedures. Many of those same traditional business approaches can beeliminated and replaced with electronic means, which are often easier to carry out aswell as easier on the pocketbook. For example, compare the cost of sending out 100direct mailings (paper, postage, staff and all), to sending out a bulk e-mail. Also think about the cost of paying rent at a physical location opposed to the cost of maintainingan online site. Heightens Customer Service:-With e-business customers receive highly customizable service, and communication isoften more effective. There is far more flexibility, availability and faster responsetimes with online support. For example, think about the speed of e-mail inquiries andlive chat as opposed to getting on the phone, especially when that business is closedfor the day. There is also a faster delivery cycle with online sales, helping strengthenthe customer/business relationship. The internet is a powerful channel for reachingnew markets and communicating information to customers and partners. Having abetter understanding of your customers will help to improve customer satisfaction.Gives a Competitive Advantage:-The internet opens up a brand new marketplace to businesses moving online.Competition via the internet is growing as the internet itself grows and waiting toolong to move online may cause you to lose your place in line entirely. Easy access toreal time information is a primary benefit of the internet, enabling a company to give 30more efficient and valid information and helping to gain the competitive advantageover those that are not online.Although there are risks associating with e-business, as with most business decisions,there is also the risk associated with the inability to adapt to the changing times.Change is inevitable in todays marketplace and should be embraced with open armsand open sites! Disadvantages of E-BusinessSectoral Limitations:The main disadvantage of

e-business is the lack of growth insome sectors on account of product or sector limitations. The food sector has notbenefited in terms of growth of sales and consequent revenue generation because of anumber of practical reasons like food products being perishable items. Consumers donot look for food products on the Internet since they prefer going to the supermarketto buy the necessary items as and when the need arises.Costly E-Business Solutions for Optimization: Substantial resources are required forredefining product lines in order to sell online. Upgrading computer systems, trainingpersonnel, and updating websites requires substantial resources. Moreover, ElectronicData Management (EDM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) necessary forensuring optimal internal business processes may be looked upon, by some firms, asone of the disadvantages of e-business.It s evident that the advantages clearly outweigh the disadvantages of e-business.Every business has to eventually change its modus operandi and adopt e-businesspractices in order to ensure survival and success.Other problems are:- High Internet access costs, including connection service fees, communication fees,and hosting charges for websites with sufficient bandwidth; Limited availability of credit cards and a nationwide credit card system; Underdeveloped transportation infrastructure resulting in slow and uncertaindelivery of goods and services; Network security problems and insufficient security safeguards; Lack of skilled human resources and key technologies (i.e., inadequate professionalIT workforce); Content restriction on national security and other public policy grounds, whichgreatly affect business in the field of information services, such as the media andentertainment sectors; Cross-border issues, such as the recognition of transactions under laws of otherASEAN member-countries,certification services, improvement of delivery methodsand customs facilitation; and 31 The relatively low cost of labor, which implies that a shift to a comparativelycapital intensive solution (including investments on the improvement of thephysical and network infrastructure) is not apparent.Starting your own e-business might sound easy, what with all the turnkey operations,website building tools, and more, but there is a lot that must go into it if it is going tobe successful. Often times, the most difficult part of starting a successful e-business iscoming up with the idea. Because of the sheer number of websites already existing,and the thousands upon thousands of new ones being created every day, it can be adaunting task to try and come up with a good e-business idea. Here, well go over theprocess behind starting an online business of your own, what aspects go into thecreative process, and how to get your fledgling business off the ground.While there are lots of online businesses for virtually every market out there, it ispossible to get ahead by putting a new twist on an existing idea, or providing a betterproduct or service in less time for less money. It is not crucial that your e-businessidea be completely original, but it is important that there be some way for it to standout from the sea of other, undoubtedly quite similar ideas floating around it.When trying to consider possibilities for a new online business, take a look at existingexamples of highly successful online businesses. eBay, Amazon, eHarmony, andsimilar sites all took a relatively simple idea, adapted it for the internet, and turned itinto a highly polished and efficient business. Are there any other relatively simpleideas out there that could be commandeered and turned into an online business? Whatcan you offer online that currently cannot be found on the internet, or that you can dobetter, cheaper, faster? Keeping these things in mind will help you ensure that yourbusiness has an edge over the

competition.Another important aspect of making sure your e-business gets off the ground is to usea variety of internet marketing strategies. Many online businesses use techniques suchas SEO (search engine optimization), affiliate marketing, and more in order to ensurethey get a large amount of traffic, thus increasing their customer base. If you want toget ahead in the online business world, it is going to require a fair investment of timeand resources into first making sure you are noticed and taken seriously. By creating arelatively unique and noticeable site you can take your ideas to their naturalconclusion as an online business.It s evident that the advantages clearly outweigh the disadvantages of e-business.Every business has to eventually change its modus operandi and adopt e-businesspractices in order to ensure survival and success. So e-business is a better option topromote or increase our business in this high-tech society. 32Bibliography6I have collected the Informations of my seminr report on e-business from differentsources.some sources are:1) Books AuthorsInformation management Dien D. Phan e-commerce & e-business Zorayda Ruth Andam 2) InternetWeb Address:www.weeksupdate.com www.homeshop18.com www.indiaplaza.in www.shopping.indiatimes.com www.elsevier.com www.google.com www.bing.com Introduction to e Business Project ReportDownload this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport DocumentReport this document?Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Spam or junk Porn adult content Hateful or offensiveIf you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it, please follow these directions to submit a copyright infringement notice.Report Cancel This is a private document. Info and RatingReads:349Uploaded:05/17/2011Category:Business/Law>FinanceRated:Copyright:A ttribution Non-commerciale-businesseBusinessproject report on ebusinessproject on ebusinessproject sample on ebusiness(more tags)eBusinessproject report on ebusinessproject on ebusinessproject sample on ebusinessproject on managementaliah university imba projectmohammad ehtasham akhtar(fewer)FollowdanishwiShare & EmbedRelated DocumentsPreviousNext p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p. p.More from this userPreviousNext3 p.32 p.6 p.37 p.3 p.Recent ReadcastersAdd a CommentSubmitCharacters: 400Print this documentHigh QualityOpen the downloaded document, and select print from the file menu (PDF reader required).Download and Print You Must be Logged in to Download a DocumentUse your Facebook login and see what your friends are reading and sharing.Other login optionsLogin with FacebookSignupI don t have a Facebook accountemail address (required) create username (required) password (required) Send me the Scribd Newsletter, and occasional account related communications. Sign Up Privacy policy You will receive email notifications regarding your account activity. You can manage these notifications in your account settings. We promise to respect your privacy. Why Sign up?Discover and connect with people of similar interests. Publish your documents quickly and easily. Share your reading interests on Scribd and social sites. Already have a Scribd account?email address or username password Log In Trouble logging in? Login SuccessfulNow bringing you back... Back to LoginReset your passwordPlease enter your email address below to reset your password. We will send you an email with instructions on how to continue.Email address: You need to provide a login for this account as well. Login:

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