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# PARAMETRIC DESIGN

What Is PARAMETRIC DESIGN ? How to design with A PARAMETRIC Equation ? What is SHAPE GRAMMAR ? Examples

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
What is PARAMETRIC DESIGN ?
It is generative mathematical driven design

Often when You draw/model your concept, You follow certain operations which are monotone and repetitive, they are algorithms .
For example, think of an elevation with windows, each window must have an area equal to 1/8 of room's floor area. It's simple, but when next day You'll decide that 1/7 will do better, and there are 1000 windows ? Let the PARAMETRIC design handle this algorithm.

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
How to design with A PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS ?
First before to know how to design with A parametric Equation you have to know WHAT IS THE PARAMETRIC EQUATION ?

In mathematics, parametric equation is a method of defining a relation using parameters. A simple Kinematical example is when one uses a time parameter to determine the position, velocity, and other information about a body in motion. Abstractly, a Parametric Equation defines a relation as a set of equations. It is therefore somewhat more accurately defined as parametric representation. It is part of regular parametric representation .

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
How to design with A PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS ?
2D Example : Parabola For example, the simplest equation for a Parabola, can be parameterized by using a free parameter t, and setting

Circle
Although the preceding example is a somewhat trivial case, consider the following parameterization of a circle of radius a:

## where t is in the range 0 to 2 pi.

Solve and graph x=5sin(t), y=5cos(t) Try to plot this graph without using your graphing calculator.

What does this look like? It is looks a Circle What is the radius?? The radius is 5

Solve and graph x=5sin(t), y=5cos(t) Lets determine the rectangular equation of this graph. How do we proceed when the parametric equations contain trig functions? Sometimes we can solve for the trig functions (not for t itself) and make use of trig identities. What trig identity could we try here? When we have sine and cosine both present, we should try the Pythagorean identity. What is that? sin2 (t)+cos2 (t)=1 Solve the original equations for sin(t) From the x equation, we get

## Solve and graph x=5sin(t), y=5cos(t)

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
3D Example : Helix Parametric equations are convenient for describing curves in higher-dimensional spaces. For example:

describes a three-dimensional curve, the helix , which has a radius of a and rises by 2b units per turn. (Note that the equations are identical in the plane to those for a circle; in fact, a helix is sometimes humorously described as just "a circle whose ends don't have the same z-value". (This is not exactly true, as a circle is by definition a two dimensional curve and a helix is by definition a three dimensional curve.) Such expressions as the one above are commonly written as

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
Parametric Surfaces: A Torus with major radius R and minor radius r may be defined parametrically as

x = cos(t)(R + rcos(u)), y = sin(t)(R + rcos(u)), z = rsin(u) where the two parameters t and u both vary between 0 and 2

As u varies from 0 to 2 the point on the surface moves about a short circle passing through the hole in the torus. As t varies from 0 to 2 the point on the surface moves about a long circle around the hole in the torus.

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
Parametric shape grammars are an
advanced form of shape grammars. The new shape in the RHS of the shape rule is defined by parameters so that it can take into account more of the context of the already existing shapes. This typically affects internal proportions of the new shape so that a greater variety of forms can be created. In this way, attempts are made to make shape grammars respond to structural conditions, for example the width of beams in roof structures which depends on span. Despite their popularity and applicability in academic circles, shape grammars have not found widespread use in generic Computer Aided Design applications.

Examples 1:
30 St Mary Axe

PARAMETRIC DESIGN

30 St Mary Axe, also known as the Gherkin, the Cucumber Building and the Swiss Re Building, is a skyscraper in Londons main financial district, the City of London, ( by Foster and Partners )

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
The parametric 3D computer modeling process works like a conventional numerical spreadsheet. By storing the relationships between the various features of the design and treating these relationships like mathematical equations, it allows any element of the model to be changed and automatically regenerates the model in much the same way that a spreadsheet automatically recalculates any numerical changes.

## Parametric nodes of the tower's computer model.

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
As such, the parametric model becomes a "living" model one that is constantly responsive to change offering a degree of design flexibility not previously available. The same technology also allows curved surfaces to be "rationalized" into flat panels, demystifying the structure and building components of highly complex geometric forms so they can be built economically and efficiently.

## parameters, the design team was abquickly test numerous forms.

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
Aerodynamic form The Swiss Re Tower has a circular plan that widens as it rises from the ground and then tapers towards its apex. This form responds to the specific demands of the small site The aerodynamic form of the tower encourages wind to flow around its face, minimizing wind loads on the structure and cladding, enabling the use of a more efficient structure.

## Changing certain form-giving parameters created variations in the building profile

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
Example 2:
Museum of contemporary Art In warsaw- The use of real time simulation in design process
The museum is an annex of the Center of Contemporary Art, located in the XVIth century Ujazdowski castle in Warsaw. It is situated in a strategic point above the highway cutting through the city, highly visible while approaching the city thus making it a recognizable landmark. The project consists of five different crystal-like volumes organized around a central courtyard, embedded in the landscape, engaging the visitors both through indoor and outdoor areas. The differentiation of the exhibition spaces is amplified by very specific daylight conditions related to different programmatic needs.

The computational techniques used for the form finding process, define a multiplicity of light shafts oriented and shaped according to the studies of the sun circulation on the site on a year-round cycle. The museum offers exceptional environment for manifestation of contemporary art, where light and atmosphere are constantly changing throughout the whole year

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
Development of the project consists of different analytical stages: 1) a simulation developed in Processing, distributing different programs and light openings along the site, depending on their requirements in terms of factors like noise, sun exposure, accessibility and views

2) parametric studies in Rhinoscript investigating geometrical potential of positions for the light shafts 3) environmental studies in Ecotect and Radiance analyzing light conditions in different times of the day throughout the whole year

PARAMETRIC DESIGN
The excel database which stores the data in a numeric array corresponding with the generated execution drawings and 3d segments is bundled together and further communicated to the manufacturing units as a concise production schema. This assists in speeding up the production process and hence results in accomplishment of complex projects within the specified timeline. The assembly phase (Fig. 06 right) is hence reduced to an exercise of connecting precisely named/numbered parts (more like a kit of parts scenario) in a sequential manner to produce a holistic topological marvel.

Conclusion
The design-informatics Informed-Design technique, while promoting a parametric mode of operation, which enables one to communicate smoothly with three dimensional models and the project database, inherently involves a collaborative design approach, entailing derivation and appropriation of diverse tools and techniques (programming/scripting, graphic design, architecture, engineering and CAM) towards manifesting spatial constructs.

Assignment
For A given project ( GP2- OR ANY DESIGN STUDIO PROJECT) 1. Analyze geometrical rules. 2. Identify Parametric elements. 3. Compose Parametric equation for a certain form. 4. Draft in an appropriate scale the parametric modified form from the original form. Deliverables: 3 A2 sheets to trace the needed process described above. 3 A4 sheets reporting the process by calculations. Deadline: 4 Weeks project. Group work ( same GP2) Midterm: Next Week 1 Hour on Thursday No Tuesday .