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# Modelling Permanent-Magnet Motor Drives

Aviti Mushi
Kawamura Laboratory
Yokohama National University
December 15, 2011
Abstract
This short paper discusses the mathematical modeling
of a PM motor. The mathematica model is derived
from the three phase equations, transformed to two
phase (xed) equations and nally into the rotating
two phase equations. This transformation is bene-
cial in the sense that it enables robust control of the
motor characteristics. Basically, the motor is virtually
transformed to a DC motor, which is known to have
robust control characteristics.
1 Introduction
Mathematical modeling of any system enables the
simplicity of controlling its characteristics. A mo-
tor is easily controlled once the parameters of impor-
tance are known or can be well predicted. The per-
manent magent motor (also known as PM) is easily
controlled once its three phase (abc-frame) voltages
are transformed by what is famoulsy known as Parks
Transformation. [1 - 3] With dq values, vector control
application on the PM is possible to convert the ma-
chine into equivalent separately excited dc machine
which has highly desirable control characteristics. [2]
The transformation is a two step process by two
transformation methods [1, 3 - 5] namely (1) Clarks
Transformation, and (2) Parks Transformation. The
general voltage current equation in abc reference
frame is written as shown in Equation 1.
_
_
v
a
v
b
v
c
_
_
= [RL]
_
_
i
a
i
b
i
c
_
_
+
_
_
p
as
p
bs
p
cs
_
_
+
_
_
p
ar
p
br
p
cr
_
_
(1)
where, the matrix [RL] represents the armature per
phase impedance given by Equation 2.
_
_
R
a
+pL
l
0 0
0 R
b
+pL
l
0
0 0 R
c
+pL
l
_
_
(2)
Note that p is the differential operator i.e.
d
dt
, L
l
is the self inductance per phase, and R
a
= R
b
= R
c
is the resistance of the coil per phase. The ux link-
ages between the stator three phases are dened in the
following set of equations.
_
_

as

bs

cs
_
_
=
_
_
L
m
i
a
+L
m
i
b
cos(
2
3
) +L
m
i
c
cos(
4
3
)
L
m
i
b
+L
m
i
c
cos(
2
3
) +L
m
i
a
cos(
4
3
)
L
m
i
c
+L
m
i
a
cos(
2
3
) +L
m
i
b
cos(
4
3
)
_
_
(3)
L
m
is the mutual inductance between one phase
and its neighbours. The ux linkages between the ro-
tor and stator phases are dened as shown in Equation
4.
_
_

ar

br

cr
_
_
=
_
_

0
cos()

0
cos(
2
3
)

0
cos(
4
3
)
_
_
(4)

0
is the peak magnetic ux density per phase. The
back emf is the derivative of Equation 4, and is given
as Equation 5.
_
_
p
ar
p
br
p
cr
_
_
=
_
_
e
a
e
b
e
c
_
_
=
_
_
w
0
sin()
w
0
sin(
2
3
)
w
0
sin(
4
3
)
_
_
(5)
w is the rotor (electrical) speed [rad/s] which will
be mentioned time and again throughout. In this short
article, the mentioned transformation process is going
to be carried out.
2 Transformation from three Phase
to two Phase System
Now we take our ac PM system and transform it into
equivalent dc machine system.
1
2.1 Clarke Transform V
abc
to V

## The rst transformation, changes the xed three phase

voltage vector V
abc
into a xed two phase voltage vec-
tor V

## . The transformation matrix, we will call it [C]

works as follows in Equation 6 and 7.
_
x

_
=
_
2
3
_
1
1
2

1
2
0

3
2

3
2
_
_
_
x
a
x
b
x
c
_
_
= [C][x
abc
]
(6)
and
_
_
x
a
x
b
x
c
_
_
=
_
2
3
_

_
1 0

1
2

3
2

1
2

3
2
_

_
_
x

_
= [C]
T
[x

] (7)
Carrying out the algebra of transformation gives the
two phase voltage-current relationship in Equation
8.
_
v

_
=
_
R
a
+pL
a
0
0 R
a
+pL
a
_ _
i

_
+
_
e

_
(8)
Where the back emfs are given by Equation 9.
_
e

_
=
_
w sin
w cos
_
(9)
Further more, L
a
=
3
2
L
m
+ L
l
and
0
=
_
2
3
.
These variables will be transformed further in the
next subsection.
2.2 Parks Transform V

to V
dq
The second transformation involves rotating the sta-
tionary reference frame () by a rotation vector
called [C()]. This rotation vector is written as Equa-
tion 10.
_
cos sin
sin cos
_
(10)
The rotation basically occurs according to Equation
11 and 12.
_
x
d
x
q
_
= [C()]
_
x

_
(11)
and
_
x

_
= [C()]
T
_
x
d
x
q
_
(12)
In this transformation, there will be two variables
that are dependent on time which are and i

. Due
to that, there will be differentiation of a product of
those two functions. The nal equations in dq rotat-
ing frame variables change the motor to be like a DC
motor. That is due to the fact that this frame rotates at
syncrhonous speed, which will make the system see
the input AC stationary. Therefore, the dq voltage-
current relationships can be written as Equation 13.
_
v
d
v
q
_
=
_
R
a
+pL
a
wL
a
wL
a
R
a
+pL
a
_ _
i
d
i
q
_
+
_
e
d
e
q
_
(13)
The back emfs are dened as
_
e
d
e
q
_
=
_
0
w
_
(14)
As a summary, most people use a short cut method
which is a direct combination of the two. The matrix
equations employed, function to transform directly
from abc to dq and vice versa. This transformation
matrix can be written as,
_
2
3
_
_
cos() cos(
2
3
) cos( +
2
3
)
sin() sin(
2
3
) sin( +
2
3
)
1 1 1
_
_
(15)
This transform vector in Equation 15 is applicable
for voltages, uxes and currents.
3 Electromagnetic Torque Devel-
oped by the Motor
Armed with the voltage-current equations in , we
can derive the electromagnetic torque developed by
the motor in the airgap.
The eld electromagnetic energy (coenergy) sup-
plied from the input is associated with change in the
ux linkage absorbed by the eld, which is the en-
ergy stored in the air gap [1, 9]. This energy is given
by taking a vector cross product of the ux vector and
the current vector as by Equation 16.
W

m
=
1
2

i (16)
which simplies to
W

m
=
1
2
[i

0
cos +i

0
sin ] (17)
2
The electromagnetic torque developed at the rotor
is obtained after dividing the coenergy by the rotation
angle of the rotor. It is given as
T
1
=
W

=
1
2
[i

0
sin +i

0
cos ] (18)
In matrix form it will be
T
1
=
1
2

0
_
sin cos

_
i

_
(19)
Using vector [C()]
T
to rotate the i

, the resulting
equation in dq is
T
1
=
1
2

0
i
q
(20)
This PM motor equation resembles a steady state
dc machine torque characteristic. Now, if a PM mo-
tor has P
n
pole pairs, total torque developed will be
the summation of all 2P
n
poles. Therefore, the total
torque will be given by Equation 21.
T
e
= (2P
n
)
1
2

0
i
q
= P
n

0
i
q
(21)
With this electromagnetic torque developed, the
motors movement equation will be
T
e
= Jpw +Bw +T
l
(22)
J is the moment of inertia of the motor, B is the
coefcient of friction and T
l
is the load torque.
4 Model and Simulation
4.1 Mathematical Model
The obtained equations, i.e. voltage-current, electro-
magnetic torque and movement equation are what de-
scribe the motor characteristics. These can be termed
as PM model equations. First, we have to write the
three equations in state space form, to resemble the
following standard state space equations.
x(t) = Ax(t) +Bu(t) (23)
y(t) = Cx(t) +Du(t) (24)
For an nth order system, A is an n n system ma-
trix, B is an n1 input matrix, C is a 1n row matrix
referred to as output matrix, and D is a scalar called
the direct transmission term. Most physical system
have the direct transmission zero. Therefore, the PM
model will be [2]:
_

i
d

i
q
_
=
_

R
a
L
a
w
w
R
a
L
a
_
_
i
d
i
q
_
+
1
L
a
_
v
d
v
q
w
_
(25)
and
w =
T
e
Bw T
l
J
(26)
i
d
, i
q
and w are state variables of the PM motor.
Depending on the need, it is possible to write different
output equations. We will not show this here, because
it is of no importance to the current paper.
4.2 Simulation
Open loop simulation is done using the following mo-
tor parameters in Table 1 [6, 7, 8]. At the moment, the
l
is set to zero and the speed w is not fed
back into the system.
Table 1: PM Motor Parameters
Armature winding resistance R
a
() 0.21
Number of poles P
n
10
0
(Wb) 0.95
d-axis self inductance L
d
(mH) 1.4
q-axis self inductance L
q
(mH) 2.5
Inertia J(kg.m
2
) 0.090
Coefcient of friction B(kg.m
2
/s) 0.001
Open loop speed characteristics is shown in Figure
1. It should be noted that, in this simulation we used
an average of L
d
and L
q
to be the value of inductance.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
W
(
r
a
d
/
s
)
T(s)
Figure 1: Speed characteristics
3
Corresponding torque characteristics is shown in
Figure 2.
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
T
e
(
N
m
)
T(s)
Figure 2: Torque characteristics
5 Future Work
The next job is to carry out closed loop simulation of
the sytem.
References
[1] A. Kawamura, Power Electronics (in Japanese),
pp. 133-135, 2005.
[2] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, Modelling, Simulation,
and Analysis of Permanent-Magnet Motor Drives,
Part I: The Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Mo-
tor Drive, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applica-
tions, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 265-273, 1989.
[3] D. Y. Ohm, Dynamic Model of PM Synchronous
Motors, Drivetech, Inc., Blacksburg, Virginia
[4] Texas Instruments Europe, Field Orientated Con-
trol of 3-Phase AC-Motors, Application Report,
Literature No. BPRA073, pp. 3-5, 1998.
[5] Texas Instruments Europe, Clarke and Park
Transforms on the TMS320C2xx, Application Re-
port, Literature No. BPRA048, pp. 6-8, 1997.
[6] Y. Watanabe, Motor Efciency Improvement
Case Study of the Minimum Total Harmonic
Distortion Pulse Amplitude Control Method for
Inverter Driven IPMSM, Kawamura Laboratory
Seminar Paper, 2011.
[7] Y. Watanabe, Smooth Switching fromPWMCon-
trol Method to PAM Control Method for Inverter
Driven IPMSMS, Kawamura Laboratory Seminar
Paper, 2010.
[8] Y. Watanabe, A Suggestion for the Minimum
Total Harmonic Distortion Multi Pulse Control
Method, Kawamura Laboratory Seminar Paper,
2010.
[9] A. E. Fitzgerald and C. Kingsley, Jr., Electric
Machinery (Chapters 1, 2, 5), Second Edition,
McGraw-Hill, Tokyo, 1961.
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