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STUDENT HANDBOOK MANUALUL STUDENTULUI

- SUMMARY REZUMAT

INTRODUCTION
The Business Game is a web-based application that simulates the competitive business to business (BTB) market. Each team plays the role of a company operating in this competitive market by making appropriate strategic decisions. INTRODUCERE The Business Game este o aplicaie bazat pe web care simuleaz piaa competitiv business to business(BTB).Fiecare echip joac rolul unei companii care opereaz prin luarea deciziilor strategice apropiate n aceast pia competitiv.

What is The Business Game?


In The Business Game, players aim to achieve a common objective in a simulation that, using a defined economic model, recreates the market reality as accurately as possible. Born in the 1950s, The Business Game has educational and evaluation purposes. The European Business Institute acknowledged its main didactic objectives: improving decision-making abilities in terms of the timeliness and efficiency of choices, building familiarity with risk and uncertainty, teaching management techniques, integrating various company functions, and providing strategic decision-making training. Since each player is part of a team, he or she can develop a concrete team spirit, which has started playing an increasingly crucial role in peoples professional lives, although it is often neglected by classic educational tools. Consequently, companies wishing to provide their staff with effective and accurate vocational training have shown strong interest in this ground-breaking tool. Ce este The Business Game(Jocul de Afaceri)? n The Business Game juctorii au obiectivul comun pe care trebuie s ajung ntro simulare care, folosind un model economic definit, recreaz ct se poate de exact realitile pieei.Creat n anii 1950, The Business Game are scopuri de educare i evaluare.Institutul de Afaceri European recunoate ca principale obiective didactice: mbuntirea capacitilor de luarea deciziilor n condiiile de timp restrns i eficiena alegerilor, ntemeierea familiaritii cu risc i nesiguran, nvarea tehnicilor de management, integrarea funciilor diverselor companii, furnizarea pregtirii lurii deciziilor strategice.Pn cnd fiecare juctor este o parte a echipei, el sau ea poate dezvolta un spirit de echip concret, care a nceput tot mai mult s joace un rol crucial n vieile profesionale ale oamenilor, dei este de multe ori neglijat prin metode de educaie clasic. Prin urmare companiile care doresc s furnizeze pregtire profesional efectiv i precis pentru personalul su au artat un puternic interes fa de aceast metod inovatoare.

The Tournament
You will participate in a tournament involving all your classmates divided into 3

groups. The best teams will pass the preliminary stage and challenge other students from across Europe to an international final tournament. This is a real competition!!!! Thus think carefully about the choices you will take within the game and remind that you will lose points in case of wrong choices!! Pay attention!! Turneul Vei participa la un turneu care va implica toi colegii votri mprii n grupe.Cea mai bun echipa va trece de etapa preliminar i va provoca ceilali elevi din ntreaga Europa la un turneu final internaional. Acesta este o competiie real!!!!Astfel gndete-te cu grij la alegerile tale pe care le vei lua n timpul jocului i amintete-i c vei pierde puncte n cazul unor alegeri greite!!Fii atent!!

THE SOFTWARE
This Handbook aims at giving you some general information about the game. For any questions do not hesitate to ask your teacher!!! Or try to search for the new word or concept on the Web!! The first part of this handbook presents the software interface. Subsequently, users receive information and instructions for managing the competition on the website. Finally, they are guided on how to access to the game for the first time. SOFTWAREUL Acest manual i ofer unele informaii generale despre joc.Pentru orice ntrebare nu ezita s i ntrebi profesorul!!!Sau ncearc s caui cuvntul sau conceptul pe Internet!! Aceast prim parte al manualului prezint interfaa software-ului.Ulterior, utilizatorii primesc informaii i instruciuni pentru administrarea competiiei pe pagina de internet.n final ei vor fi ghidai cum s acceseze jocul pentru prima dat.

The user interface


The Business Game is a web-based application with a client-server architecture. The user access is the website, which also acts as an interface; anyone who owns a computer and an Internet connection can play the game. Since user interaction is mediated by the browser, it is crucial to define browser functions in the game. Some browsers enable users to view web pages in full screen; users are urged to use this function, which is typically accessed using the F11 button, when the screens visible area is too small. Interfaa utilizatorului The Business Game este o aplicaie bazat pe internet cu o arhitectur de server client.Pagina de internet este cel accesat de utilizator, care deasemenea acioneaz ca o interfa; oricine care deine un calculator i o conexiune la internet poate juca.nc de la interaciunea utilizatorului este intermediat de ctre browser, este crucial sa defineti funciile browser-ului n joc.Unii browseri permit utilizatorilor vederea paginii n ecran complet(full screen), utilizatorul este ndemnat s foloseasc aceast funcie, care este accesat deobicei folosind tasta

F11, cnd zona vizibil a ecranului este prea mic. Figure 1: The Business Game homepage Figura 1:Pagin principal al The Business Game Game access To play The Business Game, users need to enter the website address in their 5

browsers address bar: Accesarea jocului Pentru a juca The Business Game, utilizatorul trebuie sa intre pe adresa paginii de internet n rndul browser-ului de adres.
http://xxxxxxxxxx.thebusinessgame.it

The user has to create an account by clicking on the link "registration" and entering the required data. Utilizatorul trebuie s creeze un cont prin apsarea link-ului nregistrare i introducnd datele necesare. Now players can access the system by entering their Username and Password and then pressing the Enter button. Acum utilizatorii pot accesa sistemul prin introducerea de Nume Utilizator i Parol i prin apsarea tastei Enter. Further to the account creation and the login into the system, the user has to insert the activation key into the "Enabling course" space. Mai departe pentru crearea contului i intrarea n sistem, utilizatorii vor trebuii sa introduc m spaiul Curs de validare codul de activare
Players receive the CODE from their teacher. Juctorii primesc CODUL de la profesorul lor.

Create your team and invite other participants


Now users who are part of a team must decide who will be the captain. In fact the captain of the team will create the virtual company and will invite the other participants of the team using the appropriate space on the page. Creaz-i echipa i invit ceilali participani Acum utilizatorii care sunt parte a unei echipe trebuie s decid cine va fi cpitanul.De fapt cpitanul echipei va crea compania virtual i va invita ceilali participani ai echipei folosind spaiul apropiat de pe pagin. Create the virtual company: Creaz compania virtual: Enter the virtual company name Click on the button create company Introdu numele companiei virtuale Apas butonul creaz compania There are two ways to invite other participants to join the team: Exist dou moduri de a invita ceilali participani s se alture echipei: 6

Enter the email of the user you want to invite and click on "send" (if the user is already registered in the system the invitation will appear on the platform in users private area, if user is not a member he will receive an email). Enter the Nick Name of the user you want to invite and click on " send " (attention: to use this second method it is necessary that the user has already created an account into the system). Introdu email-ul utilizatorului pe care vrei s invii i apas pe trimite (dac utilizatorul este dj nregistrat n system invitaia va aprea pe platforma n spaiul privat al utilizatorului, dac utilizatorul nu este membru va primi un email). Introdu Nick Name-ul(Numele de Utilizator) al utilizatorului pe care vrei s invii i apas pe trimite (atenie: este necesar ca utilizatorul s aib un cont n system ca s foloseti a doua metod)

Accept the invitation by a team captain


Within the area reserved for participants of the tournament the user will see all the invitations sent to him and will decide which to accept (if the user is a team captain should not accept any invitation). Once accepted the invitation, the user will be part of the team. Accept invitaia cpitanului de echip n zon rezervat participanilor la turneu utilizatorul va vedea toate invitaiile trimise lui i va decide pe care s accepte(dac utilizatorul este cpitanul de echip nu ar trebuii s accepte nici o invitaie). Odat acceptat invitaia utilizatorul va fi parte a echipei.

Tournament start
When the tournament will be active a PLAY button will appear in the reserved area. By clicking it the user will enter the tournament. nceperea turneului Cnd turneul va fi activ un buton JOAC(PLAY)va aprea ntr-un spaiu rezervat.Apsnd aceast buton utilizatorul va intra n turneu. QUICK START: nceput Rapid

Main menu

Meniu Principal

Figure 2: Main Menu Figura 2: Meniul Principal.

Once the access procedure is completed, the system shows the games Main Menu. From this page (Figure 2), users can explore all the game sections by clicking the following links: Odat ce procedura de accesare este complet, sistemul arat Meniul Principal al jocului.De la aceast pagin(Figura 2), utilizatorii pot explora toate seciunile jocului prin apsarea link-urilor urmtoare Home Pagina Principal Market analysis: Before entering data to initiate game play, users are urged to go to the page dealing with market analysis, which reports useful information on foreseeable trends in market demand; Analiza pieei: naintea introducerii datelor pentru iniiarea jocului, utilizatorii sunt ndemnai s mearg la pagina de negocieri cu analiza pieei, care raporteaz informaii utile n tendinele previzibile ale cererii pieei. Parameters: This shows the game parameters for the ongoing match; Parametrii: Acetia arat parametrii jocului pentru o potrivire n desfurare. Decisions: Users input their decisions here. Decizii:Utilizatorii i impun deciziile aici.

During the game, links related to the historical data section are accessible. Pe durata jocului, link-urile referitoare la datele istorice sunt accesibile. Summary of Last Quarter: Rezumatul Ultimei Pri Competitors: This provides access to information regarding competitors from the previous game period; Competitorii: Acesta furnizeaz accesul la informaii referitoare la competitorii din perioada precedent de joc. Previous decisions: This allows users to view the data entered for the game period under analysis; Deciziile precedente:Acesta permite utilizatorilor sa vad informaiile introduce pentru perioada de joc sub analiz Ranking: Here, users can view the results of the completed game; Clasament: Aici, utilizatorii pot vedea rezultatele jocului completat. Financial statement: This page presents users with tables reporting the companys financial situation; 8

Situaiile financiare: Aceast pagin prezint utilizatori cu tabele raportate cu situaia financiar a companiei. Summary of the effects: This page presents users with the effects of strategic decisions. Rezumatul efectelor: Aceast pagin prezint utilizatori cu efectele deciziilor strategice.

Market analysis

First, users need to open the market analysis page, which reports the total volume of forecasted demand. The aggregate demand is reported in a table; final result refers to the last game period, and the forecasted result for the following period is reported. We recommend that users consider this forecast seriously, since it acts as a reference value for their own sales forecasts. Users must consider this information when making their strategic decisions during the game period.

Analiza pieei n primul rnd, utilizatorii trebuie s deschid pagina analizei pieei, care raporteaz volumul total de cereri preconizate. Ansamblul de cereri este raportat intr-un tabel; rezultate finale referitoare la ultima perioad de joc, i rezultatele preconizate pentru perioada urmtoare de joc sunt raportate.Noi recomandm ca utilizatorii s considere aceast preconizare serioas, nc de la acionarea ca valori de referin pentru preconizarea vnzrilor proprii. Utilizatorii ar trebui s ia n considerare aceste informaii cnd iau deciziile strategice pe durata jocului.

Figure 3: Market analysis.

Parameters

The Game Parameters link in the main menu enables users to view the values assigned to the game parameters during match creation. The parameters may help users to understand why a given strategic decision may be preferable to another one. Indeed, the Parameters page helps to choose among the correct available strategic decisions and shows their costs. Parametrii Link-ul Parametrii Jocului din meniul principal permite utilizatorilor sa vizualizeze valorile alocate parametrilor jocului pe durata crerii meciului.Parametrii jocului pot ajuta utilizatorul s neleag de ce o decizie strategic luat poate fi preferabil alteia.ntr-adevr, pagina Parametrii ajut alegerea printe deciziile strategice correct valabile i arat costurile lor. 9

Product definition Plant efficiency is measured in terms of nominal efficiency. Starting from the nominal value, real efficiency is measured through a linear relationship, according to investments made in maintenance. These investments are then compared to the investments-objective (i.e. keeping the plant in its nominal condition), which depends on the plants degree of automation and production capacity. Similarly, staff efficiency 4 is assessed through a linear relationship wherein, once again, maximum and minimum values are fixed parametrically. Production depends on both efficiency and production capacity. The staff-objective parameter was created to assess the opportunities available to the company to fully exploit its production capacity in terms of the number of personnel required. This value depends on the degree of automation, number of work shifts, and production capacity.5 Definiia produsului Eficien instalaiei (Plant efficiency) este msurat n termeni nominali de eficien. ncepnd de la valorile nominale, eficiena real este msurat prin relaie liniar conform investiiilor fcute n susinere.Aceste investiii sunt atunci comparate cu investiii obiective (de exemplu. includerea instalaiei este o condiie nominal ), care depinde de gradele de automatizare i capacitatea de producie a instalaiei. Similar, eficiena personalului4 este evaluat printr-o relaie liniar unde, nc o dat, valorile maxime i minime sunt fixate parametric. Producia depinde de eficiena amndurora i capacitatea de producie.Parametru personalul obiectiv a fost creat pentru a evalua oportunitile valabile pentru companie pentru a exploata pe deplin producia capacitii sale n ceea ce privete numrul de angajai necesari.Aceast valoare depinde de gradul de automatizare, numrul schimburilor de lucru, i capacitatea de producie.5

Figure 4: Parameters page Figura 4: Pagina Parametrii.

Parameters related to investments in the maintenance-objective refer to the initial nominal production capacity; users need to adjust such values to the real production capacity. Parameters related to the staff-objective refer to a work shift and the initial nominal production capacity; users need to adjust such values to the real number of shifts and production capacity.

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Price-Quality Ratio (PQR)

The PQR represents consumers opinions regarding the products offered by the company. The ratio depends upon both individual factors related to demand description and universal factors related to offer description. In other words, the value of the PQR depends on the importance given by the consumer to the external product performances and the values assigned to those performances. Through the PQR, the model allows the assigning of market share.

Raportul PreCalitate(RPC) RPC reprezint opiniile consumatorilor n legtur cu produsele oferite de ctre companie. Raportul depinde att de factori individuali referitoare la cererea de descriere i de factori universali legai de oferta de descriere. 4 Parametrii legai de investiiile n susinereobiectiv se refer la capacitatea iniial de producie; utilizatorii trebuie s adapteze aceste valori la capacitatea de producie real 5 Parametrii legai de personalulobiectiv se refer la o schimbare turei de munc i capacitii iniiale de producie nominal; utilizatorii trebuie s adapteze aceste valori la numrul real de ture i capacitii de producie. In The Business Game, the PQR is defined as the weighted sum of the following three external performances that affect customers directly: Product quality Service quality Price n The Business Game, RPC este definit ca suma ponderat a urmtoarelor trei performane exterioare care afecteaz direct clienii. Calitatea produciei Calitatea serviciului Preul The external product and service performances depend on the companys internal performances: Quality (impact on product performance) Time (impact on service performance) Flexibility (impact on service performance) Perfomanele externe de producie i serviciu depind de performanele interne ale companiei. Calitatea (efect asupra performanei de producie) Timpul (efect asupra performanei de serviciu) Flexibilitatea (efect asupra performanei de serviciu) These observations lead to the conclusion that although the objectives of the PQR and profitability (competitive and profit success, respectively) are deeply interwoven, they are directly opposed. Teams are expected to identify the strategies that will maximize one of the two objectives or 11

arrive at a successful trade-off between the two.


Aceste observaii conduc la concluzia c, dei obiectivele PQR irentabilitatea (succesul competitiv, precum i profitul, respectiv) sunt profund ntreesute, acestea sunt direct opuse. Echipele sunt de ateptat pentru a identifica strategiile care vor maximiza unul dintrecele dou obiective sau a ajunge la o cu succes compromis ntre cele dou.

Aceste observaii conduc la concluzia c, dei obiectivele RPC i rentabilitii(succesul competitiv, respectiv i profitul ) sunt profund ntreesute, acestea fiind direct opuse. Echipele sunt ateptate s identifice strategiile care vor maximiza unul din cele dou obiective sau vor ajunge cu succes la un compromis ntre aceste dou.

DECISIONS
In order to enter data for the game session, click the Decisions link in the Main Menu. Once the forms have been filled in, the system displays a report (the Budget) containing the companys budget based upon previous sales forecasts. If users are satisfied with their budgets and the data that they have entered, they can click the Save button to forward the data to the system; otherwise, they can modify the values by clicking the Change Decisions button. Decizii n scopul de a introduce date pentru sesiunea de joc, apsai pe link-ul de decizii adoptate din Meniul Principal.Odat ce formularele au fost completate, sistemul afieaz un raport (buget) care conine bugetul companiei pe baza previziunilor anterioare de vnzri. Dac utilizatorii sunt mulumii de bugetele lor i datele pe care le-au introdus, pot apsa pe butonul Salvare pentru a transmite datele n sistem; de altfel acetia pot modifica valorile apsnd butonul Modificare a Deciziilor.

Marketing and Sales


Price

Price is an extremely important decision, since it has a considerable impact on the consumers propensity to purchase, especially when the simulated market has been saturated.
Advertising

Investments in advertising aim to promote consumer information regarding the presence of a given product in the market. These initiatives tend to highlight the products innovative features in comparison to the competitors products. Such investments deeply affect product image and have a long-term effect. Promovare i Vnzri Preul Preul este o decizie extreme de important, deoarece are un efect considerabil asupra nclinaiei consumatorului de a achiziiona, n special cnd piaa simulat a fost saturat. Reclama 12

Investiiile n publicitate au scopul de promova informarea consumatorilor cu privire la prezena unui anumit de pe pia.Aceste iniiative au tendina de a evidenia caracteristicile inovative ale produsului, n comparaie cu produsele concurenilor. Astfel de investiii afecteaz profund imaginea produsului i au efect pe termen lung.
Advertising investments also affect subsequent periods. For best results, we suggest providing for a large and consistent expenditure of money throughout the game. Investiiile n publicitate afecteaz deasemenea perioadele urmtoare.Pentru cele mai bune rezultate v sugerm prevederea cheltuielilor mari i consistente de bani pe tot parcursul jocului. Sales forecast

Sales forecast defines the marketing plan. The entire business strategy centres on this strategic decision. Actually, the management of the other entry variables must align with the sales forecasts because this value enables the verification of whether the investments align with the available business resources (i.e. if the value is confirmed by the number of real sales). The production plan also depends on this value. The production plan refers to the allocation of the aggregate resources according to the products. In other words, production must be organised in order to achieve the number of components defined by the marketing plan, excluding provisions.

Prognoza de vnzri Prognoza de vnzri definete planul de promovare. ntregi strategii de afaceri se centreaz pe aceast decizie strategic.De fapt gestionarea variabilelor intrrilor trebuie s se alinieze cu previziunile de vnzri, deoarece aceast valoare permite s se verifice dac investiiile se aliniaz cu resursele disponibile de afaceri( de exemplu dacp valoarea este confirmat i de numrul de vnzri reale). Planul de producie de asemenea depinde de aceast valoare.Planul de producie se refer la alocarea de resurse aggregate n funcie de produse.Cu alte cuvinte, producia trebuie s fie organizat pentru a atinge numrul de componente definite de planul de marketing, cu excepia dispoziiilor. For example, if my sales forecast for this period is Sales forecast Product One = 100 pcs Sales forecast Product Two = 50 pcs and my total production capacity is 300 pcs, my production system will produce: Product One/ Product Two = 100 / 50 = 2 Number of Product One produced = 200 pcs 13

Number of Product Two produced = 100 pcs 200 + 100 = 300 that is my total production capacity. De exemplu, dac pentru aceast perioad prognoza mea de vnzri este Prognoza de vnzri Produs Unu=100pcs Prognoza de vnzri Produs Doi = 50 pcs i capacitatea mea total de producie este de 300 pc, sistemul meu de producie va produce Produs Unu/Produs Doi= 100/50=2 Numrul Produsului Unu produs=200pcs Numrul Produsului Doi produs = 100 pcs 200+100 =300 acesta este capacitatea mea total de producie If the stocks are higher than the forecast, the product will not be produced. Dac stocurile sunt mai mari dect prognozele, produsul nu va fi produs. Stock Product One 100 pcs Sales forecast Product One 80 pcs Production product One 0 pcs Stocul Produsului Unu 100pcs Prognoza de vnzri a Produsului Unu 80 pcs Producia Produsului Unu 0 pcs

Production
Purchase of new machinery

The acquisition of new machinery leads to an increase in production capacity. An increase in production capacity leads, in turn, to an increase in maintenance costs.
Producia

Achiziionarea utilajelor noi Achiziionarea utilajelor noi conduce la creterea capacitii de producie.Creterea capacitii de producie conduce la rndul su la creterea costurilor de ntreinere
Sale of machinery Maintenance

Selling machinery leads to lower production capacity and maintenance costs. Investments in maintenance aim to keep the production plant at its nominal operational condition. Vnzarea utilajelor Vnzarea utilajelor conduce la scderea capacitii de producie i a costurilor de ntreinere. ntreinerea Investiiile n ntreinere au scopul de a menine eficiena produciei la condiiile nominale operaionale.
Outsourcing

The outsourcing percentage shows the tendency to outsource production 14

to third parties. Outsourcing enables the company to completely satisfy demand, even after exceeding its production capacity. However, this option produces considerable effects on production costs. This decision influences production as well as internal flexibility. Suppliers can be selected according to their performance and cost levels (see Suppliers section). Surse externe Procentul de surse externe arat tendina produciei externe la persoanele tere. Sursa extern permite companiei s satisfac complet cererea, chiar i dup depirea capacitii de producie.Totui aceast opiune produce efecte considerabile asupra costurilor de producie.Aceast decizie influeneaz producia la fel ca flexibilitatea intern.Furnizorii pot fi alei n conformitate cu performanele i nivelul costurilor lor.(Vezi secia Furnizori) The outsourcing production is a percentage of the internal production; the amount of pieces produced by a third part is the x% of pieces produced inside the company. Producia extern este un procent al produciei interne; suma unitilor produse de ctre o ter persoan este de x% din unitile produse n cadrul companiei.
At 0% outsourcing, the outsourcing supplier table becomes insignificant. La 0% externalizare, tabelul furnizorului extern devine nesemnificativ.

Finance
Request for financing

Companies can request for bank loans in order to improve their financial situation. The loan is repaid during the final game period.
Accounts payable period

This value refers to the period (up to a maximum of 90 days) during which the company can extend payments for supplies. It affects company flexibility and the amount of money on hand. A long period increases the availability of money on hand, but exerts stress on the relationship with suppliers. On the contrary, a short period reduces the availability of money on hand.
Accounts receivable period

This entry refers to the period (up to a maximum of 90 days) during which customers can extend purchase payments to the company. This variable affects service performance and money on hand. A shorter period enhances the availability of money on hand, but lowers the level of customer service. Finanare 15

Cererea pentru finanare Companiile pot cere de la banc mprumuturi n vederea nbuntirii situaiilor lor financiare.mprumutul este rambursat pe perioada final de joc. Perioada conturilor de pltit Aceast valoare se refer la durata perioadei de timp (de cel mult 90 de zile) n care compania poate prelungi plile ctre furnizori. Acesta afecteaz flexibilitatea companiei i suma de bani deinut.O perioad lung crete disponibilitatea banilor deinui, dar streseaz relaia cu furnizorii.n caz contrar , o perioad scurt reduce disponibilitatea banilor deinui. Perioada conturilor de ncasat Aceast intrare se refer durata perioadei de timp ( de cel mult 90 de zile) n care clienii pot prelungi plile achiziiilor ctre companie. Aceast variabil afecteaz performana de serviciu i banii deinui. O perioad scurt nbuntete disponibilitatea banilor deinui, dar scade nivelul serviciului clientului.

Sourcing
Suppliers for components and finished products (outsourcing) can be defined through the following strategic decision:
Expected quality

The expected supplier quality influences the internal performances of both quality and cost. The higher the quality of the supplier, the greater the costs and quality of the final product. Aprovizionarea Furnizorii pentru componente i produse finite (Surse externe) pot fi definii prin urmtoarele decizii strategice. Calitatea ateptat Calitatea ateptat a furnizorului influeneaz performanele interne ale calitii i costului. Cu ct calitatea furnizorului a ridicat este ridicat, cu att costurile i calitatea produsului finit sunt mai mari.

Distribution
After-sale service

Investments in after-sale services are made in order to fund the maintenance, repair, and replacement of components in case of malfunction or breakdown. The higher the investment in after-sales service, the higher the customer satisfaction and costs. Distribuirea Servicii dup vnzare Investiiile n serviciile dup vnzare sunt fcute n vederea fondrii ntreinerii, reparrii i renlocuirii componentelor n cazul nefuncionrii 16

corespunztoare sau stricrii. Cu ct investiiile n serviciile dup vnzare sunt mai mari, cu att satisfacia clientului i costurilor sunt mai mari.
Investment in distribution channel

This investment aims to increase the level of the companys market penetration. Investiiile n canalul de distribuie Aceste investiii au ca obiectiv creterea nivelului companiei de penetrare a pieei.

Human Resources
Shifts

The number of work shifts (one, two, or three) affects the total number of plant working hours per quarter and indirectly affects internal production. An increased number of shifts lead to the over-exploitation of the plant and a subsequent decrease in its efficiency.1
Overtime work

Overtime work increases personnel productivity by indirectly affecting internal flexibility. Existing legislation2 provides parameters that set limits on the impact and cost of overtime work.
Personnel

The number of personnel affects production and the internal performance of cost. The model envisages three types of agreement as follows: Long-term agreements: their cost is lower, but dismissal is not allowed.3 Seasonal agreements: their cost is standard, but their engagement is limited to a single period.

Resursele Umane Ture Numrul turelor de munc (unu, doi sau trei) afecteaz numrul total al instalaiei orelor de munc pe sfert i indirect afecteaz producia intern.Un numr crescut de ture conduce la o exploatare n exces al instalaiei i ulterior scderea eficienei acesteia.1 Lucru peste program Lucrul peste program crete producia personalului afectnd indirect flexibilitatea intern. Legislia existent2 prevede parametrii ce limiteaz efectul i costul lucrului peste program. Personal Numrul personalului afecteaz producia i performanta intern a costului. Modelul are n vedere trei tipuri de agreement ca urmtoarele:
1 2

Agrement pe termen lung: costurile sunt sczute, dar concedierea nu este permis3 Agrement sezonier: costurile snt standart, dar angajamentul lor este limitat la o singur perioad

Investments in plant maintenance and adjustments can help limit this effect. The policy adopted by the government aims to promote employment as an alternative to overtime work. 3 This obligation derives from the mid-term view envisaged by the economic model under analysis.

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Politica adoptat de ctre guvern are ca obiectiv promovarea ocuprii forei de munc ca o alternativ pentru lucrul peste program
3

Aceast obligaie de la mijlocul perioade vizate de ctre modelul economic de sub analiz

The number of personnel required cannot be decided in advance because it depends upon the production plan, which is in turn determined by sales forecasts, volume of stored goods, and selected outsourcing level. Therefore, during the application, the number of personnel is determined automatically through approximations generated by simulations.
Training of permanent staff

Training of permanent staff aims to increase the staffs level of specialization and efficiency and enhances the internal performance of cost. Moreover, the greater the extent of specialization, the lower the flexibility in internal mobility. Numrul personalului necesar nu poate fi decis nainte pentru c depinde de planul de producie care este la rndul su determinat de prognoza de vnzri, volumul bunurilor stocate i nivelul surse externe selectate.Prin urmare pe durata aplicaiei numr personalului este determinat automat prin aproximaii generate de simulaii Instruirea personalului permanent Instruirea personalului permanent are ca obiectiv creterea nivelului de specializare i eficien a personalului i mbuntete costul performanei interne. Mai mult cu ct gradul de specializare este mai mare cu att flexibilitatea n mobilitatea intern este sczut.

Research and Development


Co-design

Co-design with suppliers has a strong impact on the internal performance of quality. Indeed, during this strategic decision, components are tailored to the relevant product. Co-design implies a surcharge on production costs.
Design investments

Investments in design are made to develop the products image in a way that satisfies the consumers aesthetic expectations. They influence the external performance of product quality.
Technology investments

Investments in product technology are made to develop the products image in a way that fulfils the consumers functional expectations. They influence the external performance of product quality. Cercetare i Dezvoltare Proiectare comun

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Proiectarea comun cu furnizorii are un efect puternic asupra performanei interne a calitii.ntr-adevr pe durata aceste decizii strategice componentele sunt adaptate la produsul relevant.Proiectarea comun implic o supra tax asupra costului produciei. Investiii n proect

Investiiile n proiecte sunt facute pentru a dezvolta imaginea produsului n modul de a satisface ateptrile estetice ale clientului.Acetia influeneaz performana extern a calitii produsului. Investiii n tehnologie Investiiile n produsul tehnologic sunt facte pentru a dezvolta imaginea produsului n modul c ndeplinete ateptrile funcionale ale clientului.Acetia influeneaz performana extern a calitii produsului. Table: Summary of decisions impacts. Tabel: Rezumatul efectelor deciziilor Internal Performance Performana Intern Q C Advertising Promovare Purchase of new machinery Achiziionare de utilaje noi Sale of machinery Vnzare de utilaje Maintenance ntreinere Outsourcing Surse externe Design investments Investiii n proiect Technology investments Investiii n tehnologie Suppliers expected quality Calitatea ateptat de furnizori + + + T F External Preformanc e Performana Extern P + + + S

Decisions Decizii

+ + +

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Overtime work Lucru peste program Shifts Ture Training of permanent staff Instruierea personalului permanent Co-design Proiecte commune Investment in distribution channel Investiii n canale de distrubuie Accounts receivable period Perioada de ncasarea a conturilor Accounts payable period Perioada de platire a conturilor After-sales service Servicii dup vnzare (All the decisions have an impact on costs.) (Toate deciziile au un impact asupra costurilor) LEGEND Q: Effect on Quality T: Effect on Time F: Effect on Flexibility P: Effect on Product S: Effect on Service +: Impact is directly proportional -: Impact is inversely proportional + +

+ +

+ + + +

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LEGEND C: Efectul asupra Calitii T: Efectul asupra Timpului F: Efectul asupra Flexibilitii P: Efectul asupra Produsului S: Efectul asupra Serviciului +: Efectul este direct proporional -: Efectul este invers proporional

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GAME OUTPUT
The objective of this section is to enable users to analyse the results. The first part deals with the assessment of forecast results; the second deals with the assessment of the final data.

Expected Results
After the entry form for strategic decisions has been filled in, the system displays the Expected Results report. If users are not satisfied with the forecast results, they can modify the values by clicking the Change Decisions button at the bottom of the page. Otherwise, they can click on the Save button to save their data.

Figure 6: The estimated results. Figura 6:Rezultate estimate.

RANDAMENTUL JOCULUI Obiectivul acestui seciuni este s permit utilizatorilor s analizeze rezultatele.Prima parte ofer rezultatele evalurilor prognozelor; a doua ofer evaluarile informaiilor finale. Rezultatele Ateptate Dup ce introducerea formei de decizii strategice a fost completat, sistemul afieaz raportul Rezultatelor Ateptate. Dac utilizatorii nu sunt satisfcui de rezultatele prognozelor, ei pot modifica valorile prin apsarea butonului Schimb Deciziile din josul paginii. Altfel ei pot apsa butonul Salvare pentru salvarea informaiilor.

Summary of Last Quarter


The Summary of Last Quarter provides information on the previous decisions, financial statements, and effects of a users company.
Previous decisions

The Previous Decisions link provides access to the Strategic Decisions page, which reports the values assigned to the different strategic decisions of the previous period.
Financial statement

On this page, users can find tables reporting the companys financial situation: there is a statement of assets and liabilities, statement of profits and losses, and brief index analysis. Rezumatul Ultimului Sfert Rezumatul Ultimului Sfert prevede informaia deciziei precedente, statutului financiar i efectele companiei utilizatorului. 22

Decizia Precedent Link-ul deciziei precedente prevede accesul la pagina Deciziilor Strategice, care raportez valorile allocate diferitelor decizii strategice din perioada precedent. Statutul Financiar n aceast pagin, utilizatorii pot gsi tabele care raporteaz situaia financiar a companiei: acolo este statutul activelor i a pasivelor, statutul profiturilor i pierderilor i analiza indicelui scurt

This page shows all relevant economic and financial information. Acest pagin arat toate informaiile economice i financiare relevante.

Summary of the effects


The Summary of the Effects link provides access to the Effects of Strategic Decisions page; the data displayed on this page refers to the information reported on the Forecast Result page, which has been previously discussed. Rezumatul efectelor Link-ul Rezumatul efectelor prevede accesul ctre pagina Efectele Deciziilor Strategice; informaia afiat pe aceast pagin se refer la informaia raportat la pagina Rezultatul Prognozei care a fost precedent discutat SUMMARY OF THE EFFECTS REZUMATUL EFECTELOR Offer: Offer for the game period, consisting of total production and available stocks; Oferta: Oferta pentru perioada de joc, constnd n totalitatea produciei i stocul valabil. Sold items: Number of sold items resulting from the offer, demand, and quality-price ratio; Obiecte Vndute: Numrul obiectelor vndute rezultate de la ofert, cerere i raportul calitate-pre Unsold items: Number of unsold items, calculated as the difference between offer and sold items; Obiecte Nevndute: Numrul de obiecte nevndute, calculate ca diferena dintre ofert i obiecte vndute Stocks: Stocks available at the end of the game period, corresponding to the 23

minimum number of unsold items and the storage capacity per product; Stocuri: Strocurile valabile la sfritul perioadei de joc corespunznd minimumului de obiecte nevndute i capacitate de stocare pe produs Total number of machineries: Total number of machines owned by the users company; Numrul total de utilaje: Numrul total de utilaje deinute de ctre compania utilizatorului Undersold items: Number of undersold items, calculated as the difference between the number of undersold items and number of items stored within and outside the company; Obiecte subvndute: Numrul obiectelor subvndute, calculate ca diferen dintre obiecte nevndute subvndute i numrul de obiecte stocate nuntrul i n afara companiei Production capacity: Nominal value of the production capacity after the introduction of any given change; Capacitatea de producie: Valoarea nominal a capacitii de producie dup introducerea oricrei anse acordate Storage capacity: Nominal value of the storage capacity after the introduction of any given change; Capacitate de stocare: Valoarea nominal de stocare a capacitii dup introducerea oricreo anse acordate Permanent personnel: Number of permanent personnel, including company staff and newly employed personnel; Personalul permanent: Numrul personalului permanent incluznd personalul companiei i personalul nou angajat Permanent personnel specialization: Degree of specialization of the permanent personnel, reflected in the specialization degree of company staff and the newly employed; Specializarea personalului permanent: Gradul de specializare a personalului permanent reflectat n gradul de specializare a personalului companiei i a noilor angajai. Seasonal personnel: Number of personnel with seasonal agreements (i.e. new seasonal employees); Personalul sezonier: Numrul personalului cu agreement sezonier(de exemplu angajaii noului sezon) Personnel: Total number of company personnel; Personalul: Numrul total al personalului companiei Personnel specialization: Average degree of specialization of company personnel. Specializarea personalului: Procentul gradului de specializare a personalului companiei

Competitors
The Competitors link provides access to the Competitors page, which reports the following data on each company in the market: 24

Concurenii Link-ul Concurenii prevede accesul la pagina Concurenii care raporteazp urmatoarele informaii pentru fiecare companie din pia Number of shifts: Number of shifts activated by the company; Numrul de ture: Numrul de ture activate de ctre companie New permanent contracts: Number of new permanent employees; Contracte noi permanente : Numrul angajailor noi permaneni New temporary contracts: Number of new temporary employees; Contracte noi temporare: Numrul de angajai noi temporari Personnel: Number of personnel available within the company; Personalul: Numrul personalului disponibil din companie Price: Selling price per product; Preul: Preul de vnzare pe produs Sold items: Number of items sold per product. Obiecte vndute: Numrul de obiecte vndute pe produs

Looking at competitors statistics enable one to gain an understanding of other companies strategies! Privind statisticile concurenilor se permite nelegerea strategiilor celorlalte companii.

Results
Definition of company success

In The Business Game the final ranking (Company Success) is measured in terms of profit success, which is related to economic indexes and, therefore, to company profits (Figure 7), competitive success, which is related to the aggregate market share given by the value of the pricequality ratio, and the technical management of the company.

Figure 7: Results Figura 7:Rezultate.

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Rezultate
Definia succesului companiei n The Business Game clasamentul final (Succesul Companiei) este msurat n termeni de succesul profitului, care este relatat ctre indici economic i prin urmare ctre profitul companiei (Figura 7), succesul competitiv, care este relatat ctre agregatul pieei pondere dat de valoarea raportului pre-calitate i de managementul tehnic al companiei.

Fundamentals of finance
The biggest part of the fundamental analysis involves delving into the financial statements. Fundamental analysis is also known as quantitative analysis and involves looking at revenue, expenses, assets, liabilities, and all other financial aspects of the company. Fundamental analysts use this information to gain insight into a companys future performance. A considerable portion of this tutorial will be spent learning about the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement and how they all fit together. The financial statement is the medium by which a company discloses information regarding its financial performance. We will briefly introduce each financial statements function and identify where each can be found. Fundamentele finanrii Cea mai mare parte a analizei fundamentale implic intrnd n statutul financiar. Analiza fundamental este de asemenea cunoscut ca analiza cantititiv i implic cutarea n venituri, cheltuieli, active, passive i toate celelalte asptecte financiare ale companiei. Analizatorul fundamental folosete aceast informaie pentru a obine o perspectiv asupra performanei viitoare a companiei. O poriune considerabil al acestui ghid va fi petrecut nvnd despre bilan, contul de profit i fluxul de numerar i cum toate acestea se potrivesc mpreun. Statutul Financiar este mediul prin care o companie dezvluie informaia privind performana sa financiar. Vom introduce pe scurt fiecare funcie a statutului financiar i unde se poate gsi fiecare.

The Balance Sheet


The balance sheet is a record of a companys assets, liabilities, and equity at a particular point in time. The balance sheet is named for the fact that the financial structure of a business balances in the following manner: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders Equity Assets represent the resources that the business owns or controls at a given point in time, including items such as cash, inventory, machinery, and buildings. The other side of the equation represents the total value of financing that the company has used to acquire those assets. Financing occurs through liabilities or equity. Liabilities represent debt 26

(which, of course, must be repaid), whereas equity represents the total value of the money that the owners have contributed to the business, including retained earnings (the profits made in previous years). The balance sheet, then, offers a snapshot of a companys health. It tells you how much a company owns (its assets) and how much it owes (its liabilities). The difference between what it owns and what it owes is its equity, also commonly called net assets or shareholder equity. The balance sheet offers considerable information to investors regarding a companys fundamentals: it reveals how much debt the company has, how much it needs to collect from customers (and how fast it does that), how much cash and equivalents it possesses, and what kinds of funds it has generated over time. Bilanul Bilanul este un registru de active, passive i capitaluri proprii la un anumit punct al companiei.Bilanul este numit n felul urmtor pentru faptul c structura financiar a unei balane de afaceri este n felul urmtor: Avtiv = Pasiv + Acionarii Capitalului Propriu Activele reprezint resursele pe care afacerea le deine sau le controleaz la o dat la un anumit punct incluznd obiecte precum numerar, de inventar, utilaje sau cldiri. Cealalt parte a egalului reprezint toatalitatea valorilor financiare pe care compania le-a folosit pentru a dobndi aceste active.Finanarea are loc prin passive sau capital propriu.Pasivele reprezint datoria(care bineneles trebuie pltit) ntruct capitalul propriu reprezint totalitatea valorii de bani cu care deintorii au contribuit la afacere, incluznd rezultatul raportat( profiturile realizate n anii precedeni) Bilanul contabil, atunci, ofer instantaneu starea unei companii.V spune ct deine o companie (activele sale) i ct datoreaz (pasivele sale).Diferena dintre ceea ce deine i ceea ce datoreaz este capitalul su social, de asemenea mpreun numite active nete sau acionarul capitalului social. Bilanul contabil ofer informaii considerabile investitorilor n legtur cu fundamentele companiei: acesta dezvluie ct de multe datorii are compania, ct de mult are de ncasat de la clieni(i ct de repede va face asta), ct de mult numerar i capital social posed, i ce tipuri de fonduri a generat de a lungul timpului.

The Income Statement


Although the balance sheet is a snapshot of a business, the income statement measures a companys performance over a given time frame. Technically, you could formulate a balance sheet for a month or even a day; however, public companies report only quarterly or annually. The income statement shows how much money the company generated (revenue), how much it spent (expenses), and the difference between the two (profit) over a given time period:

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Profits = Revenue Expenses Statutul de Venit Dei bilanul contabil este informaia instantanee a unei afaceri, statutul de venit msoarp performana pe o perioad dat de timp a unei companii. Tehnic poi s ntocmeti bilanul contabil pentru o lun sau chiar i pentru o zi; totui, companiile publice raporteaz doar semestrial sau anual Statutul de venit arat ct de muli bani a ncasat compania(venituri), ct de mult a cheltuit (cheltuieli ), i diferena dintre cele dou (profit) pe o perioad dat de timp. Profit = Venituri Cheltuieli

Economic Indexes Return On Sales (ROS) is a ratio that is widely used to evaluate a companys operational efficiency. The ROS is also known as a firms operating profit margin. This measure enables management to provide an insight into how much profit is being produced per dollar of sales. As with many ratios, it is best to compare a companys ROS over time to look for trends and compare it with the ROS ratios of other companies in the industry. An increasing ROS indicates that the company is growing more efficient, whereas a decreasing ROS could signal looming financial troubles. Return On Equity (ROE) is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholder equity. Return on equity measures a corporations profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money that shareholders have invested. The ROE is useful for comparing the profitability of one company to those of other firms in the same industry. Return On Investment (ROI) is a performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. In order to calculate ROI, the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is then expressed as a percentage or ratio. Indici Economici Profitul din vnzri ( PV ) este un raport care este utilizat pe scar larg pentru a evalua eficiena operaional a companiei.PV-ul este de asemenea cunoscut ca marja de operare a firmei.Aceast msur permite managementul pentru furniza o perspectiv ct profit este produs pentru fiecare dollar al vnzrilor.Ca majoritatea rapoartelor, este cel mai bine s compari PV-ul unei companii de-a lungul timpul cu PV-ul altor companii din industrie. Creterea PV-ului indic faptul c compania crete mai eficient, caz n care scderea PV-ului poate semnala o problem financiar iminent. Profitul din capitalul social (PCS) este suma veniturilor nete returnate ca procentaj al capitalului social al acionarilor.Profitul din capitalul social msoara rentabilitatea unei companii prin dezvluirea ct de mult profit a produs compania cu banii investii de ctre acionari.PCS este folositor pentru a compara rentabilitatea unei companii din acestea cu a celorlalte firme din aceai industrie. 28

Profitul din Investiie( PI ) este masur de performan folosit pentru a evalua eficiena unei investiii sau a compara eficiena unor numere diferite de investiii. n vederea calculrii PI, beneficiu(profitul) unei investii este divizat de costul investiiei; rezultatul este atunci exprimat ca procentaj sau raport.

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