Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
&
Protective Device Evaluation
User’s Guide
EDSA MICRO CORPORATION
16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330. San Diego, CA 92127 U.S.A.
© Copyright 2006 All Rights Reserved
Version 6.00.00
November 2006
Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION 
3 
1.1 TYPE OF FAULTS 
3 
1.2 TERMINOLOGY 
4 
1.3 SOURCES IN FAULT ANALYSIS 
6 
1.4 ANSI/IEEE MULTIPLYING FACTORS (MF) 
8 
1.5 LOCAL AND REMOTE CONTRIBUTIONS 
9 
2. ANSI/IEEE STANDARD BASED DEVICE EVALUATION 10
2.1 STANDARD RATINGS FOR HV AND MV CIRCUIT BREAKERS (CB) 
10 
2.2 STANDARD RATINGS FOR LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (LVCBS) 
14 
2.3 STANDARD RATINGS FOR LOW/HIGH VOLTAGE FUSES, AND SWITCHES 
16 
3. EDSA SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION METHOD 
19 
3.1 CALCULATION METHODS AND THE CORRESPONDING TOOLS 
19 
3.2 AC ANSI/IEEE STANDARD  EDSA 2005 SHORT CIRCUIT TOOLS: 
21 
3.3 AC CLASSICAL SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD: 
35 
3.4 AC IEC 60909 SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD: 
36 
3.5 AC IEC 61363 SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD: 
44 
3.6 AC 1 PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD: 
55 
4. MANAGING THE EDSA SHORT CIRCUIT PROGRAM 
55 
4.1 3P, LL, LG, LLG FAULT, ½ CYCLE: 
55 
4.2 3P, LL, LG, LLG FAULT, 5 CYCLE 
56 
4.3 3P, LL, LG, LLG FAULT, 30 CYCLE: 
57 
4.4 PHASE FAULT, 30 CYCLE: 
58 
4.5 PROTECTIVE DEVICE EVALUATION (PDE) TOOL: 
58 
4.6 REPORT MANAGER 
66 
4.7 SHORT CIRCUIT BACK ANNOTATION 
70 
4.8 MANAGING SCHEDULE IN SHORT CIRCUIT 
73 
5. THREEPHASE FAULTS IEC 61363 METHOD 95
6. EDSA 2005 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS INPUT DATA 
98 
6.1 POWER GRID INPUT DATA 
98 
6.2 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
99 
6.3 INDUCTION MOTOR SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
99 
6.4 SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
100 
6.5 HIGH VOLTAGE ANSI/IEEE CIRCUIT BREAKER SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
101 
6.6 LOW VOLTAGE ANSI/IEEE CIRCUIT BREAKER SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
102 
6.7 LOW VOLTAGE ANSI/IEEE FUSE SHORT CIRCUIT INPUT DATA 
104 
7. TUTORIAL: CONDUCTING A THREEPHASE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY 
105 
7.1 THE CALCULATION TOOLS 
106 
7.2 GRAPHICAL SELECTION OF FAULTED BUS (ANNOTATION) 108
110
7.3 SHORT CIRCUIT ANNOTATION TOOL
List of Figures
Figure 1: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 1 Figure 2: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 2
17
18
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List of Tables
Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times 
7 
Table 2: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library 
14 
Note:
You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is:
Short Circuit Analysis Program
SC_3Phase05.pdf
You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:
C:\EDSA2005\Samples\3PhaseSC
Test Files:
ANSIYY1, Busfault, EDM5, IEC160909, IEC260909, IEEE399, IEEEpde, MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West
©Copyright 2006 All Rights Reserved
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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE
1. 
INTRODUCTION 
The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. The protective devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and disruption to the plant’s operation. 

1.1 
TYPE OF FAULTS 
Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. The most common faults are:
• ThreePhase Fault, with or without ground (3P, or 3PG);
• Single line to ground Fault (LG);
• Line to Line Fault (LL);
• Line to line to ground Fault (LLG).
Estimated frequency of occurrence of different kinds of fault in power system is:
3P or 3PG: 
8 % 
LL: 
12 %; 
LLG: 
10 %; 
LG: 
70 %. 
Severity of fault:
Normally the threephase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe condition. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the threephase fault currents, however the total energy is less than a threephase fault. Such cases include faults that are close to the following types of equipment:
• The wye side of a solidly grounded deltawye transformer / autotransformer;
• The wyewye solidly grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta tertiary winding;
• A synchronous generator solidly connected to ground;
• The wye side of several wye grounded transformer running in parallel.
Type of Short Circuits:
a):3P – threephase; b):LL, linetoline; c):LLG, linetolinetoground; and d): LG, linetoground
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1.2
TERMINOLOGY
Arcing Time  the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases;
Available Short Circuit Current  the maximum short circuit current that the power system could deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance;
Breaking Current  the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole separation). It is also known as “Interrupting Current” in ANSI Standards.
Close and Latch Duty  the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and highvoltage circuit breakers, during the first cycle, with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault current X/R ratio. Often, the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1.6 factor to the first cycle symmetrical AC rms short circuit current. Close and latch duty is also called first cycle duty, formerly called momentary duty.
Close and Latch Capability  the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or high voltage circuit breaker to close, and immediately thereafter latch closed, for normal frequency making current.
The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.6 times the circuit breaker rated maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current. Often called first cycle capability. The rms asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating;
Contact Parting Time  the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. It is the sum of the relay or release delay and opening time;
Crest Current / Peak Current – the highest instantaneous current during a period;
Fault – an abnormal connection , including the arc, of relative low impedance, whether made accidentally or intentionally, between two points of different voltage potentials;
Fault Point X/R – the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R) ratio. Depending on the Standard, different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio;
First Cycle Duty – the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R ratio;
First Cycle Rating – the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault;
Interrupting Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation.
Sometime referred to as “ Breaking Current”,
I
b
, IEC60909;
Making Current – the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and latches into a fault;
Momentary Current Rating – the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the device or assembly is required to withstand. It was used on medium and highvoltage circuit breakers manufactured before 1965; present terminology: “Close and Latch Capability”;
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Offset Current  an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current zero axis;
Peak Current – the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period;
Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short  circuit location during the short circuit period time;
Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current;
Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the power network;
Initial short circuit current I _{K} " is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant
of occurrence of the short circuit, IEC 60909;
Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current I _{s} is the highest instantaneous rms value of the
short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit;
Symmetrical breaking current I _{a} , on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short
circuit conditions, is the r.m.s. value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the switching device at the instant of the first contact separation;
Rated voltage V _{R} the phasetophase voltage, according to which the power system is designated; IEC U _{R} the rated voltage is the maximum phasetophase voltage;
Nominal Voltage Un – (IEC) the nominal operating voltage of the bus.
Initial symmetrical short  circuit power S " is the product of
K
System breaking power S
B is the product of
3*I *U
a
N
3 *I
K
"*U
N
Minimum time delay t
circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device;
is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short
min
Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions;
Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions;
Direct earthling / effective earthling is the direct earthling of the neutral points of the power transformers;
Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current, or part of it, that flows back to the system through the earth;
Equivalent generator is a generator that can be considered as equivalent to a number of generators feeding into a given system.
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EDSA Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards:
• ANSI/IEEE Std. 141 – 1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book);
• ANSI/IEEE Std. 399 – 1997,IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE Brown Book);
• ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.010 – 1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis;
• ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.51979, IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis;
• ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.131990, IEEE Standard for LowVoltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures;
• IEC909 – 1988, International Electro technical Commission, Short Circuit Current Calculation in ThreePhase Ac Systems;
• UL 489_9 – 1996, Standard for Safety for MoldedCase Circuit Breaker, MoldedCase Switches, and CircuitBreaker Enclosures
• “A Practical Guide to ShortCircuit Calculations”, by Conrad St. Pierre
1.3 SOURCES IN FAULT ANALYSIS
Power utilities, all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation.
½ Cycle Network Duty
The decay of short circuit current is due to the decay of stored magnetic energy in the equipment.
The main impedances for the first ½ cylce is the subtransient impedance. It is generally used for the first ½ cycles up to a few cycles;
The ½ cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network, because all rotating machines are represented by their sub transient reactance.
½ cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for lowvoltage power breakers, low voltage moldedcase breakers, high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for switches and highvoltage breakers.
The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the ½ cycle network.
Type of Device
High voltage circuit breaker Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC Relay
Duty
Closing and latching capability Interrupting capability Bus bracing Instantaneous settings
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Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times
Source Type
Remote Utility (equivalent)
Local Generator
Synchronous Motor
Large Induction Motors:
> 1000 HP or 250 HP and 2 poles
Medium Induction Motors
50 to 249 HP or
250 to 1000 HP <2poles
Small Induction Motors <
50 HP
Harmonic Filters
1/2Cycle
Calculations
"
s
"
dv
"
dv
Z
Z
Z
"
_{Z}
Z % =
"
^{1}^{.}^{2}^{*} Z
1.67*
"
Z
100
Tuned
harmonic
_
Interrupting
Time
calculations
(1.5 to 4 cycles cpt)
Reference
Z
s
"
dv
Z
Z
1.5*
ANSI C37.010
ANSI C37.010
dv ANSI C37.010
"
1.5*
Z
"
ANSI C37.010
3*
Z
∞
_{X}_{”}_{d} _{=}
"
_{1} _{/}_{L}_{R}_{C}
ANSI C37.010
ANSI C37.13
For Induction
Motors
1.54 Cycle Network
This network is used to calculate the interrupting short circuit current and protective device duties (1.5 – 4) cycles after the fault.
Type of Device
High voltage circuit breaker (>1.0 kV) Unfused Low Voltage PCB without instantaneous All Other Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC bus
Duty
Interrupting capability Interrupting capability N/A N/A N/A
Steady State or 30Cycle Network
This network is used to calculate the steady state short circuit current and duties for some of the protective devices 30 cycles after the fault occurs (delayed protective devices). The type of power system component and its representation in the 30cycle network is shown in the following table. Note that the induction machines, synchronous motors, and condensers are not considered in the 30cycle fault calculation.
Source Type
Power Utility /Grid
Generators
Induction Motors Synchronous Motors
30 Cycle Calculation Impedance
Z
Z
"
s
'
dv
Infinite impedance
_{X}_{d}
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1.4 ANSI/IEEE MULTIPLYING FACTORS (MF)
The short circuit waveform for a balanced threephase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC component.
The DC component decays to zero, and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to constant amplitude in the steadystate
If the envelops of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around zero axis, they are called “Symmetrical”. If the envelops of the positive and negative peaks current are not symmetrical around the zero axis, they are called “Asymmetrical”.
If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current, the fault current has the AC component only, and it is symmetrical; if DC fault component is considered, then the fault current is asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current.
The multiplying factors MF converts the rms value of the symmetrical AC component into asymmetrical rms current or short circuit current duty. The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio and the instant of time that the fault current happens. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is calculated from separate R and X networks.
First Cycle (Asymmetrical) Total Short Circuit Current MF (Circuit Duty):
Is defined as:
MF
m
=
For: 
X/R = 25, the MFm is equal to 1.6. 
Note: 
In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate 
MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6
Peak Multiplying Factor
Is defined as:
MF
Peak
=
2(1
+
e
−
2 πτ
X
/ R
)
where τ is the instant of time when fault occurs, X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from separate R and X network.
For:
τ = ½ Cycle, and X/R = 25 to one decimal place is
MF
Peak
= 2.7
.
Note:
In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate
MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak= 2.7
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1.5 LOCAL AND REMOTE CONTRIBUTIONS
The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially constant “No AC Decay” (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC current magnitude (ACD).
If the fault is close to generator, then the AC component decays (ACD).
In other words, when generator is local or close to the faulted point the short circuit current decays faster. If the generator is remote from the faulted point, the ac short circuit current decay will be slow and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical AC component.
Per ANSI Standards:
A generator is a LOCAL SOURCE of the short circuit current if:
• The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1.5 times the generator perunit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA.
• Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than
0.4*
E
G
X
"
d
,
where the
bus.
E G
_{"}
X d
is the generator short circuit current for a threephase fault at its terminal
A generator is a REMOTE SOURCE of a short circuit current if:
• The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1.5 times the generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA.
The generator short circuit contribution may be written as:
I
G
=
E
G
(
X
External
+
X
"
d
)
• Its location from the fault is two or more transformations or
• Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes is less than or equal to
0.4*
E
G
X
"
d
,
where the
E G
_{"}
X d
is the generator short circuit current for a threephase fault at its terminal bus.
The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for threephase faults and linetoground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from remote sources.
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No AC decay (NACD) Ratio
The Total Short circuit Current is equal to:
and:
I
Total
=
I
Local
+
^{I} Re
mote
NACD =
I
Re mote
I Total
When all contributions are remote, or when there is no generator, then NACD = 1 When all contributions are local, then NACD = 0
2. 
ANSI/IEEE STANDARD BASED DEVICE EVALUATION 
2.1 
STANDARD RATINGS FOR HV AND MV CIRCUIT BREAKERS (CB) 
The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. However, the Contact Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. The typical total rated interrupting time for MediumVoltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37.06 – 1987). However, the MV CBs interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current, in the 2 8 cycle network.
Circuit Breaker Rated Interrupting Time, in Cycles 
CPT, in Cycles 
S 
2 
1.5 
1.4 
3 
2 
1.2 
5 
3 
1.1 
8 
4 
1.0 
S is the breakers’ asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to
which the breaker was manufactured.
on a ‘symmetrical’ current basis. Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a ‘total’ current basis. Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current.
Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated
Note: For circuit breakers rated on Total Current S=1.0
Medium voltage breakers duty is based on:
1. Momentary rating (C&L)
2. Peak (Crest)
3. Interrupting
The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated breakers. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next sections.
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Momentary Duty Calculation (C & L):
The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately latch) the maximum value of the firstcycle short circuit current. The closing and latching capability of a symmetrical currentrated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical, Total rms current, or peak current.
EDSA uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty:
1.
2.
Calculate the ½ cycle symmetrical short circuit (Isym,rms).
Calculate asymmetrical current value using the following formula:
Imom,rms,asym = MFm*Isym,rms,
where:
MF
m =
2 π
(EQ
−
1)
Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6
3.
4.
Compare Imom,rms,asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L,rms ) value:
If Device C&L,rms rating ≥ Imom,rms,asym, then the device Pass or otherwise it fails
Calculate the % Rating = (Imom,rms,asym*100)/Device C&L,rms rating
Peak Duty calculation (Crest):
1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).
2. Calculate the peak value of momentary SC using the following formula:
Imom,peak = MFp*Isym,rms
where: 

2 
πτ 

MFp = 
(1 
+ 
e
X
/
R
)
2

( 
EQ − 
2) 

and 
τ = 0.49  0.1*e
X/R
3
Note: In the short circuit option tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak= 2.7
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3. Compare Imom,peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat,peak ) value. If Device Creast,peak rating ≥ Imom,peak, then the device pass, or otherwise it fails
4. Calculate The % rating = (Imom,peak*100)/Device Crest,peak rating
Interrupting Duty Calculation
The Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability for a Symmetrical CurrentRated CB is the maximum rms current of the symmetrical AC and DC component, which the CB can interrupt regardless of how low the operating voltage is.
The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1.54 cycles short circuit current. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows:
( X / R) mod =
(X/R) * 60
System Frequency (Hz)
The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. There are three options:
• “All Remote” i.e. NACD =1.0. This is the most conservative solution;
• “All Local”; i.e. NACD =0
• “Adjusted”, this is based on actual calculations.
1. Determine if the generator is Local or Remote;
2. Calculate total remote contribution, total local contribution, then the NACD (the current is obtained by using the (1.54) cycle network impedance
3. Calculate NACD (No AC Decrement) ratio
NACD =
Iremote (Itotal  Ilocal)
Itotal (Iremote
+
Ilocal)
(EQ  3)
4. Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr, or MFl)
Remote – If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal fault then this generator is Remote, or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1.5 times the Generator Z’’dv. For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr:
MFr =
(
EQ −
4)
Where C = CB Contact Parting Time in Cyc.
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Local – For any local fault the multiplying factor MF l is calculated using the following formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.
MFl =
(
EQ −
5)
where: 

CPT 
K= 

1.5 
1.0278 
 0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R) ^{2}  0.000000068368(X/R) ^{3} 
2 
1.0604 
 0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R) ^{2}  0.0000002427(X/R) ^{3} 
3 
1.0494 
 0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R) ^{2}  0.000000075638(X/R) ^{3} 
4 
1.0370 
 0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R) ^{2}  0.0000002248(X/R) ^{3} 
5.
6.
7
The Adjusted Multiplying Factor (AMFi) is equal to:
AMFi = MF l +NACD (MFrMFl)
(EQ6)
If AMFi is less than 1.0 then the program uses 1.0
Calculate Iint,
All Remote:
All Local:
Mixed local and remote:
_{I}_{i}_{n}_{t} = MFr*Iint,rms,sym
Iint = MFl*Iint,rms,sym
Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym
Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated voltage using the following formula:
3P Device Duty = Min (
Device Int Rating * Rated Max kV
Operating Voltage kV
* Device Max Int Rating)
Compare Iint against the CB 3P Device Duty.
(EQ  6a)
If 3P Device Duty ≥ Iint, then the device Passes, otherwise it Fails.
8
Calculate % rating = (Iint *100)/ (3P Device Duty)
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2.2 STANDARD RATINGS FOR LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (LVCBS)
For LowVoltage CBs (LVCBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LVCBs are sensitive to the maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current.
If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as default by the EDSA program:
Table 2: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSA’s Library
Breaker Type 
Test %PF 
Test X/R 
Unfused Power Circuit (PCB) Breaker 
15 
6.59 
Fused Power Circuit Breaker, MCCB, ICCB (Insulated Case CB) 
20 
4.9 
Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated ≤ 10,000A 
50 
1.73 
Molded Case MCCB), ICCB rated 10,00120,000 A 
30 
3.18 
Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated > 20,000 A 
20 
4.90 
The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting:
1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).
2. Calculate Low Voltage Multiplying Factor (LVF)
PCB: Power Circuit Breaker
ICCB: Insulated Case Circuit Breaker
Fused PCB / MCCB / ICCB
LVFasym =
(
EQ −
7)
Unfused PCB / MCCB / ICCB with Instantaneous setting
Where
LVFp
^{=}
(1
+

e
− 2πτ
X/Rcalc
)
(1
+

e
−
2πT
X/Rtest
)
τ = 0.49  0.1e and
X/Rcalc
3
T = 0.49  0.1e
X/Rtest
3
(EQ 8)
−
In Options of the short circuit Tab “Control for ANSI/IEEE” , the user can select to use
τ =T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting “Applies 0.5 Cycles”.
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Unfused PCB without Instantaneous setting
If the breaker does not have an instantaneous setting then the breaker has two interrupting rating (peak and asymmetrical). Therefore the LVFp and LVFasym are calculated.
LVFasym =
(
EQ −
9)
Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value used by EDSA is 3 cycles.
The peak interrupting rating is calculated as follows:
Where
LVFp
^{=}
(1
+

e
− 2πτ
X/Rcalc
)
(1
+

e
−
2πT
X/Rtest
)
τ = 0.49  0.1e and
X/Rcalc
3
T = 0.49  0.1e
X/Rtest
3
(EQ 8)
−
3. If any of the LVF is less than 1.0 then uses 1.0
4. Calculate adjusted Interrupting factor
Fused Breakers
Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 38 cycle interrupting short circuit)
Unfused Breakers With Inst
Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit)
Unfused Breakers Without Inst
Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 38 cycle interrupting short circuit)
Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit)
5. Compare Iint,adj against the CB symmetrical interrupting rating.
If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iint,adj, then the device passes, or otherwise it fails
6. Calculate The % rating = (Iint,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating
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2.3 STANDARD RATINGS FOR LOW/HIGH VOLTAGE FUSES, AND SWITCHES
The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio.
The interrupting capabilities of LVFs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided.
Evaluation procedure:
1. Calculate the ½ cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).
2. Calculate Iasym:
Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc)
• If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
MFasym =
(EQ
−
1)
• If the fuse is asymmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
MFasym =
(
EQ −
10)
3. Compare Iasym,adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating.
If Device Symmetrical rating ≥ Iasym,adj, then the device Pass otherwise it Fails
4. Calculate The % rating = (Iasym,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating.
Note:
For standard switches the same formulae are used
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ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION
Perform ShortCircuit Study & Update Answer File. For frequency other than 60 Hz, then adjust the X/R where, (X/R)mod=(X/R)*60/(System Hz)
_{L}_{V}_{C}_{B}
For LVCB, MVCB & Fuses Calculate the ½ cycle shortcircuit current (Isym,rms). For MVCB calculate the Iint,rms,sym. Run the PDE analysis
Fuses/ Switches
For PCB without instantaneous use EQ8 & EQ9
MCCB/ICCB/PCBWith Instantaneous : 

Iint,adj =LVF*Isym,rms PCB Without Instantaneous: 

Iint,adj =LVFp*Isym,rms(½ Cyc) int,adj =LVFasym*Isym,rms(38 Cyc) 


NO
Is Device Symmetrical rating greater or Equal to Iint,adj?
Yes
MVCB
Fuse / Switch Symmetrical Rating, selected:
Calculate MF based on EQ1
Calculate MF based on EQ10
Fuse / Switch Asymmetrical Rating selected:
Is Device rating greater or Equal to Iasym,adj?
NO
Yes
Calculate
%rating=Isym,adj*100/
Device rating
Figure 1: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 1
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Figure 2: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 2
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3. 
EDSA SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION METHOD 
3.1 
CALCULATION METHODS AND THE CORRESPONDING TOOLS 
In order to launch EDSA Short Circuit program, click the short circuit icon as presented below:
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While in EDSA Technical 2005 Short Circuit program, both the short circuit analysis method and the corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below:
EDSA provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE Stds. and the IEC Standards, for both AC threephase and singlephase networks. The following short circuit calculation methods are implemented:
• AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard);
• AC Classical, (Z complex method, X/R from the complex Z);
• AC IEC 60909;
• AC IEC 61363;
• AC 1 Phase
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3.2 AC ANSI/IEEE STANDARD  EDSA 2005 SHORT CIRCUIT TOOLS:
EDSA 2005 Short Circuit Program: Short Circuit Tools
The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above, and are listed below:
Short Circuit Options
3 Phase Fault, 30 Cycle
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 1/2 Cycle
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 30 Cycle
Protective Device Evaluation
Report Manager
Short Circuit Back Annotation
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The Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Icon:
Short Circuit Analysis Option has two tabs:
• Calculation Tab, with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE, AC Classical, AC IEC 60909, AC IEC 61363 and AC 1Phase calculation. For this release, by using AC 1 Phase, faults can be performed only at all buses:
• Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method the user selects.
Click on this icon to launch the “Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option”: The Short Circuit Option Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below.
Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option
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Calculation Tab allows the user to select the followings:
• Base voltage: Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer running off nominal taps, or system voltage;
• Prefault voltage to be used in fault calculation: system voltage, load flow calculated voltage or actual / name plate voltage;
• Default output: Annotation, report or none;
• Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for output (to the screen or fault report; when selecting contribution levels of n buses away, depending on the number of faulted buses, the calculated results are displayed on the oneline diagram and printed in the output report;
• Fault impedance, only if the fault is at one bus only;
• Fault location: selected buses, all buses, sliding fault or series fault; (Sliding and series fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC 1phase calculation)
• Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults, and apply phase shift;
• Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current.
• Use the Schedule option to run schedules.
Fault Location
• Fault at one or more buses in the same run;
• Fault at all system buses, when the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, lineto ground, linetoline, and linetolinetoground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies.
Selection of One Bus:
The Bus can be selected:
• Graphically on the drawing, by a simple click on the desired bus, or;
• Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the “Add” button; the selected bus will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. To remove a bus from the “Selected Buses” list highlight the bus ID and click on “Remove” button. The highlighted bus will be transferred to the “All Buses“ list.
If One Bus is selected, then any fault type at that bus is calculated, branch contribution to that fault, bus postfault voltage and fault summary are generated.
Selecting More Than One Bus:
• Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus, then hold down the “shift key”; while the “shift key” is being held down, select each bus individually;
• Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add; the selected buses will be transferred to the “Selected Buses” list. To remove a bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the “All Buses” List.
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Notes:
• Faults at more than one bus, are faulted individually in turn, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, lineto ground, linetoline, and linetolinetoground fault at each selected bus which is faulted for short circuit studies;
• On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, I _{P}_{e}_{a}_{k} instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation.
Selecting All Buses:
Fault at all buses can be selected from the “Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only, by selecting “All Buses” option.
• Faults at “All Buses”, are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, linetoground, linetoline, and linetolinetoground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies;
• On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, I _{P}_{e}_{a}_{k} instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation.
• All buses are colored in “Red”.
The Short Circuit Report will provide:
• Bus Fault Current (3P, LL, LLG, LG, depending on the user selection);
• Branch currents (3P, LL, LLG, LG, depending on the user selection);
• Short Circuit multiplying Factors;
• Fault Summary;
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Sliding Fault:
The EDSA short circuit program can simulate a fault along a feeder/cable/transmission line. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a location along the feeder. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F).
to open the “Short Circuit Option” dialog window.
Click on this button
In the Calculation Tab, select “Sliding Fault”.
Selecting a Feeder / Branch:
Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the “All Feeders and Cables” Box and then click on the Add button; the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “Selected Feeders and Cables” Box.
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To remove a Feeder/Cable from the “Selected Feeders and Cables” box, highlight the Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the “All Feeders / and Cables Box / List.
In this release, only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time. Select a feeder “3C – 12”, and then press on the “OK” button; the Sliding Fault Report Manager is displayed as presented below:
Note:
Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC 1 Phase calculation.
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Sliding Fault: Report Manager
The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: “Any Position” away “From Bus” or select the “Number of Fault Spots” evenly spaced alongside the selected feeder. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points. Contributions from both ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at both ends are also reported. In case only one fault location is selected, then the exact fault location (i.e. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified.
Fault type:
• 
3Phase Fault; 
• 
Linetoline fault; 
• 
Linetoground fault; 
• 
DoubleLinetoGround fault. 
Units: 

• 
For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps, with the user defined decimal places; 
• 
For Capacity: KVA or MVA, with the user defined decimal places; 
• 
For Bus Voltages: volts or kiloVolts, with the userdefined decimal places. 
• 
Per Unit MF, %X/R: with the userdefined decimal places. 
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Sliding Fault Report: 300 Feet away from “From Bus”.
A partial Report is presented below:
EDSA
3Phase Short Circuit v6.00.00
Project No. : 
Page 
: 
2 

Project Name: 
Date 
: 12/1/2006 

Title 
: 
Time 
: 01:14:44 am 

Drawing No. : 
Company : 

Revision No.: 
Engineer: 

Jobfile Name: T123 
Check by: 

Scenario 
: 1 : mode1 
Date 
: 

Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE

Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault
Bus Results: 0.5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults

Fault Feeder 
: 
3C 
>12 
Fault R(Ohms) : 
0 

From 
Bus 
: 
12 
Fault X(Ohms) : 
0 

To 
Bus 
: 
3C 
Length(Feet) : 
300 

Fault 
Spot : 
150 
Feet away from 'From Bus' 
Thevenin Imped. Complex
PreFlt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt  
Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R
        
31828 3.7886 4.8206 3.0819
Fault Spot
Bus Name
V
A
A
A
A
480
31748
27494
29176


Branch Report for Sliding Fault
Branch Results: 0.5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LG Faults

Fault Feeder 
: 
3C 
>12 
Fault R(Ohms) : 
0 

From 
Bus 
: 
3C 
Fault X(Ohms) : 
0 

To 
Bus 
: 
12 
Length(Feet) : 
300 

Fault 
Spot : 
150 
Feet away from 'From Bus' 

System Volt: 
480 
V 
Base Volt: 
480 
V 
Prefault Volt: 
480 
V 

Fault Type 
: 
3phase LL 
LG 
LLG 

Spot RMS( 
A 
): 
31748 27494 
29176 
31828 

Spot X/R 
: 
3.08 
* Stands for the Low or Mid. voltage side of a transformer or To Bus > Fault Spot for Sliding Fault Feeder.
3Phase Fault
  
LineGround Fault
Thevenin
From Bus 
(A) 
From Bus 
(A) 
Impedance 

Branch Name 
V 
Ia 
Va 
Vb Ia 3Io Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 
        
3B 
>11 
0 
0 
0 

3C 
>12 
28.8 
29373 
38.6 
98.2 
27050 
27163 2.9297 2.5561 

3C 
>12 
* 
2.4 
2426 
3.1 
100.4 
2194 
2135 3.7253 4.6677 
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Series Fault:
Series fault types (one phase open, two phases open, and unequal series impedances) with or without neutral unbalance are supported in the EDSA’s short circuit program. The series fault types are shown in the below figure. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if prefault load has been taken into account (i.e. load flow solution is considered). For series faults, the equivalent voltage at the opening point is computed from the prefault system current at the unbalance point. The default fault impedances Za, Zb, and Zn are:
For one phase open (phase A), Default values: Zb=Zn=0.0 +j0.0 For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0+j0.0 For Series Unbalance (phases A, B, and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0.0+j0.0
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In EDSA short circuit Analysis Option, select “Series Fault” field to perform open phase study.
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Select the feeder / branch:
1. Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the “All feeders and Cables” box and then
2. Click on the “Add” button. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the “Selected feeders box as is presented below:
To remove a feeder / cable from the “Selected feeders” highlight the feeder/cable and click “Remove” button. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the “All feeders and Cables” box.
For series fault, only one feeder can be selected at a time.
3. Click “OK”.
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Series Fault Report Manager:
The program allows the user to select:
• one phase (one phase open);
• two phases open;
• unbalanced series fault.
At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms.
Units:
• For current: Amps or KiloAmps;
• For capacity: KVA or MVA;
• For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts.
Output File: to CSV or text file.
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Report is listed below:
EDSA
3Phase Short Circuit v6.00.00
Project No. : 
Page 
: 
1 

Project Name: 
Date 
: 12/1/2006 

Title 
: 
Time 
: 02:05:15 am 

Drawing No. : 
Company : 

Revision No.: 
Engineer: 

Jobfile Name: T123 
Check by: 

Scenario 
: 1 : mode1 
Date 
: 

Electrical OneLine 3Phase Network for ANSI PDE
Base MVA 
: 
100.000 
System Frequence(Hz) 
: 
60 
# of Total Buses 
: 
48 
# of Active Buses 
: 
48 
# of Total Branches 
: 
47 
# of Active Sources 
: 
3 
# of Active Motors 
: 
4 
# of Active Shunts 
: 
0 
# of Transformers 
: 
5 
Reference Temperature(°C) 
: 
20.0 
Impedance Displaying Temperature(°C) 
: 
20.0 
Calculating Series Fault
Classical Calculation Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current
Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.
Base
Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results
Voltages : Use System Voltages

Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report

Fault Feeder
:
3C
>12
Prefault Voltage
System 
Base 
 

Bus 
Bus Name 
kV 
kV 
kV 
% 
Degree 
      
From 
04 
0.48 
0.48 
0.48 
100.03 
0.00 

To 
12 
0.48 
0.48 
0.48 
99.94 
0.0 

Fault Impedance(Ohms) : 

Za = 
0 +j 
0 

Zb = Zc = 
0 +j 
0 

Zn = 
0 +j 
0 
Fault Current Direction : From Bus > To Bus
Phase Sym Fault Current at 1/2 Cycle (Magnitude in
 One Phase Open 
Item
   
Phase C
Phase A
Phase B
A
Magn. 
0 
95 
94 
Angle 
0 
122 
109.4 
, Angle in Degree)

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Control Tab:
AC ANSI/IEEE Standard:
The AC ANSI/IEEE method is based on a separate R and X matrix method:
Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed.
The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances – first cycle and interrupting cycles: 28 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std.
For calculating the MF the user can select:
• Based on X/R using the equations in section 2.0
• Or regardless of the X/R value, the MF is fixed
In calculating the MF the user can also select to use:
• Empirical value for τ;
• Or τ = T = 0.5.
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3.3 AC CLASSICAL SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD:
The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.
Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay, in cycles.
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3.4 AC IEC 60909 SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD:
The AC IEC 909 EDSA Short Circuit program tools are shown below.
Options;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Peak SC Current;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Initial Symmetrical Short Circuit Current;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, ½ Cycle;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 1 cycle Breaking;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 3 cycles Breaking;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 cycles Breaking;
3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady Sym. SC current;
Protective Device Evaluation (the program is being developed);
Report Manager;
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Back Annotation.
The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. The user can select the calculation based on:
• 1988 Version or
• 2001 Version
While in the IEC 60909 standard, the control tab allows the user to select:
• Fault Current Multiplying Factors;
• The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A, B, C or EDSA Thevenin).
Also, as per IEC 60909 standard, the user can select:
• System Voltage;
• IEC maximum Voltage;
• IEC minimum Voltage.
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Peak current method:
• Method A: uniform ratio R/X. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor;
• Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1.15 multiplied by the X _{b} . X _{b} from Fig.8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.;
• Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks; The value of X is calculated from Fig. 8, IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network;
• EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent.
Impedance correction factors:
1.
This field should be selected by the user when calculating the initial short circuit current in systems fed directly from generators without unit transformers. This is the situation when the user calculates the short circuit current at generator terminal.
Apply
K
g
factor to Generator
Z
g
impedance:
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The
K
Where:
g factor is given by formula (18) – IEC Std.:
K
G
=
U
n
c max
U
rG
1
+ X
"
d
sinϕ
G
(18, IEC Std.)
U
U
X
sinϕ
n


rG
"
is the system rated voltage;
the generator rated voltage;
d
 generator sub transient reactance referred to generator rated impedance;
G
 generator phase angle between current and terminal voltage.
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2.
Apply
K
t
factor to network transformer
Z
t
:
The EDSA user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer.
A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more networks at different voltages (IEC Std.). For twowinding transformers with and without onload tapchanger, an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to IEC (equation (7) to (9)).
K
T
=
0.95
c max
1
+
0.6
X
T
(IEC eq. 12a)
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Where:
X
T
is the relative reactance of the transformer and c is from table 1 is related to the nominal
max
voltage of the network connected to the lowvoltage side of the network transformer. This correction factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC, see 3.7). This factor is active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the transformer editor, as presented below:
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3. Apply Adjust
If the user selects this field, then EDSA adjusts
program consider the transformer impedance as a function of the transformer tap position.
Z
t
factor by using actual tap:
Z
T by using actual transformer tap. In this situation the
If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program, as follows:
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c max
c min
Standard: 

Above 1000 V: 
1.1 
1 
Low Voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W 
1.05 
1 
Other voltage levels, 3P3W 
1.05 
1 
Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P4W 
1 
0.95 
Other voltage levels, 3P4W 
1.05 
1 
User Defined: 

Above 1000 V: 
per user selection 
per user selection 
Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W/4W Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W 
per user selection per user selection 
per user selection per user selection 
If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the “c” factor values are provided by the program, as follows:
Standard:
Above 1000 V:
A
Other
c max
1.1
1.05
c min
1
0.95
User Defined: 

Above 1000 V: 
per user selection 
per user selection 
Other 
per user selection 
per user selection 
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3.5 AC IEC 61363 SHORT CIRCUIT METHOD:
IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and displays its instantaneous values. The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (offshore platforms and ships electrical design). The machine’s sub transient reactance and time constants are used by this method. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.
EDSA AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below:
Options;
Phase Fault, ½ Cycle;
3
Phase Faulr, 5 Cycles;
3
Phase, 30 Cycles;
3
Report of SC Results Varying with time;
Report Manager;
Back Annotation.
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Options:
The “Options” features are similar to ANSI Method.
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Report Manager:
As can be seen from the window dialog above, the Short Circuit Report can be:
• Graph Output;
• Report output.
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Detailed Fault Report:
If “Detailed fault report” is launched, the following dialog window is displayed:
Select the items be displayed in the Report.
Detailed Fault Report displays:
Td – DC Time constant, in seconds; Iac – Short circuit AC symmetrical component, rms value; Idc – Short circuit DC component; Ienv Short circuit envelope;
Version 6.00.00
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