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Music Vocabulary

Accelerando: becoming faster Accent: emphasis on a note Adagio: at ease, slow tempo Agitato: excited Allargando: slower, broder, louder Allegretto: somewhat slower than allegro Allegro: fast tempo Alto Clef: indicates middle C on third line of staff Amoroso: tender and affectionate Andante: walking tempo Andantino: somewhat faster than andante Animato: animated; lively Appassionato: with intense emotion Articulation: clarity of musical performance Attack: promptness and decision in beginning a tone Bar Line: separates a staff into measures Bass Clef: indicates F below middle C on the fourth line of the staff Brillante: bright Caesura (//): pause Calando: gradually softer and slower Calmo: calm, tranquil Cantabile: in a singing style Coda: ending section of a piece (sign indicates to go to coda) Col Legno: hitting the string with the wood part of the bow Con anima: with life and animation Con fuoco: with energy or passion Con brio: with vigor and spirit Con moto: with motion Con spirito: spirited Crescendo: get louder

Da capo (D.C.): from the beginning Decrescendo: get softer Del segno (D.S.): from the sign Detache: detached; articulation comes from the change of direction of the bow. Diminuendo: get softer Dolce: sweetly Double Bar: indicates the end of a piece or section Espressivo: expressively Fermata: Hold Fine: ending First Ending: ending to be used the first time Flat (b): lowers a note one half-step Forte (f): loud Forte-piano (fp): loud immediately followed by soft Fortissimo (ff): very loud Forzando, forzato (fz): sudden, strong accent Furioso: furious Giocoso: humorous Grandioso: with grandeur Grand Pause (G.P.): silence Grave: grave; solemn Key Signature: tells what notes to play sharp or flat in a piece or section Largando: slowing down Largo: broad Legato: connected, smoothly Lento: slow tempo Loure: linked bowing Maelzel: metronome marking indicating number of beats per minute Maestoso: majestically Marcato: marked, stressed Martele: a strongly articulated bow stroke used in marcato style

Marziale: march style Measure repeat (/): repeat the previous measure Meno mosso: less motion Mezzo piano (mp): moderately soft Mezzo forte (mf): moderately loud Moderato: moderate tempo Morendo: dying away Natural: cancels a sharp or flat Octave (8va): play the music one octave higher (8vb): play the music one octave lower Passionato: passionate Pesante: heavy Phrase: a complete musical thought or sentence Pianissimo (pp): very soft Piano (p): soft Piu mosso: more motion Pizzicato: plucking the string Presto: very fast tempo Rallentando (rall.): gradual slackening in speed Repeat Sign: repeat back to the beginning or to the last facing repeat sign Retardando (retard., rit.): gradual slackening in speed Ricochet: dropping or throwing the bow onto the string and letting it rebound a specific number of times Rubato: freely, not necessarily in tempo Saltando: dropping or throwing the bow onto the string and letting it rebound a specific number of times Scherzando: playful, lively Second Ending: ending to be used upon taking a repeat Segno: the sign, go back to the sign at a D.S. Sempre: always, continuously Serioso: serious Sforzando (sfz or sf): sudden, strong accent

Simile: similarly, continue in the same manner Sharp: raises a note one half-step Slur: two or more notes connected by a single articulation Sordamente: muted Sostenuto: sustained, legato Spiccato: bounced bowing Staccato: short, detached Staff: 5 lines and 4 spaces, upon which music is written Sul Ponticello: the bow is drawn directly on the bridge Sul Tasto: the bow is drawn over the finger board Sustenuto: slackening the tempo Tenuto (ten.): sustained, held out Tie: two of the same notes (pitch) to be played together as one longer note Time Signature: Top number = number of beats per measure Bottom number = what kind of note gets the beat Treble Clef: indicates G above middle C on the second line of the staff Tremolo: a very fast detache bowing; unmeasured strokes Trill: ornamentation consisting of alternating of two consecutive notes Vivace: quick, lively