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# KPD3016 PENGAJARAN, TEKNOLOGI DAN PENAKSIRAN

ASSIGNMENT 3
TOPIC: MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

: : : :

ASSIGNMENT 3(a)

## Changes in the state of matter

Solid
melting +heat freezing -heat
sublimation

Arrangement of matter
Periodic Table
increasing proton number vertical column

Liquid
boiling +heat
condensation -heat

Contains
horizontal column

## Group Period Metals Non-metals Semimetals

Gas

Substances
small particles charged particles group of atoms

left

Classified into

right

Atom
MP BP

Ions
MP BP

Molecules
MP BP

Purification of matter
neutral

-ve charged

+ve charged

By

Electron
orbit NOTES: MP: MELTING POINT BP: BOILING POINT

Proton

Neutron
nucleus

Distillation Crystallisation

## ASSIGNMENT 3(b) SUBJECT: SCIENCE TOPIC: 4.0 MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

UNIT FACTS 4.1 Analysing changes in the states of matter 1) The kinetic theory of matter explains the energy and forces between particles in matter. 2) The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. KNOWLEDGE CONCEPT The kinetic theory has three basic assumptions: a) Matter is made up of tiny particles. b) The particles are in constant motion. c) When temperature rises, the particles obtain more kinetic energy and move faster. GENERALISATION COGNITIVE Explain the kinetic theory of matter. SKILLS PSYCHOMOTOR Relates changes in heat to changes in kinetic energy of the particles in matter. SOCIAL Justify changes of state of substances in daily life.

Ice Water
melting freezing

Water Steam
condensation boiling

Solid Gas
sub lim ation

Energy is absorbed during melting and boiling. Energy is released during condensation and freezing. Energy is absorbed enough during sublimation.

## 4.2 Atomic structure

1) Atoms are made up of three types of subatomic particles called electron, proton and neutron.

1) The nucleus of the atom contains protons and neutrons. 2) Electrons move around orbits.

## 4.3 Proton number and nucleon number

1) Proton number is the number of protons in an atom. 2) Nucleon number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

1) Each element has a different proton number. 2) Isotopes are atoms of an atom element which have the same proton number but different nucleon numbers.

Electron number number of protons Nucleon number proton number neutron number

## State what proton and nucleon number are.

Relate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom to its proton number and nucleon number.

Organises the number of protons, electrons and neutrons and neutrons in atoms of different elements.

## 4.4 Periodic Table

1) The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in the order of increasing number.

1) Vertical columns in the table are called groups. -18 group of element -same group have similar chemical

Change in chemical and physical properties (moving from left to right across a period) A decrease in metallic properties and an increase in

## Describe the arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table.

Identify the locations of metal, non-metal and semimetals in the Periodic Table.

## Explains what is meant by groups and periods in the Periodic Table.

properties 2) Horizontal rows in the table are called periods. 3) On the left, metals. On the right, non-metals.

non-metallic properties. A change in the properties of oxides from basic (alkaline) to acidic. A decrease in electrical conductivity of the element.

## 4.5 The properties of substances

1) Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that take part in chemical reactions. 2) A molecule is a group of atoms (two or more) that are joined chemically. 3) An ion is a charged particle (positive and negative ions).

1) Substances made of atoms have high melting and boiling points. 2) Substances made of molecules have low melting and boiling points. 3) Substances made of ions have high melting and boiling points.

## Describe what atoms, molecules and ions are.

Relate the physical properties of substances made of atoms, molecules and ions to the arrangement of particles and the forces of attraction between them.

Justify substances that are made of atoms, molecules and ions based on their physical properties.

## 4.6 Metals and non-metals

1) Properties of metals: -shiny, high melting and boiling point, high density, good conductor of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, solids at room temperature (except mercury) 2) Properties of nonmetals: -dull surface and brittle, low melting and boiling points, low density, poor heat and electrical conductor, brittle, solid, liquid or gas at room temperature

1) Similarities of metals and nonmetals Both are elements Both are made of atoms 2) Differences of metals and nonmetals Luminosity, ductility, malleability, tensile strength, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity

Metals are widely used in our daily life. e.g. Copper wire: excellent conductor of electricity and highly ductile. Gold and silver: malleable, ductile, shiny and unreactive.

## List examples of metals and nonmetals

Compare and contrast metals and non-metals based on their physical properties.

Identify the physical properties of metals and nonmetals to their uses in daily life.

Most non-metal solids are brittle; they break easily when hit. e.g. Chlorine: poisonous. Used to kill bacteria in water. Neon lights: unreactive. Used in making neon lights.

## 4.7 Methods of purifying substances

1) A pure substance is a single substance, not mixed with anything else. 2) A pure substance has fixed melting and boiling points.

1) Impurities will lower the melting point of a substance and increase its boiling point. 2) Methods used for purification of substances include distillation and crystallisation.

Distillation: way of obtaining pure solvent from a solution. e.g. Distillation of sea water.

## Relate the characteristics of substances to the method of purification used.

Explain the examples of method of purification used to produce substances in daily life.

Crystallisation: mixture of sand (insoluble solid) and salt (soluble solid) can be separated by filtration.

## 1) Substances can be utilized to benefit mankind.

1) The existences of various substances with different characteristics and states have made our lives much easier to benefit mankind. 2) We should appreciate all these resources.

Different characteristics and states used in daily life. e.g. spoons, liquefied petroleum gas, fire extinguisher.

Describe how man uses various substances of different characteristics and states in everyday life.

## Identify substances with different characteristics and states.

Justify the importance of the existence of various substances of different characteristics and states that benefit mankind.