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BIRLA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PILANI FIRST SEMESTER 2009-10 TRANSDUCERS & MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS (INSTR C381) COMPREHENSIVE EXAM PART A: CLOSED BOOK, M.MARKS: 60, TIME: 90 MIN PART B: OPEN BOOK, M. MARKS: 60, TIME: 90 MIN

PART A (CLOSED BOOK)

NOTE: ALL PARTS OF A QUESTION MUST BE DONE IN SEQUENCE

Q1.

 

a)

Name two modifying/interfering inputs in manometers (other than ambient

 

temperature).

 

b)

Name two specifications of Sample Hold circuits.

c)

Name two methods to measure speed from pulse train obtained from photo

 

detector.

 

d)

Name two devices for low pressure measurement based on relationship between

 

thermal conductivity and low pressure.

 

e)

Name (i) Flow meter using concept of Strouhal number (ii) Effect used in fiber

 

optic gyroscope.

(5 x 2M=10M)

Q2.

(a)

Prove that variance is difference of mean of squares and square of means.

(b)

Derive the expression for gage factor for a strain gage.

 

(c) Pressure of a pump is varying sinusoidally between 20 psi and 60 psi with frequency

of 10 cycles/sec. What should be the time constant of the first order measuring

instrument to reproduce readings with an error of not more than 2%? What would be

the time lag in seconds?

(d)

In MEMS design of spring mass damper arrangement, derive the effect of scaling on

natural frequency of the system. If size is reduced by a factor of 10, by what factor

the natural frequency is changed?

(e)

Op-amp 741 (slew rate of 0.5V/μsec, UGB=1 MHz) is configured as an inverting

amplifier with gain of 10. (i) Calculate FPBW (ii) For an input sinusoid with

amplitude of 50 mV what is the useful frequency range of operation without

sacrificing gain?

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(5x4M=20M)

Q3.

Diagrams without proper labeling will not be acceptable.

(a)

Draw ramp response, step response and frequency response of “Dead Time” element.

(b)

Draw a Synchro pair used as Error Detector.

(c)

Draw schematic of Torquemeasurement system using Feedback.

(c)

Draw schematic of Constant temperature Anemometerin Automatic Mode.

(d)

Draw schematic of “Ratio Pyrometer”.

(e)

Draw a voltage to currentconverter around Instrumentation Amplifier and derive expression for load current I L through the grounded load R L which is

connected at V ref . R S is the resistance connected between output and reference

pins.

(5x4M=20M)

Q4. For the sigma delta converter shown , V ref for ADC & DAC is 5 V, ADC/DAC are

of 3 bit, input voltage is 4 V. Make a table and enter values in five rows under four

column headings of Error, V sum , ADC O/P, DAC O/P.

(10M)

Make a table and enter values in five rows under four column headings of Error, V

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PART B (OPEN BOOK)

Q1. Tachogenerator shown in figure generates 6V/10000 rpm and the load cell produces 0.011mV per Newton per volt of excitation voltage. What will be the calibration

factor for e 0 in hp/mV if arm length is 300 mm?

(10M)

factor for e 0 in hp/mV if arm length is 300 mm? (10M) Q2. Figure below
factor for e 0 in hp/mV if arm length is 300 mm? (10M) Q2. Figure below

Q2. Figure below shows the circuit for measuring current through resistance R 5 using an ammeter having resistance R m . Find percentage error in current measurement when

(i)

Current is measured through R 5 and R m =10 ohm

(ii)

Current is measured through R 5 and R m =1 ohm

(iii)

Current is measured through R 3 and R m =10 ohm

(iv)

Current is measured through R 3 and R m =1 ohm Assume R 1 =R 2 =R 3 =R 4 =R 5 =100 ohm

(10M)

is measured through R 3 and R m =1 ohm Assume R 1 =R 2 =R

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Q3. A pitot tube is used to measure the velocity of flowing river water and shows a pressure differential of 100 mm of water. What is the velocity? If river discharge is 5x10 8 US gallons/min at the average velocity calculated, what is the river bed

diameter, assuming it to be semi circular?

(6M)

Q4. (a) Two concentric metallic cylinders of length 0.1 m are separated by radial distance of 0.03 mm. The inner cylinder has a diameter of 2 mm. What is the maximum capacitance value of the transducer? If the inner cylinder moves axially through a distance of 1.5 mm, by what percentage the capacitance changes? (b) A current of 4 A is passed through a Hall sensor having thickness of 1.6 mm to measure a magnetic field of 1 Wb/m 2 . Hall constant is 4 cm 3 /Coulumb. What is the magnitude of Hall voltage developed? (6+ 4 =10M)

Q5. Tea bags of 1 kg are to be packed. It is found that packets produced follow normal distribution with mean of 1.05 kg and variance of 0.0009 kg. What is the percentage of packets that weigh (i) Less than 1 kg (ii) More than 1.15 kg (iii) For what range around mean 90% of the bags will fall? [Do not use Interpolation, used nearest

values]

(6M)

Q6. At time t = 0 sec, an accelerometer having sensitivity of 0.1V/g is subjected to an acceleration signal of 10g for a duration of 10msec. The accelerometer output is connected to an ideal inverting amplifier configuration around op-amp. Z in =R= 10kohm, and Z f is C (10nF) parallel with R F (1 Mohm). Saturation voltage of op- amp is + 13 V. (a) draw the circuit (b) Plot output voltage of op-amp as time t

varies from zero to infinity when (i) R F is absent (ii) R F is present.

(10M)

Q7. A solar cell under an illumination of 500W/m 2 has a short circuit current I sc of 150 mA and an open circuit voltage V oc of 0.530 V. What are the short circuit and open circuit voltage when the light intensity is doubled. V oc is given as:

V oc = 0.039 ln(I/I s ); I is the photocurrent , I s = 10 nA is the Reverse saturation

current.

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(8M)