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# Worked Examples - Vibration Measurement & Control Note: In these examples practical answers are given.

When calculating use the full accuracy of a spreadsheet or calculator but when quoting the answer it cannot be more accurate than the data that was used for the calculation. If the data is quoted to two significant figures then the answer cannot be more accurate than that. For assessment purposes, quote the calculated answer and then round it to a realistic answer. In most practical engineering cases it is likely that an answer within 1% is as accurate as can be expected due to a range of uncertainties including material properties, measurement accuracy and manufacturing tolerances. 1. A spring mass system has spring constant k = 50kN/M and mass 500kg. Calculate the natural frequency in Hz and the natural angular frequency. Answer:
fn = 1 2 k 1 = m 2 50000 500

= 1.59 Hz

= 2f = 21.59

2. A sinusoidal vibration is described by the function X = A sin ( t) if the frequency is 2 Hz and A = 2mm Calculate the value of X at time t = 0.03
= 2f = 2 2 = 12.57 rad/sec

## X = 2 sin (12.56 x 0.03) = +0.74 mm = +0.7mm

3. The displacement function for a sinusoidal vibration is described by: X = A sin ( t) For the the the the = 320 rad/sec A = 0.5mm

this vibration calculate peak value of displacement peak value of velocity peak value of acceleration in m/sec2 and g RMS value of acceleration in g

Peak value = A at sin ( t) = 1 so A = 0.5mm peak displacement Peak velocity is amplitude when cos ( t) = 1 Velocity = A cos ( t) 160mm/sec A = peak = 0.5 x 320 =

Peak acceleration is amplitude when sin ( t) = 1 Acceleration = -A 2 sin ( t) A 2 = peak = 0.5 x 3202 =51200mm/sec2 = 51m/sec2 = 51/9.8 = 5.6 g Acceleration RMS = 0.707 Peak = 0.707 x 5.6 = 3.96 g = 4g 4. Plot V = B cos ( t) where = 20 rad/sec, B = 3mm/sec for 1 cycle
= 2f

f =

= 20/2 = 3.18 Hz 2

f = 1 T

## so T = 0.314 sec , use 8 steps to plot = 0.314/8 = 0.0393 sec

between steps
time cos(wt) Bcostwt 0 0.0393 1 0.706681 3 2.120043 0.0786 -0.0012 -0.00361 0.1179 -0.70838 -2.12515 0.1572 -1 -2.99999 0.1965 0.2358 0.2751 0.3144 -0.70498 0.003611 0.710079 0.999988 -2.11493 0.010833 2.130238 2.999965

## 4 3 2 Amplitude 1 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 time 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

5. If T = 0.001 sec for a harmonic vibration, calculate frequency and angular frequency
f = 1 = 1000 Hz T
= 2f

6. A Fourier analysis of a signal has determined four components: C1 C2 C3 C4 = = = = A sin ( t) B sin ( t) C sin ( t) D sin ( t) A = 5 mm/s, 1 = 20 rad/sec B = 13mm/s, 2 = 35 rad/sec C = 3 mm/s, 3 = 70 rad/sec D = 6.9mm/s, 4 = 110 rad/sec

Plot the frequency spectrum for this signal Answer Calculate frequency for each 1= 2= 3= 4= 20 rad/sec 35 rad/sec 70 rad/sec 110 rad/sec F F F F = = = = 3.2 Hz 5.6 Hz 11.1 Hz 17.5 Hz

RMS amplitudes (frequency spectrum is usually RMS) A = 5 mm/s =3.5 mm/s RMS (RMS = 0.707 Peak)

B = 13mm/s =9.2 mm/s RMS C = 3 mm/s, = 2.1 mm/s RMS D = 6.9mm/s = 4.9 mm/s RMS
10 mm/s

7. A spring has a mass of 20 kg applied which causes a deflection of 1 mm. Calculate the spring constant 5 15 20 Hz If a0 35 kg mass is attached10 the spring instead of the 20 kg mass, to what is the deflection? What is the natural frequency for this system? Answer For a spring: F=kx so k = F/x = 20 x 9.8/0.001 = 196kN/m for the 35 kg mass, x = F/k = 35 x 9.8 / 196000 = 1.75mm = 1.8mm Note also that the spring is a linear device so that simple proportion works. Deflection is 1mm for 20kg so the deflection due to 35 kg is in proportion: 35/20 = x/1 so 35 x 1/20 = x = 1.75 mm

Natural Frequency
fn = 1 2 k 1 = m 2 196000 35

= 12 Hz

8. A 1DOF spring mass system has a natural frequency of 200Hz. A forced vibration with frequency of 500Hz is applied to this system. What is the amplification? If the forced vibration has a peak amplitude of 0.1mm what will be the peak vibration amplitude of the mass in this system? Answer If the natural frequency is 200 Hz and the forced frequency is 500 Hz then the frequency ratio is frequency ratio = f forced/ f natural = 500/200 = 2.5 This value is found along the bottom axis of the response curve (assuming damping = 0 as there is no other data supplied)

10.00

## From the response curve the amplification is 0.17

If the peak vibration amplitude of the forced frequency is 0.1mm then the peak amplitude of the mass vibration will be in proportion to the amplification Amplification = 0.17 = Output / Input = Output/0.1 Or 0.17 x 0.1 = Output = = 0.017 mm peak vibration of the mass 0.02 mm peak

9 A spring mass system has k= 10kN/m, mass = 120kg What is the natural frequency? If the forced frequency is 10Hz at a peak velocity of 10mm/sec determine the RMS displacement of the mass. The damping ratio is 0.2 and the forced vibration is sinusoidal.