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ENGLISH
(1)Simple Present Tense: S+V1; He/She/It+VS;

GRAMMAR
ES Cnd verbul se termin n: o, sh, ch, ss, s, x;

Aciune permanent, frecvent, repetat, program oficial;

He plays chess very well. The plane takes off at 9 oclock. Oh, yes, Jean and I know each other very well.
Interogativ: Negativ:

Do/Does + S + V1;

Does he play chess very well?

S + Dont/Doesnt + V1;

He doesnt play chess very well.

(2)Present Continous: S + Be (present) + VING;


Aciune n momentul vorbirii (now). Aciune temporal (Today, this). Aciune viitoare programat ntr-un moment din prezent. Cnd aciunea supr sau irit folosim aspect continuu.

He is coming tomorrow. He is always eating when I try to talk to him. Interogativ: Be (present) + S + VING; Am I always eating when I try to talk to him? Negativ: S + Be (present) + not +VING; He is not coming tomorrow. (3)Present Perfect Continous: S + have/has + been + VING: since ;
He/She/It

Since= de cnd, de la, din, nceput de aciune; Aciune temporal nceput n trecut care continu n prezent i poate continua i n viitor. For= de durat; How long= de ct timp; All day long= toat ziua;

He has been playing chess for two hours.


Interogativ:

Have/has +S +been +VING; have/has + not + been + VING;

Have you been playing chess all day long?


Negativ: S+

He have not been plaiyng chess all day long.

(4)Present Perfect Simple: S + have/has + V3


ED;

Aciune ncheiat fr moment precizat. Aciune nceput care continu sau are urmri n prezent. Accentul cade pe rezultat. Corespunde perfectului compus. Adverbe i prepoziii ale timpului Prezent Perfect Simple: always, never, ever, often, seldom, already, just, yet, so far, lately, today, this, since, for.

He has come. He has always called me.


Interogativ: Negativ:

Have/has + S + V3;

Has he come?

S + havent/hasnt + V3;

He hasnt come yet.

(5)Simple Past Tense: S + V2;


ED;

Corespunde perfectului compus. Cnd folosim aciune ncheiat fr legtur cu prezentul. Momentul se precizeaz. Aciune permanent n trecut. Adverbe i prepoziii ale timpului Simple Past Tense: yesterday, last, ago;

He called me yesterday.
Interogativ: Did Negativ: S

+ S + V1;

Did he call me yesterday?

+ didnt + V1;

He didnt call me.

(6)Past Tense Continous: S + was/were + VING;


It/I/He/She

Aciune n desfurare cu momentul precis. Aciuni trecute n desfurare. Momentul precis se indic obligatoriu prin adverbe de timp: at this time, at x oclock, on Monday. Corespunde imperfectului n limba romn.

He was watching T.V. at this time yesterday.


Interogativ: Negativ: S

Was/Were + S + VING; + wasnt/werent + VING;

Was he watching T.V. at this time yesterday? He wasnt watching T.V. at this time yesterday.

(7)Past Perfect Continous:

1)

S + Had been + VING; 2) S + Used to +V1;

Aciune n desfurare, cu moment precis, artnd durata(1). Sunt folosite adverbele: since, for, how long. Aciune frecvent n trecut(2).

He had been watching T.V. for an hour when you called me. When I lived in the country, I used to swim in the lake.
Interogativ:
1)

Had + S + been + VING; 2) Had + S + used to + V1;

Had he been watching T.V. for an hour when you called me? Had I used to swim in the lake when I lived in the country?
Negativ:
1)

S + hadnt + been + VING; 2) S + Hadnt + used to + V1;

He hadnt been watching T.V. for an hour when you called me. When I lived in the country I hadnt used to swim in the lake.

(8) Past Perfect Simple: 1) S + Had + V3; 2) S + Had + VED;


I had read this book a year ago. After I had come back I called him.
Interogativ: 1) Corespunde la mai mult ca perfect n limba romna; 2-aciuni trecute: PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST TENSE SIMPLE

Had + S +V3; 2) Had + S + VED; Had I read this book a year ago? Negativ: 1) S + Had not + V3; 2) S + Had not + V ED; (9) Future Tense Simple: S + will + V1;
They will come next summer;
Interogativ: Negativ: Aciune viitoare gndita ca posibil realizata;

Will + S + V1;

Will they come next summer?

S + Will not + V1;

They will not come next summer.

(10)Future Tense Continuous: S + will be + VING;


Aciune viitoare cu moment prcis: at this time; at x oclock; on Sunday;

They will be playing at this time tomorrow.


Interogativ: Negativ: S

Will + S + be + VING; + will not be + VING;

Will they be playing at this time tomorrow? They will not be playing at this time tomorrow.

(11)Future Perfect: 1) S + will have + V3; 2) S + will have + VEd;


Viitor anterior ( voi fi scris); Punctul maxim la care o aciune se poate ncheia;; by: cel mai trziu, pna la;

Ill have fixed my car by the end of the week.


Interogativ: 1)

Will + S + have + V3; 2) Will + S + have + VED; S + Will not have + V3; S + Will not have + VED;

Will I have fixed my car by the end of the week?


Negativ: 1) 2)

I will not have fixed my car by the end of the week. (1) P.P.: Future P.S.: Present => Simultaneitate; Ill come when I have time. (2) P.P. :Future Cnd propozitia secundara este anterioara P.S. :Present Perfect Simple principalei; After I called him I will have a rest.

S + Be going to + V1 I m going to visit him. S + Be to + V1


We are to meet you.

hear, smell, taste, notice formeaza aspectul continuu cu ajutorul verbului can (nu se traduce).

Verbele de percepie: see, S + can + Vde percepie;

I can see him there now.

S + cant + Vde percepie;


I cant see him there now.

Verbe cu aspect continuu:


Have (a avea); be(a fi); Im having breakfast now. modale: can; percepie; alte verbe: want, wish, like, dislike, hate love, know, understand, recognize, realize, remember, forget, forgive, wonder, own. I have had this car for two years.

Modal Verbs (M.V.):


Caracteristici: I can speak English.
Au numai infinitiv scurt( fara to): can, may, must. Sunt urmate de verbe la infinitivul scurt. Formeaza interogativul prin inversiune.

M.V. + S +.?; May I go there? Negativ: S + M.V. + not + V;

Cannot=cant; may not; must not= mustnt; Can = be able to = a putea, a fi n stare, a ti, a se pricepe; Present: S + Can: I can fix this car. Im able to fix this car. Past: S + Could: I could fix this car. I was able to fix this car. Future: S + will be able to: Ill be able to fix this car. Can = Permission = permisiune(informal - nu are un caracter protocolar). Can I barrow your pen? You can park here. You can ski on the hill. Can present conditional (a putea) : S + could + V short infinitiv; I could do past conditional : S + could have + V simple; I could have done it.
permisiune data de legi sau de anumite situaii(mprejurari). Nu au aspect continuu. Nu au toate timpurile ( folosesc echivaleni).

Cant = impossibility. present: S + cant + V1; She cant say such a thing. past: S + cant have + V3/ED; She cant have said such a thing. May = be allowed to = pemitted to = a putea, a avea permisiunea. Present: S + May + V1 : I may go out and play. Im allowed to go out and play.

Past: 1) S + was/ were + allowed to/permitted to.


I was allowed to go out and play
2) S

+ may have + V3/ED;

He may have come.

Future: s + will be allowed to/will be pemitted to + V1;


Ill be allowed to go out and play. May = permission (formal). You may ski on the hill. Might:

present conditional: S + might + V1; :a putea ( repro) You might call us. Past conditional: S + might have + V3; :a fi putut (repro puternic) You might have told us the truth.

Must = Have to = a trebui (obligativitate); present : S + must + V1. You must fix your car. You have to fix your car. past : 1) S + Had to +V1; You had to fix your car. 2) S + must have + V3/ED; You must have slept. future: S + Will have to You will have to fix your car. Mustnt = nu trebuie, nu e nevoie, nu e necesar (obligativitate negativa); present: S + dont/doesnt + Have to + V1; You dont have to drive this car. past: S + didnt have to + V1; You didnt have to come because the meeting is put off.

Should = ar trebui (sfat); present: S + Should + V1; You should buy a car. past: S + should have + V3; You should have bought a new car. Ought to = ar trebui ( obliga = ar trebui ( obligaie morala ); present: S + ought to + V1; You ought to take care of your parents. past: S + ought to have + V3; You ought to have taken care of your parents.
(1)

S + would rather + VING;


I would rather stay at home. Id rather stay at home.

(2) (3)

S1 + would rather + S2 + Past tense;


Id rather you stayed at home.

S + had better + Short infinitiv;


You had better call her.

The Adverb:
Adjectivele high, low (a low table), late, early, hard (work hard), near, pretty (Im pretty sure.), au aceeai forma ca adjective i adverbe. A high mountain; The birds flew high. Unele dintre ele primind terminaia ly i schimba n totalitate sensul. Highly = foarte ( Cnd e urmat de un adverb la past participe, forma a treia). He was highly appreciated. Hardly = de abia, nici n-am apucat sa; (dupa uxiliary sau modul, nainte de celelalte). I can hardly walk. ( nega. I can hardly walk. ( negaie aproape totala). Scarely/hardly + had + S + V3 when + S + V past simple; No sooner + had + S + V3 . Then + S + Vpast simple; Hardly had I entered the room when the phone rang. Nearly = aproximativ ( ca timp); Prettly = dragu;

Lately = n ultimul timp, n ultima vreme Deep = adnc (a deep hole). Deeply = adnc, profound ( I was deeply hurt). Be Become Get Link verbs ( verbe copulative, nu sunt urmate de adverbe Seem ci de adjective); Appear Sound Remain The book is interesting. Verbele de percepie : seem, hear, smell, taste, notice sunt urmate de adjective nu de adverbe. Taste, smell pot fi urmate de adverbe de mod cnd aratam felul n care facem aciunea. She tasted the soup carefully. Adverbele de timp nedefinit: sometime, always, never, ever, often, seldom (dupa auxiliary sau modul, nainte de celelalte verbe); He has always come in time. He always comes in time. Sometime la nceputul propoziiei. Rather = cam, destul de, sens nefavorabil; I cant buy this car. Its rather expensive. Fairly = destul de, sens favorabil; I can buy this car. Its fairly cheap. Already = deja, propoziie interogativa ( surprinde finalitatea aciunii); Has he already come? Yet = deja, n propoziie interogativa intereseaza finalitatea aciunii; Has he come yet? Already, yet Simple Present Perfect; S + Have + V3/ED; Adverbial of Manner Place Time (definite). He spoke nicely at the meeting yesterday. Manner Place Time Adverbul de timp se poate pune i la nceputul propoziiei cnd l accentuam. Yesterday he spoke nicely at the meeting.

Present Conditional: ( a + verb) S + should/would + V1; I should go there.


Interogativ: Negativ:

Should/would + S + V1;
Should I go there?

S + shouldnt/wouldnt + V1;
I shoulnt go there.

Past Conditional: (a fi + verb) S + should/would + have + V3/ED; I should have read this book.
Interogativ: Should/would Negativ:

+ S + have + V3/ED;

Should I have read this book?

S + shouldnt/wouldnt + have + V3/ED;


I shouldnt have read this book.

MAIN CLAUSE Prop. Princ. Regulile lui if:

IF CLAUSE Prop. Sec.

(1) FUTURE PRESENT Ill come with you if I have time. (2) PRESENT CONDITIONAL I should go with you if I had time. Aciuni posibil realizabile (3) PAST CONDITIONAL

PAST TENSE be-were(la toate pers.)

PAST PERFECT S + had + V3 I should have gone with you if I had had time. Aciune nerealizabila

If not = unless = daca nu; Unless + S + V( la timpul corespunzator la regulile lui if), dar afirmativa. Nu l-a invita daca nu l-a cunoate. I shouldnt invite him if I didnt know him. I shouldnt invite him unless I knew him. Timpul n propoziia principala nu se schimba. Toate modificarile au loc n subordonata condiionala.

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Future / Conditional apar numai n propoziia principala. Niciodata n secundara condiionala. Even if, if only respecta regulile lui if. As if thought S + Vpresent + as if + S + V(past simple be-were)/(past perfect simple had + V3); He behaves as if he knew me. He behaves asif he had known me. ( He didnt know me). S + Vpast + as if + S + Vpast perfect; ( unreal situation) He spoke as he had seen the movie. ( He didnt see it). S + Vpresent + as if + S + Vpresent; ( presupunere supozition ); He behaves as he knows me. S + Vpast + as if + S + Vpast; ( supozition ); He was looking at the watch as if someone had to come.