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SE 302 Linear systems Introduction

Dr. Fouad M. AL-Sunni

Automation/Control systems engineers are concerned with understanding and controlling segments of their environment (Systems) to provide useful economic products for society

Understanding Modeling Designing D i i Testing Implementation Monitoring

Some historical examples

James Watts Fly ball governor (Europe 1769) Watt s (Europe-1769)

Some historical examples Water Level float (russia 1765) (russia-1765)

Automation impact p
PRODUCTIVITY and to obtain high-quality products Material h dli M i l handling Condition Based Monitoring Condition Based Maintenance (Predictive maintenance) Safety and Security Transportation Etc

Foundation/knowledge g
Feedback theory y Linear system analysis

Network theory Communication theory Reliability and maintenance theory Safety th S f t theory

A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response. Analysis in general involves:
Linear system Theory : Assumes Causeeffect relationship for the components of a y system.

Control System Definition y

A control system consists of subsystems and processes (plants) assembled for the purpose of controlling the outputs of the processes. processes

Response Characteristics p

Advantages of Control Systems g y

We build control systems for four primary reasons: Power amplification (gain) ex: Positioning a large radar antenna by low-power rotation of a knob. ex: Opening and closing valves Remote control ex: Robot arm used to pick up radioactive material. ex: Unmanned Aerial Vehicules. ex: Remote Terminal Unit in oil production Convenience of input form ex: Changing room temperature by thermostat position. ex: Quality Control using limit switch Compensation for disturbances ex: Controlling antenna position in the presence of large wind disturbance torque. ex: Control Inventory under variable demand

Open-Close-Multivariable p

Usual Representation p
Every component (or process) can be represented by a block
Cause Input Process Effect Output

SISO: Single input Single output g p g p

Usual Representation p

Desired es ed Output response

Actuator Act ator



SIMO: Single input multi-output multiMISO: MIMO:

Open-Loop Control System p p y

An open-loop control system utilizes an open loop actuating device to control the process directly without using feedback feedback.

Desired Output response



Open loop system p p y

Close-Loop Feedback Control p

A close-loop system uses a close loop measurement of the output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the desired output (reference or command)
Desired Output Comparison Actuator Process Output


Advantages/Disadvantages g g
Open-Loop Systems p p y Simple Inexpensive Cannot correct for disturbances or plant variations. variations Closed-Loop Systems p y Complex & expensive Less sensitive to noise, disturbances, plant variations Better B tt control of transient & t l ft i t steady-state response Better accuracy Self-sustained oscillations possible

An Example: Effect of automation

In 1925 588 000 pp were needed to mine 588,000 520 million tons of coal In 1980 only 208 000 pp were needed to 1980, 208,000 mine 774 million tons.

Examples: Automobile steering

Examples: A boiler generator

Examples: National income

The design p g process

Definition Design is the process of inventing the forms, parts, and details of a system to ,p , y achieve a specific goal Terminology gy
Specifications alternatives Trade-off Synthesis optimization ti i ti

The design p g process

Design Objectives g j
Produce desired transient response response. Reduce steady-state error. Achieve closed-loop stability. A hi l dl t bilit Total Response = Natural Response + Forced Response The closed-loop system s natural closed loop systems response must not dominate! The output must follow the input input.

A design example Open loop

A design example Closed-loop Closed loop

Another example p

Another example I/O

Case Study: Antenna Azimuth Position Control System

A. System Concept

B. Detailed Layout

Case Study: Antenna Azimuth Position Control System (continued)

C. Schematic diagram

D. Functional block diagram

Case Study: Antenna Azimuth Position Control System Response

System normally operates to drive pointing error to zero. Motor is driven only when there is a pointing error. The larger the error the faster the motor turns. turns Too large a signal amplifier gain could cause overshoot/instability.

Satisfactory design revolves around a balance between transient performance, steady-state performance, and stability. Adjusting gain & adding compensators are the tools a control engineer has to achieve this balance.

Standard Test Signals

HW # 1
E1.1 E1 1 P1.1,1.4,1.7,and 1.15