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1. What is CIM? Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process.

This integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each other and initiate actions. Through the integration of computers, manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone, although the main advantage is the ability to create automated manufacturing processes. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing. 2. Benefits of CIM? CIM improves production productivity by 40 to 70 percent, as well as enhances engineering productivity and quality. CIM can also decrease design costs by 15 to 30 percent, reduce overall lead time by 20 to 60 percent, and cut work-in-process inventory by 30 to 60 percent. Managers who use CIM believe that there is a direct relationship between the efficiency of information management and the efficiency and the overall effectiveness of the manufacturing enterprise. Thacker's view is that many CIM programs focus attention on the efficiency of information management and the problems that come with it instead of developing new and more sophisticated manufacturing machines, material transformation processes, manufacturing management processes, and production facilities. Computer-integrated manufacturing can be applied to nonmanufacturing organizations by changing the manufacturing focus toward a service orientation. CIM and Job Definition Format (JDF) are becoming increasingly beneficial to printing companies to streamline their production process.

3. CIM Hardware & Software? CIM Hardware comprises the following: Manufacturing equipment such as CNC machines or computerized work centres, robotic work cells, DNC/FMS systems, work handling and tool handling devices, storage devices, sensors, shop floor data collection devices, inspection machines etc. Computers, controllers, CAD/CAM systems, workstations / terminals, data entry terminals, bar code readers, RFID tags, printers, plotters and other peripheral devices, modems, cables, connectors etc., CIM software comprises computer programmes to carry out the following functions: a) Management Information System g) Simulation b) Sales h) Communications c) Marketing i) Monitoring d) Finance j) Production Control e) Database Management k) Manufacturing Area Control f) Modelling and Design Analysis l) Job Tracking 4. Evolution of computer integrated manufacturing and recent trends? Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) is considered a natural evolution of the technology of CAD/CAM which by itself evolved by the integration of CAD and CAM. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, USA) is credited with pioneering the development in both CAD and CAM. The need to meet the design and manufacturing requirements of aerospace industries after the Second World War necessitated the development these technologies. In the case of manufacture, CNC machines, DNC systems, FMC, FMS etc. provide tightly controlled automation systems. Similarly computer control has been implemented in several areas like manufacturing resource planning, accounting, sales, marketing and purchase. Yet the full potential of computerization could not be obtained unless all the segments of manufacturing are integrated, permitting the transfer of data across various functional modules. This realization led to the concept of computer integrated manufacturing.

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What is Network Architecture? Network architecture, is the logical and structural layout of the network consisting of transmission equipment, software and communication protocols and infrastructure (wired or wireless) transmission of data and connectivity between components. a) OSI Seven layers.

OSI Model Data unit Data Host layers

Layer 7.Application 6.Presentation 5. Session

Media layers

Segments Packet/Datagram Frame Bit b) LAN

4. Transport 3. Network 2. Data link 1. Physical

Function Network process to application Data representation, encryption and decryption, convert machine dependent data to machine independent data Interhost communication, managing sessions between applications End-to-end connections, reliability and flow control Path determination and logical addressing Physical addressing Media, signal and binary transmission

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. ARCNET, Token Ring and other technology standards have been used in the past, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently used to build LANs. c) Network Topology

Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology refers to the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. In general physical topology relates to a core network whereas logical topology relates to basic network. Topology can be understood as the shape or structure of a network. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. The study of network topology recognizes seven basic topologies: Point-to-point Bus Star Ring Mesh Tree Hybrid Daisy chain