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Page 6 No 1. The heating curve of naphthalene:

Page 8 No 2.c. State substance that exist in the form of liquid at 0ºC. Explain your answer. Q. The temperature 0ºC is above the melting point of Q and below the boiling of Q.

Page 10 No 4.c. Every elements has its own proton number :

Proton number of potassium, K is 19. Potassium _atom_ has _19_ protons in the nucleus and _19_ electrons in the shells.

Proton number of oxygen, O is 18. Oxygen _atom_ has 8 _protons_ in the

nucleus and

8_

electrons in the shells.

Page 15 No d.(iii). Describe the movement, particles when Z is cooled from room temperature -5 ºC. The particles move slower

Page 23 No 8.(ii). 14.2 g of chlorine gas, C12 14.2/17x6.02 x 10²³ = 2.4 x 10²³

Page 25 Procedure g. The crucible is with its lid is allowed to cool to room temperature

No 3. The process of heating , cooling and weighing are repeated until a constant mass Is obtained to ensure magnesium reacts completely with oxygen to form magnesium oxide.

Page 26 Table Calculation:

Element

 

Cu

 

O

Mass/g

z

x

y

z

Number of mole of atoms

z

x

y

z

24

16

Simplest ratio of mole

 

p

 

q

Page 27 No 5 b. Copper is below hydrogen in the metal reactivity series. Copper (II) oxide can

reduced/removed by hydrogen gas.

is not easily oxidised

Page 29 Table No 2. Example:

Compound

Molecular Formula

Empirical Formula

Value of n

Water

H

2 O

H

2 O

1

Carbon Dioxide

CO 2

CO 2

1

Sulphuric Acid

H

2 SO 4

H

2 SO 4

1

Ethene

C

2 H 4

CH 2

2

Benzene

C

6 H 6

CH

6

Glucose

C

6 H 12 O 6

CH 2 O

6

Page 36 No 2. The equation shows the reaction between potassium and oxygen 4K + O 2 2K 2 O

Calculate the mass of potassium required to produce 23.5 g of potassium oxide. [RAM K = 39, O = 16] 4K + O 2 → 2K 2 O , Mol of K 2 O = 23.5 / (2 x 39 + 16) = 23.5/94 = 0.25

From the equation,

2 mol of K 2 O : 4 mol of K

0.25 mol of K 2 O : 0.5 mol of Zn

Mass of K = 0.5g x 39gmol -1 =19.5g

No 7. The equation shows the combustion of propane gas. C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 720 cm 3 of propane gas (C 3 H 8 ) at room temperature burns in excess oxygen. alculate the mass of carbon dioxide formed.

Page 41 No 1.b(i) State the position of element Y in the Periodic Table. Element Y is located in Group 14 and Period 2

Page 44 No 1. (Diagram) Q
Page 44
No 1. (Diagram)
Q
Q
Q
of element Y in the Periodic Table. Element Y is located in Group 14 and Period

Page 46 No 5.a(i) Solubility (the reactivity of reaction decreases going down Group 17) 2F 2 + 2H 2 O → 4HF + O 2

No 5.b With sodium hydroxide, (NaOH) Br 2 + 2NaOH → NaBr + NaOBr + H 2 O

Page 47 No a.(iii) Do you expect element X and Y show the chemical properties ? Give the reason for your answer. - Yes, atom X and atom Y have same number of valence electrons. No b. Compare the boiling point of element Y and Z. Explain the difference.

- The boiling point of element Z is higher than element Y.

- The size of molecule Z 2 is binger than molecule Y 2.

- The forces of attraction between molecule Z 2 is stronger than molecule Y 2 , more heat energy is needed to overcome the stronger forces between molecule Z 2 .

No c.(ii) Between elements X and Y, which is more electronegative?

Page 49 No 6.a table

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

 

Basic oxide

Amphoteric oxide

 

Acidic oxide

 

i. Metal oxide + water + alkali

i.Amphoteric oxide react with both acid and alkali to produce + Salt and water

i. Non metal oxide + water → acid

Example; Na 2 O + H 2 O → 2NaOH

Example; SO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 SO 3

ii. Metal oxide + acid → Salt + Water

Example; Al 2 O 3 + 6HNO 3 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 + 3H 2 O

Example; MgO + 2HCl → MgCl 2 + H 2 O

ii. Non metal oxide + alkali → Salt + Water

Al 2 O 3 + 2NaOH 2NaAlO 2 + 9H 2 O

Example; SiO 2 + 2NaOH → Na 2 SiO 3 + H 2 O

 

Page 50 No 1. table

Element

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

Number of neutron in atom

12

12

14

13

16

16

18

22

Relative atomic mass

23

24

27

28

31

32

35

40

Number of proton in atom

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Electron arrangement of an atom

2.8.1

2.8.2

2.8.3

2.8.4

2.8.5

2.8.6

2.8.7

2.8.8

Page 51

No e.

State the arrangement of elements T, U and V in the order of increasing atomic radius. Explain your answer

- The shells filled with electrons are pulled nearer to the nucleus from T to V

No 2. Diagram 4 shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. And X, Y, A, B, D, E, F and G do not represent the actual symbol of the elements.

Page 53

No 6.

Na Sodium ion, Na +
Na
Sodium ion, Na +

+

Cl Chloride ion, Cl
Cl
Chloride ion, Cl

-

Page 61 No e.(ii) Explain how a compound is former between element G and L base on their electron arrangement.

Therefore two G atoms release two electrons to one L atom, a strong electrostatic attraction is formed between G + ion and L 2- ion.

Page 64 No 4.b(ii) Explain why substance V and W cannot conduct electricity at solid and molten state. Substance V and W are made up of neutral molecules. There are no free moving ions in solid and molten state.

No 4.b (iii) The boiling point of substance V is 59 o C. What is the physical state of substance V at room temperature. Liquid

Page 69 No 3.b Select the ion to be discharged from the following pairs of ions. State the electrode it takes place and write the half equation for the discharge of ion:

Hydroxide & Sulphate ions :

Hydroxide & Nitrate ions :

equation: 4OH - 2H 2 O + O 2 + 4e at the anode equation: 4OH - 2H 2 O + O 2 + 4e at the anode

Page 71 No e. Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm -3 aqueous dilute copper(II) sulphate solution using carbon electrodes.

Observations

Gas bubbles are released

Copper

Page 72 No c. Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0.0001 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid and 2.0 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid, using carbon electrodes.

0.0001 moldm -3 HCl

2.0moldm -3 HCl

Observations

Gas bubbles are released

Greenish bellow gas is released

 

-

When a glowing

-

A damp blue litmus paper

Comfirmatory test (method and observations of the best)

wooden splinter is

placed near the mouth of the test

placed near the mouth of the test tube,

tube.

-

Glowing wooden

-

The gas changed the damp

 

splinter is lighted up

blue litmus paper to red and then

bleached it

Page 74 No b. Complete the following table for the electrolysis of coppe(II) sulphate solution with carbon electrode and copper electrode.

Apparatus set-up

Picture

Picture

 

Carbon electrode

Copper electrode

The ions that move to the cathode

Cu 2+ , H +

Cu 2+ , H +

Page 75 No 1. Complete the text below:

Electrolyte

electrode

Factor that

 

Half equation at the anode and observation

Half equation at the cathode and observation

affect

Ions present

electrolysis

Concentrated

     

2Cl - → Cl 2 + 2e Greenish yellow gas is released.

2H + + 2e → H 2 gas bubbles are released.

hydrochloric

Carbon

Concentration

H + , Cl - , OH -

acid

Page 76

Explanation:

-

Potassium chloride solution consist of K + , H + , Cl - and OH - that move freely

-

Cl - and OH - ions move to the anode

-

OH - is lower than Cl - in the discharge series of anion.

- H + is selectively discharged by receiving electrons to form hydrogen molecules Half equation : 2H + + 2e → H 2

Page 77 No c.(ii) Explain your answer. The number of copper(II) ions becomes copper atom at the cathode is equal to the number of copper atom becomes copper(II) ion at the anode.

No 2(a)

Substance Z

+
+

Substance W

Page 80 No 2. Example: Experiment Observation Explanation/ Inference / Conclusion - Magnesium atom releases
Page 80
No 2. Example:
Experiment
Observation
Explanation/ Inference / Conclusion
- Magnesium atom releases electrons to form magnesium ion
- The brown solid is copper. Copper(II) ion receives electrons to
- Magnesium strip
becomes thinner
form copper atom
- The colourless solution is magnesium sulphate
- The brown solid
deposited
Copper(II) sulphate
- Magnesium has displaced copper from copper(II) sulphate
solution :
solution
Magnesium strip
- The blue
solution turn
colourless
Mg
+
CuSO 4 → CuSO 4 + Mg
- Magnesium is more electropositive than copper // Magnesium
is above copper in the electrochemical series of metal

Page 82 No 6.d. If the magnesium metal is replaced with a zinc metal, the voltage reading decreases because zinc is nearer to copper in the electrochemical series.

Page 83 No 8 a. To predict the terminal of chemical cell:

Page 84 No 2.c. Predict the voltage of the cell in (b)(i)

No 3

V Zinc Copper Zinc sulphate solution Porous pot Copper(II) sulphate solution Cell A Cell B
V
Zinc
Copper
Zinc sulphate solution
Porous pot
Copper(II) sulphate solution
Cell A
Cell B

Page 85 No 3.c. What is the function of the porous pot in cell A. To allow the movement in ions through it.

Copper

Copper(II) sulphate solution

No 3.f. The intensity of blue colour of copper(II) sulphate solution in the cell A remains unchanged during the experiment. Explain why.

The rate of copper(II) ions discharged to copper atom at the cathode equal to the rate of copper atom formed copper(II) ions at the anode.

Page 93 Exercise No1.b. Answer The presence of hydroxide ions change the red litmus paper to blue

Page 99 No 8. Answer : 50 cm 3

Page 102 No 2. Answer :

NaOH

+

Page 103 No c.(i) Answer : Yellow (ii) Answer : Red

HCl

NaCl

+

H 2 O

No e.(i) The experiment is repeated with 0.5 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid to replace sulphuric acid. Predict the volume of Hydrochloric acid needed to neutralize 50.0 cm 3 of 1 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution.

Page 106 No 5. Preparation of salt. Method I : The salt is prepared by titration method of acid and alkali using an indicator

Acid + Alkali → Salt + Water ( Neutralization Reaction)

Method II : The salt is prepared by reacting acid with insoluble metal/metal oxide/metal hydroxide:

Acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

Acid + metal oxide → salt + water

Page 107 No 6. Method II : Evaporate the filtrate until saturated solution is formed

Page 108

-Table-

Insoluble salt,

Cation of the insoluble salt

X

n Y m

X

m+

CaCO 3

Ca 2+ [ Ca (NO 3 ) 2 ]

Page 109 Exercise No 1. Phenolphthalein is used as an indicator a titration between nitric acid and potassium hydroxide solution. 25 cm 3 nitric acid completely neutralizes 25 cm 3 of 1 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution.The experiment is repeated by reacting 25 cm 3 of 1 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide solution with 25 cm 3 nitric acid without phenolphthalein. Salt Y is formed from the reaction.

Page 110 No 1.a. Answer : Mol of KOH = 25x1/1000=0.025 mol

No 2.a.(i) Answer : Colourless solution turns blue

Page 116 No 3.(i) Answer : 0.2 mol of HNO 3 : 0.1 mol of ZnO Mass of ZnO = 0.1 x 81 = 8.1g

No 3.(ii) Answer : Mass of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 = 0.1 x [65 + [ 14 + (16 x 3) ] x 2] = 0.1 x 189 =

Page 118

18.9g

+ K 2KNO 3 → 2KNO 2 + O 2 - Na + 2NaNO 3
+
K
2KNO 3 → 2KNO 2 + O 2
-
Na +
2NaNO 3 → 2NaNO 2 + O 2
-
Al 3+
4Al(NO 3 ) 3 → 2Al 2 O 3 + 12NO 2 + O 2
2Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 → 2Al 2 O 3 + 6CO 2
Zn 2+
2Zn(NO 3 ) 2 → 2ZnO + 4NO 2 + O 2
Page 119
-
Carbon dioxide gas is released. Carbonate ions present the possible
residue are CaO/MgO/Al 2 O 3.
Page 121
No b.
Cu 2+
Add excess
ammonia
solution
Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Fe 3+
Fe 2+ , Fe 3+
Insoluble

Pb 2+ , Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Mg 2+

Zn 2+

Add excess ammonia solution Insoluble
Add excess
ammonia
solution
Insoluble

Mg 2+ , Al 3+ , Pb 2+

Page 122

Yellow

precipitate

Pb 2+

Al 3+
Al 3+

Al 3+ and Pb 2+

Al 3 + and Pb 2 + Add potassium iodide

Add potassium iodide

Al 3 + and Pb 2 + Add potassium iodide
+ Al 3+ Al 3 + and Pb 2 + Add potassium iodide Add sodium chloride

Add sodium chloride solution

No changes

Al 3+
Al 3+
No changes Al 3+ Pb 2+
No changes
Al 3+
Pb 2+

No changes

Add sodium sulphate solution

White precipitate

Pb 2+
Pb 2+

White precipitate

Page 124

No 3.a. What are the cations present in

A: Cu 2+ .

.B: Zn 2+

C: Fe 2+

E: Mg 2+

Page 126 No 6.c.(ii) Answer : CaCO 3 + 2HNO 3 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O + CO 2

Page 135 No 6. State ways to reduce environment pollution caused by synthetic polymer

Page 139 No b. Answer : % N =

2x14

2(14+4x1) + 32 + 4 x 16

x 100% = 21.12%

No c.Answer :

- Atom of pure copper metal are the same size, they are arranged orderly in layers.

- Layers of atom can easily slide over each other when external force is applied on them

- The size of the zinc atoms which are bigger than copper atom in bronze disrupt the orderly arrangement of copper atoms.

Page 140

Tin

Page 140 Tin Copper

Copper