Sunteți pe pagina 1din 15

Practical No.



Aim: To Estimate The Bulk Density of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Bulk density is the mass of oven dry material per unit volume of soil in its natural undisturbed state. Its value is expressed in gram per cm3. The bulk density ranges from 1.1 to 1.5 g/cm3 for medium to fine textured soil and from 1.2 to 1.65 g/cm3 for coarse textured soil. Bulk density can indicate whether a given soil is permeable or otherwise. The soil having high bulk density has low permeability and infiltration since the bulk density is inversely related is pore space of soil. Material required: Oven Measuring cylinder Chemical balance Procedure: Collect the soil sample and dry it in an oven at 105 0C to constant weight. Pour the crust soil in a measuring cylinder and record the volume. Find out the weight of this volume of soil on balance. Formula: Bulk density (g/cm3) = Weight of soil (g) Volume of soil (cm3) Observations: Sr.No. Wt. of soil sample (g) 1. 2. 3. Average wt. (g)

Volume of soil sample taken = __________ cm3

Result: The bulk density of the given soil sample is _________ g/cm3

Practical No.02


Aim: To Estimate The Specific Gravity of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: The specific gravity of the soil is directly related to its bulk density. Specific gravity can to use to an index of soil quality. Material required: Oven Glass bottles Chemical balance Procedure: Collect the soil sample and dry it in an oven at 105 0C to get constant weight. Fill a pre-weighted glass bottle of known volume with dried soil and record the weight. Fill the same bottle with distilled water and record its weight. Formula: Specific Gravity = X2 X1 X3 X1 Where, X1 - Weight of empty bottle X2 - Weight of bottle + soil sample X3 - Weight of bottle + water Observations: Weight of empty bottle = Weight of bottle + soil sample Weight of bottle + water __________ g = __________ g = __________ g

Result: The specific gravity of the given soil sample is _________.

Practical No. 03


Aim: To Estimate The Moisture Content of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Water serves as a solvent and transporting agent that is present in the soil. It maintains texture and compactness of soil. Soil gets moisture from infiltration of surface water. Its content in the soil is more or less dependent on the water holding capacity of the soil. However, Incubation, evaporation and uptake b plants have their own influence on water holding capacity. Moisture of soil sample can be estimated by oven drying method or by using moisture probe. Material required: Oven Chemical balance Procedure: Collect a fresh homogenized sample of soil. Weigh the soil sample accurately. Dry in an oven at 1050C to get constant weight. Cool it in a desiccator and record the final weight of sample repeat. The procedure as may be required. Formula: Moisture content (%) = X1 X2 x 100 X1 Where, X1 = Initial weight of sample (g) X2 = Final weight of dried sample (g)

Result: The moisture content of the given soil sample is _________%.

Practical No. 04


Aim: To Study the Texture or Particle Size Distribution of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Soil texture indicates the relative content of particles of various sizes such as sand, silt and clay in the soil. Soil texture influences the case with which soil can be worked, the amount of water and air it holds, and the rate at which water can enter and move through soil. In short, soils -- texture are not the ones preferred for pond construction. Soil texture can be analyzed by mechanical (Sieve analysis or Occulometric analysis) and gravimetric method. 1. Mechanical Analysis Principle: Mechanical analysis separates the inorganic mineral portion of soil into classified grades to particle size and determines their relative proportions by weight. Two main systems of classification of the particle size grades below 2-mm diameter are recognized. I. International System (Atterburg System) Category Coarse sand Fine sand Silt Clay Particle size grade mm Microns 0.2 0.2 2000-200 0.2 - 0.02 200-20 0.02-0.002 20-2 Less than 0.002 Less than 2

II. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) System Category Particle size grade mm Microns Very coarse Sand 2.0-1.0 2000-1000 Coarse Sand 1.0-0.5 1000-500 Medium Sand 0.5- 0.25 500- 250 Fine Sand 0.25- 0.10 250-100 Very Fine Sand 0.10 0.05 100-50 Silt 0.05-0.002 50-2 Clay Less than 0.002 Less than 2 Material Required: Balance, standard sieves, mechanical sieve micrometer, stage micrometer and microscope. shaker, ocular

Procedure for Sieve Analysis: Weigh 100 g of soil sample. Arrange the sieve set according to the mesh size with the largest mesh size on the top and smallest mesh size on bottom. At bottom of the sieve set a tray to receive. Pour soil

samples on the top most soil. Place the sieve set on mechanical sieve and shakes for 5 to 15 minutes. Weigh the sample retained on every sieve separately. Separate the percentage of sand, silt and clay according to International system. Procedure for Occulometric Analysis: Place the ocular micrometer is eyepiece of compound microscope. Find out the least diameter at ocular micrometer with the help of Stage Micrometer. Place a homogenous soil sample on glass slide and measure the diameter of at least 10 soil particles from it. Repeat the above process thrice. Record the average particle size from the above readings. Observations for Sieve Analysis: Sr. No. Sieve Mesh size Number Mm Micron 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Category Very Coarse Sand Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Very Fine Sand Silt Clay Size in micron 1000-2000 500-1000 250-500 100-250 50-100 2- 50 Less than 2 Percentage Particle size range (micron) Weight of soil (g)

Observations for Occulometric Analysis: One Stage Micrometer division = ______ mm No. of Occulomicrometer divisions make up ______ Micrometer divisions So, the Least count of Occulomicrometer : _______mm Sr. No. Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Average Average particle size of given soil sample ________ mm. II. Gravimetric Analysis Average diameter particles (divisions) of 10 Average (mm) x Least



Material required: Measuring cylinder Glass rod Clear water Procedure: Take soil sample in measuring cylinder and add clear water. Stir with the glass rod for 15 minutes. Allow the different soil particles to settle. Observe the different layers of sand, silt and clay formed after 12 hours. Measure the layers starting from below and calculate the percentage of different soil particles i.e., of sand, silt and clay respectively. Result: The given soil sample content ________ % Sand, ________% Silt ________ % Clay

Practical No. 05

Date :-

Aim: To Estimate Water Retention of Water Holding Capacity Of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Water holding capacity of soil or a saturated soil contains an amount of water that depends on its physical properties, chemical composition, and its structure in natural state. This is one of the prime requirements that soils need to fulfill in order to be suitable for pond aquaculture. The higher the capacity to hold water the better is the soil for pond. The water holding capacity can be estimated by laboratory method or by field method. I. Laboratory method Material required: Perforated circular soil boxes Filter paper (Whatman No. 1) Petri dish (10 cm diameter) Chemical balance Oven Procedure: Crush the collected soil sample gently so as to separate the clumped soil particles. Dry this sample in an oven at 1050C. Keep the filter paper (Whatman No. 1) inside the perforated bottom of the circular soil box and weigh the box. Fill the box with dried soil and record the weigh of box with dried soil. Keep the box in Petri dish, having water for about 12 hours for saturation of soil. Remove the box from Petri dish and wipe it dry. Weigh the box and record the weight. Formula: Water Holding Capacity (%) = (W3 W2) (W2- W1) (W2 W1) Where,W1 = Weight of empty box W2 = Weight of box with dried soil W3 = Weight of box with water saturated soil II. Field method Material required: Beakers Wash bottle

Clear water Chemical balance

Procedure: Record the weight of beaker. Fill the beaker with dried soil and record the weight. Pour the clear water drop by drop on soil, till the soil sample gets completely saturated. Record the weight of beaker again. Formula: Water Holding Capacity (%) = (W3 W2) (W2- W1) (W2 W1) Where, W1 = Weight of empty beaker W2 = Weight of beaker with dried soil W3 = Weight of beaker with water saturated soil Observations for Laboratory method:

Weight of empty box (W1) Wt. of box + dried soil (W2) Wt. of box + saturated soil (W3)

= _______g = _______g = _______g

Observations for Field method: Weight of empty beaker (W1) Wt. of beaker + dried soil (W2) = _______g = _______g

Wt. of beaker + saturated soil (W3) = _______g

Result: The water retention capacity of the given soil sample is _________ % and __________%, respectively by Laboratory and Field methods.

Practical No. 06 Aim: To Estimate Permeability of Given Soil Sample.


Introduction: Soil permeability is the property of the soil to transmit water and air. It is one of the most important qualities to consider for fish culture. A pond built in impermeable soil will lose little water through seepage whereas ponds in permeable soil will lose water. Permeability is commonly measured in terms of the rate of water flow through the soil in given period of time. It is usually expressed either as permeability rate in centimeters per hour (cm/hr) or as a coefficient of permeability in meter per second (m/s). I. Laboratory method Material required: Undisturbed Soil sample Measuring scale Timer

Procedure: Take undisturbed soil sample and prepare soil column. Soil column should be placed under specific conditions such as water saturation and constant water head (1.27 cm). Record the observations of volume of water percolated and time interval. Calculate results in terms of permeability rate. Soil permeability classes are as given below :Soil permeability Permeability rate Soil permeability Permeability rate class (cm/hr) class (cm/hr) Very slow Less than 0.13 Moderate rapid 6.3 12.7 Slow 0.13 0.3 Rapid 12.7 - 25 Moderately slow 0.5 0.2 Very rapid More than 25 Moderate 2.0 6.3 II. Field Method Dig a hole as deep as waist; early in the morning, fill it with water on the top. By the evening, some of the water will have sunk into the soil. Fill the hole with water to the top again and cover it with boards or leafy branches. If most of the water is still in the hole the next morning, the soil permeability is suitable to build a fishpond at that site. Repeat

this tests in several other locations as many times as necessary according to the soil quality. Result: Practical No.07 Date:

Aim: To Estimate Ph of Given Soil Sample Using pH Meter. Introduction: The pH value of the solution surrounding soil particles in the natural state fluctuate because of changing soil-solution relationships brought about by climate, cultivation, crop growth and other factors. A sample of soil may have particular pH value at the time it is taken in the field but this changes in the sample as it is dried and prepared for analyses. Normally, pond pH fall in the slightly alkaline range for most culture practices. Soil pH greatly influences the pH of water above it. Therefore, it is necessary to have an optimum soil pH so that a proper pH value is maintained in the pond. If soils are seen to have exceedingly low or high pH values they can be treated with calculated amounts of lime or gypsum respectively so as to bring the pH to the lever desired. Before analyzing the soil pH the soil is subjected to re-wetting processes with water and with certain salt solutions (potassium hydrogen phalate 0.05 M, Potassium chloride 0.1 N or 1 N, Sodium borate 0.01 M, calcium chlolride 0.01 M). This helps in the establishment of the probable range of pH values it would have in its natural state. Material required: Chemical Balance

Measuring cylinder: 50 ml. Wide-mouth screw-capped jars: 80-100 ml, preferably having a mouth wide enough to admit the pH probe. Reciprocating shaker or magnetic stirrer pH meter Plastic wash bottle Distilled water or potassium hydrogen phalate 0.05 M or Potassium chloride 0.1 N or 1 N or Sodium borate 0.01 M or Calcium chloride 0.01 M.

Procedure: Transfer 10 to 20 g of air-dried soil sample in wide-mouth screwcapped jars of 80-100 ml capacity. Add 50 ml of distilled water or salt solution. Screw the lid and shake on a reciprocating shaker for 15 minutes or on a magnetic starrier for 2 minutes then allow to stand for 30 to 60 minutes so that the soil settles. Wash the sensor of pH. meter with distilled water and wipe it dry with the help of a tissue paper. Then insert

the sensor into the partly settled soil suspension. Record the pH reading. Take 2-3 readings if necessary. Result: The pH of the given soil sample is _________ Practical No. 08 Aim: To estimate organic carbon content of the soil. Introduction: In addition to other factors soil fertility is dependent on the organic carbon contained in the soil. Therefore, in order to know the nutritive status of any soil sample estimation of its organic carbon content is essential. The principle behind determining organic carbon in soil is that the soil organic matter is oxidized under standardized conditions with potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid solution. A measured amount opf potassium dichromate is used more than that need to destroy the organic matter and this excess is determined by titration with ferrous ammonium sulfate solution using ferroin or diaminephenaline indicator to detect the first appearance of unoxidised ferrous ions. Material required:


1 N Potassium dichromate: dissolve 49.04 g of dichromate in distilled water and make up to 1 liter.


0.5 N Ferrous ammonium sulfate: dissolve 196.1 g of ferrous ammonium sulfate and 14 ml concentrated sulfuric acid and make up to 1 liter. Ferroin indicator or Diaminephenaline Phosphoric acid Concentrated sulfuric acid Glass ware: Conical flask of 500 ml capacity, burette of 25 ml, measuring cylinder etc.

Procedure: Take 1 g of soil sample on a conical flask. Add 10 ml 1 N potassium dichromate and mix well. Add 20 ml concentrated sulfuric acid and allow standing for 30 min. Dilute it with 200 ml distilled water and add 10 ml phosphoric acid. Titrate the excess of potassium dichromate with 0.5 N ferrous ammonium sulfate using ferroin indicator. Colour changes blue on addition of indicator and endpoint is brilliant green. Simultaneously run the blank to standardize the ferrous ammonium sulfate. Formula:

Volume of FAS for blank = _________ ml.

Volume of FAS for sample = ___________ ml. Normality of FAS (N1V1 = N2V2) = 1 x 10 = N2 x ______ = ________

Organic carbon (%) = [10 (Normality of FAS x Volume of FAS for sample)] x 0.003 x 100 = _____________. Observations: Sr. No. 1 2 3 Result :The organic carbon content of the given soil sample is ________% Initial burette reading Final burette Reading (ml) Difference( ml) Average Reading (ml)

Practical No. 09


Aim: To Estimate The Available Nitrogen from The Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and organic nitrogen are biochemical inter convertible forms of nitrogen. Most of the nitrogen in soil is in organic form. Organic nitrogen is defined as organically bound nitrogen in oxidative state. Total nitrogen is the sum of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. Available nitrogen occurs in soil in form of ammonium and nitrates. Available nitrogen can be estimated by using potassium permanganate as extracting solution and distillate is collected in dilute acid solution. Material Required:

0.02 N H2SO4 solutions: Dilute 30 ml of concentrated H2SO4 with distilled water and make up to one liter. This is 1 N H2SO4. Take 20 ml of this solution and make it to one liter. This is 0.02 N H2SO4 solutions. 0.02 N NaOH solution: Dissolve 4 g NaOH pellets in distilled water and make it to one liter. This is 0.1 N NaOH. Take 100 ml of this solution and make it to 500 ml. This is 0.02 N NaOH solution. 0.38% Potassium permanganate solution : Dissolve 3.8 g KMnO4 crystals in one liter distilled water. 2.5 % NaOH solution: Dissolve 25 g NaOH pellets in one liter distilled water. Methyl Red indicator solution, Liquid paraffin and glass beads. Glassware : 500 ml Kjeldahls distillation flask, burette, 250 ml conical flasks, 5 ml pipettes, and 200 ml measuring cylinder.

Procedure: Take 10 g of air-dried soil sample in 500ml Kjeldahls distillation flask. Add 100ml of 0.38 % KMnO4 solution and 100 ml of 2.5 % NaOH; 2 ml of liquid paraffin and 10-15 glass beads. Distill the mixture collecting the distillate in a conical flask containing 0.02N 20ml H2SO4 and few drops of methyl red indicator. Collect 75 ml of distillate. Titrate the excess of 0.02N H2SO4 and few drops of methyl red indicator. Collect 75ml of distillate. Titrate the excess of 0.02N H2SO4 with 0.02N NaOH to a colourless end point. Formula: Available nitrogen (mg/100g of soil)= (20 average burette reading)x 2.8 Observations:

Sr. No. 1. 2. 3.

Initial burette reading (ml)

Final burette reading (ml)

Difference (ml)

Average readings (ml)

Result: The available nitrogen of the given soil sample is ________. Practical No. 10 Date: Aim: To Estimate Lime Requirement of Given Soil Sample. Introduction: Liming is application of calcium and magnesium compounds to the soil for the purpose of reducing soil acidity. Additionally, liming also stabilizes the pH of the soil and therefore prevents any wide fluctuations in it. Lime is usually applied during or after the pond drying stage. There are several methods used for the determination of lime requirement in ponds. One of these is the Boyds method that is relatively easy to perform. Material Required:

p-nitrophenol: Dissolve reagent grade 20g para-nitrophenol, 15 g boric acid, 75g potassium hydroxide in 1 liter distilled water. Check the pH with standardized pH meter. Liming agents: Calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and mixed calcium magnesium carbonate. 100 ml beaker, Magnetic stirrer, pH meter, sieve.

Procedure: Weigh 20 g of sieved soil sample in 100ml-glass beaker and add 20 ml of distilled water. Stir intermittently for one hour. Measure the pH of soil solution with standardized pH meter. Add 20 ml P-nitrophenol buffer to the soil solution and stir intermittently for 20 minutes. Set the pH meter to pH 8 with 1:1 mixture of P-nitrophenol and distilled water. Measure the pH of the soil solution with constant stirring. To obtain the liming rate from Table, use the pH values of soil sample in distilled water and buffer solution. If the pH of soil in the buffer solution is below 7 repeat the analysis with 10 g of soil sample and double the liming rate obtained from Table. Observations: Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Averag pH meter readings in distilled water pH meter readings in buffer solution

Lime requirement in kg/ha of Calcium Carbonate (neutralizing value 100)

Soil pH in distilled water 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 7.9 121 168 269 386 454 521 588 672 874 896 941 7.8 242 336 538 773 960 1042 1176 1344 1747 1792 1882 7.7 363 504 806 1159 1361 1562 1764 2016 2621 2688 2822 Soil pH in buffer solution 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.3 484 672 1076 1546 1814 2083 2353 2688 3494 3584 3763 605 840 1344 1932 2268 2654 1940 3360 4368 4480 4704 726 1008 1613 2318 2722 3125 3528 4032 5248 5376 5645 847 1176 1881 2705 3157 3646 4116 4704 6115 6272 6586 7.2 968 1344 2150 3091 3629 4166 4704 5376 6989 7186 7526 7.1 1089 1512 2419 3478 4082 4687 5292 6048 7974 8064 8467 7.0 1210 1680 2688 3864 4536 5208 5880 6721 8736 8960 9408

Result: The lime requirement of the given soil sample is ________.