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Oral Cavity STRUCTURE - lined by a stratified squamous oral mucosa with keratin covering those areas subject to significant abrasion - thin-walled, muscular channel lined with mucous membrane - connects the throat with the stomach - contains esophageal sphincters (UES & LES) - large, bean-shaped, hollow muscular organ consisting of three regions FUNCTION - mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and chopping actions of the teeth

2. Esophagus

- functions primarily as a transport medium between compartments - peristaltic movements to push food down the stomach

3. Stomach

- storage area for foods - contracts rhythmically, mixing the food with acid and enzymes and grinding the food down into small pieces for easier digestion - secretes mucus, hydrochloric acid & precursor of pepsin - proteins, fats and carbohydrates are chemically broken down into their basic building blocks - greater absorption of nutrients - food is diluted with pancreatic enzymes & bile which decrease stomach acidity - responsible for absorption of fats and other nutrients - majority of digestion and absorption occurs - to absorb vitamin B12 and bile salts - important in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E and K) - reabsorption of excess water

4. Small Intestine a. Duodenum

- hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum - contains villi and microvilli - marked by a sharp bend, the duodenojejunal flexure - longest segment and empties into the cecum at the ileocaecal junction. - extending from ileocecal junction to the

b. Jejunum

c. Ileum

5. Large Intestine

anus a. Cecum b. Colon - proximal end of the large intestine - divided into four parts: ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon

c. Rectum

d. Anal Canal

6. Liver

7. Gallbladder

8. Pancreas

- straight muscular tube that begins at the termination of the sigmoid colon and ends at the anal canal - begins at the inferior end of the rectum and ends at the anus - contains the IAS and EAS ACCESORY ORGANS - largest internal organ weighing about 1.36 kg - RUQ of the abdomen, tucked against the inferior surface of the diaphragm - hollow, pear shaped organ that sits in a depression on the posterior surface of the liver's right lobe - lobular, pinkish-grey organ that lies behind the stomach - 15cm in length with a long, slender body connecting the head and tail segments

- reabsorption of water, salts, sugar and vitamins - starts to compress food products into fecal material - accumulation of unabsorbed material to form feces - Some digestion by bacteria. The bacteria are responsible for the formation of intestinal gas. - expands to hold fecal matter before it passes through the anorectal canal to the anus - holds the fecal material until defecation occurs

- bile production - storage of glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron - detoxification - synthesis of blood proteins - storage and concentration of bile

- production of hormones which occurs in the Islets of Langerhans - secretes fluid rich in carbohydrates and inactive enzymes - pancreatic enzymes include carbohydrases, lipases, nucleases and proteolytic enzymes that can break down different components of food