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Table of contents

Foreword

Keynote presentations

7

17

An overview of silage production and utilisation in Ireland (1950-2005) C.S. Mayne and P. O’Kiely

19

Grass silage: factors affecting efficiency of N utilisation in milk production

35

P.

Huhtanen and K.J. Shingfield

Recent developments in feeding beef cattle on grass silage-based diets

51

M.

McGee

Ensiled maize and whole crop wheat forages for beef and dairy cattle: effects on animal performance

65

T.W.J. Keady Update on technologies for producing and feeding silage

83

P.D. Forristal and P. O’Kiely Silage production from tropical forages

97

L.G. Nussio Recent developments in methods to characterise the chemical and biological parameters of grass silage

109

R.S. Park, R.E. Agnew and M.G. Porter Advances in silage quality in the 21 st Century D.R. Davies, M.K. Theodorou, A.H. Kingston-Smith and R.J. Merry

121

Section 1: A. Effect of conserved feeds on milk production

135

The effect of grass silage chop length on dairy cow performance Å.T. Randby

137

Whole crop silage from barley fed in combination with red clover silage to dairy cows

138

J.

Bertilsson and M. Knicky

Responses to grass or red clover silages cut at two stages of growth in dairy cows

139

A.

Vanhatalo, K. Kuoppala, S. Ahvenjärvi and M. Rinne

The effect of chop length and additive on silage intake and milk production in cows

140

V.

Toivonen and T. Heikkilä

Effect of supplementing grass silage with incremental levels of water soluble carbohydrate on in vitro rumen microbial growth and N use efficiency D.R. Davies, D.K. Leemans and R.J. Merry

141

Effects of access time to feed and sodium bicarbonate in cows given different silages

142

T.

Heikkilä and V. Toivonen

Dairy cow performance associated with two contrasting silage feeding systems C.P. Ferris, D.C. Patterson, R.C. Binnie and J.P. Frost

143

Pea-barley bi-crop silage in milk production

144

M.

Tuori, P. Pursiainen, A.-R. Leinonen and V. Karp

Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets

145

E.

Staszak and J. Mikołajczak

Feeding with badly preserved silages and occurrence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows

146

F.

Vicente, B. de la Roza, A. Argamentería, M.L. Rodríguez and M. Peláez

Modelling contamination of raw milk with butyric acid bacteria spores

147

M.M.M. Vissers, F. Driehuis, P. de Jong, M.C. te Giffel and J.M.G. Lankveld Use of a dairy whole farm nutrient balance education tool to teach the importance of forages in the context of nutrient management concepts at the whole-farm level J.H. Harrison and T.D. Nennich

148

Feeding mixed grass-clover silages with elevated sugar contents to dairy cows

149

J.

Bertilsson

Silage production and utilisation

9

Section 1: B. Effect of conserved feeds on meat production

151

An evaluation of grain processing and storage method, and feed level on the performance and meat quality of beef cattle offered two contrasting grass silages

153

T.W.J. Keady, F.O. Lively and D.J. Kilpatrick Nutritive value for finishing beef steers of wheat grain conserved by different techniques

154

P.

Stacey, P. O’Kiely, A.P. Moloney and F.P. O’Mara

Effect of feeding red clover, lucerne and kale silage on the voluntary intake and liveweight gain of growing lambs

155

R.

Fychan, C.L. Marley, M.D. Fraser and R. Jones

The effects of alfalfa silage harvesting systems on dry matter intake of Friesland dairy ewes in late pregnancy H.F. Elizalde

156

Replacement of maize/soybean meal concentrate by high moisture maize grain plus wholeseed soybean silage for cattle

157

C.C. Jobim, A.F. Branco, V.F. Gai and U. Cecato Effect of additive treatment on meat quality

158

V.

Vrotniakiene and J. Jatkauskas

Blood meal as a source of histidine for cattle fed grass silage and barley

159

R.

Berthiaume and C. Lafrenière

An evaluation of the inclusion of alternative forages with grass silage-based diets on carcass composition and meat quality of beef cattle offered two contrasting grass silages T.W.J. Keady, F.O. Lively, D.J. Kilpatrick and B.W. Moss

160

Section 2: Alternative forages

161

Effects of feeding legume silage with differing tannin levels on lactating dairy cattle

163

U.C. Hymes Fecht, G.A. Broderick and R.E. Muck NDF digestion in dairy cows fed grass or red clover silages cut at two stages of growth

164

K.

Kuoppala, S. Ahvenjärvi, M. Rinne and A. Vanhatalo

The effects of maize and whole crop wheat silages and quality of grass silage on the performance of lactating dairy cows

165

D.C. Patterson and D.J. Kilpatrick The feeding value of conserved whole-crop wheat and forage maize relative to grass silage and ad-libitum concentrates for beef cattle

166

K.

Walsh, P. O’Kiely and F. O’Mara

Sustained aerobic stability of by-products silage stored as a total mixed ration

167

N.

Nishino, H. Hattori and H. Wada

Evaluation of narrow-row forage maize in field-scale studies

168

W.J. Cox, J.H. Cherney and D.J.R. Cherney Ensiling safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) as an alternative winter forage crop in Israel

169

Z.G. Weinberg, S.Y. Landau, A. Bar-Tal, Y. Chen, M. Gamburg, S. Brener and L. Devash Effect of variety and species on the chemical composition of Lotus when ensiled C.L. Marley, R. Fychan and R. Jones

170

Effect of additives at harvest on the digestibility in lambs of whole crop barley or wheat silage

171

S.

Muhonen, I. Olsson and P. Lingvall

Effects of varying dietary ratios of lucerne to maize silage on production and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows G.A. Broderick and A.F. Brito

172

Effects of two different chopping lengths of maize silage on silage quality and dairy performance

173

K.

Mahlkow and J. Thaysen

Use of silage additives in ensiling of whole-crop barley and wheat - A comparison of round big bales and precision chopped silages

174

M.

Knický and P. Lingvall

Cob development in forage maize: influence of harvest date, cultivar and plastic mulch

175

E.M. Little, P. O’Kiely, J.C. Crowley and G.P. Keane Yield and composition of forage maize: interaction of harvest date, cultivar and plastic mulch E.M. Little, P. O’Kiely, J.C. Crowley and G.P. Keane

176

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Silage production and utilisation

Parameters of ensiled maize with biological and chemical additives

177

J.

Grajewsk, A. Potkański, K. Raczkowska-Werwińska, M. Twarużek and B. Miklaszewska

Ensiling of tannin-containing sorghum grain

178

E.M. Ott, Y. Acosta Aragón and M. Gabel Fermentation characteristics of maize/sesbania bi-crop silage M. Kondo, J. Yanagisawa, K. Kita and H. Yokota

179

The influence of crop maturity and type of baler on whole crop barley silage production

180

P.

Lingvall, M. Knicky, B. Frank, B. Rustas and J. Wallsten

Effect of stage of maturity on the nutrient content of alfalfa

181

Y.

Tyrolova and A. Vyborna

Field beans and spring wheat as whole crop silage: yield, chemical composition and fermentation characteristics

182

L.

Ericson, K. Arvidsson and K. Martinsson

Utilisation of whole-crop pea silages differing in condensed tannin content as a replacement for soya bean meal in the diet of dairy cows

183

K.J. Hart, R.G. Wilkinson, L.A. Sinclair and J.A. Huntington Ensiled high moisture barley or dry barley in the grass silage-based diet of dairy cows

184

S.

Jaakkola, E. Saarisalo and R. Kangasniemi

Effects of species, maturity and additive on the feed quality of whole crop cereal silage

185

E.

Nadeau

Comparison of different maize hybrids cultivated and fermented with or without sorghum Sz. Orosz, Z. Bellus, Zs. Kelemen, E. Zerényi and J. Helembai

186

Utilisation of coffee grounds for total mixed ration silage

187

C.

Xu, Y. Cai, N. Hino, N. Yoshida and M. Ogawa

Forage preferences of horses C.E. Müller

188

Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques

189

The effect of silage harvester type on harvesting efficiency J.P. Frost and R.C. Binnie

191

Harvesting silage with two types of silage trailer (feed rotor with knives and precision chop)

192

H.

Arvidsson and P. Lingvall

The effects of a new plastic film on the microbial and fermentation quality of Italian ryegrass bale silages

193

G. Borreani and E. Tabacco

Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques A. Silage fermentation

195

Influence of different alfalfa-grass mixtures and the use of additives on nutritive value and fermentation of silage

197

P.

Lättemäe and U. Tamm

The effect of neutralising formic acid on fermentation of fresh and wilted grass silage

198

E.

Saarisalo and S. Jaakkola

Effects of inoculation of LAB on fermentation pattern and clostridia spores in easily ensilable grass silages

199

J.

Thaysen, G. Pahlow and E. Mathies

Effect of biological additives in red clover – timothy conservation

200

A.

Olt, H. Kaldmäe, E. Songisepp and O. Kärt

Application of a new inoculant “Chikuso-1” for silage preparation of forage paddy rice

201

Y.

Cai, C. Xu, S. Ennahar, N. Hino, N. Yoshida and M. Ogawa

Synergism of chemical and microbial additives on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) silage fermentation

202

T.F. Bernardes, G.R. Siqueira, R.P. Schocken-Iturrino, A.P.T.P. Roth and R.A. Reis The influence of the application of a biological additive on the fermentation process of red clover silage

203

Ľ. Rajčáková, R. Mlynár and M. Gallo Inoculant effects on ensiling and in vitro gas production in lucerne silage R.E. Muck, I. Filya and F.E. Contreras-Govea

204

Silage production and utilisation

11

Effects of stage of growth and inoculation on fermentation quality of field pea silage

205

G.

Borreani, L. Cavallarin, S. Antoniazzi and E. Tabacco

A

novel bacterial silage additive effective against clostridial fermentation

206

E.

Mayrhuber, M. Holzer, W. Kramer and E. Mathies

In vitro gas production and bacterial biomass estimation for lucerne silage inoculated with one of three lactic acid bacterial inoculants

207

F.E. Contreras-Govea, R.E. Muck, I. Filya, D.R. Mertens and P.J. Weimer Correlation between epiphytic microflora and microbial pollution and fermentation quality of silage made from grasses

208

B.

Osmane and J. Blūzmanis

Hygienic value and mycotoxins level of grass silage in bales for horses

209

A.

Potkański, J. Grajewski, K. Raczkowska-Werwińska, B. Miklaszewska, A. Gubała, M. Selwet and

M.

Szumacher-Strabel

Polyphenol oxidase activity and in vitro proteolytic inhibition in grasses J.M. Marita, R.D. Hatfield and G.E. Brink

210

The effect of dry matter content and inoculation with lactic acid bacteria on the residual water soluble carbohydrate content of silages prepared from a high sugar grass cultivar

211

D.R. Davies, D.K. Leemans, E.L. Bakewell and R.J. Merry Using the red clover polyphenol oxidase gene to inhibit proteolytic activity in lucerne

212

R.D. Hatfield, M.L. Sullivan and R.E. Muck New results on inhibition of clostridia development in silages

213

E.

Kaiser, K. Weiß and I. Polip

Ensilability and silage quality of different cocksfoot varieties

214

U.

Wyss

Ensiling characteristics of sudangrass silage treated with green tea leaf waste or green tea polyphenols

215

M.

Kondo, K. Kita and H. Yokota

Effects of silage preparation and microbial silage additives on biogas production from whole crop maize silage

216

M.

Neureiter, C. Perez Lopez, H. Pichler, R. Kirchmayr and R. Braun

A

16S rDNA-based quantitative assay for monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum in silage

217

M.

Klocke, K. Mundt, C. Idler, P. O`Kiely, S. Barth

A

comparison of the efficacy of an ultra-low volume applicator for liquid-applied silage inoculants

with that of a conventional applicator

218

G. Marley, G. Pahlow, H.-H. Herrmann and T.R. Owen

Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques B. Aerobic stability

219

Improving the aerobic stability of whole-crop cereal silages

221

I.

Filya, E. Sucu and A. Karabulut

Aerobic stability and nutritive value of low dry matter maize silage treated with a formic acid-based preservative

222

I.

Filya, E. Sucu and A. Karabulut

Microbial changes and aerobic stability in high moisture maize silages inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri R.A. Reis, E.O. Almeida, G.R. Siqueira, T.F. Bernardes, E.R. Janusckiewicz and M.T.P. Roth

223

Effect of residual sugar in high sugar grass silages on aerobic stability

224

G.

Pahlow, R.J. Merry, P. O’Kiely, T. Pauly and J.M. Greef

An in vitro study on the influence of residual sugars on aerobic changes in grass silages S.D. Martens, G. Pahlow and J.M. Greef

225

The effects of the growth stage and inoculant on fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-plant grain sorghum silage

226

E.

Tabacco and G. Borreani

Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability using wilting and additives (1) (EU FP V -Project ‘SweetGrass’)

227

P.

O'Kiely, H. Howard, G. Pahlow, R. Merry, T. Pauly and F.P. O'Mara

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Silage production and utilisation

Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability of unwilted silage using additives (2) (EU-Project ‘SweetGrass’)

228

H.

Howard, P. O'Kiely, G. Pahlow and F.P. O'Mara

Perennial ryegrasses bred for contrasting sugar contents: manipulating fermentation and aerobic stability of wilted silage using additives (3) (EU-Project ‘SweetGrass’)

229

H.

Howard, P. O'Kiely, G. Pahlow and F.P. O'Mara

The effect of additive containing formic acid on quality and aerobic stability of silages made of endophyte-infected green forage

230

L.

Podkówka, J. Mikołajczak, E. Staszak and P. Dorszewski

The effect of acetic acid on the aerobic stability of silages and on intake

231

B.

Ruser and J. Kleinmans

Effectiveness of Lactobacillus buchneri to improve aerobic stability and reducing mycotoxin levels in maize silages under field conditions

232

A.

Bach, C. Iglesias, C. Adelantado and M.A. Calvo

The effect of Lalsil Dry inoculant on the aerobic stability of lucerne silage J.P. Szucs and Z. Avasi

233

Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques

C. Nutritive value

235

Ensiling characteristics and ruminal degradation of Italian ryegrass with or without wilting and added cell wall degrading enzymes

237

Y.

Zhu, H. Jianguo, Z. He, X. Qingfang, B. Chunsheng and N. Nishino

Quality and nutritive value of grass-legume ensiled with inoculant Lactisil 300

238

J.

Jatkauskas and V. Vrotniakiene

Effect of additives in grass silage on rumen parameters in Rusitec

239

A.

Potkański, A. Cieślak, K. Raczkowska-Werwińska, M. Szumacher-Strabel and A. Gubała

The quality and nutritive value of big bale silage harvested from bog meadows

240

H.

Żurek, B. Wróbel and J. Zastawny

The aerobic stability and nutritive value of grass silage ensilaged with bacterial additives

241

B. Wróbel and J. Zastawny

Section 3: Developments in ensiling techniques

D. Big bale silage production

243

Factors affecting bag silo densities and losses

245

R.E. Muck and B.J. Holmes Transport of wrapped silage bales Å.T. Randby and T. Fyhri

246

Wrapping rectangular bales with plastic to preserve wet hay or make haylage

247

D.

Undersander, T. Wood and W. Foster

Bacteria and yeast in round bale silage on a sample of farms in County Meath, Ireland

248

J.

McEniry, P. O’Kiely, N.J.W. Clipson, P.D. Forristal and E.M. Doyle

Schizophyllum on baled grass silage in Ireland: national farm survey 2004

249

M.

O’Brien, P. O’Kiely, P.D. Forristal and H. Fuller

Bagged silage: Mechanical treatment applied by packing rotor improves fermentation

250

M.

Sundberg and T. Pauly

Carbon dioxide permeation properties of polyethylene films used to wrap baled silage

251

C.

Laffin, G.M. McNally, P.D. Forristal, P. O’Kiely and C.M. Small

National survey to establish the extent of visible mould on baled grass silage in Ireland and the identity of the predominant fungal species

252

M. O’Brien, P. O’Kiely, P.D. Forristal and H. Fuller

Section 4: Ensilage of tropical forages

253

Effect of ensiling temperature, delayed sealing, and simulated rainfall on the fermentation and aerobic stability of maize silage grown in a sub-tropical climate A.T. Adesogan and S.C. Kim

255

Silage production and utilisation

13

Effect of different densities on tropical grass silages

256

T.F. Bernardes, R.C. Amaral, G.R. Siqueira and R.A. Reis Sugarcane silage compared with traditional roughage sources on performance of dairy cows

257

O.C.M. Queiroz, L.G. Nussio, M.C. Santos, J.L. Ribeiro, P. Schmidt, M. Zopollatto, M.C. Junqueira, M.S. Camargo, S.G.T. Filho, L.G. Vieira, M.O. Trivelin, L.J. Mari and D.P. Souza Moisture control, inoculant and particle size in tropical grass silages

258

S.F. Paziani, L.G. Nussio, D.R.S. Loures, L.J. Mari, J.L. Ribeiro, P. Schmidt, M. Zopollatto, M.C. Junqueira and A.F. Pedroso Stability of silage wrapped round bales in Réunion Island

259

P.

Grimaud, V. Barbet-Massin, P. Thomas and D. Verrier

Ensilage of tropical grasses and legumes using a small-scale technique

260

M.

Delacollette, S. Adjolohoun, R. Agneesens and A. Buldgen

The use of Lactobacillus buchneri inoculation to decrease ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production in whole crop rice silage

261

N.

Nishino and H. Hattori

Microorganism occurrence in Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia) grass silage exposed

 

to

the environment

262

R.M. Coan, R.A. Reis, G.R. Garcia, R.P. Schocken-Iturrino and E.D. Contato

Forage variety and maturity on fermentative losses of sugarcane silages added with urea

263

P.

Schmidt, L.G. Nussio, C.M.B. Nussio, A.A. Rodrigues, P.M. Santos, J.L. Ribeiro, L.J. Mari,

M.

Zopollatto, M.C. Santos, O.C.M. Queiroz and D.P. Souza

Effect of moisture on the fermentation and the utilisation by cattle of silages made from tropical grasses

264

M. Niimi, O. Kawamura, K. Fukuyama and S. Sei

Section 5: Chemical and biological characterisation of silages

265

Estimation of legume silage digestibility with various laboratory methods

267

A.

Olt, M. Rinne, J. Nousiainen, M. Tuori, C. Paul, M.D. Fraser and P. Huhtanen

Evaluation of prediction equations for metabolisable energy concentration in grass silage used in different energy feeding systems

268

T.

Yan and R.E. Agnew

The effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage by growing steers

269

S.J. Krizsan and Å.T. Randby Determination of toxic activity of mould-damaged silage with an in vitro method

270

A.

Solyakov and T. Pauly

Butyric acid bacteria spores in whole crop maize silage

271

F.

Driehuis and M.C. te Giffel

Effects of the stage of growth and inoculation on proteolysis in field pea silage

272

L.

Cavallarin, G. Borreani, S. Antoniazzi and E. Tabacco

Ruminal proteolysis in forages with distinct endopeptidases activities

273

G.

Pichard, C. Tapia and R. Larraín

Effects of particle size in forage samples for protein breakdown studies

274

G.

Pichard and C. Tapia

A

new system for the evaluation of the fermentation quality of silages

275

E.

Kaiser and K. Weiß

Prediction of indigestible NDF content of grass and legume silages by NIRS

276

L.

Nyholm, M. Rinne, M. Hellämäki, P. Huhtanen and J. Nousiainen

Analysis of silage fermentation characteristics using transflectance measurements by near infrared spectroscopy

277

A.

Martínez, A. Soldado, R. García, D. Sánchez and B. de la Roza-Delgado

A

simple method for the correction of fermentation losses measured in laboratory silos

278

F.

Weissbach

Development of a method for the fast and complete assessment of quality characteristics in undried grass silages by means of an NIR-diode array spectrometer

279

H.

Gibaud, C. Paul, J.M. Greef and B. Ruser

14

Silage production and utilisation

Prediction of red clover content in mixed swards by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy B. Deprez, D. Stilmant, C. Clément, C. Decamps and A. Peeters

280

281

Keyword index Author index

285

Silage production and utilisation

15