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Chapter 15: Successful and Unsuccessful Paths to Power (1686-1740)

I. The Maritime Powers A. Basics 1. Britain and France=dominant power. Power taken from Spain and Netherlands. B. Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline 1. 1609: autonomy recognized by Spain-7 provinces=United Provinces 2.1648: independence from Spain-Treaty of Westphalia 3. 1672: Louis XIV invades, William III of Holland leads European coalition against France 4. 1688: William III and Mary assume English throne 5. Netherlands=republic-States General of Hague (Holland dominant) 6. Dutch distrust of monarchy and House of Orange-allow them leadership in times of war. a) Allows establishment of republic 7. Death of William and end of war=republicanism 8. Religious toleration-sided w/Protestants, Calvinist Reformed Church=official church. Haven for Jews. C. Urban Prosperity 1. Major economic prosperity-lots of urban life (60% pop. in Holland)-prosperity built on urbanization, transformed agriculture, extensive trade and finance, overseas commercial empire. a) Trade, manufacture, shipbuilding=engine of prosperity b) Made possible by transformations in Dutch farming 2. Reclaimed land by sea=profitable-interests dominate Baltic trade=grain=more time and space for dairy, beef, and tulip bulbs. 3. Trading domination of Europe-fishermen, textiles, trade strategy a) Supported shipbuilding and supplies 4. Advanced financial system-easily raised capital (Amsterdam)-shares easily traded 5. Seaborne empire-major presence in East Asia (Java, Moluccas, Sri Lanka) a) 1602- Dutch East India Company-displace Portuguese dominance of spice trade. Want to produce spice. D. Economic Decline 1. Emergence of new stadtholder hindered=loss of political leadership. 2. During war: naval supremacy goes to British, fishing declines, technological superiority in shipbuilding gone, loss of trade, decline of domestic industries. a) Quickens decline. 3. Financial dominance saves Netherlands-finances trade, shares from Amsterdam bourse=very important. E. France after Louis XIV 1. France=largest European pop., advanced economy, strong administrative structure. 2. Needed economic recovery and consolidation, wiser political leadership, less ambitious foreign policy. 3. Louis XV (five year old great-grandson) gets throne, duke of Orleans as regent. a) Regency marked by financial and moral scandal, undermined faltering prestige of monarchy. F. John Law and the Mississippi Bubble. 1. Duke of Orleans=gambler, turns over finance management to John Law (Scottish mathematician/gambler) 2. Establishes bank in Paris to distribute paper money and organizes monopoly-Mississippi Company. a) Thinks more paper money in circulation=stimulation of French economic recovery. 3. Mississippi Company-takes over management of French national debt. a) Issues own shares in stock in exchange for government bonds (speculation encouraged). b) 1719-price of stock rises greatly. c) 1720-all gold payments halted in France b/c the bank did not have enough to redeem all the paper money exchanged=Law flees country. i. Results in fear of paper money, disgrace of Laws governmental support system. G. Renewed Authority of the Parlements 1. Duke of Orleans attempts to draw the French nobility to decision making of government. 2. Tries to restore balance in ministries and bureaucracies by setting up system of noble councils. a) Nobility lacks talent and drive to govern=experiment failed. 3. Nobility attempts to limit power of monarchy-parlements (courts dominated by nobility).

a) Parlement of Paris=most important


b) Determined whether act or law was legal=validation. i. Louis XIV restricted parlements, Orleans reinstituted power of parlements to allow or disallow laws. c) Parlements become natural centers for aristocratic resistance to royal authority. H. Administration of Cardinal Fleury 1. 1726- Cardinal Fleury (73)=chief minister of French court=realist. 2. Works to block nobilitys influence, aware of financial crisis at hand. 3. Surrounded himself with those who would solve financial problems, wanted peace. 4. New industries established; roads and bridges built. 5. France intervenes in war between Prussia and Austria after death-undoes all Fleurys work. 6. Did not train Louis XV to be prosperous ruler, wanted to hold on to power but didnt want to work. a) Poorly chose advisers, into gossip of court, scandalous personal life=mediocre. 7. Lack of political leadership plagues France I. Great Britain: The Age of Walpole 1. Robert Walpole takes over government-given prominence by British financial scandal. 2. Management of British national debt=controlled by South Sea Company. Price of stock skyrocketed, crashes in 1720. a) Parliament under Walpole intervenes and adopts means to honor national debt 3. Often regarded as first prime minister of England and originator of the cabinet system. 4. Was not chosen by majority of House of Commons. Real source of support=George I and II. 5. He handled House of Commons well; controlled government patronage well brought support from people who wanted jobs, favors, and government contracts. Supplied glue of political loyalty. 6. Quieta non movere (let sleeping dogs lie). Pushed peace abroad, and supported status quo in home country. Resembled Fleury. J. The Structure of Parliament 1. Neither democratic nor representative. 2. Each county elected two members unless powerful families agreed on candidates. 3. Most members elected from boroughs-varied in size. 4. Old Sarum-most corrupt/rotten boroughs-Pitt family bribed people with property and gained seat in House of Commons. 5. Owners of property/wealthy nobles dominated government of England. a) Didnt try to represent people or respond to public interest. Believed the represented economic and social interests (West Indian interest, merchant interest, landed interest). b) Suspicious of administrative bureaucracy controlled by the crown or ministers. c) To diminish royal influence thy served as government administrators, judges, militia commanders and tax collectors. British nobility and landowners governed in this sense. 6. Supremacy of Parliament=British unity without strong central monarchy. Helped strengthen financial position of British government. 7. British monarch couldnt raise taxes, but monarch and parliament could raise sums of tax revenue and loans to wage war. 8. No tax exemptions; everyone paid. 9. British credit market very secure through Bank of England (1693). K. Freedom of Political Life 1. British political life=more free than most. Parliament couldnt ignore popular political pressure. 2. Many members of Parliament maintained independent views. Newspapers and public debate increased. Freedom of speech and association. No more large-standing army. 3. Whigs and Tories openly opposed Walpoles policies. 4. 1733- Walpole proposes expansion of excise tax (sales tax), opposition so strong-proposition ridded. 5. Traditional political rights barred power of government. 1739-public outcry over Spanish treatment of British merchants-pushed Britain into war that Walpole abhorred. Leaves office in 1742. Central and Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire A. Basics 1. Economically less advanced than western Europe-agrarian economy. 2. Fewer cities and more large estates inhabited by serfs. 3. Did not have overseas empires or engage in overseas trade except for supply of grain.

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4. Changes in borders or rulers, war on home soil, soft political structure, constant warfare=shifting political loyalties. 5. Princes unwilling to submit to central monarch. 6. Austrian Habsburgs started consolidating power outside of Germany. 7. Russia as a military and naval power of first order. 8. Austria, Prussia, Russia achieve new status as result of political decay and military defeat of Sweden, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire. B. Sweden: The Ambitions of Charles XII 1. Gustavus Adolphus II as ruler of Sweden=Protestant combatant in Thirty Years War. Consolidated control of Baltic, preventing Russian, Polish and German access to the sea if not on Swedish terms. Strong army, economy based on export of iron-not strong. 2. Charles XII (1697) rises to power. 3. 1700- Russia tries to invade Swedish territory to gain foothold on Baltic. Resulted in Great Northern War. 4. Charles XII led vigorous campaign, but Sweden lost. Beat Russians at Battle of Narva, then turned to invade Poland-allowing Russia to pick up strength. 5. 1708-Charles began invasion into Russia-winter hindered it-defeated in Battle of Poltava. 6. Charles flees to Turkey and is killed later while fighting the Danes in Norway. 7. 1721-end of Great Northern War because Sweden exhausted military and economic resources. Lost Baltic monopoly. 8. Russia gets parts of Baltic, Prussia gained part of Pomerania. 9. Swedish nobles determined to reassert power over the monarchy and did it, but then quarreled among themselves. C. The Ottoman Empire 1. Baghdad across Arabian Peninsula, Anatolia, the Balkan Peninsula, and North Africa=the Ottoman Empire. Largest and most stable political entity to arise near Europe after collapse of Roman Emp. 2. 1453-conquered Constantinople, ending Byzantine Empire. 3.Ruled by Ottoman Sultan supported by administrative bureaucracy and army. 4. Dominant political power in Muslim world after 1516-Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, arranged safe Muslim pilgrimages. 5. Diverse population-linguistically, ethically, and religiously. Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Jews. 6. Sultans ruled through millets-units of officially recognized religious communities. Your millet determined the laws and regulations you abided by. 7. Non-Islamic persons= dhimmis were second class citizens, unable to rise to service of empire. 8. Dhimmis paid poll tax (jizyah), couldnt serve in military, prohibited from wearing some colors, residences and places of worship couldnt be as large as Muslims. 9. Dhimmis acquired great economic success by possessing the highest level of commercial skills in the empire. Ottomon Empire did not like socialization between groups, so non-Islams never got these. 10. Ottoman dynasty separated itself from powerful families of empire by recruiting military leaders and administrators from groups that sultans thought would be loyal 11. Devshirme-process where Ottomans recruited most elite troops from Christian communities. 12. Janissaries-most famous elite infantry troops recruited from above. Boys raised as Muslims. a) Remained closed to native Islamic and members of elite Islamic families. 13. People from outer regions of empire (slaves) filled government posts and major political influence/status 14. Few people from leading families got military, administrative, or political experience, in large government, just local government. a) Many believed it was better to be a slave than a free subject. 15. Sharia=Islamic law. Ulama=Islamic scholarsdynasty saw itself as chief protector of these and Sunni traditions and holy places. 16. Ulama dominated Ottoman religious institutions as well as schools and courts of law. 17. Circle of Equity-Sultans and administrators consulted scholars for advice with regard to how their policies and behavior of their subjects accorded with Islamic law and the Quran. In turn, the Ulama would support the Ottoman state=key factor in fate of empire. 18. Ulama urged Ottoman rulers to conform to traditional life and Janissaries resisted any changes that would undermine their status.

19. 1571-naval battle defeat at Battle of Lepanto, but empire retained control of eater Mediterranean and lands bordering it. 20. Want to move toward the west, 1683-unsuccessfully besieged Vienna, beginning of decline. 21. Authority of grand vizier began to grow-more authority with administrative and military bureaucracy. Rivalries for power among army leaders and nobles weaken government. 22. Local elites in cities of empire began to assert influence, quietly renegotiated imperial authoritys conditions. 23. Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Algeria depended on goodwill of rulers who paid tribute. 24. During Middle Ages Islamic world was far more advanced in learning, science, and military prowess. But, as Europeans advanced and opened trade, gained commercial skills, and became wealthier, the Europeans got resources from Asia and America rather than the Ottoman Empire. 25. Europeans circumnavigated the Middle East, and developed greater military power and weapons. 26. Ottomans unsuccessfully fought league of Austria, Venice, Malta, Poland, Tuscany and Russia. 27. 1699-Treaty of Carlowitz-required them to surrender significant territory lying in the heart of their empire to Europe=loss of territory and revenue. 28. Russian/Ottoman battle for control of regions around the Black Sea-Russia prevailing. 29. Ottomans still viewed themselves as superior, but no new works of European science were translated into Arabic or Turkish. Ottoman rulers cut off from their subjects and the outside world had no idea what was going on. 30. When Ottoman Empire realized, tended to borrow European tech. and import foreign advisers and failing to develop own infrastructure. 31. Non-Muslims eventually allowed to teach and alliances were approved with non-Muslims. Ulma limited these relationships. 32. Intellectual circles in Europe view Ottoman Empire as declining power and Islam as backward looking religion. A. Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority 1.Major failure to maintain competitive political position. 2.1683: King John III Sobieski led Polish army to rescue Vienna from Turkish siege=Poland as byword for dangers of aristocratic independence. 3.Polish monarchy=elective-deep distrust among nobles prevented election of king. 4.Sejm=central Polish legislative body-included nobles, excluded reps. from corporate bodies. 5.Liberum veto- staunch opposition of a member could require the body to disband-exploding the diet a) Usually work of a group of nobles rather than one person 6.Requirement of unanimity=major stumbling block for government=disappearance of Poland from map. B. The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction 1.After 1648, Austrian Habsburgs retained title of Holy Roman Emperor, but political effectiveness depended on cooperation that emperor could get from three hundred corporate political entities. C. Consolidation of Austrian Power 1.Habsburgs began consolidating their power and influence. Crown of St. Wencelas and the kingdom of Bohemia and the duchies of Moravia and Silesia, and the Crown of St. Stephen, and Hungary, Croatia and Transylvania. 2.1699-Hungary comes under Habsburg rule from Ottoman Empire through Treaty of Carlowitz. 3.Habsburgs extend domains farther-Spanish Netherlands, Lombardy, and Naples through Treaty of Utrecht. a) Power and influence based on territories outside of Germany 4.Each territory ruled by virtue of different title and had to gain cooperation of local nobility. No common basis for political unity. 5.Establish numerous central councils, but dealt with only part of Habsburgs holdings. 6.Habsburgs had to bargain with nobles to maintain power. Most difficult-Calvinist Magyar nobilityHungary. 7.Leopold I rallied domains to resist advances of Ottomans and aggression of Louis XIV, began suppression of Magyar rebellion (1703-1711). a) Conquered a lot of the Balkan Peninsula and western Romania-allowed Habsburgs hope to trade through port of Trieste in Mediterranean.

b) Expansion helped them compensate for loss of domination over Holy Roman Empire-gave
greater political leverage in Germany. 8.Joseph I succeeds Leopold who continues Leopolds policies. The Habsburg Dynastic Problem 1.Charles VI succeeds Joseph I. Doesnt want Habsburg lands to fall to surrounding powers b/c he has no male heir, so he tried preventing it by providing semblance of legal unity. Devoted reign to seeking approval of his family, the estates of his realms, and major foreign powers for the Pragmatic Sanction. 2.Provided legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through Maria Theresa (Charless daughter). 3.Maria recognized as heir by some, but faces foreign aggression even though there is the Pragmatic Sanction and strong army and full treasury. 4.1740-Frederick II of Prussia invaded Habsburg Silesia; Maria had to fight to defend inheritance. Prussia and the Hohenzollerns 1.Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg-Prussia acquired similar collection of titular holding and forged them into centrally administered unit. 2.Subordinated every social class and economic pursuits to strengthening of army. 3.Made term Prussian synonymous with administrative rigor and military discipline. A State of Disconnected Territories 1.Hohenzollern family ruled German territory of Brandenburg since 1417. Had acquired duchy of Cleves and counties of Mark and Ravensburg (1609), duchy of East Prussia (1618), and duchy of Pomerania (1637). a) None of these contiguous with Brandenburg lacked good natural resources. 2.Treaty of Westphalia-some of Pomerania lost to Sweden, but received three more bishoprics and promise of the archbishopric of Magdeburg. 3.Scattered Hohenzollern territories represented block of territory within Holy Roman Empire Frederick William, the Great Elector 1.Frederick William-began to forge separated regions and diverse nobles into modern state. 2.Known as the Great Elector (ruler of Brandenburg called elector b/c he was one of princes who elected Holy Roman Emperor). 3.Established himself as central uniting power by breaking local noble estates, organizing royal bureaucracy, and a strong army. 4.1655-1660: Sweden and Poland engaged in war-endangered holdings in Pomerania and East Prussia. a) 1655-Brandenburg estates refuse to grant new taxes to fund war, but collected tax by military force. b) 1659-another grant of taxes elapsed c) Frederick continues to impose and collect taxes to build up arm to enforce his will without approval from nobility. 5.In exchange for obedience of nobles to Hohenzollerns, Junkers received the right to demand obedience from their serfs. a) Junkers=large landowners of Prussia. 6.Chose local administers of tax structure from members of noble estates. Co-opted potential opponents into his service. 7.Taxes fell most heavily on peasants and urban classes. Frederick William I, King of Prussia 1.House of Hohenzollern didnt possess crown. 2.Frederick built palaces, founded Halle University, patronized the arts, and lived well. Least Prussian of family. 3.1701-outbreak of War of Spanish Succession=Fredericks army at disposal of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor. a) Emperor allows Frederick to assume title of King of Prussia in return 4.Frederick William I=Frederick Is son=one of most effective Hohenzollerns. 5.Initiated policy of Kabinett government-lower officials submitted all relevant documents to him in his office. a) Therefore, he ruled alone without influence of ministers. 6.Organized bureaucracy along military lines and united all departments under General-Ober-FinanzKriegs-und-Domanen-Direktorium-the General Directory.

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7.Imposed taxes on nobility and changed feudal dues into monetary payments. 8.Wanted administrative loyalties as sense of duty as political institution rather than a person. 9.Perfect royal servant=intelligent, assiduous, and alter person and serves king out of love and honor rather than money, and who values king as the highest, next to God, abhors all intrigues and emotional deterrents. a) Service to state and monarch=impersonal, mechanical, un-questioning The Prussian Army 1.Size of army grew=third or fourth largest army in Europe, thirteenth in population. a) Made each canton or district responsible for supplying quota of soldiers. 2.Frederick William always wore officers uniform 3.Separate laws for army and civilians. Officers corps=highest class. Military service attracts sons of Junkers.

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4.The army, Junker nobility, and monarchy forged into single political entity. 5.Military priorities and values dominated government, society, and daily life, Prussian army possessed nation. 6.Frederick William avoided conflict, army was symbol of power and unity, not for adventure or aggression. 7.At death, heir is son, Frederick II (The Great) who immediately upset the Pragmatic Sanction, invaded Silesia, and crystallized the Austrian-Prussian rivalry for control of Germany. Russia Enters the European Political Arena A. Basics 1.Russia hemmed by Sweden and Ottoman Empire, not considered part of Europe, didnt possess ports-only outlet for trade=Archangel on White Sea, but is rich in undeveloped natural and human resources B. Birth of the Romanov Dynasty 1.Time of Troubles=time after reign of Ivan the Terrible, 1613-Michael Romanov elected as tsar of Russia. 2.Romanov and his two successors: Aleksei and Theodore II brought stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to Russia. 3.Country=weak and impoverished after year of turmoil, largely controlled by boyars-old nobility. 4.Administration couldnt suppress a revolt of peasants and Cossacks under Stepan Razin. 5.Tsars faced danger of mutiny from the streltsy-guards of Moscow garrison C. Peter the Great 1.Peter ascends throne at 10 as co-ruler with his half brother Ivan V. Sister Sophia proclaimed regent. 2. Sophia overthrown in 1689 and Peter ruled personally. 3.Peter believed: power of tsar must be made secure from the jealous of the boyars and the greed of the streltsy, and the military power of Russia must be increased. Resembled Louis XIV of France. 4.Northwestern Europe fascinated Peter I (Peter the Great). 1697-secretly visits Europe. 5.Ordered others to travel around continent learning languages and new commercial and military skills. Returned to Moscow determined to copy what he had seen. D. Taming the Streltsy and Boyars 1.Peter suppressed revolt of streltsy by private tortures and public execution. 2.Introduced effective and ruthless policies of conscription, drafting thousands of soldiers, and had adopted policies for the officer corps and general military discipline patterned on those of west European armies. 3.Determined to make sustained attack on boyars and their attachment to traditional Russian culture. Shaved their beards, cut up their clothes. 4.Stopped granting boyar status to new people and did not always consult boyars before making decisions, faced opposition from court nobility because of this. 5.Became skilled at balancing one group off another while never completely excluding any as he set to organize Russian government and military forces along the lines of powerful European states. E. Developing a Navy

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1.Created navy to secure warm-water ports that would allow Russia to trade with the West and to influence European affairs. 2.Oversaw construction of ships to protect interests in the Blacks Sea and began a war with the Ottomans and captured Azov on the Black sea in 1697. 3.Travels again to Europe in 1697 to learn how to build better warships for combat on Baltic. a) Proved to be essential in the Great Northern War with Sweden. Russian Expansion in the Baltic: the Great Northern War 1.Sweden consolidated control of Baltic preventing Russian possession of a port on the sea and permitting German and Polish access to the sea on Swedish terms. Also had good army. Weak economy. 2.1700-Peter began drive to the west against Swedish territory to gain foothold on Baltic=Great Northern War. 3.War: Charles XII beats Russia in Battle of Narva, but by 1709 Peter defeated Swedes at Battle of Poltava. 4.1721: end of war, Peace of Nystad confirmed Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland=ice-free ports and influence in European affairs. Founding St. Petersburg 1.Domestic and foreign policies of Peter the Great intersected on Gulf of Finland where he founded capital city: St. Petersburg in 1703 2.Built government structures and compelled boyars to construct town houses to imitate European monarchs who copied Louis XIV 3.Symbolized new Western orientation of Russia, and Peters determination to hold his position on the Baltic coast. 4.He and successors employed architects from Western Europe for buildings and therefore it looked different than any other Russian city. 5.Seen as west European growth on Russian culture that symbolized Peters autocracy and rejection of traditional Russian life and government Reorganizing Domestic Administration 1.1711-Peter created a Senate of nine members. The Senate replaced Privy Chancellery. Directed all aspects of government when the tsar was away with the army. 2.Purpose was to establish bureaucratic structure that could support an efficient military establishment. 3.Intended to represent authority of tsar against court nobles. The Case of Peters Son Aleksei 1.Born to Peters first wife-Peter jealous of him, scared he will plot against him or undermine his power-Peter constant critcism 2.Aleksei enters into vague military plot with Charles VI-against his father, but plan fails, Peter finds out-Aleksei condemned to death. 3.Had enormous ramifications on the rest of Peters rule. Reforms of Peter the Greats Final Years 1.Interrogations surrounding Aleksei revealed greater degrees of court opposition than Peter had expected. 2.Peter undertook radical administrative reforms designed to bring the nobility and the Russian Orthodox Church more closely under the authority of people loyal to the tsar. Administrative Colleges 1.1717-Peter reorganized his domestic administration to sustain his own personal authority and to fight rampant corruption. 2.To enforce it, Peter looked to Swedish colleges, several people operating according to written instructions rather than departments headed by a single minister. a) Imposed eight on Russian administration to look after matters like collection of taxes, foreign relations, war, and economic affairs. b) Used appointive power to balance influence in the colleges between nobles and loyalists. c) Balanced influence of Senate where Aleksei had sympathizers. Table of Ranks

1.1722: administrative reform through publishing of Table of Ranks intended to draw the nobility into state service. 2.Table calculated persons social position and privileges with rank in bureaucracy or military rather than lineage. 3.Made social standing of boyars subject to their willingness to serve central state. a) Never became fully loyal, sought to reassert independence and control of Russian imperial court and bargain with later tsars over local authority and dominance over serfs. M. Achieving Secular Control of the Church 1.Moved to suppress the independence of Russian Orthodox Church. 2. Patriarch Nikon led reformist movement and introduced changes into church text and ritual. 3.Old Believers-group of Russian Orthodox Christians that strongly opposed above changes. a) Committed suicide rather than submit to new rituals 4.In response, churches began to advocate both popular and Western form of clerical education and Latin. a) Modernizers that moved too slowly for Peter who began to appoint own bishops. 5.Peter set to curtail capacity of Russian Orthodox Church to oppose his interference in its affairs and to meddle in politics. 6.1721-abolishes position of patriarch-bishop at head of church-and established a government department called the Holy Synod-composed of several bishops headed by a laymanprocurator general. a) Governed church in accordance with tsars requirements. b) Drew on German Lutheran models-most radical transformation of traditional institution during Peters reign. i. Produced further opposition from the Old Believers 7.Peter laid foundation for modern Russia, not for stable Russia-didnt have heir, rulers elected for thirty years.