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History W3997y World War II in History and Memory Spring 2012 Mon. &Wed. 2:40-3:55 501 Schermerhorn cg9@columbia.

edu TAs: Christopher Craig crc2120@columbia.edu Clay Eaton cke2104@columbia.edu Ana Isabel Keilson ak2016@columbia.edu Chelsea Schieder css2125@columbia.edu Ian Shin ks2862@columbia.edu Tim Yang tmy2101@columbia.edu The Course: An exploration of the changes in public memory of World War Two in different countries in Asia, Europe, and North America over the past sixty-five years, with particular attention to the heightened interest in the war in recent decades and the relation of this surge of memory to what we used to call history. Requirements: There are no prerequisites for this course. 1. Required readings and screenings 2. Weekly web posting to CourseWorks (25%) 3. Participation in discussion sections (25%) 4. Brief analytic essay, due mid-term (25%) 5. Final examination (paper option for graduate students) (25%) Readings on Reserve: Articles and book chapters, which constitute most of the required reading, are available electronically and accessible through the NEW CourseWorks. Required Books on Order: The following required books to be read in their entirety are on order at Columbia University Bookstore: Neighbors by Jan T. Gross (Princeton University Press, 2001) Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds History, by Art Spiegelman (Pantheon, 1993) [Maus II: A Survivor's Tale: And Here My Troubles Began is optional but strongly recommended] Barefoot Gen: The Day After (Vol. 2) by Keiji Nakazawa (Last Gasp, 2004) [Barefoot Gen: A Cartoon Story of Hiroshima (Vol. 1) is optional but recommended] Crabwalk by Gnter Grass (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003) Carol Gluck 912 IAB, 212-854-2591 OH: Wed. 4:15-6:15 [in 912 IAB]

The Breaking Jewel by Makoto Oda (Columbia University Press, 2003) Optional Books for Historical Background: For those who would like a general narrative or reference work on the war: Concise Historical Atlas of World War Two: The Geography of Conflict by Ronald Story (Oxford , 2006) an excellent graphic presentation of the course of the war, highly recommended for reference [on order at the bookstore] A Short History of World War II by James L. Stokesbury (Harper, 1980) a brief narrative history, on order at the bookstore A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II by Gerhard L. Weinberg (Cambridge, 2005), a full narrative history, good for reference, on order at the bookstore The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis by Bradley Lightbody (Routledge, 2004) a medium-length narrative, on reserve at the library Inferno: The World at War, 1893-1945 by Max Hastings (Knopf, 2011 a readable, if somewhat British, narrative incorporating everyday experiences http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II simple general narrative, for orientation only, online Information: Please contact Laura Warne lw2269@columbia.edu, tel.: 212-854-2575, desk opposite 912 IAB, for further information.

History W3997y. World War II in History and Memory January 18 (Wed.) Introduction Optional: For general background, any of the titles listed above on page 2. January 23 (Mon.) War and Memory World War II: An assemblage of images and associations Required: Andreas Huyssen, Present Pasts: Media, Politics, Amnesia, in Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (Stanford, 2003), pp. 11-29. Optional: T.G. Ashplant, Graham Dawson, and Michael Roper, The Politics of War Memory and Commemoration: Contexts, Structures and Dynamics, in The Politics of War Memory and Commemoration (Routledge, 2000), pp. 3-17 I. WAR STORIES January 25 (Wed.) Victims All: Germany and Italy Robert G. Moeller, War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany, American Historical Review 101, no.4 (Oct.1996), pp. 1008-48 Alessandro Portelli, "The Massacre at Civitella Val di Chiana" (Tuscany, June 29, 1944): Myth and Politics, Mourning and Common Sense," in The Battle of Valle Giulia: Oral History and the Art of Dialogue (University of Wisconsin Press, 1997), pp. 140-60 Optional: Claudio Fogu, Italiani Brava Gente: The Legacy of Fascist Historical Culture on Italian Politics of Memory, in Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, Claudio Fogu, eds., The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe (Duke University Press, 2006), pp. 147-76 January 30 (Mon.) Resistants All: Belgium, France, the Netherlands Pieter Lagrou, "Victims of Genocide and National Memory: Belgium, France and the Netherlands 1945-1965, Past and Present 154 (Feb. 1997), pp. 194-210 [The whole article is online, but only pp. 194-210 are required] Richard J. Golsan, The Legacy of World War II in France: Mapping the Discourses of

Memory, in Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, Claudio Fogu, eds., The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe (Duke University Press, 2006), pp. 73-85, 90-101 (optional: pp. 85-90) February 1 (Wed.) Victory Cultures: Britain and the United States Mark Connelly, We Can Take it! Britain and the Memory of the Second World War (Pearson, Longman, 2004), pp. 1-19 [optional: pp. 20-25; pp. 267-297) Imperial War Museum, London, http://www.iwm.org.uk/, Second World War Galleries and others Michael C.C. Adams, "Mythmaking and the War," The Best War Ever: America and World War II (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 1-19 John Bodnar, The Good War in American Memory (Johns Hopkins, 2010), pp. 200-208, 213-217, 225-234 National World War II Memorial, www.wwiimemorial.com, 2004-present. Explore and comment Optional: Imperial War Museum Duxford, http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/ & Imperial War Museum North, http://north.iwm.org.uk/. Explore and comment OR WW2 People's War, www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/. Explore and comment Emily Rosenberg, Remembering Pearl Harbor before September 11, 2001, in Marc Gallicchio, ed., The Unpredictability of the Past (Duke University Press, 2007), pp.15-48 February 6 (Mon.) Memory under Occupation: Japan Yoshikuni Igarashi, The Bomb, Hirohito, and History: The Foundational Narrative of Postwar Relations between Japanand the United States, in Bodies of Memory: Narratives of War in Postwar Japanese Culture, 1945-1970 (Princeton, 2000), pp. 19-46 (Introduction, pp. 1-18 are also online but are not required) Franziska Seraphim, War Memory and Social Politics in Japan, 1945-2000 (Harvard, 2006) pp. 1-31

February 8 (Wed.) Patriotic Wars: The Peoples Republic of China and the Soviet Union Yinan He, Remembering and Forgetting the War: Elite Mythmaking, Mass Reaction, and Sino-Japanese Relations, 1950-2006, History and Memory 19, no.2 (Fall/Winter 2007), pp. 43-74 Catherine Merridale, Russia at War, in Night of Stone: Death and Memory in TwentiethCentury Russia (Penguin, 2000), pp. 269-306 February 13 (Mon.) Doubled Stories in the Bloodlands: Eastern Europe Tony Judt, "The Past is Another Country: Myth and Memory," in Jan-Werner Mller, ed., Memory & Power in Post-war Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 157-183 Annamaria Orla-Bukowska, New Threads on an Old Loom: National Memory and Social Identity in Postwar and Post-Communist Poland, in Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu, eds, The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe (Duke University Press, 2006), pp. 177-202 Marko Lehti, Matti Jutila, and Markku Jokisipil, Never-ending Second World War: Public Performances of National Dignity and the Drama of the Bronze Soldier, Journal of Baltic Studies 39, no. 4 (December 2008), pp. 393-413 Optional: Wolfgang Hoepken, War, Memory, and Education in a Fragmented Society: The Case of Yugoslavia, East European Politics and Societies 13, no.1 (Winter 1999), pp. 190-227 February 15 (Wed.) From the Colonial Past to the National Future: Southeast Asia Diana Wong, Memory Suppression and Memory Production: The Japanese Occupation of Singapore, in T. Fujitani, Geoffrey M. White, and Lisa Yoneyama, eds. Perilous Memories: The Asia-Pacific War(s) (Duke, 2001), pp. 218-238 Anthony Reid, Remembering and Forgetting War and Revolution, in Mary S. Zurbuchen, ed. Beginning to Remember: The Past in the Indonesian Present (Singapore University Press, 2005), pp. 171-190 (the entire article is online, but not required Optional but recommended: Kevin Blackburn, War Memory and Nation-building in South East Asia, South East Asian Research 18, no. 1 (March 2000), pp. 5-31 Optional:

Ricardo T. Jos, War and Violence, History and Memory: The Philippine Experience of the Second World War, Asian Journal of Social Science 29, no. 3 (Nov.2001), pp. 457-470 Cheah Boon Kheng, Memory as History and Moral Judgment: Oral and Written Accounts of the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, in P. Lim Pui Huen and Diana Wong, War and Memory in Malaysia and Singapore (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 2000), pp. 23-41

February 20 (Mon.) Heroic Narratives Compared Discussion Optional: Johan stling, Swedish Narratives of the Second World War: A European Perspective, Contemporary European History 17, no. 2 (2008), pp. 197-211 Regula Ludi, Whats So Special About Switzerland? Wartime Memory as a National Ideology in the Cold War Era, in Lebow, Kansteiner, Fogu, eds. The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe, pp. 210-48 Jui-te Chang, The Politics of Commemoration: A Comparative Analysis of the FiftiethAnniversary Commemoration in Mainland China and Taiwan of the Victory in the Anti-Japanese War, in Diana Lary and Stephen MacKinnon, eds., Scars of War: The Impact of Warfare on Modern China (University of British Columbia Press, 2001), pp. 136-160 Kyu Hyun Kim, War and the Colonial Legacy in Recent South Korean Scholarship, IIAS Newsletter 38 (September 2005), p. 6 Suzanne Falgout, Lin Poyer, and Laurence M. Carucci, Memories of War: Micronesians in the Pacific War (University of Hawaii Press, 2008), pp. 219-27 Operation Victory (videogame, Breakthrough, 2005), Canadians at war II. MEMORY CHANGE A. The Holocaust February 22 (Wed.) Becoming the Holocaust Tony Judt, From the House of the Dead, in Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (Penguin, 2005), pp. 803-31

Peter Novick, Holocaust Memory in America, in James E. Young, ed.,The Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (Prestel, 1994), pp. 159-165 Father Patrick Desbois, The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priests Journey to Uncover the Truth behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), introduction by Paul A. Shapiro, pp. vii-xiii; and pp. 73-77 Optional: Omer Bartov, Defining Enemies, Making Victims: Germans, Jews and the Holocaust, American Historical Review 103, no. 3 (June 1998), pp. 771-816 Anson Rabinbach, From Explosion to Erosion: Holocaust Memorialization in America since Bitburg, History & Memory 9,no. 1/2 (Fall 1997), pp. 226-255. ------In-class screening: Night and Fog [Nuit et Brouillard, 1955], Alain Resnais and Holocaust [NBC Television, 1978], selections Optional, but recommended: Miriam Bratu Hansen, Schindlers List Is Not Shoah: The Second Commandment, Popular Modernism, and Public Memory, in Marcia Landy, ed., The Historical Film: History and Memory in Media (Rutgers, 2001), pp. 201-17. Jeffrey Shandler, The Image as Witness" While America Watches: Televising the Holocaust (Oxford, 1999), pp. 5-26.

ANALYTIC ESSAY due Friday February 24


February 27 (Mon.) Challenging Memory Jan T. Gross, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland (Princeton, 2001), 173 pp. B. The Comfort Women February 29 (Wed.) Coming into Memory In-class screening: Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women [Dai Sil Kim-Gibson, 1999], selection

Chunghee Sarah Soh, Prostitutes versus Sex Slaves: The Politics of Representing the Comfort Women, in Margaret Stetz and Bonnie B.C. Oh, eds., Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II (ME Sharpe, 2001), pp.69-87. Chizuko Ueno, The Politics of Memory: Nation, Individual and Self, History & Memory 11, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1999), pp. 129-152; Optional: Jordan Sand, Introduction to Ueno article, pp.117-28. Laura Hein Savage Irony: The Imaginative Power of the Military Comfort Women in the 1990s, Gender & History 11, no. 2 (July 1999), pp. 336-372. March 5 (Mon.) Legacies Carol Gluck, Operations of Memory: Comfort Women and the World, in Sheila Miyoshi Jager and Rana Mitter, Ruptured Histories: War, Memory, and the Post-Cold War in Asia (Harvard University Press, 2007), pp. 65-77 (pp.47-64 are also online but are not required) Alexis Dudden, We Came to Tell the Truth: Reflections on the Tokyo Womens Tribunal, Critical Asian Studies 33, no.4 pp., 591-602 From the Judgement (2001) of The Womens International War Crimes Tribunal for the Trial of Japans Military Sexual Slavery (Tokyo, December 2000), pp. 1-10, 264-5 [for reference]. Optional: Rhonda Copelon, Gender Crimes as War Crimes: Integrating Crimes against Women into International Criminal Law, McGill Law Journal 46, no. 217 (2000), pp. 219-40 (esp.219-28, 239-40. C. The Rape of Nanking March 7 (Wed.) Memory vs. History Takashi Yoshida, Refighting the Nanking Massacre: The Continuing Struggle over Memory, in Fei Fei Li, Robert Sabella and David Liu, eds., Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (ME Sharpe, 2002), pp. 154-180 Daqing Yang, The Challenges of the Nanjing Massacre: Reflections on Historical Inquiry, in Joshua A. Fogel, ed., The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography (California, 2000), pp. 133-172

March 19 (Mon.) Nanjing Film Boom In-class screening: Nanking (2007); Rape of Nanking (2007), etc. Selections Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II (Basic Books, 1997), pp. 3-16, 81-104 Shudo Higashinakano, The Nanking Massacre: Fact Versus Fiction: A Historians Quest for the Truth (Sekai shuppan, 2005), pp. i-vii (the book is also on reserve) Cartoon excerpts from On War by Yoshinori Kobayashi and A Just War by Ishizaka Kei Internet activism: Surf sites on both Japanese and Chinese sides and draw conclusions Optional, but strongly recommended: John Rabe, The Good Man of Nanking: The Diaries of John Rabe (Knopf, 1998), pp. 6587, 97-105, 142-50, 156-58, 168-73, 188-91 James Yin and Shi Young, The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs (Innovative, 1996); on reserve D. Bombings March 21 (Wed.) City Bombings Mary Nolan, Germans as Victims during the Second World War: Air Wars, Memory Wars, Central European History 38, no. 1 (2005), pp. 7-40 Mark Selden, A Forgotten Holocaust: U.S. Bombing Strategy, the Destruction of Japanese Cities, and the American Way of War from the Pacific War to Iraq, in Yuki Tanaka, ed., Bombing Civilians: A Twentieth-Century History (The New Press, 2009), pp. 77-96 Kiroku Hanai, The Remembered and the Forgotten: Slighting the Firebombing Victims of Japans Pacific War, The Japan Times, August 28, 2006. Online on Japan Focus, 4 pp.: http://www.japanfocus.org/articles/print_article/2227 Cara Karacas, Memorializing the Tokyo Air Raids, IIAS Newsletter 38 (September 2005), p. 12 Optional: Robert Moeller, The Bombing War in Germany, 2005-1940: Back to the Future? in Tanaka and Young, Bombing Civilians, pp. 46-76

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March 26 (Mon.) Hiroshimas John W. Dower, The Bombed: Hiroshimas and Nagasakis in Japanese Memory, in Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 116-42 Laura Hein and Mark Selden, Commemoration and Silence: Fifty Years of Remembering the Bomb in America and Japan, in Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age (M.E. Sharpe, 1997), pp. 3-34 March 28 (Wed.) Politics of Atomic Memory Paul Boyer, Exotic Resonances: Hiroshima in American Memory, in Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 143-67 Richard H. Kohn, History and the Culture Wars: The Case of the Smithsonian Institutions Enola Gay Exhibition, The Journal of American History 82, no. 3 (Dec. 1995), pp. 1036-63 Optional: Lisa Yoneyama, Memory Matters: Hiroshimas Korean Atom Bomb Memorial and the Politics of Ethnicity, in Laura Hein and Mark Selden, eds., Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age (ME Sharpe, 1997), pp. 202-31.)

III. THE PAST IN THE PRESENT April 2 (Mon.) Claims of Memory I Devin O. Pendas, Law, not Vengeance: Human Rights, the Rule of Law, and the Claims of Memory in German Holocaust Trials, in Mark Philip Bradley and Patrice Petro, eds., Truth Claims: Representation and Human Rights (Rutgers, 2002), pp. 23-42 Henry Rousso, Justice, History, and Memory in France: Reflections on the Papon Trial, in John Torpey, ed., Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), pp. 277-292 April 4 (Wed.) Claims of Memory II

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Michael R. Marrus, Restitution in the 1990s, in Some Measure of Justice: The Holocaust Era Restitution Campaign of the 1990s (Wisconsin, 2009), pp. 10-35 Laura Hein, War Compensation: Claims against the Japanese Government and Japanese Corporations for War Crimes, in John Torpey, ed., Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), pp. 127-142 Optional: Elazar Barkan, Amending Historical Injustices in International Morality, in The Guilt of Nations (Norton, 2000), pp. xv-xli April 9 (Mon.) Surviving the Past Art Spiegelman, Maus: A Survivors Tale, vol. 1 (Pantheon, 1973). (vol. 2 is optional, but strongly recommended) Keiji Nakazawa, Barefoot Gen: The Day After (1972-3) (Last Gasp, 2004 (vol. 1: Barefoot Gen: A Cartoon History of the Bomb, is optional, but recommended) April 10 (Tues), 7:30 pm Screening outside class: Katyn (2007), Andrzej Wajda, director (120 min.) April 11 (Wed.) Cinematic Reapprehensions I CLASS DISCUSSION of the film, Katyn. Anne Applebaum, A Movie that Matters, New York Review of Books Feb. 14, 2008, pp. 13-15 (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2008/feb/14/a-movie-that-matters/) April 16 (Mon.) Literary Reapprehensions I Gnter Grass, Crabwalk [2002] (Harvest pb, 2004), discussion in class Optional: Gnter Grass, Peeling the Onion [2006] (Mariner pb, 2008) April 17 (Tues.) 7:30 pm Screening outside class: Les Indignes [Days of Glory, 2006], Rachid Bouchareb, director (120 min.) April 18 (Wed.) Cinematic Reapprehensions II

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CLASS DISCUSSION of film, Les Indignes Ayo Coly, Memory, History, Forgetting: A Review of Rachid Boucharebs Indignes (2006), Transition 98 (June 2008), pp. 150-55 Optional: Gregory Mann, Native Sons: West African Veterans and France in the Twentieth Century (Duke University Press, 2006), pp. 183-94 Aiko Utsumi, Korean Imperial Soldiers: Remembering Colonialism and Crimes against Allied POWs," Fujitani, et al., Perilous Memories, pp. 199-217 April 23 (Mon.) Literary Reapprehensions II. Makoto Oda, The Breaking Jewel [1998] (Columbia pb, 2003), discussion in class Optional: Video game: Call of Duty: World at War (Activision 2008), the Pacific sections DVD: The Pacific (HBO, 2010), Episode 5, Peleliu Landing [excerpts on YouTube] April 25 (Wed.) World War II in History and Memory April 30 (Mon.) Summary sessions