Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

Theoretical framework What is a theory? From the Greek word theorea which means a beholding spectacle or speculation.

Never considered as true or proven. Provide description and explanation of a phenomenon and are subject to further development or revision or may even be discarded if not supported by empirical findings (Nieswiadomy; 1993). A general principle, an explanation of a phenomenon or an abstract generalization that systematically explains the relationship among given phenomena, for purposes of explaining, predicting and controlling such phenomena (Abdellah:1986) A statement that is much broader and complex than fact ; the basis of policies and practices in a particular discipline that gives specific direction to the researcher s solution of his/ her research problem (Polit & Beck:2004) A set of statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way, pointing out why one event relates to another or what causes an event to occur. Theory Provides professional autonomy and power by guiding and directing the practice, education and research functions of the profession. Theory helps improve analytical skills, broadens thinking, clarifies values, assumptions and accuracy of decisions. FactIs the most basic, irreducible term in research to refer to a phenomenon that is known to be true. Are building blocks of concepts To interpret the meanings of concepts, one must analyze the facts on which they are built. Construct

Research focuses on abstract rather than tangible phenomena Are building blocks of a theory. At least two concepts that are related may constitute a theory (Polit &Beck, 2004). In quantitative studies, concepts represent phenomena that vary in some manner (Dubin, 1978; Burr, 1973) and are referred to as variables In qualitative studies, concepts are referred to as phenomena. Conceptualization Is the process of using a fact or facts to form basic ideas, plans, designs or strategies. The grouping of related ideas, concepts, or statements forms a CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. Conceptual framework Utilizes specific and well defined concepts and constructs that describe ideas about individuals, groups, situations and events of particular interest to a discipline (Craven & Hirnle, 2003). It is also viewed as a set of concepts and the propositions that integrate them into a meaningful configuration (Marriner Tomey & Alligood, 1998)

Is a highly abstract and complex phenomenon. A more complex abstraction than a concept. Like a concept, a construct refers to a mental representation inferred from situations of behaviors, but unlike a concept, a construct is an abstraction that is deliberately and systematically invented or constructed by researchers for a specific purpose (Kerlinger & Lee, 2000) (ex. High level wellness in Dunn s model, self care in Orem s model) Proposition A statement or an assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or generalizations based on empirical data

Concept Refers to things (both living and inanimate) and their properties. Theory A mental idea, or a verbal description of a phenomenon that exists in reality. The idea may be concrete (patient, man and drug) or abstract (health, pain, grief and coping)

A proposition is composed of conceptual models

A statement or set of statements that attempt to explain or define the relationships between certain group of concepts and propositions

It is a construct or the way to put together the parts of something, that accounts for or organizes some phenomenon (Barnum, 1998) Characteristics of theory A theory is composed of a set of concepts. A theory consists of propositions which indicate the relationships between concepts A theory is not merely discovered but is created or invented. A theory is not proven true; it is speculative and tentative subject to challenge or revision. A theory is represented by Conceptual Paradigm and Conceptual Models. Kinds of concepts Enumerative Concepts. These are characteristics of phenomena that are always present and universal to all people such as age, height, weight. Associative Concepts. These refer to concepts that exist only in some instances in the phenomena which are not common to all conditions such as income, disease, anxiety. Theoretical framework Consists of propositions, concepts and constructs used meaningfully as basis of the study. Concepts are knitted together into a coherent system to describe or explain the variables of the study Reasons for the use of Conceptual or Theoretical Framework Justify the rationale behind the investigation. Give reasons for searching new data and for analyzing, interpreting and synthesizing these data Cite theory/ies on which the study is premised, in order to establish the relationship of the variables in the study. Paradigm Represents global issues about individuals, groups, situations and events of interest to the profession. Conceptual Paradigm. A diagram that visually presents and interprets the underlying theory, principles and concepts of a research. Model

A visual presentation of variables that interrelate with one another as perceived by the researcher before an actual empirical investigation is done to prove its relationship

Conceptual paradigm Is a diagram or a picture that represents the structure and parts of a theory. While theory focuses on the explanations of the relationships between given phenomena, a paradigm focuses on the structure or composition of the theory Conceptual Paradigm Construction: These are represented in solid lines indicating direct relationship and dotted lines indicating indirect relationship. These are also presented with basic shapes and arrows that indicates flow of direction, interaction, interdependence and interrelationship such as a linear or cyclical flow model, top down model or bottom up model.

>A symbolic representation of a phenomena. It represents certain aspects of reality, concrete or abstract, by means of alikeness which is structural, pictorial, diagrammatic or mathematical (Bush:2002) Types of Models Conceptual models  These are ideas formulated in the mind; the picture of something that actually exists which consist of patterns, standards or examples which are abstract and not generally observable in the empirical world (Fawcett; 2001).

Conceptual Model  Is less concrete than and more abstract than theory. A model is merely the unit from which theory is made A conceptual model is a composite and detailed statement that expresses a general idea of a particular subject, while theory is a generalization of a phenomenon that has global significance.

Theoretical Models  These represent the real world expressed in language (qualitative) or mathematical (quantitative) symbols. They provide a way to visualize reality

and simplify thinking, but are not directly observable.  It consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, relational statements that presents a view of phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict and control phenomenon

3. 4.

Generalizability . Empirical precision. A theory is limited to its testability and ultimate use. 5. Derivable consequences. A theory, to be sensible and useful, must develop and guide nurses in their professional endeavour.

5.

Importance of Theory to Nursing Practice 1. As basis of nursing practice, theory describes, predicts, controls and explains phenomena of interest to nurses It validates, enhances, and improves nursing practice It promotes understanding and explanation of phenomena and gives rise to a body of knowledge . It follows logical progression and contributes to nursing autonomy and identity. 5. It is intrinsic to practice, and practice continues to validate theory, hence, theory and practice are integral to each other.

Theory development 1. The researcher selects a phenomenon that occurs in any nursing situation, then list and observe the variables involved in that phenomenon The researcher analyzes the phenomenon and formulates hypothesis using concepts, assumptions, propositions to describe the phenomenon 3. The researcher then integrates all the concepts, assumptions and interferences to the phenomenon to form a proposition or a general idea 4. A theory or knowledge is derived or reconstructed using the concepts or variables representing the phenomenon.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

5.

4.

The Conceptual / Theoretical Framework Framework y y Similar to a skeleton. It is a basic structure or frame or reference (Webster, 2006). It is designed to support or enclose something As a skeleton gives shape, form and strength to the body so it can stand erect, so do different concepts and theories serve as the building blocks (or skeleton ) to strongly clarify the bases of the study.

Purposes of theories To summarize existing knowledge critical to the development and advancement of scientific knowledge. Explain or interpret observations as well as predict and control outcomes by;  Guiding and helping understand the what of a natural phenomenon as well as the why of its occurrence. Providing a framework for predicting the occurrence of the phenomenon. Forecasting facts and relationships observed under specific circumstances. Predicting and controlling the phenomenon under study.

y y

Theoretical framework y May be formulated from an existing theory/ies and serves as the foundation of the study. A paradigm originally used by the theorist can be fully adapted by the present study. The researcher can add or subtract variables from the original framework, provided that the whole theory is utilized. This can be a combination of theories or parts of theory combined with other parts of a theory (conceptual framework)

 Identifying desired changes in the environment based on observed situations  To stimulate the effort of making new discoveries. Evaluating a theory Paradigm 1. Semantic and Structural Clarity. A theory should identify major concepts and its sub concepts. Semantic & Structured Simplicity. A theory must be comprehensive and concrete. y y

Diagrammatic presentation of the theoretical or conceptual framework.

2.

It is a pattern, model or set of forms, which contains a particular elements (Webster, 2006). It is a scientific imagination of the researcher which is expressed visually through drawings or sketches. It uses figures/ shapes such as square, rectangles, circles, lines, arrows etc. Irregular shapes are sometimes used, and there must be an acceptable rationale for them.

3.CP (criterion predictor) model y This is used when relating and assessing the effects of two or more variables. Studies that focus relationships, associations, differences and effects will benefit from the model.

Example: Relationship of the Teaching Competence of Clinical Instructors to the Level of Performance of Nursing Students

Common paradigms or models used in the study: 1. IPO (input process output) model. This model is largely used when the research attempts to isolate the factor or major variable that causes the problem, subject or phenomenon under investigation. Example: Staff Nurse s Roles toward Improved Work Performance

4. P model stands for additional box y This is ideal for studies that propose a program or intervention measure. This model fits the situation producing level of questioning.

Example: The Proposed Program for Improved Quality of Nursing

2. IV DV (Independent variable dependent variable) model y This is used in experiment based studies. The questions raised are higher order and may be factor relating, situation relating or situation - producing

The Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction and Demonstration Method to the Level of Performance of Nursing Students

5. POM (Proposed Original Model) y This is used when the researcher is presenting an original paradigm. The requirement is that it must be scientific