IbEE Industry Application Society Annual Meeting New Orleans, Louisiana, Octcber 59, 1997
Estimation of Permanent Magnet Motor Parameters
S. Weisgerber
A. Proca
The Ohio State University Electrical Engineering Department Columbus, OH 43210
A. Keyhani
Phone (614) 2924430 EMail: keyhani@ee.eng.ohiostate.edu
Abstract  To properly design and optimize a control system of a permanentmagncf (PM) machine, the machine model and its parameters mu,Ft be known. This study presents a method for developing a model and estimating the parameters of a PM nraclzine from standstill timedomain step response data. A dqaxis equivalent circuit model with a general number of da'mperwindings is defined to describe tlze behavior of the E'M machine. Standstill simulation studies were performed on a known PM machine to generate syntlzetic test data to be used for estimation procedure verification. The standstill dqaxis model is
subjected to a stepinp,rctsignal and the resulting output is usedfor parameter estimation. The outputerror estimation algorithm is used to evtimate the unknown parameters of the dqaxis model, Standstill tests were then performed on
obtain data. The PM
machine parameters were estimated and the model verijied
a 4 pole, 1 kW PM machine to
against experimental ifiputand output test data.
I.
INTRODUCTION
Several different papers have been published that study techniques used to estimate the parameters of synchronous machines [13. This study focuses on model identification and parameter estimation of synchronous permanentmagnet (PM) machines using timedomain estimation techniques. PM machine modeling is seen in such works as [3],[4], and [5]. The estimation method used in this study [1][5], consists of fixing the rotor of the PM machine in a specific position, applying a simple DC voltage source, and collecting input and output data to be used for estimation.
The present study focuses on a dqaxis circuit model of the PM machine with a k;eneral number of damper windings, experimental technique: used to collect data, and method of applying the measured data to identify the correct modcl and to estimate the machine parameters.
11. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
The objective of this study is to develop a method that can be used to model the standstill dqaxis model of a _{P}_{M} machine,
0780340671/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE.
obtain input and output data from a PM machine, and estimate the standstill dqaxis machine parameters.
To study this problem a PM machine with known parameters is simulated to create synthetic input and output test data to be used during the identification process. _{N}_{e}_{x}_{t}_{,} _{t}_{o} _{e}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{e} the effect of noise on the estimation method the test data is corrupted with noise of a known distribution. _{O}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} noisecorrupted test data is obtained it can be treated as if it came from a PM machine with an unknown system model and parameters. A system model is then assumed _{a}_{n}_{d} the outputerror estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of the unknown system.
Once the simulation studies verify that the technique used to estimate the parameters is valid, tests are performed on a working 4 pole, 1 kW PM machine. Experimental input and output data is collected from the PM machine to be used for system model identification and parameter estimation. A system model is assumed and the outputerror estimation method is used to estimate the parameters. The assumed model and estimated parameters are then validated against the actual experimental data. Next, if required, a different model with more damper windings (section 111.) is chosen and the same procedure is executed until the identified model and estimated parameters are validated.
111. PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINE MODEL
The first step in identifying the permanent magnet machine is to develop a generic dqaxis model that can be applied to any PM machine over any operational frequency range. This proposed generic model is derived from the PM machine shown in fig. 1 and defined by the electrical circuits shown in Fig. 2. The circuits in Fig. 2 were derived by first considering a PM machine such as the one shown in _{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{1}_{,} writing the voltage equations that describe the machine in the abc reference frame, and then transforming the equations to the dqaxis reference frame [2]. Fig. 1 shows a generic two pole three phase PM machine with an unknown number of damper windings in the rotor. The damper windings in the rotor represent induced currents circulating in the rotor (eddy
29
^{c}^{s} ^{a}^{x}^{i}^{s} 1
sensor
\ d axis
Figure 1. Brushless permanent magnet machine
currents), which are induced by harmonics in the applied voltages and/or oscillations in the rotor speed. Damper windings are not required to be built physically into the rotor for purposes of creating starting torque since the motors in question are controlled to be in synchronism at all speed values. The circuits in Fig. 2 show the dqaxis of a PM machine with M unknown daxis damper windings, and _{N} unknown qaxis damper windings. The number of damper windings in the daxis and the qaxis are determined through the identification scheme proposed in this paper.
A mathematical representation is derived from the circuits shown in Fig. 2. The number of damper windings to be used is determined by using testing and identification procedures over the PM machine's operational frequency range. The equations shown below are given in statespace form based on a general number of daxis and qaxis damper windings.
Figure 2a. PM machine daxis equivalent circuit
Figure 2b. PM machine qaxis equivalent circuit
The statespace equations that describe the circuits in Fig. _{2} wherej represents either d or q and p = &/dt :
where,
x,
= [id i,,
.
yl = C,ixj+v(k)
_{i}_{M}_{d}_{]}
xq = [iq iZq
iNq]
(2)
(3)
M= number of daxis damper windings N = number of qaxis damper windings
U, =[Vd 0
The system output is,
. olT
Yi = [ij]
Uq=[vq0
. 0IT
_{(}_{4}_{)}
(7)
The inductance matrix Lj and the resistance matrix Rj are generalized as,
30
Ol
I
Rd =
R 
n, 

R., 
0 
. 
. 
0 

0 
RI, 

R, 
= 

0 
. 
. 
. 
R,, 

_{}
The offdiagonal terms in the Lj matrices are all Lmj and the offdiagonal terms in the Rj matrices are all zero.
In the above equations the variables w(k) and v(k) represent the process noise and i.he measurement noise respectively. The process noise is created by a naturally occurring disturbance to the input sequence. Whereas the measurement noise is present because all measurements are inherently subject to error, the intensity of the measurement noise is based on the quality of the sensor being used
The unknown parameter sets Bj are the parameter values to be estimated from the standstill step response input and output data using the outputerror estimation algorithm. During standstill cond tions the terms o _{,}_{A}_{,}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{o}_{,}_{h}_{,} are equal to zero hence the unknown parameter sets for the d axis and the qaxis are,
IV. OUTPUT ERROR PARAMETER ESTIMATION ALGORITHM
As stated this paper will focus its study on the evaluation of the output error method (OE) for estimating PM machine parameters. The oulput error estimation algorithm is described in the flow cl,artshown in Fig. 3. The output error estimation algorithm is based on minimizing a cost function defined as,
V(0)=  1N C(e'(k)e(k)}
N k=O
where e(k) is defined as the difference between the measured
output Y(k) and the estiinated output ?(k), and N is the total number of measured data points.
I
identiped=f(gl
rrrimuted
I
f
Figure 3. The output error estimation algorithm
V. STUDY PROCESS
The study process consisted of first verifying the estimation procedure through simulation and synthetic data and then applying the technique to an actual PM machine. A test was set up to subject a PM machine to a DC step input voltage and collect the input and output data. To collect the experimental data the following procedure was used. Using a four pole, 1 kW PM machine, a DC step voltage signal was applied to the machine for a period _{o}_{f} time long enough so that the system reached steadystate. During this time, the step response input and output _{i}_{s} collected as experimental data to be used during the estimation procedure. To be able to execute the described test, the PM machine must be setup up specifically either for the daxis test or for the qaxis test. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show how the rotor should be positioned for each test. As shown in Fig. 4, for the daxis step response test the qaxis is aligned with the asaxis which represents a rotor angle 0, of zero degrees. For the qaxis step response test, the rotor angle 0, is 90" as shown in Fig. 5. Here the d axis is aligned with the asaxis. Based on the test setup shown, the measured variables from the experimental test are
I and V.
Both I and V are variables in the 3phase abc
reference frame. To apply the experimental data to the dq axis circuit model shown in Fig 2 the measured data must undergo a transformation [2]. Based on the rotor position for each test, daxis or qaxis, the measured variables I and V can be transformed using the following equations.
For the daxis step response test,
31
Js
I(k)= id(k)
2
Figurc 4.
Rotor position for the daxis step response test
cs axis&
Figure 5. Rotor position for the qaxis step response test
and for the qaxis step response test,
J3
I(k)=id(k)
_{2}
_{(}_{1}_{7}_{)}
(18)
VI. ESTIMATION PROCEDURE
As described previously and verified through simulation, the estimation procedure can be generalized in the following steps:
(i) Collect the standstill step response data using the test setup described for both the daxis and the qaxis.
(ii) Use the transformation equations _{(}_{1}_{5}_{)} through _{(}_{1}_{8}_{)} to convert the test measurements to the dqaxis reference frame.
32
Assume model with minimum number of damper windings. Using the standst111dqaxis equivalent circuit model and the OE estimation algorithm, identify the standstill model and estimate model parameters. Simulate identified model with estimated parameters using measured input voltage. Validate the identified model and estimated parameters against the experimental test data. Increase number of damper windings and estimate the parameters to tr,y to obtain a better fit between the simulated and measured response.
(viii) 
Revalidate the simulated data against the measured test data. 
(ix) 
Continue adding damper windings until error between the estimated and measured data is acceptable or does not reduce significantly with the addition of new dampers. 
VII. SIMULATION STUDIES AND RESULTS
The defined estimation procedure was first validated using simulation studies. A PM machine was simulated to create synthetic data with noise. Fig. 6 shows the step response for the defined daxis test with synthetic noise added at a signal tonoise ratio of 200: 1. Table 1 shows the estimation results using two damper windings. It can be seen from the table that the simulation results validate the PM model identification and parameter estimation procedure.
noise,
Amps
"0
0
0.5
0
0.05
0.05
time
0.1
0.1
0.15
1
0.15
Figure 6. daxis riynthetic test data with noise added
parameter
rigma Vaue
,ialue
Estimated Value
estimated value
_{%} error
0.:!91612 
0.2915 
<l 
0.03 

0.80330 
0.7797 
0 
2.94 

5.3900 
5.22180 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{2} 

0.0002H 
0.0003 
H 
7.53 

Lmd 
22450 H 
2.2 I70 
H 
1.25 

Lld 
0.11262H 
0.0254 
H 
2.91 

L2d 
0.0044 H 
0.0042 
H 
5 
16 
VIII. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND RESULTS
As mentioned, tests were performed on a 4 pole 1 kW PM machine. The identification procedure was initialized, including the inductances and resistances, based on apriori information such as motor design data. The initial guess for the motor stator winding resistance r, can be determined based on the steadystate value of the current.
The PM machine qaxis model was identified using three damper windings, whereas the daxis model was identified with two damper windings. The parameters of the model are presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2. ESTIMATED DQAXIS PARAMETERS
daxis
param eter
_{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}
qaxis
parameter
value
RS 
13.9 mR 
RS 
73.9 
mR 

Rld 
684 mR 
Rlq 
0.413 
R 

R2d 
3.6 
mR 
R2q 
67.0 
mi2 
R3q 
7.603 
R 

LIS 
38.0 nH 
LIS 
38.0 
nH 

Lmd 
89.86 pH 
Lmq 
92.34 pH 

Lld 
1.20 
mH 
Llq 
0.788 pH 

L2d 
251.6 mH 
L2q 
0.108 mH 

L3q 
7.409 pH 
The parameter estimation validation was performed for several sets of data. Figs. 7 and 8 represent the daxis and q axis model validation for one of the sets. The input to the model (top picture on each graph) differs from a typical dc step, the cause being the use of a car battery for dc supply. The input was intentionally kept in this form due to its richness in frequencies. An almost perfect fit is observed in the daxis model. For the qaxis model, there is a mismatch between the measured and estimated data that appeared in all data sets. Further study will be necessary to determine its nature.
IX.
CONCLUSIONS
The present paper focuses on the modeling of a permanent magnet machine. First, simulation studies were conducted to establish the modeling procedure and the effect of noise on
parameter estimation. An experimental setup was built to test the machine. The testing consisted of aligning the rotor to the daxis and qaxis of the stator reference and applying voltage steps to the stator windings. The winding current and the input voltage were recorded. Next, the model structure was identified through several iterations on the number of damper windings. Each iteration consisted _{o}_{f} parameter identification and comparison to the measured responses. In
this case, the number of damper windings for the daxis and
The last part of the study was model
validation, in which different sets of inputoutput data were
used. The model was subjected to the measured input and the
qaxis was different.
model output was compared to the machine output.
33
10 
I 
I 
I 

iime in seconds 

35 

I 

3025 11I. 

820 ~ 
;; 

5 
/I’ 

z15ll‘ 
. 
1simulated
  measured
lime in seconds
Figure 7. daxis validation
Future work will be developed following two main paths. First, a complete dynamic model will be built for working conditions. The structure of the model will have to include the permanent magnet as a source of magnetic flux and the back emf on the daxis and qaxis (for the stand still test being zero). The present model will serve as a starting point for it. Second, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) will be used _{t}_{o} determine the machine parameters and compare them to the parameters obtained through the present method.
X.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work is supported in part by Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems.
XI.
REFERENCES
[l] Keyhani and S. I. Moon, “Maximum likelihood estimation of synchronous machine parameters and study of noise effect from flux decay”, IEE Proc., vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 7680, Jan. 1992.
[2]
P. C. Krause and Oleg Wasynczuk, Electromechanical
[3]
Motion Devices. New York: McGrawHill, 1989.
T. Sebastian, M.A. Rahman, “Modeling of Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. MAG22, no. _{5}_{,} pp. 10691071, Sept.
1986.
[4
14 
, 
i., 
j 
: 
: 

15 

0 
001 
0.02 
0.03 
0.04 
0.05 
006 
0.07 
0.08 

ilme ~nseconds 

40 

35 

30 

$25 

E 

$20 

$15 

10 

5 

0 

0 
001 
OW 
003 
004 
005 
006 
007 
008 
ilme in seconds
Figure 8. qaxis validation
T. Sebastian, G.R. Slemon, “Transient Modeling and Performance of VariableSpeed Permanent Magnet
Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan/Feb 1989.
I. Kamwa, P. Viarouge, M. Ferfra, “Modeling and
Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines from Standstill Time Response Tests Using a NonLinear Method”, _{I}_{E}_{E}_{E} _{1}_{9}_{9}_{3}
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