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IbEE Industry Application Society Annual Meeting New Orleans, Louisiana, Octcber 5-9, 1997

Estimation of Permanent Magnet Motor Parameters

S. Weisgerber

A. Proca

The Ohio State University Electrical Engineering Department Columbus, OH 43210

A. Keyhani

Phone (614) 292-4430 E-Mail: keyhani@ee.eng.ohio-state.edu

Abstract - To properly design and optimize a control system of a permanent-magncf (PM) machine, the machine model and its parameters mu,Ft be known. This study presents a method for developing a model and estimating the parameters of a PM nraclzine from standstill time-domain step response data. A dq-axis equivalent circuit model with a general number of da'mperwindings is defined to describe tlze behavior of the E'M machine. Standstill simulation studies were performed on a known PM machine to generate syntlzetic test data to be used for estimation procedure verification. The stand-still dq-axis model is

subjected to a step-inp,rctsignal and the resulting output is usedfor parameter estimation. The output-error estimation algorithm is used to evtimate the unknown parameters of the dq-axis model, Stand-still tests were then performed on

obtain data. The PM

machine parameters were estimated and the model verijied

a 4 pole, 1 kW PM machine to

against experimental ifiputand output test data.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Several different papers have been published that study techniques used to estimate the parameters of synchronous machines [13. This study focuses on model identification and parameter estimation of synchronous permanent-magnet (PM) machines using time-domain estimation techniques. PM machine modeling is seen in such works as [3],[4], and [5]. The estimation method used in this study [1][5], consists of fixing the rotor of the PM machine in a specific position, applying a simple DC voltage source, and collecting input and output data to be used for estimation.

The present study focuses on a dq-axis circuit model of the PM machine with a k;eneral number of damper windings, experimental technique: used to collect data, and method of applying the measured data to identify the correct modcl and to estimate the machine parameters.

11. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

The objective of this study is to develop a method that can be used to model the stand-still dq-axis model of a PM machine,

0-7803-4067-1/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE.

obtain input and output data from a PM machine, and estimate the standstill dq-axis machine parameters.

To study this problem a PM machine with known parameters is simulated to create synthetic input and output test data to be used during the identification process. Next, to evaluate the effect of noise on the estimation method the test data is corrupted with noise of a known distribution. Once the noise-corrupted test data is obtained it can be treated as if it came from a PM machine with an unknown system model and parameters. A system model is then assumed and the output-error estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of the unknown system.

Once the simulation studies verify that the technique used to estimate the parameters is valid, tests are performed on a working 4 pole, 1 kW PM machine. Experimental input and output data is collected from the PM machine to be used for system model identification and parameter estimation. A system model is assumed and the output-error estimation method is used to estimate the parameters. The assumed model and estimated parameters are then validated against the actual experimental data. Next, if required, a different model with more damper windings (section 111.) is chosen and the same procedure is executed until the identified model and estimated parameters are validated.

111. PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINE MODEL

The first step in identifying the permanent magnet machine is to develop a generic dq-axis model that can be applied to any PM machine over any operational frequency range. This proposed generic model is derived from the PM machine shown in fig. 1 and defined by the electrical circuits shown in Fig. 2. The circuits in Fig. 2 were derived by first considering a PM machine such as the one shown in Fig. 1, writing the voltage equations that describe the machine in the abc reference frame, and then transforming the equations to the dq-axis reference frame [2]. Fig. 1 shows a generic two- pole three phase PM machine with an unknown number of damper windings in the rotor. The damper windings in the rotor represent induced currents circulating in the rotor (eddy

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cs axis 1

sensor

\ d axis

Figure 1. Brushless permanent magnet machine

currents), which are induced by harmonics in the applied voltages and/or oscillations in the rotor speed. Damper windings are not required to be built physically into the rotor for purposes of creating starting torque since the motors in question are controlled to be in synchronism at all speed values. The circuits in Fig. 2 show the dq-axis of a PM machine with M unknown d-axis damper windings, and N unknown q-axis damper windings. The number of damper windings in the d-axis and the q-axis are determined through the identification scheme proposed in this paper.

A mathematical representation is derived from the circuits shown in Fig. 2. The number of damper windings to be used is determined by using testing and identification procedures over the PM machine's operational frequency range. The equations shown below are given in state-space form based on a general number of d-axis and q-axis damper windings.

Figure 2a. PM machine d-axis equivalent circuit

Figure 2b. PM machine q-axis equivalent circuit

The state-space equations that describe the circuits in Fig. 2 wherej represents either d or q and p = &/dt :

where,

x,

= [id i,,

.

yl = C,ixj+v(k)

iMd]

xq = [iq iZq

iNq]

(2)

(3)

M= number of d-axis damper windings N = number of q-axis damper windings

U, =[Vd 0

The system output is,

. olT

Yi = [ij]

Uq=[vq0

. 0IT

(4)

(7)

The inductance matrix Lj and the resistance matrix Rj are generalized as,

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Ol

I

Rd =

 

R

n,

R.,

0

.

.

0

0

RI,

R,

=

 

0

.

.

.

R,,

-

-

The off-diagonal terms in the Lj matrices are all Lmj and the off-diagonal terms in the Rj matrices are all zero.

In the above equations the variables w(k) and v(k) represent the process noise and i.he measurement noise respectively. The process noise is created by a naturally occurring disturbance to the input sequence. Whereas the measurement noise is present because all measurements are inherently subject to error, the intensity of the measurement noise is based on the quality of the sensor being used

The unknown parameter sets Bj are the parameter values to be estimated from the stand-still step response input and output data using the output-error estimation algorithm. During standstill cond tions the terms o ,A,ando,h, are equal to zero hence the unknown parameter sets for the d- axis and the q-axis are,

IV. OUTPUT ERROR PARAMETER ESTIMATION ALGORITHM

As stated this paper will focus its study on the evaluation of the output error method (OE) for estimating PM machine parameters. The oulput error estimation algorithm is described in the flow cl-,artshown in Fig. 3. The output error estimation algorithm is based on minimizing a cost function defined as,

V(0)= - 1N C(e'(k)e(k)}

N k=O

where e(k) is defined as the difference between the measured

output Y(k) and the estiinated output ?(k), and N is the total number of measured data points.

I

identiped=f(gl

rrrimuted

I

f

Figure 3. The output error estimation algorithm

V. STUDY PROCESS

The study process consisted of first verifying the estimation procedure through simulation and synthetic data and then applying the technique to an actual PM machine. A test was set up to subject a PM machine to a DC step input voltage and collect the input and output data. To collect the experimental data the following procedure was used. Using a four pole, 1 kW PM machine, a DC step voltage signal was applied to the machine for a period of time long enough so that the system reached steady-state. During this time, the step response input and output is collected as experimental data to be used during the estimation procedure. To be able to execute the described test, the PM machine must be setup up specifically either for the d-axis test or for the q-axis test. Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show how the rotor should be positioned for each test. As shown in Fig. 4, for the d-axis step response test the q-axis is aligned with the as-axis which represents a rotor angle 0, of zero degrees. For the q-axis step response test, the rotor angle 0, is 90" as shown in Fig. 5. Here the d- axis is aligned with the as-axis. Based on the test setup shown, the measured variables from the experimental test are

I and V.

Both I and V are variables in the 3-phase abc

reference frame. To apply the experimental data to the dq- axis circuit model shown in Fig 2 the measured data must undergo a transformation [2]. Based on the rotor position for each test, d-axis or q-axis, the measured variables I and V can be transformed using the following equations.

For the d-axis step response test,

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Js

I(k)= --id(k)

2

Figurc 4.

Rotor position for the d-axis step response test

cs axis&

Figure 5. Rotor position for the q-axis step response test

and for the q-axis step response test,

J3

I(k)=-id(k)

2

(17)

(18)

VI. ESTIMATION PROCEDURE

As described previously and verified through simulation, the estimation procedure can be generalized in the following steps:

(i) Collect the standstill step response data using the test setup described for both the d-axis and the q-axis.

(ii) Use the transformation equations (15) through (18) to convert the test measurements to the dq-axis reference frame.

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Assume model with minimum number of damper windings. Using the standst111dq-axis equivalent circuit model and the OE estimation algorithm, identify the standstill model and estimate model parameters. Simulate identified model with estimated parameters using measured input voltage. Validate the identified model and estimated parameters against the experimental test data. Increase number of damper windings and estimate the parameters to tr,y to obtain a better fit between the simulated and measured response.

(viii)

Revalidate the simulated data against the measured test data.

(ix)

Continue adding damper windings until error between the estimated and measured data is acceptable or does not reduce significantly with the addition of new dampers.

VII. SIMULATION STUDIES AND RESULTS

The defined estimation procedure was first validated using simulation studies. A PM machine was simulated to create synthetic data with noise. Fig. 6 shows the step response for the defined d-axis test with synthetic noise added at a signal- to-noise ratio of 200: 1. Table 1 shows the estimation results using two damper windings. It can be seen from the table that the simulation results validate the PM model identification and parameter estimation procedure.

noise,

Amps

"0

0

-0.5-

0

0.05

0.05

time

0.1

0.1

0.15

1

0.15

Figure 6. d-axis riynthetic test data with noise added

parameter

rigma Vaue

,ialue

Estimated Value

estimated value

% error

 

0.:!91612

0.2915

<l

0.03

0.80330

0.7797

0

2.94

5.3900

5.22180

3.12

0.0002H

0.0003

H

7.53

Lmd

22450 H

2.2 I70

H

1.25

Lld

0.11262H

0.0254

H

2.91

L2d

0.0044 H

0.0042

H

5

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VIII. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND RESULTS

As mentioned, tests were performed on a 4 pole 1 kW PM machine. The identification procedure was initialized, including the inductances and resistances, based on apriori information such as motor design data. The initial guess for the motor stator winding resistance r, can be determined based on the steady-state value of the current.

The PM machine q-axis model was identified using three damper windings, whereas the d-axis model was identified with two damper windings. The parameters of the model are presented in Table 2.

TABLE 2. ESTIMATED DQ-AXIS PARAMETERS

d-axis

param eter

value

q-axis

parameter

value

RS

13.9 mR

RS

73.9

mR

Rld

684 mR

Rlq

0.413

R

R2d

3.6

mR

R2q

67.0

mi2

 

R3q

7.603

R

LIS

38.0 nH

LIS

38.0

nH

Lmd

89.86 pH

Lmq

92.34 pH

Lld

1.20

mH

Llq

0.788 pH

L2d

251.6 mH

L2q

0.108 mH

 

L3q

7.409 pH

The parameter estimation validation was performed for several sets of data. Figs. 7 and 8 represent the d-axis and q- axis model validation for one of the sets. The input to the model (top picture on each graph) differs from a typical dc step, the cause being the use of a car battery for dc supply. The input was intentionally kept in this form due to its richness in frequencies. An almost perfect fit is observed in the d-axis model. For the q-axis model, there is a mismatch between the measured and estimated data that appeared in all data sets. Further study will be necessary to determine its nature.

IX.

CONCLUSIONS

The present paper focuses on the modeling of a permanent magnet machine. First, simulation studies were conducted to establish the modeling procedure and the effect of noise on

parameter estimation. An experimental setup was built to test the machine. The testing consisted of aligning the rotor to the d-axis and q-axis of the stator reference and applying voltage steps to the stator windings. The winding current and the input voltage were recorded. Next, the model structure was identified through several iterations on the number of damper windings. Each iteration consisted of parameter identification and comparison to the measured responses. In

this case, the number of damper windings for the d-axis and

The last part of the study was model

validation, in which different sets of input-output data were

used. The model was subjected to the measured input and the

q-axis was different.

model output was compared to the machine output.

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10

I

I

I

 

iime in seconds

35

 

I

30-25- -11I.

 

820 ~

;;

5

/I’

z15-ll‘

 

.

1simulated

- - measured

lime in seconds

Figure 7. d-axis validation

Future work will be developed following two main paths. First, a complete dynamic model will be built for working conditions. The structure of the model will have to include the permanent magnet as a source of magnetic flux and the back emf on the d-axis and q-axis (for the stand still test being zero). The present model will serve as a starting point for it. Second, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) will be used to determine the machine parameters and compare them to the parameters obtained through the present method.

X.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work is supported in part by Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems.

XI.

REFERENCES

[l] Keyhani and S. I. Moon, “Maximum likelihood estimation of synchronous machine parameters and study of noise effect from flux decay”, IEE Proc., vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 76-80, Jan. 1992.

[2]

P. C. Krause and Oleg Wasynczuk, Electromechanical

[3]

Motion Devices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

T. Sebastian, M.A. Rahman, “Modeling of Permanent

Magnet Synchronous Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. MAG-22, no. 5, pp. 1069-1071, Sept.

1986.

[4

14

,

i.,

j

:

:

 

15

0

001

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

006

0.07

0.08

 

ilme ~nseconds

40

35

30

$25

E

$20

$15

10

5

0

0

001

OW

003

004

005

006

007

008

ilme in seconds

Figure 8. q-axis validation

T. Sebastian, G.R. Slemon, “Transient Modeling and Performance of Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet

Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan/Feb 1989.

I. Kamwa, P. Viarouge, M. Ferfra, “Modeling and

Identification of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines from Standstill Time Response Tests Using a Non-Linear Method”, IEEE 1993

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