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Frank Lloyd Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright , numele la natere Frank Lincoln Wright, (n. 8 iunie 1867 - d. 9 aprilie 1959) a fost unul dintre cei mai proemineni i influeni architeci ai primei jumti a secolului 20. n prezent, este adesea recunoscut ca cel mai faimos arhitect al Statelor Unite ale Americii, fiind extrem de cunoscut i apreciat n ochii opiniei publice la mai bine de 50 de ani de la stingerea sa din via.

Principii de proiectare
Simplitate - compartimentarea trebuie s fie minimal, orice element inutil trebuie s dispar. ncperile sunt divizate prin elemente ce sugereaz diferena de funcionalitate (finisaje orizontale ale pardoselii sau tavanului, orientrii diferite ale camerelor, urechi de zidrie laterale, .c.l.). Adaptabilitate stilistic - pe primul plan trebuie s fie nevoiele beneficiarului i abia n planul doi un anumit stil arhitectural. Arhitectur organic - arhitectura ar trebui s fie n simbioz cu natura punndu-se n acelai timp reciproc n valoare. Se recomand folosirea de culori naturale (specifice zonei) i de materiale locale. Sinceritatea materialelor componente - materialele trebuie s fie utilizate conform naturii i potenialului lor i nu ca o butaforie. Cladirile trebuie sa bucure oamenii.

Opera arhitectural
Prairie Houses
ntre 1900 i 1910, proiectele sale de case se ncadreaz n aa-numitul grup al Caselor de preerie ("Prairie Houses") avnd caracteristici comune cum ar fi: cldiri extinse i joase cu acoperiuri nguste i nclinate, contururi clare, structuri externe suspendate i terase largi, precum i folosirea multor materiale nefinisate. Denumirea de "case de preerie" a fost dat ntruct designul lor este armonios integrat n peisajul din jurul metropolei Chicago. Aceste case sunt, de asemenea, creditate de a fi primele exemple de "plan liber", n englez "open plan." Folosirea cu miestrie rar ntlnit anterior a spaiilor interioare att n realizarea cldirilor rezideniale ct i n cele publice, aa cum Wright a facut-o de pild n cazul bisericii unitariene Unitarian Unity Temple, este una din caracteristicile sale de for arhitectural.

Casele usoniene - Usonia


U Casele usoniene (The "Usonian Homes") erau tipic mici, cu un singur nivel, fr garaj, sau prea mult spaiu de stocare. Erau, de obicei, realizate n forma literei L pentru a se potrivi n jurul uneigrdini terasate construite pe loturi de pmnt ieftine, care aveau forme ciudate, ca rezultat al mpririi unei suprafee de teren n loturi de dimensiuni i forme variabile. Casele erau realizate n spiritul conceptului arhitectural predominant la Wright i arhitecturii sale organice. Astfel, folosirea armonioas a spaiului aflat la dispoziie, un design care s se integreze n peisajul locului, utilizarea de materiale locale, acoperiuri plate, mari zone de aerisire, sprijinite pe structura de rezisten a casei, care s asigure ventilarea natural (mbuntind astfel randamentul rcirii dar i al nclzirii casei), iluminarea natural maxim i nclzirea din podea erau elementele omniprezente n

casele usoniene. Mainile nu erau parcate n vreun garaj, ci sub o structur foarte simpl, fr perei dar cu un acoperi. Deloc surprinztor, diferite variante ale designului caselor de tipul Jacobs House, ncorpornd toate elementele tipice ale "perioadei usoniene" a lui Wright sunt nc n uz, n bune condiiuni de folosire i nu par deloc a fi desuete sau inadecvate locuitului i. respectiv locului unde au fost construite.

Case usoniene notabile


Arthur Pieper residence, Paradise Valley, Arizona; Jacobs House, Madison, Wisconsin; Rosenbaum House, Florence, Alabama; Pope-Leighey House, Alexandria, Virginia; Weltzheimer/Johnson House, Oberlin, Ohio; Dorothy H. Turkel House, Detroit, Michigan.

The Falling Water


sonia, sau usonian, ca un cuvnt alternativ, (pronunat [jusoni(n)]) este un termen complex foarte adesea folosit de Frank Lloyd Wright pentru a desemna viziunea sa referitoare la peisajul Statelor Unite, incluznd planificarea oraelor i arhitectura organic, al crui creator i promotor a fost. Printre altele, Wright a propus utilizarea adjectivului usonian n locul aceluia de american pentru a descrie caracterul particular al peisajului Lumii Noi, distinct fa de cel al celorlalte continente i, mai ales, liber de orice fel de convenii sau constrngeri arhitecturale. n sensul arhitectural, respectiv al "perioadei caselor usoniene", usonian este un adjectiv folosit pentru a desemna un grup de mai mult de 50 de case concepute de Frank Lloyd Wright pentru familii americane cu venit mediu, ncepnd cu anul 1936, realizate n colaborare cu Jacobs House [2].

Walter Gropius
Walter Adolph Gropius (n. 18 mai 1883, Berlin, Germania - d. 5 iulie 1969 Boston, Massachusttes, SUA), arhitect i pedagog german, fondator i director al Bauhaus, unul din marii arhiteci ai secolului 20, care a trit i creat n Germania, pn n 1934, i apoi n Statele Unite ale Americii, din 1937 pn la moartea sa.

Bauhaus
n 1919 Gropius a fondat Bauhaus, ceea ce desemneaz att Staatliches Bauhaus, o coal de art, design i arhitectur din Germania, activ ntre 1919-1933, ct i un curent artistic foarte influent n arhitectura, artele plastice, designul, mobilierul i decorrile interioare alesecolului 20. Ambele sensuri ale termenului Bauhaus sunt strns legate de Walter Gropius.

Casa Gropius
Imediat va proiecta i construi o cas fanion, o cas programatic pentru viziunea sa arhitectural, Casa Gropius. Casa este localizat n rurala Noua Anglie (New England), n localitatea Lincoln,

statul Massachusetts, fiind un exemplu superb a ceea ce reprezenta stilul Bauhaus adaptat noii sale patrii i timpurilor ce urmau s vin. De altfel, Casa Gropius a fost una dintre cldirile ce au exercitat o imens influen asupra arhitecturii nu numai n Statele Unite, dar i pretutindeni, fiind considerat un exemplu elocvent de ceea ce fost numit prompt, de ctre critici i cunosctori, ca modernism internaional sau noul stil internaional. Termenul nu i-a plcut deloc lui Gropius, crezndu-l deplasat i total neadecvat, subliniind: "Am construit-o [casa] astfel nct s absorb n propria mea concepie acele caracteristici ale arhitecturii Noii Anglii pe care leam considerat vii i potrivite construciei casei." [1].

Cldiri importante
Fagus Works, Alfeld an der Leine, Germaniafaza 1. 1910 - 1911 faza 2. 1913 - 1914, construcie terminat n 1925; Cldirea fabricii Landmaschinenfabrik Gebruder Kappe & Co., Alfeld an der Leine, 1922 - 1924; Locuina personal a profesorului Felix Auerbach, Jena, 1924; Cldirea colii de stat Bauhaus, Bauhaus, Dessau, 1925 - 1926, Dessau, Germania;

Meisterhuser (locuinele profesorilor care au predat la Staatsliches Bauhaus), Dessau, 1925 - 1926; Dou case n cadrul proiectului Weienhofsiedlung n Stuttgart, 1927; Locuina personal a doamnei Therese Zuckerkandl, Jena, 1927 - 1929; Casa Gropius, 1937 - 1938, Lincoln, Massachusetts, S.U.A.;

Packaged House System mpreun cu Konrad Wachsmann, Lincoln, Massachusetts, S.U.A., 1941 - 1943; Attleboro Junior High School (1948); Harvard Graduate Center (1949 - 1950), Cambridge, Massachusetts, S.U.A. (The Architects' Collaborative); [2] Locuina Stichweh, Hannover, 1952 - 1953; Ambasada Statelor Unite n Grecia, Atena, 1956 1961; Universitatea din Baghdad (1957 - 1960);

Pan Am Building (astzi Metlife Building), (1958 - 1963), New York, New York, mpreun cu Pietro Belluschi i cu arhitecii proiectani Emery Roth & Sons; Interbau Apartment Blocks (1957), Hansaviertel Berlin, Germania, cu TAC i Wils Ebert; Gropiusstadt, Berlin, cartier al fostului Berlin de Vest, construit n 1960, cu TAC; Wayland High School (1961), proiect ce a ctigat un concurs; John F. Kennedy Federal Building (1963 - 1966);

Fabrica de porelan din Rosenthal am Rotbhl -- n german Porzellanfabrik Rosenthal am Rotbhl, Selb, 1965.

Le Corbusier
Charles-douard Jeanneret-Gris, cunoscut, sub pseudonimul pe care l-a adoptat, drept Le Corbusier (n. 6 octombrie 1887 d. 27 august 1965), a fost un arhitect, urbanist, decorator,pictor, sculptor, realizator de mobilier, teoretician i scriitor elveian, naturalizat cetean francez, faimos, pentru contribuiile sale importante la curentele arhitecturale ce astzi poart numele de modernism, brutalism sau stilul internaional n arhitectur, alturi de Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius i Theo van Doesburg. Le Corbusier este, de asemenea, cunoscut ca teoretician i promotor al Purism-ului, respectiv al conceptului de arhitectur adaptat proporiilor i nevoilor fireti ale corpului uman, precum i fora motrice a seriei de congrese dedicate arhitecturii, Congrs International d'Architecture Moderne, care au influenat pentru mai multe decenii drumul arhitecturii secolului al XX-lea. Le Corbusier a fost un pionier n studiile teoretice att ale urbanismului modern, dedicndu-se gsirii de soluii pentru mbuntirea condiiilor de trai pentru rezidenii oraelor aglomerate, crend un concept i o realizare concret a ceea ce a fost numit o unitate de locuit (Unit d'habitation), ct i designului modern la modul foarte general (i nu doar a designului arhitecturalcum este adeseori subcotat), excelnd n a pleca de la stilul Art Deco, deschiznd apoi noi drumuri. Cariera sa s-a ntins de-a lungul a cinci decenii, timp n care au fost construite sub semntura sa cldiri impresionante n Europa vestic i respectiv n Frana, India, Rusia i una chiar n Statele Unite ale Americii.

Cinci puncte arhitecturale Modularea Mobilierul ergonomic


Arhitectul francez trziu Le Corbusier a studiat proporiile umane, fiind un promotor al arhitecturii adaptate la dimensiunile corpului uman. A publicat n 1950 tratatul "Modulatorul", n care trateaz seciunea de aur a siluetei umane, aplicat la proporiile funcionale n arhitectur. Pornind de la ideea c seciunea de aur se regsete n proporiile siluetei umane a raportat ntre ele prile succesive ale corpului, de aici rezultnd dimensiuni standard pentru anumite corpuri de mobilier. Spre exemplificare, nlimea genunchiului indic nlimea de 43 cm pentru ezutul unui scaun nalt. Le Corbusier i-a dat seama de importana dimensiunilor umane pentru crearea unui mobilier confortabil i sntos, principiile ergonomice fiind tot mai folosit n prezent pentru ameliorarea condiiilor i ambiantei la locul de munc ori n propriul cmin.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe


Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, (pronunie conform IPA, ldv mis fan d o), numele la natere, Maria Ludwig Michael Mies, (n. 27 martie 1886 17 august 1969) a fost unarhitect german, unul dintre cei mai influeni arhiteci ai secolului 20.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, alturi de Walter Gropius i Le Corbusier, este considerat ca unul dintre pionierii, dar i maetrii arhitecturii moderne. Mies, ca muli alii dintre contemporanii si post-belici, a cutat s genereze un stil arhitectural care ar fi reprezentativ pentru timpurile moderne, aidoma cum, la rndul lor, stilurile gotic, renascentist i baroc fuseser reprezentative pentru timpurile lor. Rezultatul creaiei sale arhitecturale este unul din stilurile cele mai influente ale secolului 20, marcat de claritate i simplitate. Cldirile sale din epoca maturitii creaiei sale artistice utilizez materiale moderne, aa cum ar fi oelul industrial i sticla plan cu ajutorul crora a definit spaii i suprafee elegante i austere n acelai timp. Arhitectul german, mai ales n perioada american a creaiei sale, a dezvoltat pn la simplitatea maxim, specific doar maetrilor, utilizarea produselor industriale de serie (oelul, sticla, betonul armat, metale i aliaje dure), iniiat de Gropius i el n perioada lor Bauhaus, pentru a crea o arhitectur esenializat, cu o mare putere de sugestie. Mies a numit acest stil arhitectural propus de el, "arhitectur piele i oase". Alii au numit-o "mai puin este mai mult", conform "less is more / Weniger ist mehr". n sfrit, alii au denumit-o "Dumnezeu este n detalii", conform "God is in the details / Gott steckt im Detail".

Barcelona Pavilion, at Barcelona, Spain, built 1928-1929, demolished 1930. * 3D Model * Crown Hall, at Chicago, Illinois, 1950 to 1956. * 3D Model * Farnsworth House, at Plano, Illinois, 1946 to 1950. * 3D Model * H. Lange House, at Krefeld, Germany, 1928. Lake Shore Drive Apts, at Chicago, Illinois, 1948 to 1951. New National Gallery, at Berlin, Germany, 1962 to 1968. * 3D Model * Seagram Building, at New York, New York, 1954 to 1958. Tugendhat House, at Brno, Czech Republic, 1930. * 3D Model * Weissenhof Apartments, at Stuttgart, Germany, 1927.

Pier Luigi Nervi


Pier Luigi Nervi (June 21, 1891 January 9, 1979) was an Italian engineer. He studied at the University of Bologna and qualified in 1913. Dr. Nervi taught as a professor of engineering at Rome University from 1946-61. He is widely known as a structural engineer and an architect, and for his innovative use of reinforced concrete.

Noted works
Stadio Artemio Franchi, Florence (1931) Exhibition Building, Turin, Italy (1949). UNESCO headquarters, Paris (1950) (collaborating with Marcel Breuer and Bernard Zehrfuss) The Pirelli Tower, Milan (1950) (collaborating with Gio Ponti) Palazzo dello sport EUR (now PalaLottomatica), Rome (1956)

Palazzetto dello sport, Rome (1958) Stadio Flaminio, Rome (1957) Palazzo del Lavoro, Turin (1961) Palazzetto dello sport, Turin (1961) Sacro Cuore (Bell Tower), Firenze (1962) Paper Mill, Mantua, Italy (1962) George Washington Bridge Bus Station, New York City (1963) Tour de la Bourse, Montreal (1964) (collaborating with Luigi Moretti) Field House at Dartmouth College Thompson Arena at Dartmouth College (197374)

Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption, San Francisco, California (1967) (collaborating with Pietro Belluschi) Paul VI Audience Hall, Vatican City (1971) Australian Embassy, Paris (1973) Consulting engineer

Good Hope Centre, Cape Town (1976) by Studio Nervi, an exhibition hall and conference centre, with the exhibition hall comprising an arch with tie-beam on each of the four vertical facades and two diagonal arches supporting two intersecting barrel-like roofs which in turn were constructed from precast concrete triangular coffers with in-situ concrete beams on the edges. Norfolk Scope, Norfolk, VA (1971)

Philip Johnson
Philip Johnson (7 august 1906 - 25 februarie 2005) a fost un arhitect, autor, istoric al artei, director de muzeu american. S-a nscut n Cleveland, Ohio. A studiat arhitectura i a fcut apoi un master n istoria arhitecturii la Universitatea Harvard. Dupa ce i-a terminat studiile, Johnson a acceptat postul de director al departamentului de arhitectur al Muzeului de Arta Modern din New York, care tocmai fusese nfiinat. n anii urmtori s-a dedicat mai multor activiti,n afar de arhitectur. A fost critic, autor, istoric i director de muzeu, pn n cele din urm, la vrsta de 36 ani, s-a concentrat asupra arhitecturii i a desenat prima sa cldire. ncepnd de atunci cariera lui a fost una ascendent. n 1967 s-a asociat cu John Burgee,asociere ce a durat 20 de ani. n acest timp, ambii arhiteci au realizat un numr foarte mare de proiecte. Johnson a organizat primele vizite arhitectonice ale lui Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, i a lui Le Corbusier, cnd acetia au cltorit n Statele Unite ale Americii. Cu Mies a avut o relaie strns i a colaborat mai trziu cu el la proiectarea i construcia faimoasei cldiri Seagram n New York. Johnson a fost distins de ctre Institutul American al Arhitecilor cu Medalia de aur, i n 1979 a primit primul Premiu Pritzker, cel mai rvnit premiu n arhitectur. ncepnd cu 1989 Johnson s-a retras din viaa public. i-a dedicat timpul mai ales proiectelor proprii, chiar dac a rmas consilier al vechiului birou. Unul dintre ultimele proiecte a fost o nou coal de Belle Arte n statul Pennsylvania.

Lucrarea cea mai faimos a lui Johnson este probabil Casa de sticl (Glass House), din New Canaan, Connecticut. Este o cldire cu structur metalic foarte delicat care nu mpiedic vederea. Toi pereii sunt n ntregime din sticl, fac din cas o cldire transparent, permind vederea dintr-un col n altul, din exteriorul cldirii. Johnson a proiectat casa pentru sine i n acelai timp ca tez de doctorat pentru absolvirea sa. De atunci Johnson a locuit mereu n ea, de aceea ea se cheam i Casa Johnson.

Lucrri reprezentative
Turnul International Place (Boston) Turnul Tycon (Vienna, Virginia) Turnul Momentum (Dallas, Texas) Turnul NCNB (Houston) Turnul PPG (Pittsburgh) Turnul United Bank (Denver) Turnul Bank of Amerika (Houston) Cldirea Penzoil Place (Houston Sediul principal al AT&T (Nueva York) Centrul Naional de Arte Dramatice (Bombay, India) Centrul Century (South Bend, Indiana) Grdinile cu ap (Fort Worth, Texas) Centrul Cvic (Peoria, Illinois) Centrul Cultural al Condad de Dade (Miami) Catedrala din Cristal (Garden Grove, California) Muzeul de Arte Neuberger (Suny) Restaurant Four Seasons in cladirea Seagram (New York) Teatrul de stat din New York in Lincoln Center (New York) Rascacielos|Torres Poarta Europei (Madrid, Spania)

Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (nscut la 15 decembrie 1907) este un arhitect brazilian care este considerat unul dintre cei mai importani arhiteci ai arhitecturiimoderniste. Niemeyer a fost unul dintre pionierii folosirii betonului armat n arhitectur pentru scopul strict al impactului estetic al folosirii acestui material de construcie (spre deosebire debrutalism, care l folosea din alte puncte de vedere). Cldirile realizate de Oscar Nyemeyer sunt adesea caracterizate ca fiind spaioase i expunnd structurile lor n mod elegant privirii, amestecnd volume pline i spaii goale pentru a crea motive i repetiii neconvenionale, adesea fiind susinute de piloni. Ludat i criticat n egal msur pentru a fi nu un arhitect ci mai ales un "sculptor de monumente" [1], Niemeyer a fost i continu s fie elogiat ca unul dintre cei mai mari arhiteci contemporani, dar i ai secolului 20.[2] n schimb, detractorii

acestuia l acuz ca fiind naiv, frivol i nedemn de titlul de arhitect, folosind n mod derogatoriu sintagma de "arhitect oficial", ca o referire la funcia sa de arhitect principal al construirii de la zero a capitalei Braziliei, Brasilia, precum i a respectului de care se bucur arhitectul Oscar Niemeyer ntre arhiteci i politicieni.[3]. Cele mai cunoscute opere ale marelui arhitect brazilian sunt probabil cldirile publice pe care acesta le-a proiectat i realizat pentru oraul Braslia, considerat n ntregimea sa un World Heritage Site al UNESCO.

Ieoh Ming Pei


Ieoh Ming Pei (n. 26 aprilie 1917 n Canton, China) este un cunoscut i important arhitect american de origine chinez. Pei este unul dintre arhitecii de succes ai secolului XX, avnd realizate adevrate opere ale arhitecturii moderne, folosind materiale precum sticla, piatra natural, oelul sau betonul pe care le-a pus n oper ca un adevrat cunosctor al gusturilor oamenilor secolului XX. Printre cele mai cunoscute opere ale sale se pot aminti piramida de la Muzeul Luvru, din Paris, inaugurat n 1989, Centrul Naional pentru cercetare atmosferic din Colorado, Luce Memorial Chapel, Tunghai, 1964, Cldirea Verde, Massachusetts, 1974, Cldirea de Est a galeriei naionale de art, Universitatea i muzeul de art din Bloomington, Indiana i Banca Chinei, Hong Kong.
Lucrri Cldiri semnificative * Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong

Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano (born 14 September 1937) is an Italian architect. He is the recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, AIA Gold Medal, Kyoto Prize and the Sonning Prize. One admirer said the "serenity of his best buildings can almost make you believe that we live in a civilised world".[1]

Completed
Central Saint Giles, London (2010)

Modern Wing of the Art Institute of Chicago,Architect of record Dina Griffin AIA , of IDEA8 , expansion project (2009) Nichols Bridgeway, Chicago, Illinois (2009) California Academy of Sciences rebuilding, San Francisco, California (2008) Vulcano Buono shopping mall, Nola, Italy (2007)(Video) The New York Times Building on Eighth Avenue in Manhattan, New York City (20032007) Rocca di Frassinello Winery, Gavorrano, Italy (20022007) Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Switzerland (2006) Morgan Library Expansion, New York, New York (20032006)

Cit Internationale, Lyon, France (19952006) Weltstadthaus on Schildergasse, Cologne, Germany (2005) High Museum of Art Expansion, Atlanta, Georgia (2005) Il Sole 24 Ore Headquarters, Milan, Italy (1998-2004) Nasher Sculpture Center, Dallas, Texas (opened 2003) Parco della Musica auditorium, Rome, Italy (2002) (Video) Maison Herms, Tokyo (2001) Auditorium Paganini, Parma, Italy (2001) Aurora Place, Sydney, Australia (19962000)

Swatch 'Jelly Piano' wristwatch, 1999 Summer Collection model. "My most proud work" (Piano, 2001) Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center, Nouma, New Caledonia (199198) Ushibuka Haiya Bridge, Amakusa, Kumamoto, Japan (1991-1997) Beyeler Foundation Museum, Basel, Switzerland (1997) NEMO science museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1997) Cy Twombly Gallery, Houston, Texas (1995) International Terminal, Kansai International Airport, Osaka, Japan (19911994) Menil Collection, Houston, Texas (opened 1987) Stadio San Nicola, Bari, Italy (19881989) Banca CIS building, Cagliari, Sardinia (1985) IBM Travelling Pavilion IRCAM & the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (19711977)

Buildings

Centre Georges Pompidou Parco della Musica Shard London Bridge

Richard Rogers
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside CH Kt FRIBA FCSD (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs. Rogers is perhaps best known for his work on the Pompidou Centre in Paris, the Lloyd's building and Millennium Dome both in London, and the European Court of Human Rights building inStrasbourg. He is a winner of the RIBA Gold Medal, the Thomas Jefferson Medal, the RIBA Stirling Prize, the Minerva Medal and Pritzker Prize. Rogers was born in Florence in 1933 and attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, before graduating with a master's degree from the Yale School of Architecture in 1962.[1] While studying at Yale, Rogers met fellow student Norman Foster. On returning to England he and Foster set up architectural practice as Team 4 with their respective wives, Su Brumwell and Wendy Cheeseman. They quickly earned a reputation for what was later termed by the media high-tech architecture.[2]

By 1967 the Foster/Rogers partnership had split up, but Rogers continued to collaborate with Su Rogers, along with John Young and Laurie Abbott.[3] In early 1968 he was commissioned to design a house and studio for Humphrey Spender near Maldon, Essex, a glass cube framed with I-beams. He continued to develop his ideas of prefabrication and structural simplicity to design a Wimbledon house for his parents. This was based on ideas from his conceptual 'Zip Up' house,[4] such as the use of standardised components based on refrigerator panels to make energy-efficient buildings. Rogers subsequently joined forces with Italian architect Renzo Piano, a partnership that was to prove fruitful. His career leapt forward when he and Piano won the design competition for the Pompidou Centre in July 1971, alongside a team from Ove Arup that included Irish engineer Peter Rice. This building established Rogers's trademark of exposing most of the building's services (water, heating and ventilation ducts, and stairs) on the exterior, leaving the internal spaces uncluttered and open for visitors to the centre's art exhibitions. This style, dubbed "Bowellism" by some critics, was not universally popular at the time the centre opened in 1977, but today the Pompidou Centre is a widely admired Parisian landmark. Rogers revisited this inside-out style with his design for London's Lloyd's building, completed in 1986 - another controversial design which has since become a famous and distinctive landmark in its own right.
Practice Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners

Buildings

Centre Georges Pompidou Lloyd's building Millennium Dome European Court of Human Rights Madrid-Barajas Airport terminal 4 London Heathrow terminal 5

Mario Botta
Mario Botta ( nascut la 1 aprilie 1943) este un arhitect faimos nascut in Mendrisio, cantonul Ticino, Elvetia. El a proiectat prima sa cas la vrsta de 16 ani,cu toate c nicieri nu este menionat dac a fost i construit. A studiat la Liceo Artistico din Milano i apoi la Istituto Universitario di Architettura din Veneia. Cei care l-au inspirat au fost Le Corbusier , Carlo Scarpa, Louis Kahn. i-a deschis primul birou de arhitectur n anul 1970 n Lugano. Casa proiectat la vrsta de 16 ani este o cas pentru 2 familii n Morbio Superiore din Ticino. In timp ce amenajerile de spatiu din structura nu erau perfecte n legatur cu sit-ul, separarea living-ului de spaiile de servicii,i geamurile adnci ce vor deveni elemente desvrite n arhitectura sa. A lucrat la renovarea teatrului La Scala,fapt ce a produs controverse printre istorici,temndu-se c detaliile istorice se vor pierde. Pe 1 ianurie 2006,el a primit premiul Grand Officer din partea President of the Italian Republic Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. n 2006, a proiectat primul su spa, Bergose Spa n Arosa , Elveia. Spa-ul a fost deschis n decembrie 2006 i a costat aproximativ 35 de milioane de franci elveieni ( CHF). Mario Botta a participat la proiectul Stock Exchange of Visions n 2007.

Botta designed his first buildings at age 16, a two-family house at Morbio Superiore in Ticino. While the arrangements of spaces in this structure is inconsistent, its relationship to its site, separation of living from service spaces, and deep window recesses echo of what would become his stark, strong, towering style. His designs tend to include a strong sense of geometry, often being based on very simple shapes, yet creating unique volumes of space. His buildings are often made of brick, yet his use of material is wide, varied, and often unique. His trademark style can be seen widely in Switzerland particularly the Ticino region and also in the Mediatheque in Villeurbanne (1988), a cathedral in vry (1995), and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art or SFMOMA (1994). He also designed the Europa-Park Dome, which houses many major events at the Europa-Park theme park resort in Germany. Religious works by Botta, including the Cymbalista Synagogue and Jewish Heritage Center were shown in London at the Royal Institute of British Architects in an exhibition entitled, Architetture del Sacro: Prayers in Stone.[1] A church is the place, par excellence, of architecture, he said in an interview with architectural historian Judith Dupr. When you enter a church, you already are part of what has transpired and will transpire there. The church is a house that puts a believer in a dimension where he or she is the protagonist. The sacred directly lives in the collective. Man becomes a participant in a church, even if he never says anything.[2] In 1998, he designed the new bus station for Vimercate (near Milan), a red brick building linked to many facilities, underlining the city's recent development. He worked at La Scala's theatre renovation, which proved controversial as preservationists feared that historic details would be lost. In 2004, he designed Museum One of the Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art in Seoul, South Korea.[3] On January 1, 2006 he received the Grand Officer award from President of the Italian RepublicCarlo Azeglio Ciampi. In 2006 he designed his first ever spa, the Bergoase Spa in Arosa, Switzerland. The spa opens in December 2006 and cost an estimated CHF 35 million. Mario Botta participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007. He will be a member of the Jury of the Global Holcim Awards in 2012.

Frank Gehry
Frank Owen Gehry, CC (nscut Ephraim Owen Goldberg la 28 februarie 1929 n Toronto, Canada) este unul dintre cei importani arhiteci contemporani, cunoscut n special pentru perspectiva sa aproape sculptural a designului cldirilor sale. Frank Gehry este n acelai timp unul din arhitecii care au promovat deconstructivismul ca unul din curentele majore n arhitectura de la sfritul secolului XX i nceputul secolului XXI, fiind un important exponent al acestuia. Operele sale sunt uor de recunoscut datorit structurilor neliniare, multiplu curbate i circumvolute ale tuturor cldirilor, care snt adesea acoperite cu largi suprafee metalice reflectorizante. Lucrarea sa cea mai celebr este fr ndoial Muzeul Fundaiei Guggenheim din Bilbao, Spania, care ilustreaz vibrant stilul su arhitectural, cldire acoperit integral n folii de titan.
Lucrri Cldiri semnificative * Vitra Design Museum, Weil am Rhein, Germania, 1987 * Frederick Weisman Museum of Art, University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1990 * Dancing House, Praga, 1995 * Muzeul Guggenheim, Bilbao,1997

* Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California, 2004

Stilul arhitectural Gehry


Stilul arhitectural al lui Gehry este derivat din modernismul trziu. Formele continuu curbate, aparent haotic distribuite, ale ntregii structuri a unei cldiri designate de Gehry, sunt de asemenea considerate ca aparinnd colii deconstructiviste(uneori prescurtat DeCon) a arhitecturii moderniste. Micarea DeCon se ndeprteaz de modernism datorit accenturii funcionalitii cldirilor, care sunt realizate n funcie de nevoile existente ale societii. Spre deosebire de alte curente moderniste timpurii, structurilor DeCon nu li se cere s reflecte anumite idei sociale (aa cum ar fi viteza i universalitatea formei) i, mai ales, nu reflect vechiul "postulat arhitectural" al formei care este determinat de funcie. Deconstructivismul, pe care Gehry a continuat sl rafineze i s l nuaneze la nalte cote de rafinament artistic, mai este cunoscut i sub numele aditiional de coala de arhitectur Santa Monica (conform originalului Santa Monica school of architecture), pentru c zona din jurul localitii Santa Monica din California a produs cea mai mare concentraie de cldiri experimentale deconstructiviste, fiind totodat i locul unde exist cel mai mare numr de cldiri realizate n stil deconstructivist. Exist voci care consider Notre Dame du Haut, faimoasa structur a lui Le Corbusier, care sugereaz mai mult o oper desculptur abstract dect o cldire, ca fiind adevratul punct de plecare al stilului lui Gehry, precum i o posibil surs de inspiraie a ideilor sale arhitecturale. Pe de alt parte, Frank Gehry nsui, n filmul documentar "Sketches of Frank Gehry", realizat n 2005, afirm c opera sculptorului romn Constantin Brncui respectiv operele arhitectului i designerului finlandez Alvar Aalto i arhitectului american Philip Johnson, au constituit sursa major a inspiraiei sale (vedei seciunea Influene a prezentului articol. Easy Edges serii de mobilier, 1969 - 1972. Exhibit Center, Merriweather Post Pavilion i Rouse Company Headquarters, Columbia, Maryland, SUA, 1974 Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, California, SUA, numeroase cldiri, 1978 - 2002 - [1] Santa Monica Place, Santa Monica, California, SUA, 1980 Edgemar Retail Complex, Santa Monica, California, SUA, 1984 Chiat/Day Building, Venice, California, SUA, 1985 - 1991 Vitra Design Museum, Weil am Rhein, Germania, 1989

Frederick Weisman Museum of Art, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, SUA, 1990 - [2] Iowa Advanced Technology Laboratories, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, SUA, 1987 - 1992 - [3] Disney Village, Disneyland Resort Paris, Paris, Frana, 1992 Center for the Visual Arts, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, SUA, 1993 - [4] American Center, Paris, Frana, 1994[5] (actualmente Cinmathque Franaise) Dancing House ("Fred and Ginger"), Praga, Cehia, 1995 - fotografia 1, fotografia 2, fotografia 3 Anaheim ICE (iniial cunoscut ca Disney ICE), Anaheim, California (1995) Team Disney Anaheim, Anaheim, California, SUA, 1995 [6]

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Bilbao, Spania, 1997 Der Neue Zollhof, Dsseldorf, Germania, 1999 [7] Vontz Center for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, SUA, 1999]] - [8] DG Bank building, Pariser Platz 3, Berlin, Germania, 2000 Experience Music Project, Seattle, Washington, USA (2000) Gehry Tower, Hanover, Germania, 2001 Issey Miyake, Flagship Store, New York, New York, SUA, 2001

Peter B. Lewis Building, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, SUA, 2002 - [9] i [10] Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, SUA, 2003 - [11][12] Maggie's centre, Dundee, Scoia, 2003 - [13] Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California, SUA, 2003

Ray and Maria Stata Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, SUA, 2004 - [14] Pritzker Pavilion, Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, SUA, 2004 [15] MARTa, Herford, Germania, 2005

IAC/InterActiveCorp West Coast Headquarters, Sunset Strip, West Hollywood, California, SUA, 2005 Brian Transeau's house, Los Angeles, California, SUA

Richard Meier
Richard Meier (n. 12 octombrie 1934, Newark, New Jersey) este un arhitect contemporan american care a influenat sensibil arhitectura secolului 20. Este cunoscut pentru design-ul raionalist i pentru folosirea culorii alb. Meier a studiat la Cornell University, de unde a terminat cu o diplom de arhitect, Bachelor of Architecture, n anul 1957. Dup ce a lucrat pentru compania Skidmore, Owings & Merrile n1959, i apoi pentru Marcel Breuer pentru o perioad de trei ani, Meier i-a deschis propriul su birou de arhitectur n New York City n 1963. Identificat ca fiind unul dintre The New York Five n 1972, de delegaia de la Getty Center Museum din Los Angeles, California, a fcut ca faima i popularitate sa s creasc exponenial. Multe dintre cldirile proiectate de Meier pentru masterele arhitecturale ,de la mijlocul secolului XX, au fost inspirate din munca lui Le Corbusier,dar mai ales din proiectele de la nceputul carierei acestuia. Putem spune c Meier a construit probabil mai mult dect nimeni, dupa ideile i munca lui Le Corbusier. Meier i-a dezvoltat ideile n special dup Villa Savoye i Swiss Pavilion. Munca lui reflect de asemenea influenele altor mari arhiteci precum Mies Van der Rohe i,pe alocuri Frank Lloyd Wright i Luis Barragan. Culoarea predominant n cldirile lui Meier este albul.De-a lungul istoriei,albul a fost folosit n multe cldiri,incluznd catedrale i case mediteraneene din unele regiuni ale Spaniei, Italiei i Greciei. n 1984, Meier a fost premiat cu premiul Pritzker. El a participat i la proiectarea mai multor cldiri ce au aprut n

jocul pe computer SimCity 4,in 2003,fiind primul arhitect profesionist care i-a pus amprenta asupra jocurilor pe calculator.
Cldiri semnificative Muzeul de art contemporan dinBarcelona, Spania

Museum of Television and Radio, Beverly Hills, California

Westbeth Artists Community, New York City, 1970 Condominium of the Olivetti Training Center in Tarrytown, New York, 1971 Meier House, Essex Fells, New Jersey, 1965 Smith House, Darien, Connecticut, 19651967 Douglas House, Harbor Springs, Michigan, 1973 [1] Bronx Developmental Center, The Bronx, New York, 1976 The Atheneum, New Harmony, Indiana, 1979 High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1983 Modern Art Wing Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa, 1984 Daimler-Benz Forschungszentrum, today: Daimler Forschungszentrum, Ulm, Germany, 1992 Stadthaus Ulm, Ulm, Germany, 1994 Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona, Spain, 1995 City Hall and Central Library, The Hague, Netherlands, 1995 Edinburgh Park Masterplan, 1995 Rachofsky House, Dallas, Texas, 1996 Neugebauer House, Naples, Florida, 1998 [2]

The Paley Center for Media, formerly The Museum of Television & Radio, Beverly Hills, California, 1996 Getty Center, Los Angeles, California, 1997 [3] Camden Medical Centre, Singapore, 1998 White Plaza, Basel, Switzerland, 1998 173/176 Perry Street, Manhattan, 19992002 Sandra Day O'Connor United States Courthouse, Phoenix, Arizona, 2000 Peek & Cloppenburg flagship store, Dsseldorf, Germany, 2001 Centre for Possibility thinking, Garden Grove, California, 2003[8] Jubilee Church, Rome, Italy 2003 [4] Museum Frieder Burda, Baden Baden, Germany, 2004

Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, Italy, 2006 [5] (There has been talk of dismantling and relocating the museum since the election of Gianni Alemanno in 2008[9]) City Tower, Prague, Czech Republic, 20042007 Arp Museum, Remagen-Rolandseck, Germany 2008 [6] San Jose City Hall, San Jose, California, 20042007 University of Scranton, Connolly Hall, 2007 Weill Hall, Ithaca, New York, 2008 Meier Tower, Tel Aviv, Israel (2008present) On Prospect Park, Brooklyn, NY, 2003-2008[10] International Coffee Plaza, Hamburg, Germany, 2010 [7]

Santiago Calatrava

Santiago Calatrava Valls, cunoscut mai ales ca Santiago Calatrava, (n. 28 iulie 1951, Benimamet (Valencia), Spania) este un arhitect, sculptor i inginer structural spaniol recunoscut i premiat pe plan internaional, stabilit n Zurich, Elveia. Calatrava a urmat cursurile la colii de Arte i Arhitectur i ale colii de Meserii din Valencia. Dupa ce a terminat facultatea n 1975, s-a angajat la Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) din Zurich, Elveia, unde a lucrat ca inginer civil. n 1981, dup ce i-a terminat doctoratul, numit "On the Fordability of Space Frames", a nceput s practice simultan meseriile de arhitect i de inginer. Clasat printre elita de designeri ai lumii, Clatrava are birouri de arhitectur n Zurich, Paris, New York i n alte orae ale lumii. La nceputul carierei, Calatrava s-a axat pe poduri i staii feroviare, design-ul fiecrei structuri relevnd noile standarde n ingineria civil. Elegantul i ndrzneul Montjuic Communications Tower din Barcelona, Spania, construit n 1991, n preajma pregtirilor pentru Jocurile Olimpice din 1992, o dovedete din plin. Pavilionul Quadracci Paviluin, construit n2001 la Milwaukee Art Museum a fost prima cldire important fcut n America de ctre Calatrava. La Madrid, sculptorul Santiago Calatrava a ridicat un obelisc, executat din oel i bronz, cu nlimea de 120 m, amplasat n Plaza de Castilla, ntre turnurile "Puerta Europa". Cunoscutul arhitect, inginer i sculptor spaniol a recunoscut c n procesul de elaborare al proiectului a fost inspirat de lucrarea Coloana Infinitului de la Trgu Jiu a celebrului sculptor romnConstantin Brncui. [1]
Lucrri Cldiri semnificative * Athens Olympic Sports Complex * Auditorio de Tenerife * Alamillo bridge * Chords Bridge * Ciutat de les Arts i les Cincies

Completate
Trinity Bridge (Calatrava)|Trinity Bridge, pod pietonal peste River Irwell, Salford, Anglia Oberbaumbrcke, Berlin, Germania Alameda Bridge and metro station, Valencia, Spania 1983-1984, Jakem Steel Warehouse, Munchwilen, Elveia 1983-1985, Ernsting Warehouse, Coesfeld, Germany 1983-1988, Wohlen High School, Wohlen, Switzerland 1983-1990, Zrich Stadelhofen|Stadelhofen Railway Station, Zrich, Elveia 1983-1989, Lucerne Station Hall, Lucerna, Elveia 1984-1987, Bac de Roda Bridge, Barcelona, Spania 1984-1988, Barenmatte Community Center, Suhr, Elveia 1986-1987, Tabourettli Theater, Basel, Elveia 1987-1992, BCE Place (atrium), Toronto, Canada,

1989-1994, Saint-Exupry International Airport|Aroport Lyon Saint-Exupry "Satolas" TGV Station, Lyon, Frana

1992, Puente del Alamillo, Sevilia, Spania 1992, Puente de Lusitania, Mrida, Spania 1992, Montjuic Communications Tower at the Olympic Ring, Barcelona, Spania 1992, World's Fair, Kuwaiti Pavilion, Sevilia, Spania 1994-1997, Campo Volantin Footbridge, Bilbao, Spania 1996, Ciutat de les Arts i les Cincies, Valencia, Spania 1998, Estao do Oriente or (Gare do Oriente), Lisabona, Portugalia 1998, Puente de la Mujer, in the Puerto Madero barrio of Buenos Aires, Argentina 2000, New terminal at Bilbao Airport, Bilbao, Spania 2001, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA 2003, Auditorio de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Insulele Canare, Spania 2003, James Joyce Bridge, bridge over River Liffey, Dublin, Irlanda 2004, redesign of Athens Olympic Sports Complex, Atena, Grecia 2004, Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, Redding, California, USA

2004, Three bridges (called Harp, Cittern and Lute) spanning the main canal of the Haarlemmermeer, Olanda 2004, University of Zurich, "Bibliothekseinbau" library remodelling, Zrich, Elveia 2005, The bridge connecting the Avnat shopping mall and the Rabin Medical Center (Belinson) in Petah Tikva, Israel 2005, Turning Torso, Malm, Suedia

Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid Zaha Hadid s-a nascut in Irak, in anii 50, dar traieste la Londra. Este singura femeie care a castigat vreodata prestigiosul premiu de design Pritzker Prize. Zaha Hadid face parte din curentul deconstructivist din arhitectura contemporana si este unul dintre cei mai cautati arhitecti din lume, din Statele Unite pana in Japonia. A creat cateva dintre cele mai spectaculoase cladiri de pe mapamond, de la sediul central al BMW din Germania pana la Centrul Rosenthal pentru Arta Contemporana din Ohio. A lucrat la crearea interiorului din Domul Millenium, Londra, si la Centrul Acvatic din capitala britanica, realizat pentru Jocurile Olimpice din 2012. Cu toate acestea, unele dintre cele mai importante proiecte ale ei nu au fost niciodata construite, fiind considerate initial dificil de pus in practica, precum The Peack Club, din Hong Kong, si Cardiff Bay Opera House, din Tara Galilor. De-a lungul anilor, a avut peste 12 expozitii arhitecturale si a primit trei dintre cele mai prestigioase distinctii din domeniu.

Zaha Hadid, CBE (Arabic:

Zah add; born 31 October 1950) is an Iraqi-British architect.

Hadid was born in 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecturein London. After graduating she worked with her former teachers, Rem Koolhaas and Elia Zenghelis at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, becoming a partner in 1977. It was with Koolhaas that she met the engineer Peter Rice who gave her support and encouragement early on, at a time when her work seemed difficult to build. In 1980 she established her own London-based practice. During the 1980s she also

taught at the Architectural Association. She has also taught at prestigious institutions around the world; she held the Kenzo Tange Chair at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, the Sullivan Chair at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Architecture, guest professorships at the Hochschule fr Bildende Knste in Hamburg, the Knowlton School of Architecture, at The Ohio State University, the Masters Studio at Columbia University, New York and the Eero Saarinen Visiting Professor of Architectural Design at the Yale School of Architecture in New Haven, Connecticut. In addition, she was made Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Architects.[1] She has been on the Board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. She is currently Professor at the University of Applied Arts Vienna in Austria. A winner of many international competitions, theoretically influential and groundbreaking, a number of Hadid's winning designs were initially never built: notably, The Peak Club in Hong Kong (1983) and the Cardiff Bay Opera House in Wales (1994). In 2002 Hadid won the international design competition to design Singapore's one-north masterplan. In 2005, her design won the competition for the new city casino of Basel, Switzerland. In 2004 Hadid became the first female recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, architecture's equivalent of the Nobel Prize. Previously, she had been awarded a CBE for services to architecture. She is a member of the editorial board of the Encyclopdia Britannica. In 2006, Hadid was honored with a retrospective spanning her entire work at theGuggenheim Museum in New York. In that year she also received an Honorary Degree from the American University of Beirut. Zaha Hadid's architectural design firm - Zaha Hadid Architects - is over 350 people strong, headquartered in a Victorian former school building in Clerkenwell, London. In 2008, she ranked 69th on the Forbes list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women".[2] On 2 January 2009, she was the guest editor of the BBC's flagship morning radio news programme,Today.[3] In 2010 she was named by Time magazine as influential thinker in the 2010 TIME 100 issue.[4] In September 2010, The British magazine New Statesman listed Zaha Hadid at number 42 in their annual survey of "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures 2010".[5] She won the Stirling Prize two years running: in 2010, for one of her most celebrated works, the Maxxi in Rome, and in 2011 for the Evelyn Grace Academy, a Z-shapes school in Brixton Hadid is the designer of the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park in Seoul, South Korea, which is expected to be the centerpiece of the festivities for the city's designation as World Design Capital2010. The complex is scheduled to be completed in 2011