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1 2 3 Content Introduction The difference on fetal and adult circulatory and respiratory system 4 5 6 The changes occur during human first breathe Conclusion Reference 6 7 8 Topic Page Number 1 2 3

Introduction Fetus is the developing young in the uterus, specifically the unborn offspring in the postembryonic period, in humans from nine weeks after fertilization until birth while an adult refers to a human being or living organism that is of relatively mature age, typically associated with sexual maturity and the attainment of reproductive age. Between these two different living, there are vast difference which includes the way the breath and the way their blood is circulated in their body. A fetus doesnt perform any system by its own. Everything is done through the placenta with the mothers help. For an adult, everything is done within without any help from outside. The circulatory system is the main transportation and cooling system in the body. It passes nutrients, gasses, and hormones, blood cells to and from the cells in the body to help fright diseases, stabilize the body temperature and pH and maintain homeostasis. This system is strictly a blood distribution network. The respiratory system is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces the respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs and the respiratory molecules. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged by diffusion between the gaseous external environment and blood. This process takes place in the alveolar region of the lungs.

The difference between the fetal and adult circulatory and respiratory system. During the fetal stage of development, the maternal blood supplies the fetal with oxygen and nutrients and carries away the waste substances. These substances diffuse between the maternal and fetal blood thorough the placenta. The substances are carried to and away through the umbilical cord. The concentration of the fetal blood is approximately 5% more than in maternal blood. Fetal haemoglobin is different chemically and has a greater affinity for oxygen compared to the maternal haemoglobin. At a particular oxygen partial pressure, fetal haemoglobin is able to carry about 20% to 30% more oxygen than maternal haemoglobin. Fetal circulation relies on the difference between fetal and maternal haemoglobin. The difference allows a diffusion of oxygen from the mothers circulatory system to the fetus. The placenta acts as the respiratory centre for the fetus. It also filters for plasma nutrients and wastes. The uterine arteries diffuses from the placenta to the chorionic villus and then to the umbilical vein. However when it comes to an adult, the circulatory system is very much different compared to the fetal. An adult circulatory system is carried in his own body without any external help. It carries blood to every body part, and that blood carries oxygen, delivers nutrients, collects waste materials, and fights germs. It functions as to transport blood and oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues of the body. The heart pumps the blood which carries the oxygen through the circulatory system and exchange with carbon dioxide in tissues. Again it will return to the lung to be oxygenated again. The major differences between and fetal and an adult is in a fetal, lungs is not used whereby in adult lungs function to oxygenate the blood again. In the fetal circulation, the blood is passed through the placenta, through the umbilical vein and then only to the fetus. The umbilical vein delivers half of this blood volume to the fetal ductus venosus. The ductus venosus carries the blood into the inferior vena cava. The umbilical vein delivers the other half of the blood volume to the live through the inferior border of the liver in the right lobe by joining with the portal vein. From the liver, the blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart. The foramen ovale exists in the fetus. This is an opening between the right and left atrium. Most of the blood flows through this formen straight into the left atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation. From here, the blood flows into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta into the body. Some

of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries and re enter again to the placenta. Another mechanism different in fetal circulation is that some of the blood enters the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery. The fetal does not use its lungs yet for respiration. Amniotic fluid suspends the fetal and through the ductus arteriosus, the pulmonary artery and the aorta are connected. The circulatory mechanism differs in adults. It has three distinct parts, the pulmonary circulation, coronary circulation and systemic circulation. Each of the part works independently in order for them all to work together.

Systemic circulation supplies nutrients to all the tissue located throughout the body except the heart and lungs. Systemic circulation is major part of an adults circulatory system. The blood vessels like arteries, veins and capillaries are responsible in delivering oxygen to the tissue. Oxygen rich blood enters the blood vessels through the hearts main artery called aorta. The forceful contraction of the hearts left ventricle forces the blood into the aorta which then branches into many smaller arteries which run throughout the body. The inside layer of an artery is very smooth, allowing the blood to flow quickly. The outside layer of an artery is very strong to allow the blood to flow forcefully. The oxygen rich blood enters the capillaries where the oxygen and nutrients are released. The waste products are collected and the waste rich blood flows into the veins in order to circulate back to the heart where pulmonary circulation will allow the exchange of gases in the lungs. During systemic circulation, blood passes through the kidneys. This phase of systemic circulation is known as renal circulation. During this phase, the kidneys filter the waste from the blood. Blood also passes through the small intestine during systemic circulation. This phase known as portal circulation. During this phase the blood from the small intestine collects in the portal vein which passes through the liver. The liver filters sugars from the blood, storing them for later.

Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs and back to the heart again. The veins bring waste rich blood back to the heart, entering the right atrium throughout two large veins called vena cava. The right atrium fills with the waste rich blood and then contracts pushing the blood through a one way valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle fills and then contracts, pushing the blood into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. In the lung capillaries, the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes

place. The oxygen rich blood re enters the left atrium. It passes through one way valve called the aorta. The left ventricle contracts and forces the blood into the aorta and the blood begins its journey to the body. Coronary circulation takes places in the heart. It exchanges the gasses between the tissues of the heart so that the gasses can be transported accordingly to the body.

Besides the circulatory system, respiratory system also differs in the fetal and an adult. For the fetal, while its still in the womb, the respiratory system will not be complete. It uses the mother as to exchange gasses. Hence it doesnt breathe while in the womb. The lungs of the feta develop slowly and it will be filled with fluid. Most of the fluid is produced by the lungs itself, but some consists of amniotic fluid drawn into the airways when the fetal practises breathing movement before birth. During the birth, the fluid is much expelled as the chest squeezes through the narrow birth canal. So, while in the fetal stage, respiratory system doesnt take much work. However, for an adult, it is an important system.

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and the diaphragm.

Oxygen enters the respiratory system of the adult through nose and mouth. Then it passed through larynx and the trachea which is a tube that enters the chest cavity. In the chest cavity, the trachea splits into two smaller tubes called the bronchi. Each bronchus then divides into the lungs where they divide into many smaller tubes which connect to tiny sacs called alveoli. The inhaled oxygen passes into the alveoli and then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. The waste rich blood from the veins releases carbon dioxide into the alveoli. The carbon dioxide follows the same path out of the lungs when exhaled. The diaphragm helps to pump the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that les across the bottom of the chest cavity. As the diaphragm contracts and relaxes, breathing takes place. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.

The Changes occurs During Human First Breath. Humans first breath takes place when born only. While in the womb, no breathing takes places. There only founding that the fetal will try to breathe to practice. However, it doesnt use oxygen but it inhales the fluids in the womb. The babies lungs are filled with fluid secreted by lungs and are not inflated. A variety of stimuli helps the newborns to give an urge to inhale its first lungful of air. The central nervous system reacts to the sudden change in temperature and environment. These stimuli include the rapidly falling oxygen concentration and rapidly increasing carbon dioxide concentration as the umbilical vessels starts to constrict. The compression of the fetal chest in the birth canal and its sudden release also contributes to the urge for it to breathe. When the newborn draws the first breath, its lungs expand to almost full capacity. At this point, the relationships among the organs in the chest begin to change. The lungs which initially could only accept a small volume of blood when it leaves the heart, now can accept more. It is imperative that they receive more blood flow because it is their source of oxygen now. The baby takes it first breath within 10 seconds after delivery. The change in the shift in the amount of blood flow changes the blood pressure within each chamber of the heart. As the pressure rises in the left atrium, a flap of tissue is pushed over the foramen ovale, effectively closing this passage between the two atria. The ductus arteriosus, the channel preciously drained blood away from the lungs, constricts to ensure that all the blood pumped out to the lungs actually reaches the lungs. The blood will pick up a load of oxygen before returning to the heart to be pumped out to the rest of the body. The blood vessels of the umbilical cord are instantly rendered obsolete. It is does not constrict, it will do so after few breathes of the baby. This process is aided by the clamping of the umbilical cord. The umbilical vessels will atrophy and the remnant of the umbilical cord still attached to the baby will dry up and fall off. The place where the umbilical cord was attached to the baby will forever be marked by the navel also known as the umbilicus.

Conclusion In a nutshell, the overall system for a fetal and an adult is very much different. A fetal is practically in aid of the mother because it cant do anything by its own. Its system is pretty slow compared to the adult. Hence, the circulatory and respiration takes place via the mothers, umbilical cord and to the placenta where the fetal is. For an adult, the systems take place by itself. It doesnt need any aid from second people. Any failures of the system can cause a major or minor damage and change in metabolism. For example, a disruption in the blood vessel can interrupt the blood flow in the circulatory system. This causes diseases and may lead to death. Similarly to the respiration system, the human needs to use their lungs to perform the breathing mechanism. Without lungs, its very difficult. Lungs are the major organ in exchanging the gases. Hence, it is important to be taken care in a good condition.

To be short, the respiratory system begins as an outgrowth of endoderm called the respiratory diverticulum. Blood vessels develop from mesenchyme in mesoderm called blood islands.

These two system are very important while in the womb and as we grow up. It helps us to stay alive and assure that we are fine.