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Chapter 07: (Causal Research Design: Experimentation) Causality- When the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occurrence

of Y. Three conditions must be satisfied for causality.

a) Concomitant variable- A condition for inferring causality that requires that a cause, X, and
an effect ,Y, occur together or very together as predicted by the hypothesis under consideration.

b) Time order of occurrence of variables- causing event (X) must occur before or
simultaneously with the effect (Y), it can not occur afterwards.

c) Absence of other possible causal factors- Other mediate variables are held constant or
otherwise controlled. Definitions and Concepts:Independent variables (Treatment)- variables that are manipulated by researcher and whose effects are measured and compared. Dependent variables- variables that measure the effect of the independent variables on test units. Extraneous variables- Variables, other than the Independent variables, that influence the response of the test units. It can confound the measures dependent variable in a way that weakens or invalidates the results of the experiment. It has 8 types-

a) History- Specific events that are external to the experiment but occur at the same time as the
experiment.

b) Maturation- attributable to changes in the test units themselves that occur with the passage
of time. Exm- if respondents are people then change may occur in them bcoz they become older, more experience, tired bored, uninterested etc. or if if it is store, change may occur in physical layout, dcor, traffic, hand composition etc over time.

c) Testing Effects- caused by the process of experimentation. Two typesi) Main testing effect (MT) and, ii) Interactive testing effect (IT)

Test Units- Individuals, orgs, or other entities whose response to independent variables or treatment is being studied. Experiment-the process of manipulating one or more independent variables and measuring their effect on one or more dependent variables, while controlling for the extraneous variables. Experimental Design- A set of experimental procedures specifying a) the test units and the sampling procedures, b) independent variables c) Dependent variables d)how to control the Extraneous variables. Internal Validity- A measure of accuracy of an experiment. It measures whether the manipulation of independent variables or treatments actually caused the effect on the dependent variable(s). External Validity- A determination of whether the cause-and-effect relationship found in the experiment can be generalized to a larger population of interest.