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SPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS OF HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING DATA

Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri Department of Civil Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 43400 Serdang, Selangor Tel: 03-8946459 Fax: 03-86567129 E-mail: helmi@eng.upm.edu.my

Nisfariza Mohd Noor Maris Department of Geography Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Tel: +603-79675714 Fax: +603-79675457 Email: Nish@um.edu.my / nishda@gmail.com

Paul M. Mather Geographic Information Science Research School of Geography The University of Nottingham UK E-mail: paul.mather@nottingham.ac.uk

KEYWORDS: Hyperspectral, mixed pixel, spectral unmixing

ABSTRACT:

Spectral mixture analysis is a technique developed to address the issue of mixed pixel in remote sensing data classification. It is common that mixed pixels exist in a remote sensing dataset due to the factors related to spatial resolution and the heterogeneity of the landscape. The use of hard classification technique that labels one pixel to only one cover type will result in inaccurate description of the surface. In this study, the spectral mixture analysis technique is applied in the classification of hyperspectral data and the effectiveness of the technique assessed.

INTRODUCTION

A ‘hard’ classification scheme assigns one label to each pixel and might be suitable for the

classification of a large, homogeneous landscape. However, in many circumstances, there will be a mixture of land cover types within the instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) of the sensor, thus low classification accuracy will result if ‘hard’ classification is applied to a mixed pixel (Mather, 2004). In a heterogeneous environment for example, the landscape is complex with high spatial variability and it is difficult to obtain pure pixel values due to the fine scale mixing of vegetation and soil. Thus, a ‘hard’ classification scheme that assigns a single pixel to a single class is inappropriate.

In order to attain a higher degree of reality, the nature of the sub-pixel composition needs to be

resolved. Mixture modelling methods have thus become tools of increasing importance in remote sensing analysis (Brown et al., 2000). Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is a physically-based technique that includes a range of methods including the definition and display of the end-member abundances that can be used to map the spatial distribution of surface constituents (Lillesand and Kiefer 2000). The use of spectral unmixing results in fraction images that convey information regarding the spatial distribution of each end-member. Spectral mixing occurs in a linear fashion if mixing is large (macroscopic) and non-linear for microscopic mixing. The simplest model is the linear mixture model that assumed no interaction between materials. A single photon comes into contact with the surface of the Earth is assumed to be reflected into the field of view of the sensor without interacting with any other ground surface objects. This can be visualised as in Figure 1.

Imaging spectrometer

Incident solar irradiance

p e c t r o m e t e r Incident solar irradiance Heterogeneous Instantaneous

Heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV) for a single pixel. If a pixel contains two or more land cover classes, spectral unmixing occurs at the sensor.

Figure 1. The concept of macroscopic linear mixing (Adapted from RSI, 2006).

In a linear model, the reflectance r i , of a pixel in i th band can be described according to Smith et al.

(1985) as follows:

R i =

n

n =1

( F

j .R

E ij

)

+ ε i

Where: i = 1,…

R i is the reflectance of the mixed spectrum in image band i for each pixel F j is the fraction of each end-member j calculated by band RE ij is the reflectance of end-member spectrum j in band i i is the band number, ε is the residual error m represents the number of spectral bands

n is the number of end-members.

,m

and j = 1,…

,n

(1)

Two forms of linear unmixing models are available. These are termed the constrained and unconstrained models. The unconstrained linear mixture model is used in this study. It is preferred over the constrained model as it allows for the user to assess the fitness of fit of the model. The constrained model will always force the end-member proportions for each pixel to sum to one so the result will always lie between zero and one. With the constrained model, the statistics will seem to be ideal even though in fact the RMS image will indicate there are some problems with the model. Furthermore, if the model does not fit, it is not reasonable to use mathematical methods to force it to fit (Mather, 2004) with the unconstrained unmixing model, the abundances of the end- members are not forced to sum to one and may assume negative values.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1 Study area

The study area for this research is located within an area known as ‘La Mancha Alta’ that covers an area of approximately 8,000 km 2 on the northern side of the Rio Guadiana watershed in Central Spain (Figure 2). It contains one of the largest Tertiary sedimentary basins in Spain, as well as an important steppe-wetland area (Boomer 2000). This unique steppe wetland area of La Mancha Alta is regarded as one of the most important areas for migrating and wintering waterfowl in Spain (Oliver and Florin 1995). Because of greater demands from agriculture, the number of large-scale irrigation schemes has increased. The more intensive exploitation of water resources has contributed to losses of wetland. Oliver and Florin (1995) reported that 62.5% of La Mancha wetland areas are in the process of disappearing or have already disappeared with relatively only 2.8% of the wetland areas is well-preserved. The impact of changes in land cover on land degradation is significant in marginal, semi-arid areas. La Mancha in central Spain is a semi-arid wetland area, which is suffering from serious land degradation problems. Remote sensing has been the most time and cost-effective tool for the monitoring of land degradation processes (Koch, 2001) and can be useful for the monitoring of environmental problem such as wetland change detection.

SPAIN N
SPAIN
N

Figure 2: Location map of the study area.

2.2 Hyperspectral data

Hyperspectral data was collected from Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (DAIS) 7915. The DAIS 7915 hyperspectral sensor was built by the Geophysical Environmental Research Corporation (GER), USA. It uses four spectrometers providing 79 wavebands in the range 0.4 – 12.6 µm. Data are generated in 15-bit format for an IFOV of 3.3 mrad. The German Aerospace Centre (DLR) carried out the data acquisition and radiometric, atmospheric and geometric correction. The spatial resolution of the corrected image is 5 m. The characteristics of the sensor are shown in Table 1.

A DAIS overflight of the study area was conducted in June 2000, at the behest of the Autonomous University of Madrid. Data for the area were collected in three parallel strips in which each strip has a width of 3 km and a length of 15 km with 33% overlap area (Koch, 2001), giving a total coverage of 105.3 km 2 .

Table 1: Characteristics of the DAIS 7915 imaging spectrometer (Adapted from Muller et al.,

1998).

DAIS 7915 characteristics:

 

(Wavelength range: 0.5 μm – 12.5 μm, 4 spectrometers, 79 bands)

 

Spectrometer

Bands

Detector

Electronic

Wavelength Range (μm) 0.50 – 1.05 1.50 – 1.80

Bandwidth (μm) 0.015 – 0.030

 

Coupling

1 VIS/NIR

32

Si

DC

2 SWIR I

8

InSb

AC

0.045

3 SWIR II

32*

InSb

AC

1.90

– 2.50

0.035

MIR

1

InSb

AC

3.00

– 5.00

2.0

4 TIR

6

MCT

AC

8.70 – 12.5

0.9

Radiometric encoding/resolution: 15 bits Main geometric parameters:

 

Swath angle:

±

26

°

on Do 228 aircraft (max

±

39

°

)

IFOV:

3.3 mrad

 

Image pixels per line: 512 Ground resolution: 5 – 20 m

2.3 Selection of end-members

Before the physically–based methods of spectral unmixing techniques can be applied, the reference spectra to form the end-members or templates must be defined. These reference spectra can be extracted from a spectral library or from the image itself. The ENVI software package provides a systematic process to select image end-members. The first step is dimensionality reduction of the data using the MNF transformation. This process will determine the intrinsic dimensionality of the data and thus the maximum number of end-members that it is possible to extract.

The selected MNF bands are then used in Pixel Purity Index (PPI) processing. The Pixel Purity Index (PPI) is a means to find the most ‘spectrally pure’ pixels which may correspond to end- members (Boardman et al., 1995). The PPI is computed by repeatedly projecting n-dimensional scatter plots onto a random unit vector. Extreme pixels in each projection are recorded and the total number of times each pixel is marked as extreme is noted. A PPI image is then created such that the digital number of each pixel indicates the number of times each pixel was found to be extreme (RSI, 2006). A threshold is determined in order to select the purest pixels. These pure pixels can then be used in an interactive visualisation procedure to estimate the number of image end members and their spectral signatures.

An n-dimensional visualization technique is used in conjunction with the MNF and PPI results in order to locate, identify and cluster the purest pixels in the image (RSI, 2006). The n-D Visualiser in ENVI is then used to identify the groups of pixels belonging to the same spectral end-member class. Spectra can be thought of as points in an n-dimensional scatterplot, where n is the number of bands (Boardman et al., 1995). The co-ordinates of the points in n-space consist of “n” values that are simply the spectral reflectance values in each band for a given pixel. The pixels that are clustered together throughout many, random, user-selected n-dimensional scatterplots and various rotations are interpreted to belong to the same spectral end-member.

The intrinsic dimensionality of the data is an important property in deciding the maximum number of end-members that make up the landscape components. For example, the number of end-members should not exceed the number of spectral bands plus one in order to calculate the magnitude of the error term along with the fractional cover for each end-member (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). The identities of the end-members are then determined by comparing the image spectra and the spectra from field spectroscopy measurement of the study area. A method known as spectral matching is used to compute the similarity of the image end-members and the reference spectra in the spectral library.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The goodness of fit of the unconstrained linear unmixing model can be checked by reference to the minimum and maximum values for each end-member. Ideally, these values should be close to zero and one respectively. If the constrained linear unmixing is used, the model will always force the result to lie between zero and one, which would not allow the detection of any problem with the model.

Tables 2 to 4 show the statistics of the abundance images obtained using reflectance, MNF and first derivative data sets. From Table 3, it can be observed that the value of the RMS error is also smallest for MNF data (30.246) compared to the use of reflectance data (47.447). The use of the first derivative data also generally reduces the minimum and maximum values corresponding to the under- and over-shoots compared to the use of reflectance data. Some improvements in terms of the minimum and maximum values are also observed in comparison to the MNF data. However, the value of the RMS error is substantially larger for the first derivative data (710.419), as shown in Table 4. This could be due to the amplification of noise in the first derivative data.

Evaluation of the RMS error image produced by the unconstrained linear umixing model can also be used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the unmixing model. Any coherent spatial pattern in the RMS error image indicates that additional end-members are needed to be included, or the model is deficient (e.g. the mixing is non-linear rather than linear).

Table 2. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using reflectance data. (1 = water, 2 = dry salt, 3 = wet salt, 4 = dry vegetation, 5 = green vegetation, 6 = playa, 7 = bare soil).

Class

Min

Max

Mean

Stdev

1

-0.743

1.470

0.271

0.261

2

-0.893

1.072

-0.263

0.238

3

-0.703

1.077

-0.019

0.116

4

-4.821

2.455

0.652

0.478

5

-0.541

1.279

0.138

0.139

6

-1.103

1.725

0.552

0.380

7

-1.279

3.225

-0.059

0.324

Error

0.000

47.447

7.035

2.565

Table 3. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using MNF data.

Class

Min

Max

Mean

Stdev

1

-1.126

1.193

0.000

0.281

2

-0.621

1.063

0.000

0.117

3

-0.334

1.089

0.000

0.118

4

-2.010

1.220

0.000

0.321

5

-0.376

1.264

0.000

0.138

6

-0.582

1.277

0.000

0.222

7

-1.393

1.553

0.000

0.312

Error

0.000

30.246

2.872

1.244

Table 4. Statistics of the abundance image obtained using first derivative data.

Class

Min

Max

Mean

Stdev

1

-0.917

1.268

-0.026

0.307

2

-0.581

1.142

-0.031

0.114

3

-0.391

1.101

0.038

0.102

4

-1.590

1.634

0.542

0.400

5

-0.353

1.255

0.108

0.133

6

-0.480

1.150

0.020

0.108

7

-0.764

1.417

0.193

0.233

Error

0.000

710.419

233.951

57.858

CONCLUSIONS

The comparison of generating meaningful land cover maps using the three data sets utilizing linear unmixing technique was explored in this paper. Based on the quantitative assessment, the MNF data gives the best results using the linear unmixing technique for the data in this study. Results based on the first derivative data appear to give some improvements over the use of the reflectance data, but could not be as good as the use of MNF data. The MNF data performs better due to the better separation of signal and noise, but the derivative data suffer from the presence of noise. As MNF also reduces the dimensionality of the data, it reduces the computation time. Thus, the MNF data produce results with the highest accuracy and lowest computing requirement. The improvement in classification result using derivative data over the use of original reflectance data is also encouraging. Better ways of dealing with the noise in the data should yield better results in the use of derivative-based data.

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