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Universitatea Vasile Alecsandri Facultatea de tiine Economice Specializarea Contabilitate i Informatic de gestiune

Student, Cernat Elena Alexandra Grupa 632 1

Cuprins

1. Ce este G-20..................................................................................3 2. Mandatul Grupului celor 20.......................................................3 3. Originile G-20..............................................................................4 4. Membrii G-20..............................................................................4 5. Realizri.......................................................................................8 6. Preedinia G-20.........................................................................9 7. Fostele preedinii G-20.............................................................9 8. ntlniri i activiti...................................................................10 9. Interaciunea cu alte organisme internaionale......................10 10. De ce G-20?...............................................................................11 11. Comunicarea extern..............................................................12 12. Surse folosite n redactarea referatului................................13 13. Bibliografie...............................................................................22

Ce este G-20
Grupul celor 20 (G-20) de minitri ai finanelor i guvernatorilor bncilor centrale a fost nfiinat n 1999 pentru a reuni sistemic importante economii industrializate i n curs de dezvoltare pentru a discuta aspecte-cheie n economia global. Adunarea inaugural a G-20 a avut loc la Berlin, pe 15-16 decembrie 1999, gzduit de minitrii de finane ai Germaniei i Canadei. Noul grup al celor 20 (G20) a fost creat pe 25 septembrie 1999 ca un nou mecanism de dialog informal n cadrul sistemului instituional Bretton Woods, pentru a extinde dialogul privind problemele eseniale de politic economic i financiar printre economiile sistemice semnificative i pentru a promova cooperarea n scopul obinerii unei creteri economice mondiale stabile i durabile, care aduce beneficii tuturor. (G7, 1999). Pentru a lansa G20 la prima sa reuniune ministerial la Berlin n decembrie 1999, minitrii de finane din G7 au invitat omologii de la un numr de ri de importan sistemic din regiuni din ntreaga lume, precum i reprezentani ai UE, FMI i Banca Mondial. Naterea oficial a G20 poate fi urmrit pn la declaraia liderilor G7 la Summit-ul lor de la KLN pe 18 iunie 1999. Acolo au declarat urmtorul pasaj, urnd un bun venit crerii Forumului pentru stabilitate financiar i Comitetului Internaional Financiar i Monetar al FMI: angajamentul de a lucra mpreun pentru a stabili un mecanism informal de dialog ntre rile sistematice importante, n cadrul sistemului instituional Bretton Woods.

Mandatul Grupului celor 20


G-20 este primul forum pentru dezvoltarea noastr economic internaional care promoveaz discuii deschise i constructive ntre rile industrializate i emergente cu privire la aspectele cheie legate de stabilitatea economic global. Contribuind la consolidarea arhitecturii financiare internaionale i oferind oportuniti pentru dialogul cu privire la politicile naionale, cooperarea internaional i instituiile financiare internaionale, G-20 ajut la sprijinirea creterii i dezvoltrii din ntreaga lume.

Originile G-20
G-20 a fost creat ca un rspuns att la crizele financiare de la sfritul anilor 90 ct i la o recunoatere sporit a faptului c rile emergente cheie nu au fost incluse n mod adecvat n mijlocul discuiilor economice globale i de guvernare. Anterior nfiinrii Grupului celor 20, grupri similare pentru promovarea dialogului i de analiz au fost stabilite la iniiativa G-7. Grupul celor 20 s-a reunit la Washington D.C. n aprilie i octombrie 1998. Scopul acestuia a fost implicarea rilor non-G-7 n rezoluia aspectelor globale ale crizei financiare care afecteaz apoi rile emergente. Dou ntlniri ulterioare, cuprinznd un grup mai mare de participani (G-33), au avut loc n martie i aprilie 1999, discutndu-se reformele economiei mondiale i sistemului financiar internaional. Propunerile fcute de G-22 i G-33 de reducere a sensibilitii economiei mondiale la crize au artat beneficiile poteniale ale unui forum internaional regulat consultativ mbrind rile emergente. Asemenea dialog regulat cu un set constant de parteneri a fost instituionalizat prin crearea G-20 n 1999.

Membrii G-20
Grupul celor 20 este alctuit din minitrii finanelor i guvernatorii bncilor centrale din 19 ri: Argentina Australia Brazilia Canada China

Frana Germania 4

India Indonezia Italia Japonia Mexic

Rusia

Arabia Saudit Africa de Sud Republica Coreea Turcia Marea Britanie Statele Unite al Americii

Summit-ul G-20 de la Washington n 2008, tradiionala poz de familie care aniverseaz participanii la acest eveniment internaional

Summit-ul G-20 din Londra, 2009-poz de familie

Summit-ul G-20 de la Pittsburgh, 2010- poza de familie

Summit-ul G-20 din Toronto, 2010- poz de familie

Summit-ul G-20 din Seoul- poz de familie

Uniunea European, care este reprezentat de preedinia rotativ a Consiliului i de Banca Centrala European, este al douzecilea membru al G-20. Pentru a se asigura c instituiile lucreaz mpreun, Directorul general al Fondului Monetar Internaional (FMI) i preedintele Bncii Mondiale, mpreun cu scaunele Comitetului monetar i financiar internaional i Comitetul de dezvoltare, de asemenea particip la ntlnirile G-20 pe o baz ex-officio. G-20 aduce astfel mpreun importante ri industriale i emergente din toate regiunile lumii. mpreun, statele membre reprezint n jur de 90% din produsul naional brut la nivel global, 80% din comerul mondial ( inclusiv comerul din interiorul Uniunii Europene precum i dou treimi din populaia lumii.) Greutatea economic a G-20 i numrul mare de membri confer un grad ridicat de legitimitate i influen asupra gestionrii economiei mondiale i a sistemului financiar. n proiectarea diplomatic a noii instituii, China a avut loc de cinste. n timpul acestui proces nu s-a luat niciodat n considerare excluderea Chinei din acest grup. Aceasta a fost vzut la un rang superior Argentinei, Mexicului, Coreei, Turciei dar i ca o ar care ar putea ajunge ntr-o zi Canada i Italia. n timp ce au existat numeroase discuii privind membrii, cteva liste au exclus Australia, Coreea, Turcia i Arabia Saudit. 8

Realizri G-20 a dezvoltat o serie de aspecte ncepnd cu 1999, incluznd acordul privind politicile pentru dezvoltare, reducerea abuzului sistemului financiar, avnd de-a face cu crize financiare i combaterea finanrii terorismului. De asemenea, G-20 i propune s ncurajeze adoptarea standardelor internaionale recunoscute prin exemplu stabilit de membrii si n domenii cum ar fi transparena politicii fiscale i combaterea splrii banilor i finanrii terorismului. n 2004, rile membre G-20 au adoptat noile standarde mai ridicate cu privire la transparena i schimbul de informaii n materie de taxe. Acest lucru urmrete s combat abuzurile sistemului financiar i activitile ilicite, inclusiv evaziunea fiscal. G-20 a urmrit, de asemenea, s dezvolte o viziune comun ntre membri cu privire la aspecte legate de dezvoltarea viitoare a sistemului economico-financiar mondial. Pentru a aborda criza economic i financiar care s-a rspndit n ntreaga lume n 2008, membrii G-20 au fost chemai pentru a ntri n continuare cooperarea internaional. n consecin, Summit-urile G-20 au avut loc la Washington n 2008, la Londra i Pittsburgh n 2009 i la Toronta i Seoul n 2010. Aciunile concentrate i decisive ale G-20, membrii echilibrai ai rilor dezvoltate i ai rilor n curs de dezvoltare au ajutat lumea s se ocupe n mod eficient de criza economic i financiar, iar G-20 a emis deja o serie de rezultate semnificative i concrete. n primul rnd, sfera regulamentului financiar a fost n mare msur extins, iar reglementarea i supravegherea prudeniala au fost ntrite. S-au nregistrat, de asemenea, mari progrese n ceea ce privete coordonarea politicilor mulumit crerii cadrului pentru o dezvoltare puternic, sustenabil i echilibrat concepute pentru a consolida cooperarea macroeconomic ntre membrii G-20 i, prin urmare, pentru a atenua impactul crizei. n cele din urm, guvernarea la nivel mondial s-a mbuntit n mod exceptional pentru a lua mai bine n considerarea rolul i nevoile emergente ale rilor n curs de dezvoltare, n special prin reforme ambiioase de guvernare ale FMI i Bncii Mondiale.

Preedinia G-20

Ministerul de Finane al Canadei, Paul Martin, a fost selectat n calitate de preedinte al G-29 pentru primii doi ani. Prima reuniune va fi prezidat de ministrul Martin la Berlin n decembrie 1999. Canada va gzdui a doua ntlnire n anul 2000. Spre deosebire de instituiile internaionale, cum este Organizaia pentru Cooperare Economic i Dezvoltare (OCED), FMI sau Banca Mondial, G-20 (ca i G-7) nu are un personal propriu permanent. Preedinia G-20 se rotete ntre membri i este selectat dintr-un grup regional de ri n mod diferit n fiecare an. n 2011, preedinia G-20 aparine Franei. Ca G-7, dar spre deosebire de organizaiile internaionale mai mari cum sunt: Organizaia Naiunilor Unite, Banca Mondial i FMI, G-20 nu va avea un secretariat permanent. Preedinia oficial stabilete un secretariat temporar pe durata mandatului sau care coordoneaz activitatea grupului i organizeaz ntlnirile sale. Rolul triumviratului este de a asigura continuitatea n activitatea G-20 i de a conduce de-a lungul anilor gazd. Fostele preedinii ale G-20

1999-2001: Canada 2002: India 2003: Mexic 2004: Germania 2005: China 2006: Australia 2007: Africa de Sud 2008: Brazilia 2009: Marea Britanie 2010: Republica Coreea

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ntlniri i activiti Este o practic normal pentru minitrii de finane i guvernatorii bncilor centrale ce fac parte din G-20 s se ntlneasc o dat pe an. ntlnirea minitrilor i guvernatorilor este, de obicei, precedat de dou ntlniri ale debutailor i lucrri tehnice aprofundate. Aceste lucrri tehnice iau forma atelierelor de lucru, rapoartelor i studiilor de caz pe termene specifice, care au ca scop oferirea minitrilor i guvernatorilor analize contemporare i explicaii, pentru a lmuri mai bine reflectrile lor asupra provocrilor i opiunilor politice. Interaciunea cu alte organisme internaionale G-20 coopereaz ndeaproape cu diverse mari organizaii i foruri internaionale, urmrind posibilitatea dezvoltrii unor poziii comune privind aspecte complexe printre membrii G-20, putnduse da avnt politic n luarea deciziilor de ctre alte organisme. Participarea Preedintelui Bncii Mondiale, Directorului General al FMI i preedinii Fondului Monetar Internaional, Comitetului financiar i Comisiei de dezvoltare la ntlnirile G-20 asigur o desfurarea a Grupului celor 20 bine integrat cu activitile Instituiilor Bretton Woods. G-20 lucreaz, de asemenea, i ncurajeaz alte grupuri i organizaii internaionale, cum ar fi Consiliul pentru Stabilitate Financiar i Comitetul Basel pentru supravegherea bancar, n dezvoltarea reformelor de politic economic la nivel internaional i intern. n plus, experi din instituiile sectorului privat i organizaiile non-guvernamentale sunt invitai la reuniunile G-20 pe o baz ad-hoc, n scopul de a exploata sinergiile n analiza subiectelor selectate. Includerea Preedintelui Bncii Mondiale, Directorului General al FMI, preedinii Comitetului monetar i financiar internaional i ai Comitetului pentru Dezvoltare asigur o bun integrare a procesului G-20 cu activitile acestor instituii. G-20 va ajuta la coordonarea activitilor celorlalte grupuri i organizaii internaionale, cum ar fi Fondul pentru stabilitate financiar. De asemenea, va facilita deliberrile mai multor organisme formale cum este Comitetul monetar i financiar internaional.

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De ce G-20? ncepnd cu 1986, gruparea minitrilor de finane n G-7 s-a dovedit a fi un forum eficient pentru discuii informale asupra problemelor economice internaionale importante, conducnd la o mai bun nelegere i coordonare printre factorii de decizie politic din rile G-7. Lipsa de reprezentare a pieei emergente n G-7 limiteaz capacitatea acestuia de a trata unele aspecte legate de evoluiile din sistemul economic i financiar internaional. n economia de astzi, o reprezentare mai larg n discuiile politice este foarte important. Aa cum a demonstrat i criza financiar din Asia, pieele financiare din rile n dezvoltare pot fi serios afectate de instabilitatea financiar pe pieele emergente. G-20 va ndeplini nevoia de reprezentare din pieele emergente. Pe 27 aprilie 1999, ministrul Martin a subliniat necesitatea unor mai multe aranjamente instituionale reprezentative. Aceast necesitate a fost analizat n raportul minitrilor de finane din G7 n iunie 1999 la Summitul K&Mac 246 privind Consolidarea Arhitecturii Financiare Internaionale. Pe parcursul urmtorilor doi ani, grupri ad-hoc cunoscute ca G22 i G33 au fost convocate pentru a ajuta la abordarea problemelor specifice legate de criza financiar din Asia, dar nu au fost integrate cu structurile de gurvernare ale FMI sau Bncii Mondiale. G22 s-a ntlnit la Washington n aprilie i octombrie 1998. Scopul G22 a fost de a implica rile non-G7 n rezoluia aspectelor globale ale crizei financiare din Asia. La dou ntlniri ulterioare din martie i aprilie 1999, G22 a discutat probleme legate de reforma economiei mondiale i a sistemului financiar internaional. Sugestiile utile pentru consolidarea securitii economiei globale care proveneau de la procesele G22 i G33 au demonstrat necesitatea unui forum internaional consultativ regulat cu mai muli membri dect n G7. Crearea G20 reprezinta urmatoarea etapa in evolutia unei consultari informale printer tarile industrializate si pietele emergente. G-20 a fost creat mai degrab ca un organ deliberativ dect decizional, dar unul menit s ncurajeze formarea consensului pe probleme internaionale. (Canada 1999). Cu toate acestea, este un organ orientat spre politic, un mandat pentru a promova stabilitatea financiar internaional. Preedintele Martin a sugerat c se va concentra pe transpunerea beneficiilor globalizrii n venituri mai mari i oportuniti mai bune pretutindeni; inclusiv munc cu persoane din ntreaga lume (Beattle 1999). Dei concentrdu-se pe probleme de politic pe termen lung dect imediate, Martin a declarat: Nu exist

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practic niciun aspect major al economiei mondiale sau sistemului financiar internaional care s fie n afara sferei de activitate a grupului. (Beauchesne 1999 ). Comunicarea extern ara care prezideaz n prezent posturile G-20 ofer detalii despre ntlnirile i programul de lucru al grupului pe un site dedicat. Dei participarea la ntlniri este rezervat membrilor, publicul este informat cu privire la ceea ce s-a discutat i convenit imediat dup ce ntlnirea minitrilor i guvernatorilor s-a ncheiat. Dup fiecare ntlnire a minitrilor i guvernatorilor, G-20 public un comunicat care conine acordurile ncheiate i msurile menionate. Materialul despre programul viitor de lucru este, de asemenea, fcut public.

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Surse folosite n redactarea referatului


http://www.g20.org/about_what_is_g20.aspx What is the G-20 The Group of Twenty (G-20) Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was established in 1999 to bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy. The inaugural meeting of the G-20 took place in Berlin, on December 15-16, 1999, hosted by German and Canadian finance ministers. Mandate The G-20 is the premier forum for our international economic development that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability. By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe. Origins The G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Prior to the G-20 creation, similar groupings to promote dialogue and analysis had been established at the initiative of the G-7. The G-22 met at Washington D.C. in April and October 1998. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries. Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the 14

global economy and the international financial system. The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy's susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries. Such a regular dialogue with a constant set of partners was institutionalized by the creation of the G-20 in 1999. Membership The G-20 is made up of the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries: Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Mexico Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa Republic of Korea Turkey United Kingdom United States of America The European Union, who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank, is the 20th member of the G-20. To ensure global economic fora and institutions work together, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development 15

Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings on an ex-officio basis. The G-20 thus brings together important industrial and emerging-market countries from all regions of the world. Together, member countries represent around 90 per cent of global gross national product, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade) as well as two-thirds of the world's population. The G-20's economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system. Achievements The G-20 has progressed a range of issues since 1999, including agreement about policies for growth, reducing abuse of the financial system, dealing with financial crises and combating terrorist financing. The G-20 also aims to foster the adoption of internationally recognized standards through the example set by its members in areas such as the transparency of fiscal policy and combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism. In 2004, G-20 countries committed to new higher standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters. This aims to combat abuses of the financial system and illicit activities including tax evasion. The G-20 has also aimed to develop a common view among members on issues related to further development of the global economic and financial system. To tackle the financial and economic crisis that spread across the globe in 2008, the G20 members were called upon to further strengthen international cooperation. Accordingly, the G20 Summits have been held in Washington in 2008, in London and Pittsburgh in 2009, and in Toronto and Seoul in 2010. The concerted and decisive actions of the G20, with its balanced membership of developed and developing countries helped the world deal effectively with the financial and economic crisis, and the G20 has already delivered a number of significant and concrete outcomes: First, the scope of financial regulation has been largely broadened, and prudential regulation and supervision have been strengthened. There was also great progress in policy coordination thanks to the creation of the framework for a strong, sustainable and balanced growth designed to enhance macroeconomic cooperation among the G20 members and therefore to mitigate the impact of the crisis. Finally, global governance has dramatically improved to better take into consideration the role and the 16

needs of emerging of developing countries, especially through the ambitious reforms of the governance of the IMF and the World Bank.

Chair Unlike international institutions such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), IMF or World Bank, the G-20 (like the G-7) has no permanent staff of its own. The G-20 chair rotates between members, and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries each year. In 2011 the G-20 chair is France. The chair is part of a revolving three-member management Troika of past, present and future chairs. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years. Former G-20 Chairs 1999-2001 Canada 2002 India 2003 Mexico 2004 Germany 2005 China 2006 Australia 2007 South Africa 2008 Brazil 2009 United Kingdom 2010 Republic of Korea Meetings and activities It is normal practice for the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors to meet once a year. The ministers' and governors' meeting is usually preceded by two deputies' meetings and extensive technical work. This technical work takes the form of workshops, reports and case studies on

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specific subjects, that aim to provide ministers and governors with contemporary analysis and insights, to better inform their consideration of policy challenges and options. Interaction with other international organizations The G-20 cooperates closely with various other major international organizations and fora, as the potential to develop common positions on complex issues among G-20 members can add political momentum to decision-making in other bodies. The participation of the President of the World Bank, the Managing Director of the IMF and the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee in the G-20 meetings ensures that the G-20 process is well integrated with the activities of the Bretton Woods Institutions. The G-20 also works with, and encourages, other international groups and organizations, such as the Financial Stability Board and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, in progressing international and domestic economic policy reforms. In addition, experts from private-sector institutions and non-government organisations are invited to G-20 meetings on an ad hoc basis in order to exploit synergies in analyzing selected topics and avoid overlap. External communication The country currently chairing the G-20 posts details of the group's meetings and work program on a dedicated website. Although participation in the meetings is reserved for members, the public is informed about what was discussed and agreed immediately after the meeting of ministers and governors has ended. After each meeting of ministers and governors, the G-20 publishes a communiqu which records the agreements reached and measures outlined. Material on the forward work program is also made public. http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/g20/g20backgrounder.htm Introduction On September 25, 1999, in Washington, D.C., the finance ministers of the Group of Seven (G7) leading industrialized nations announced the creation of the Group of Twenty (G20). This new 18

international forum of finance ministers and central bank governors represents 19 countries, the European Union and the Bretton Woods Institutions (the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank). The creation of the G20 fulfills the commitment by G7 leaders at the June 1999 Summit at Kln "to establish an informal mechanism for dialogue among systemically important countries within the framework of the Bretton Woods institutional system." Mandate of the G20 The G20 will promote discussion, and will study and review policy issues among industrialized countries and emerging markets with a view to promoting international financial stability. G20 Participants Member countries include: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. The Managing Director of the IMF and the President of the World Bank, as well as the Chairpersons of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, will participate fully in the discussions. G20 Chairmanship Finance Minister Paul Martin of Canada has been selected as chairperson of the G20 for its first two years. The first meeting will be chaired by Minister Martin in Berlin in December 1999. Canada will host the second meeting in 2000. Characteristics of the G20

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Through broad participation by industrialized countries and key emerging markets, the G20 will represent a range of viewpoints. Like the G7, but unlike larger international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank and the IMF, the G20 will have no permanent secretariat. The size and structure of the G20 will encourage the informal exchange of views and the formation of consensus on international issues. How the G20 Fits In With Other International Organizations The G20 will complement the activities of other international organizations: The inclusion of the President of the World Bank, the Managing Director of the IMF and the Chairpersons of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee will ensure that the G20 process is well integrated with the activities of these institutions. The G20 will help co-ordinate the activities of other international groups and organizations, such as the Financial Stability Forum. It will also facilitate the deliberations of more formal bodies such as the International Monetary and Financial Committee. The potential for the development of common positions on complex issues among G20 members will expedite decision making in other fora. Why a G20? Since 1986, the G7 finance ministers grouping has proven to be an effective forum for informal and substantive discussion of important international economic issues, leading to greater understanding and co-ordination among policy makers in the G7 countries. The lack of emerging market representation in the G7 limits its ability to deal with some issues related to developments in the international economy and financial system. In todays economy, broader representation in policy discussions is crucial. As the Asian financial crisis has demonstrated, financial markets in developed countries can be seriously affected by financial instability in emerging markets. The G20 will fulfill the need for representation from emerging markets. In his April 27, 1999 remarks to the Interim Committee of the IMF, Minister Martin highlighted the need for more representative institutional arrangements. This need was further reflected in the June 20

1999 Report of G7 Finance Ministers to the K&Mac246;ln Summit on Strengthening the International Financial Architecture. During the last two years, ad hoc groupings known as the G22 and G33 were convened to help address specific issues related to the Asian financial crisis but were not integrated with the governance structures of the IMF or World Bank. The G22 met in Washington in April and October 1998. The purpose of the G22 was to involve non-G7 countries in the resolution of the global aspects of the Asian financial crisis. At two subsequent "outreach" meetings in March and April 1999, the G33 discussed issues related to reform of the global economy and international financial system. The useful suggestions for enhancing global economic security that emanated from the G22 and G33 processes demonstrated the need for a regular international consultative forum with a broader membership than the G7. The creation of the G20 represents the next stage in the evolution of informal consultation among industrialized countries and emerging markets. Administrative Functions of the G20 Like the G7, the G20 will not have a permanent secretariat. Instead, the chair country will provide support. In addition, the G20 will be able to call on the resources of the IMF and World Bank, as well as officials of member countries and outside experts. Meetings of the G20 Meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors will be held every year. Ministers and governors deputies will meet from time to time to prepare for the ministerial meetings. Ministerial meetings of the G20 will include the finance ministers, deputy finance ministers and central bank governors of the member countries. As well, the finance minister of the country holding the Presidency of the European Union and the President of the European Central Bank will participate.

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The Managing Director of the IMF, the President of the World Bank, and the finance ministers of the countries chairing the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank are also included as full members of the group.1 http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/g20/g20whatisit.html The new Group of Twenty (G20) forum of finance ministers and central bank governors was formally created at the September 25, 1999, meeting of the G7 Finance Ministers. It was created "as a new mechanism for informal dialogue in the framework of the Bretton Woods institutional system, to broaden the dialogue on key economic and financial policy issues among systemically significant economies and to promote cooperation to achieve stable and sustainable world growth that benefits all" (G7 1999). To launch the G20 at its first ministerial meeting in Berlin in December 1999, the G7 finance ministers were to invite "counterparts from a number of systemically important countries from regions around the world," as well as representative of the EU, IMF and World Bank. The formal birth of the G20 can be traced to the leaders' G7 Statement at their Cologne Summit on June 18, 1999. There they declared, following passages welcoming the creation of the Financial Stability Forum and the IMF's International Financial and Monetary Committee (IFMC), "the commitment to work together to establish an informal mechanism for dialogue among systemically important countries, within the framework of the Bretton Woods institutional system."[] In the diplomacy designing the new institution, China had pride of place. During this process there was never any serious consideration of excluding China from the group. It was seen to rank above Argentina, Mexico, Korea, Turkey, and as a country that might some day overtake Canada and Italy. While there was much discussion about membership, no one's list excluded China. In contrast, some lists excluded Australia, Korea, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. [] The G20 was created as a deliberative rather than decisional body, but one designed to encourage 'the formation of consensus" on international issues" (Canada 1999). However it was one with a policy focus, a mandate to promote international financial stability. Chair Paul Martin suggested it "will focus on translating the benefits of globalization into higher incomes and better opportunities everywhere," including working people around the world (Beattle 1999). Although concentrating on longer term rather than immediate policy issues, Martin declared: "There is virtually no major aspect of

Textul in rosu semnifica partile din fragment care au fost utilizate in traducere din a doua sursa.

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the global economy or international financial system that will be outside of the group's purview" (Beauchesne 1999).

Bibliografie
1. http://www.g20.org/about_what_is_g20.aspx 2. http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/g20/g20backgrounder.htm 3. http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/g20/g20whatisit.html 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-20

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