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WIRE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING Principle of working :

Electric discharge machining (EDM), sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks).

Diagram:

Working:
In wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), also known as wire-cut EDM and wire cutting, a thin single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed through the workpiece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized water. Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates as thick as 300mm and to make punches, tools, and dies from hard metals that are difficult to machine with other methods. The wire, which is constantly fed from a spool, is held between upper and lower diamond guides. The guides, usually CNC-controlled, move in the xy plane. On most machines, the upper guide can also move independently in the zuv axis, giving rise to the ability to cut tapered and transitioning shapes (circle on the bottom square at the top for example). The upper guide can control axis movements in xyuvijkl. This allows the wire-cut EDM to be programmed to cut very intricate and delicate shapes. The upper and lower diamond guides are usually accurate to 0.004 mm, and can have a cutting path or kerf as small as 0.12 mm using 0.1 mm wire, though the average cutting kerf that achieves the best economic cost and machining time is 0.335 mm using 0.25 brass wire. The reason that the cutting width is greater than the width of the wire is because sparking occurs from the sides of the wire to the work piece, causing erosion. This "overcut" is necessary, for many applications it is adequately predictable and therefore can be compensated for (for instance in micro-EDM this is not often the case). Spools of wire are longan 8 kg spool of 0.25 mm wire is just over 19 kilometers in length. Wire diameter can be as small as 20 micrometres and the geometry precision is not far from +/- 1 micrometre. The wire-cut process uses water as its dielectric fluid, controlling its resistivity and other electrical properties with filters and de-ionizer units. The water flushes the cut debris away from the cutting zone. Flushing is an important factor in determining the maximum feed rate for a given material thickness.

Wire-cutting EDM is commonly used when low residual stresses are desired, because it does not require high cutting forces for removal of material. If the energy/power per pulse is relatively low (as in finishing operations), little change in the mechanical properties of a material is expected due to these low residual stresses, although material that hasn't been stress-relieved can distort in the machining process. The workpiece may undergo a significant thermal cycle, its severity depending on the technological parameters used. Such thermal cycles may cause formation of a recast layer on the part and residual tensile stresses on the workpiece.

Application:
1) Protype production 2) Coinage die making 3) Small hole drilling 4) Metal disintegration machining

Advantages:
1) Complex shapes that would otherwise be difficult to produce with conventional cutting tools 2) Extremely hard material to very close tolerances 3) Very small work pieces where conventional cutting tools may damage the part from excess cutting tool pressure. 4) There is no direct contact between tool and work piece. Therefore delicate sections and weak materials can be machined without any distortion. 5) A good surface finish can be obtained. 6) Very fine holes can be easily drilled.

Disadvantages:
1) The slow rate of material removal. 2) The additional time and cost used for creating electrodes for ram/sinker EDM. 3) Reproducing sharp corners on the workpiece is difficult due to electrode wear. 4) Specific power consumption is very high. 5) Power consumption is high. 6) "Overcut" is formed. 7) Excessive tool wear occurs during machining. 8) Electrically non-conductive materials can be machined only with specific set-up of the process.

Manufacturers:
1) Shri Balaji CNC centre - Tamil nadu. 2) Thrive-cam tooling - Karnataka. 3) Sanki machine tool Pvt. Ltd. - Mumbai. 4) Eagle filteration prod. Pvt. Ltd. - Gujarat. 5) Makino India Pvt.Ltd - Pune. 6) Klassic tools - Karnataka. Ref: http://www.indianyellowpages.com/india/manufacturers/w/wire-edm-machine.htm