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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

10 Properties of Waves
The frequency of the waves is 2 Hz.
Practice 10.1 (p. 48)
1 C Practice 10.2 (p. 69)
2 D 1 B
3 D 2 D
4 D 3 D
5 Wave troughs are shown on the screen as 4 C
dark lines. 5 A
Wave crests are shown on the screen as bright 6
lines.
6 (a) The frequency of the wave is 10 Hz. Wave Wavelength Direction
By v = fλ, speed of travel
v = 10 × 0.02 = 0.2 m s −1
Reflection no no change change
−1
The speed of water waves is 0.2 m s . change completely
(b) The speed of water waves remains at Refraction change change change
0.2 m s−1. completely
By v = fλ, / no
v 0.2
λ= = = 0.01 m (= 1 cm) change (at
f 20

The speed of water waves remains at
incidence)
0.2 m s−1 and the wavelength decreases
Diffraction no no change change
to 1 cm.
change partially
7 (a) There are 5 successive waves over 5 cm.
0.05 Interferenc no no change no change
Wavelength λ = e change
5
= 0.01 m 7 (a) (i)&(ii)
= 1 cm
distance travelled
(b) Speed of waves =
time taken
5
=
2.5
= 2 cm s−1
The speed of the waves is 2 cm s−1.
(c) By v = fλ, (b) Refraction.
v 2
f = = = 2 Hz 8 (a) Path difference of point P
λ 1

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

= YP – XP
= 3.5λ – 2.5λ
= 3.5 × 2 – 2.5 × 2 = 2 cm

Path difference of point Q


= XQ – YQ
= 3.5λ – 3λ
= 3.5 × 2 – 3 × 2
= 1 cm (b) By v = fλ,
The path differences of points P and Q v=2×3
are 2 cm and 1 cm respectively. = 6 cm s−1
(b) Constructive interference happens at The wave speed in the deep region is
point P because its path difference from 6 cm s−1.
the sources is equal to whole number of (c) (i) The speed of the waves in the
the wavelength. shallow region is 3 cm s−1.
Destructive interference happens at (ii) By v = fλ,
point Q because its path difference from v 3
λ = = = 1.5 cm
f 2
the sources is half of the wavelength.
9 (a) By v = fλ, The wavelength of the waves in
v the shallow region is 1.5 cm.
λ=
f 11 (a)
30
= = 2 cm
15
The wavelength of the waves is 2 cm.
(b) Path difference of point A
= QA – PA
= 66 – 60
= 6 cm
= 3λ
Constructive interference will be
observed at point A because its path
difference from the sources is equal to
whole number of the wavelength.
10 (a)

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

barrier.
2 C
3 B
4 B
5 C
6 B
(b) Diffraction causes the wave patterns.

Section B
7 C

(c) 8 D
By v = fλ,
v 0.1
λ= = = 0.02 m = 2 cm
f 5
Path difference of point P
= 6 – 4 = 2 cm = λ
Constructive interference occurs at point P
because its path difference from the sources
is equal to whole number of the wavelength.
9 B
10 (HKCEE 2001 Paper II Q26)
11 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q23)
12 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q25)
13 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q36)

Conventional (p. 76)


Section A
1 (a)

Revision exercise 10
Multiple-choice (p. 74)
Section A
1 D
Diffraction occurs on the left-hand side of the

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

(Shorter wavelength.) (1A)


(No change in amplitude.) (1A)
(b) Refraction is responsible for the change
in (a). (1A)
(c) The sloped edge of the ripple tank can
reduce reflection of waves. (1A)
(d) Using spongy edge can also achieve the
purpose mentioned in (c). (1A)
(Waves diffracted into the bay.) (1A) 0.2
4 (a) λ =
(Constant wavelength.) (1A) 5

(b) No, I do not agree with the company. = 0.04 m (1A)

(1A) The wavelength of the water waves in

It is because ocean waves diffract into region A is 0.04 m.


By v = fλ, (1M)
the bay, so that the water in the bay may
v = 5 × 0.04
not be calm enough for the sports. (1A)
= 0.2 m s−1 (1A)
2 (a) Since water waves can turn around the
corner of the first breakwater, (1A) The speed of the water waves in region
A is 0.2 m s−1.
the second breakwater is needed to
avoid the diffracted wave from (b) (i) Region B is deeper. (1A)

travelling further into the typhoon (ii) The frequency is unchanged

shelter. (1A) = 5 Hz (1A)

(b) I do not agree with him. (1A) The speed of the water waves in

It is because if breakwaters are built as region B


5
in Figure c, water waves would diffract = × 0. 2
4
through the opening and travel into the
= 0.25 m s−1 (1A)
typhoon shelter. (1A)
By v = fλ, (1M)
3 (a) v 0.25
λ= = = 0.05 m (1A)
f 5
In region B, the frequency, the
speed and the wavelength of the
waves are 5 Hz, 0.25 m s−1 and

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

0.05 m respectively. 1 1 1
must be equal to λ, 1 λ, 2 λ and
2 2 2
(c)
so on.
1
λ=2 (1M)
2
λ = 4 cm (1A)
The largest possible wavelength of the
waves is 4 cm if destructive interference
occurs at P.
(c) Path difference of point Q
= AQ – BQ
= 22 – 21
= 1 cm (1A)
If constructive interference occurs at
both P and Q, their path differences
(Correct wave direction.) (1A)
from the sources must be equal to whole
(Longer wavelength.) (1A)
number of the wavelength. Therefore,
(d) We can put a sheet of perspex in the
the largest possible wavelength λ is
ripple tank. The water above the perspex
equal to 1 cm, i.e. path difference of
is shallower than elsewhere. (1A)
point Q = λ,
path difference of point P = 2λ. (1A)

Section B
6 (a) (i)&(ii)
5 (a) Path difference of point P
= AP – BP
= 23 – 21
= 2 cm (1A)
If constructive interference occurs at P,
its path difference from the sources
must be equal to whole number of the
wavelength. Therefore, the largest
possible wavelength λ is equal to 2 cm.
(1A) (Correct interference pattern.) (1A)
(b) If destructive interference occurs at P, (Correct antinodal lines.) (1A)
its path difference from the two sources (Correct labelling of P.) (1A)

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

Constructive interference occurs at P.


(1A)
(b) If the motor vibrates faster, the
wavelength of the waves decreases and
hence (1A)
the antinodal lines will be closer
together. (1A)
(c) She can increase the separation between
(Correct interference pattern.) (1A)
the dippers. (1A)
(c) The student cannot obtain a clear
7 (a) The amplitude of the wave is 1 cm.(1A)
interference pattern. (1A)
From Figure j, the period of the wave is
It is because the circular waves do not
0.5 s.
1 come from coherent sources. (1A)
By f = ,
T 8 (a) The boat oscillates up and down. (1A)
1 (b) When waves approach the shore, both
f= = 2 Hz (1A)
0.5 of their wave speed (1A)
The frequency of the wave is 2 Hz. and wavelength decrease. (1A)
Speed of the wave (c) (i) A tsunami is a transverse wave.
distance travelled
= (1A)
time taken
It is because the moving direction
32
= = 8 cm s–1 (1A) of water molecules (vertical) is
4
The speed of the wave is 8 cm s . −1 perpendicular to the direction of
By v = fλ, travel of the tsunami (horizontal).
8 (1A)
λ = = 4 cm (1A)
2 (ii) Frequency f
The wavelength of the wave is 4 cm. 1
=
(b) Add a barrier with 2 gaps in the ripple T
1
tank, so that straight water waves pass =
8 × 60
through the gaps to form circular waves. 1
= Hz
(1A) 480

By v = fλ, (1M)
1
v= × 100 × 103
480
= 208 m s–1 (1A)

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

The speed of the tsunami is


208 m s–1.
(iii) The depth of seabed in the ocean
varies from place to place. (1A)
Therefore, refraction occurs and
the wavefront bends. (1A)
(iv) The student’s statement is
incorrect. (1A)
The earthquake did not produce (Correct wavelength.) (2A)
water waves. Instead, a large (Constant separation between
amount of energy was released wave crests.) (1A)
during earthquake. (1A) (c) (i) Constructive interference takes
This resulted in formation of place at the point labelled F. (1A)
tsunami which carried the large (ii) Since the amplitude of the wave
amount of energy from the centre coming from a gap cancels that
of earthquake to the shore and coming from another gap, (1A)
caused serious damage. (1A) the amplitude of the wave at G is
(For effective communication.) always zero and there is no energy
(1A) at that point. (1A)
9 (HKCEE 2001 Paper I Q4) (iii)
10 (HKCEE 2004 Paper I Q5)
11 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q5)
12 (a) After reflection, the reflected waves
move away from the barrier at 45° from
the normal, and (1A)
they interfere with the incident waves.
(1A)
If the waves coming from the gaps
(b) (i) From Figure t, there are 4 waves
meet, a resultant wave of large
over 1.4 cm and the scale used by
amplitude is produced at positions
the figure is 1 : 25. (1A)
where the waves are in phase
Wavelength of the wave
1.4 (constructive interference) and no
= × 25
4 wave is produced at positions
= 8.75 cm (1A) where the waves are out of phase
(ii) (destructive interference). (1A)

i.e., for a point A, constructive

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C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

interference occurs when


|S1A − S2A| = 0, λ, 2λ, etc. and
destructive interference occurs
1 3 5
when |S1A − S2A| = λ, λ, λ,
2 2 2
etc. (1A)
At F and H, since |S1F − S2F| = 0
and |S1H − S2H| = λ, constructive
interference occurs and big crests
and troughs pass through them.
Similarly, constructive interference
occurs along PQ and TU and
forms the wave pattern as shown
in the figure. (1A)
1
At G, since |S1G − S2G| = λ,
2
destructive interference occurs, no
wave is produced and calm water
is found. Similarly, destructive
interference occurs along RS. (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 81)


(a) The minimum size that ordinary optical
microscopes can resolve is about 200 nm (or
half of the wavelength). (1A)
(b) Diffraction causes the limitation in (a). (1A)
(c) Light diffracts around the edges of objects of
size comparable (1A)
to the wavelength, fine details close to the
wavelength look blurred. (1A)
(d) The microscopes that magnify with X-rays
have a higher resolving power. (1A)
This is because X-rays have a much shorter
wavelength which brings a lower diffraction
limit. (1A)

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