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10 Properties of Waves

The frequency of the waves is 2 Hz.

Practice 10.1 (p. 48)

1 C Practice 10.2 (p. 69)

2 D 1 B

3 D 2 D

4 D 3 D

5 Wave troughs are shown on the screen as 4 C

dark lines. 5 A

Wave crests are shown on the screen as bright 6

lines.

6 (a) The frequency of the wave is 10 Hz. Wave Wavelength Direction

By v = fλ, speed of travel

v = 10 × 0.02 = 0.2 m s −1

Reflection no no change change

−1

The speed of water waves is 0.2 m s . change completely

(b) The speed of water waves remains at Refraction change change change

0.2 m s−1. completely

By v = fλ, / no

v 0.2

λ= = = 0.01 m (= 1 cm) change (at

f 20

0°

The speed of water waves remains at

incidence)

0.2 m s−1 and the wavelength decreases

Diffraction no no change change

to 1 cm.

change partially

7 (a) There are 5 successive waves over 5 cm.

0.05 Interferenc no no change no change

Wavelength λ = e change

5

= 0.01 m 7 (a) (i)&(ii)

= 1 cm

distance travelled

(b) Speed of waves =

time taken

5

=

2.5

= 2 cm s−1

The speed of the waves is 2 cm s−1.

(c) By v = fλ, (b) Refraction.

v 2

f = = = 2 Hz 8 (a) Path difference of point P

λ 1

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

= YP – XP

= 3.5λ – 2.5λ

= 3.5 × 2 – 2.5 × 2 = 2 cm

= XQ – YQ

= 3.5λ – 3λ

= 3.5 × 2 – 3 × 2

= 1 cm (b) By v = fλ,

The path differences of points P and Q v=2×3

are 2 cm and 1 cm respectively. = 6 cm s−1

(b) Constructive interference happens at The wave speed in the deep region is

point P because its path difference from 6 cm s−1.

the sources is equal to whole number of (c) (i) The speed of the waves in the

the wavelength. shallow region is 3 cm s−1.

Destructive interference happens at (ii) By v = fλ,

point Q because its path difference from v 3

λ = = = 1.5 cm

f 2

the sources is half of the wavelength.

9 (a) By v = fλ, The wavelength of the waves in

v the shallow region is 1.5 cm.

λ=

f 11 (a)

30

= = 2 cm

15

The wavelength of the waves is 2 cm.

(b) Path difference of point A

= QA – PA

= 66 – 60

= 6 cm

= 3λ

Constructive interference will be

observed at point A because its path

difference from the sources is equal to

whole number of the wavelength.

10 (a)

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

barrier.

2 C

3 B

4 B

5 C

6 B

(b) Diffraction causes the wave patterns.

Section B

7 C

(c) 8 D

By v = fλ,

v 0.1

λ= = = 0.02 m = 2 cm

f 5

Path difference of point P

= 6 – 4 = 2 cm = λ

Constructive interference occurs at point P

because its path difference from the sources

is equal to whole number of the wavelength.

9 B

10 (HKCEE 2001 Paper II Q26)

11 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q23)

12 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q25)

13 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q36)

Section A

1 (a)

Revision exercise 10

Multiple-choice (p. 74)

Section A

1 D

Diffraction occurs on the left-hand side of the

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 100 Oxford University Press 2006

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

(No change in amplitude.) (1A)

(b) Refraction is responsible for the change

in (a). (1A)

(c) The sloped edge of the ripple tank can

reduce reflection of waves. (1A)

(d) Using spongy edge can also achieve the

purpose mentioned in (c). (1A)

(Waves diffracted into the bay.) (1A) 0.2

4 (a) λ =

(Constant wavelength.) (1A) 5

By v = fλ, (1M)

the bay, so that the water in the bay may

v = 5 × 0.04

not be calm enough for the sports. (1A)

= 0.2 m s−1 (1A)

2 (a) Since water waves can turn around the

corner of the first breakwater, (1A) The speed of the water waves in region

A is 0.2 m s−1.

the second breakwater is needed to

avoid the diffracted wave from (b) (i) Region B is deeper. (1A)

(b) I do not agree with him. (1A) The speed of the water waves in

5

in Figure c, water waves would diffract = × 0. 2

4

through the opening and travel into the

= 0.25 m s−1 (1A)

typhoon shelter. (1A)

By v = fλ, (1M)

3 (a) v 0.25

λ= = = 0.05 m (1A)

f 5

In region B, the frequency, the

speed and the wavelength of the

waves are 5 Hz, 0.25 m s−1 and

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 101 Oxford University Press 2006

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

0.05 m respectively. 1 1 1

must be equal to λ, 1 λ, 2 λ and

2 2 2

(c)

so on.

1

λ=2 (1M)

2

λ = 4 cm (1A)

The largest possible wavelength of the

waves is 4 cm if destructive interference

occurs at P.

(c) Path difference of point Q

= AQ – BQ

= 22 – 21

= 1 cm (1A)

If constructive interference occurs at

both P and Q, their path differences

(Correct wave direction.) (1A)

from the sources must be equal to whole

(Longer wavelength.) (1A)

number of the wavelength. Therefore,

(d) We can put a sheet of perspex in the

the largest possible wavelength λ is

ripple tank. The water above the perspex

equal to 1 cm, i.e. path difference of

is shallower than elsewhere. (1A)

point Q = λ,

path difference of point P = 2λ. (1A)

Section B

6 (a) (i)&(ii)

5 (a) Path difference of point P

= AP – BP

= 23 – 21

= 2 cm (1A)

If constructive interference occurs at P,

its path difference from the sources

must be equal to whole number of the

wavelength. Therefore, the largest

possible wavelength λ is equal to 2 cm.

(1A) (Correct interference pattern.) (1A)

(b) If destructive interference occurs at P, (Correct antinodal lines.) (1A)

its path difference from the two sources (Correct labelling of P.) (1A)

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 102 Oxford University Press 2006

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

(1A)

(b) If the motor vibrates faster, the

wavelength of the waves decreases and

hence (1A)

the antinodal lines will be closer

together. (1A)

(c) She can increase the separation between

(Correct interference pattern.) (1A)

the dippers. (1A)

(c) The student cannot obtain a clear

7 (a) The amplitude of the wave is 1 cm.(1A)

interference pattern. (1A)

From Figure j, the period of the wave is

It is because the circular waves do not

0.5 s.

1 come from coherent sources. (1A)

By f = ,

T 8 (a) The boat oscillates up and down. (1A)

1 (b) When waves approach the shore, both

f= = 2 Hz (1A)

0.5 of their wave speed (1A)

The frequency of the wave is 2 Hz. and wavelength decrease. (1A)

Speed of the wave (c) (i) A tsunami is a transverse wave.

distance travelled

= (1A)

time taken

It is because the moving direction

32

= = 8 cm s–1 (1A) of water molecules (vertical) is

4

The speed of the wave is 8 cm s . −1 perpendicular to the direction of

By v = fλ, travel of the tsunami (horizontal).

8 (1A)

λ = = 4 cm (1A)

2 (ii) Frequency f

The wavelength of the wave is 4 cm. 1

=

(b) Add a barrier with 2 gaps in the ripple T

1

tank, so that straight water waves pass =

8 × 60

through the gaps to form circular waves. 1

= Hz

(1A) 480

By v = fλ, (1M)

1

v= × 100 × 103

480

= 208 m s–1 (1A)

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 103 Oxford University Press 2006

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

208 m s–1.

(iii) The depth of seabed in the ocean

varies from place to place. (1A)

Therefore, refraction occurs and

the wavefront bends. (1A)

(iv) The student’s statement is

incorrect. (1A)

The earthquake did not produce (Correct wavelength.) (2A)

water waves. Instead, a large (Constant separation between

amount of energy was released wave crests.) (1A)

during earthquake. (1A) (c) (i) Constructive interference takes

This resulted in formation of place at the point labelled F. (1A)

tsunami which carried the large (ii) Since the amplitude of the wave

amount of energy from the centre coming from a gap cancels that

of earthquake to the shore and coming from another gap, (1A)

caused serious damage. (1A) the amplitude of the wave at G is

(For effective communication.) always zero and there is no energy

(1A) at that point. (1A)

9 (HKCEE 2001 Paper I Q4) (iii)

10 (HKCEE 2004 Paper I Q5)

11 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q5)

12 (a) After reflection, the reflected waves

move away from the barrier at 45° from

the normal, and (1A)

they interfere with the incident waves.

(1A)

If the waves coming from the gaps

(b) (i) From Figure t, there are 4 waves

meet, a resultant wave of large

over 1.4 cm and the scale used by

amplitude is produced at positions

the figure is 1 : 25. (1A)

where the waves are in phase

Wavelength of the wave

1.4 (constructive interference) and no

= × 25

4 wave is produced at positions

= 8.75 cm (1A) where the waves are out of phase

(ii) (destructive interference). (1A)

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 104 Oxford University Press 2006

C Waves Chapter 10 Properties of Waves

|S1A − S2A| = 0, λ, 2λ, etc. and

destructive interference occurs

1 3 5

when |S1A − S2A| = λ, λ, λ,

2 2 2

etc. (1A)

At F and H, since |S1F − S2F| = 0

and |S1H − S2H| = λ, constructive

interference occurs and big crests

and troughs pass through them.

Similarly, constructive interference

occurs along PQ and TU and

forms the wave pattern as shown

in the figure. (1A)

1

At G, since |S1G − S2G| = λ,

2

destructive interference occurs, no

wave is produced and calm water

is found. Similarly, destructive

interference occurs along RS. (1A)

(a) The minimum size that ordinary optical

microscopes can resolve is about 200 nm (or

half of the wavelength). (1A)

(b) Diffraction causes the limitation in (a). (1A)

(c) Light diffracts around the edges of objects of

size comparable (1A)

to the wavelength, fine details close to the

wavelength look blurred. (1A)

(d) The microscopes that magnify with X-rays

have a higher resolving power. (1A)

This is because X-rays have a much shorter

wavelength which brings a lower diffraction

limit. (1A)

New Physics at Work (Second Edition) 105 Oxford University Press 2006

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