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Amazing Earth Facts

We live on a sphere of extremes and oddities. In fact it's not really a sphere, but it is a wild planet, mottled with deadly volcanoes, rattled by killer earthquakes, drenched in disastrous deluges. But do you know which were the worst? Some of Earth's valleys dip below sea level. Mountains soar into thin air. Can you name the lowest spot? The tallest peak? Do you know how far it is to the center of the planet or what's there? Where are the planet's hottest, coldest, driest and windiest places? The following list of Earth's extremes and other amazing facts is presented in Q&A format, so you can cover the answers to test your knowledge of the home planet. Sources include the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, with other reporting. 1. What is the hottest place on Earth? Count one wrong if you guessed Death Valley in California. True enough on many days. But El Azizia in Libya recorded a temperature of 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) on Sept. 13, 1922 -- the hottest ever measured. In Death Valley, it got up to 134 Fahrenheit on July 10, 1913. 2. And the coldest place around here? Far and away, the coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -129 Fahrenheit (-89 Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica, on July 21, 1983. 3. What makes thunder?

If you thought, "Lightning!" then hats off to you. But I had a more illuminating answer in mind. The air around a lightning bolt is superheated to about five times the temperature of the Sun. This sudden heating causes the air to expand faster than the speed of sound, which compresses the air and forms a shock wave; we hear it as thunder. 4. Can rocks float? In a volcanic eruption, the violent separation of gas from lava produces a "frothy" rock called pumice, loaded with gas bubbles. Some of it can float, geologists say. I've never seen this happen, and I'm thankful for that. 5. Can rocks grow? Yes, but observing the process is less interesting than watching paint dry. Rocks called ironmanganese crusts grow on mountains under the sea. The crusts precipitate material slowly from seawater, growing about 1 millimeter every million years. Your fingernails grow about the same amount every two weeks. 6. How much space dust falls to Earth each year?

Estimates vary, but the USGS says at least 1,000 million grams, or roughly 1,000 tons of material enters the atmosphere every year and makes its way to Earths surface. One group of scientists claims microbes rain down from space, too, and that extraterrestrial organisms are responsible for flu epidemics . There's been no proof of this, and I'm not holding my breath. 7. How far does regular dust blow in the wind? A 1999 study showed that African dust finds its way to Florida and can help push parts of the state over the prescribed air quality limit for particulate matter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The dust is kicked up by high winds in North Africa and carried as high as 20,000 feet (6,100 meters), where it's caught up in the trade winds and carried across the sea. Dust from China makes its way to North America, too. 8. Where is the worlds highest waterfall? The water of Angel Falls in Venezuela drops 3,212 feet (979 meters). 9. What two great American cities are destined to merge? The San Andreas fault, which runs north-south, is slipping at a rate of about 2 inches (5 centimeters) per year, causing Los Angeles to move towards San Francisco. Scientists forecast LA will be a suburb of the City by the Bay in about 15 million years. 10. Is Earth a sphere? Because the planet rotates and is more flexible than you might imagine, it bulges at the midsection, creating a sort of pumpkin shape. The bulge was lessening for centuries but now, suddenly, it is growing, a recent study showed. Accelerated melting of Earth's glaciers is taking the blame for the gain in equatorial girth. 11. What would a 100-pound person weigh on Mars? The gravity on Mars is 38 percent of that found on Earth at sea level. So a 100-pound person on Earth would weigh 38 pounds on Mars. Based on NASA's present plans, it'll be decades before this assumption can be observationally proved, however. 12. How long is a Martian year? It's a year long, if you're from Mars. To an earthling, it's nearly twice as long. The red planet takes 687 Earth-days to go around the Sun -- compared to 365 days for Earth. Taking into account Mars' different rotational time (see #13 below) calendars on Mars would be about 670 days long with some leap days needed to keep things square. If you find one, please mail it to me. I'm curious how they worked out the months, given they have two moons. [The initial publication of this fact mistakenly said a Mars calendar would have 687 days.] 13. How long is the average Martian day? A Martian can sleep (or work) and extra half-hour every day compared to you. Mars days are 24 hours and 37 minutes long, compared to 23 hours, 56 minutes on Earth. A day on any planet in our solar system is determined by how long it takes the world to spin once on its axis, making the Sun appear to rise in the morning and sending it down in the evening. 14. What is the largest volcano? The Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii holds the title here on Earth. It rises more than 50,000 feet (9.5 miles or 15.2 kilometers) above its base, which sits under the surface of the sea. But that's all volcanic chump change. Olympus Mons on Mars rises 16 miles (26 kilometers) into the Martian sky. Its base would almost cover the entire state of Arizona.

Planet building 15. What was the deadliest known earthquake? The world's deadliest recorded earthquake occurred in 1557 in central China. It struck a region where most people lived in caves carved from soft rock. The dwellings collapsed, killing an estimated 830,000 people. In 1976 another deadly temblor struck Tangshan, China. More than 250,000 people were killed. 16. What was the strongest earthquake in recent times? A 1960 Chilean earthquake, which occurred off the coast, had a magnitude of 9.6 and broke a fault more than 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) long. An earthquake like that under a major city would challenge the best construction techniques. 17. Which earthquake was more catastrophic: Kobe, Japan or Northridge, California? The 1994 Northridge earthquake had a magnitude of 6.7 was responsible for approximately 60 deaths, 9,000 injuries, and more than $40 billion in damage. The Kobe earthquake of 1995 was magnitude 6.8 and killed 5,530 people. There were some 37,000 injuries and more than $100 billion in economic loss. 18. How far is it to the center of the Earth? The distance from the surface of Earth to the center is about 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers). Much of Earth is fluid. The mostly solid skin of the planet is only 41 miles (66 kilometers) thick -thinner than the skin of an apple, relatively speaking. 19. What is the highest mountain? Climbers who brave Mt. Everest in the Nepal-Tibet section of the Himalayas reach 29,035 feet (nearly 9 kilometers) above sea level. Its height was revised upward by 7 feet based on measurements made in 1999 using the satellite-based Global Positioning System. 20. Has the Moon always been so close? It used to be much closer! A billion years ago, the Moon was in a tighter orbit, taking just 20 days to go around us and make a month. A day on Earth back then was only 18 hours long. The Moon is still moving away -- about 1.6 inches (4 centimeters) a year. Meanwhile, Earth's rotation is slowing down, lengthening our days. In the distant future, a day will be 960 hours long! [ Find out why] 21. Where is the lowest dry point on Earth? The shore of the Dead Sea in the Middle East is about 1,300 feet (400 meters) below sea level. Not even a close second is Bad Water in Death Valley, California, at a mere 282 feet below sea level. 22. Good thing California isn't sinking further, right? Actually parts of it are, which is so interesting that I snuck this non-question onto the list. In a problem repeated elsewhere in the country, the pumping of natural underground water reservoirs in California is causing the ground to sink up to 4 inches (11 centimeters) per year in places. Water and sewage systems may soon be threatened. 23. What is the longest river? The Nile River in Africa is 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) long. 24. What is the most earthquake-prone state in the United States?

Alaska experiences a magnitude 7 earthquake almost every year, and a magnitude 8 or greater earthquake on average every 14 years. Florida and North Dakota get the fewest earthquakes in the states, even fewer than New York . 25. What's the driest place on Earth? A place called Arica, in Chile, gets just 0.03 inches (0.76 millimeters) of rain per year. At that rate, it would take a century to fill a coffee cup. 26. What causes a landslide? Intense rainfall over a short period of time can trigger shallow, fast-moving mud and debris flows. Slow, steady rainfall over a long period of time may trigger deeper, slow-moving landslides. Different materials behave differently, too. Every year as much as $2 billion in landslide damage occurs in the United States. In a record-breaking storm in the San Francisco area in January 1982, some 18,000 debris flows were triggered during a single night! Property damage was over $66 million, and 25 people died.

27. How fast can mud flow? Debris flows are like mud avalanches that can move at speeds in excess of 100 mph (160 kph). 28. Do things inside Earth flow? You bet. In fact, scientists found in 1999 that molten material in and around Earth's core moves in vortices, swirling pockets whose dynamics are similar to tornadoes and hurricanes. And as you'll learn later in this list, the planet's core moves in other strange ways, too. 29. What is the wettest place on Earth? Lloro, Colombia averages 523.6 inches of rainfall a year, or more than 40 feet (13 meters). That's about 10 times more than fairly wet major cities in Europe or the United States. 30. Does Earth go through phases, like the Moon? From Mars, Earth would be seen to go through distinct phases (just as we see Venus change phases). Earth is inside the orbit of Mars, and as the two planets travel around the Sun, sunlight would strike our home planet from different angles during the year. Earth phases can be seen in recent photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor and the European Mars Express 31. What is the largest canyon? The Grand Canyon is billed as the world's largest canyon system. Its main branch is 277 miles (446 kilometers) long. But let's compare. Valles Marineris on Mars extends for about 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers). If added it to a U.S. map, it would stretch from New York City to Los Angeles. In places this vast scar on the Martian surface is 5 miles (8 kilometers) deep. 32. What is the deepest canyon in the United States? Over the eons, the Snake River dug Hell's Canyon along the Oregon-Idaho border. It is more than 8,000 feet (2.4 kilometers) deep. In contrast, the Grand Canyon is less than 6,000 feet deep -- a bit more than a mile. 33. Is Earth the largest rocky planet in the solar system? Just barely! Earth's diameter at the equator is 7,926 miles (12,756 kilometers). Venus is 7,521 miles (12,104 kilometers) wide. Mercury and Mars, the other two inner rocky planets, are much smaller. Pluto is rocky, too, but it's comparatively tiny (and some say it is not a planet at all). 34. How many of Earth's volcanoes are known to have erupted in historic time? About 540 volcanoes on land are known. No one knows how many undersea volcanoes have erupted through history.

35. Is air mostly oxygen? Earth's atmosphere is actually about 80 percent nitrogen. Most of the rest is oxygen, with tiny amounts of other stuff thrown in. Venus is almost as big as Earth. Despite sweltering heat at the surface, its clouds might support life, some scientists say. 36. What is the highest waterfall in the United States? Yosemite Falls in California is 2,425 feet (739 meters). 37. What percentage of the world's water is in the oceans? About 97 percent. Oceans make up about two-thirds of Earth's surface, which means that when the next asteroid hits the planet, odds are good it will splash down. 38. Which two landmasses contain the vast majority of the Earth's fresh water supply? Nearly 70 percent of the Earth's fresh-water supply is locked up in the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland. The remaining fresh-water supply exists in the atmosphere, streams, lakes, or groundwater and accounts for a mere 1 percent of the Earth's total. 39. Which of the Earth's oceans is the largest? The Pacific Ocean covers 64 million square miles (165 million square kilometers). It is more than two times the size of the Atlantic. It has an average depth of 2.4 miles (3.9 kilometers). 40. Why is Earth mostly crater-free compared to the pockmarked Moon? Earth is more active, in terms of both geology and weather. Much of our planet's geologic history was long ago folded back inside. Some of that is regurgitated by volcanoes, but the results are pretty hard to study. Even more recent events evident on the surface -- craters that can by millions of years old -- get overgrown by vegetation, weathered by wind and rain, and modified by earthquakes and landslides. The Moon, meanwhile, is geologically quiet and has almost no weather; its craters tell a billions-year-long tale of catastrophic collisions. Interestingly, some of the oldest Earth rocks might be awaiting discovery on the Moon, having been blasted there billions of years ago by the very asteroid impacts that rattle both worlds. 41. How much surface area does Earth contain? There are 196,950,711 square miles (510,100,000 square kilometers). 42. What is the largest lake in the world? By size and volume it is the Caspian Sea, located between southeast Europe and west Asia. 43. Where do most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur on Earth? The majority occur along boundaries of the dozen or so major plates that more or less float on the surface of Earth. One of the most active plate boundaries where earthquakes and eruptions are frequent, for example, is around the massive Pacific Plate commonly referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It fuels shaking and baking from Japan to Alaska to South America. 44. How hot are the planet's innards?

The temperature of Earth increases about 36 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius) for every kilometer (about 0.62 miles) you go down. Near the center, its thought to be at least 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit (3,870 Celsius). 45. What three countries have the greatest number of historically active volcanoes? The top three countries are Indonesia, Japan, and the United States in descending order of activity.

46. How many people worldwide are at risk from volcanoes? As of the year 2000, USGS scientists estimated that volcanoes posed a tangible risk to at least 500 million people. This is comparable to the entire population of the world at the beginning of the seventeenth century! 47. Which of the following sources stores the greatest volume of fresh water worldwide: lakes, streams or ground water? Groundwater comprises a 30 times greater volume than all freshwater lakes, and more than 3,000 times what's in the world's streams and rivers at any given time. Groundwater is housed in natural underground aquifers, in which the water typically runs around and through the stone and other material. 48. Which earthquake was larger, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1964 Anchorage, Alaska, temblor? The Anchorage earthquake had a magnitude of 9.2, whereas the San Francisco earthquake was a magnitude 7.8. This difference in magnitude equates to 125 times more energy being released in the 1964 quake and accounts for why the Anchorage earthquake was felt over an area of almost 500,000 square miles (1,295,000 square kilometers). 49. Which earthquake was more destructive in terms of loss of life and relative damage costs, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1964 Anchorage earthquake? The 1906 San Francisco earthquake tops this category. It was responsible for 700 deaths versus 114 from the Anchorage earthquake. Property damage in San Francisco was also greater in relative terms due to the destructive fires that destroyed mostly wooden structures of the time. 50. Is Earth's core solid? The inner portion of the core is thought to be solid. But the outer portion of the core appears molten. We've never been there though, so scientists aren't sure of the exact composition. A radical Hollywood-like idea was recently put forth to blow a crack in the planet and send a probe down there to learn more. An interesting bit of recent evidence shows Mars' core may be similarly squishy. Scientists figured this out by studying tides on Mars ( tides on Mars? ). 51. Does all of Earth spin at the same rate? The solid inner core -- a mass of iron comparable to the size of the Moon -- spins faster than the outer portion of the iron core, which is liquid. A study in 1996 showed that over the previous century, the extra speed caused the inner core to gain a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole. So the inner core makes a complete revolution with respect to the rest of Earth in about 400 years. Immense pressure keeps it solid. 52. How many people have been killed by volcanoes during the last 500 years? At least 300,000. Between 1980 and 1990, volcanic activity killed at least 26,000 people. 53. How much of the Earth's surface consists of volcanic rock? Scientists estimate that more than three-quarters of Earth's surface is of volcanic origin-- that is, rocks either erupted by volcanoes or molten rock that cooled below ground and has subsequently been exposed at the surface. Most of Earth's volcanic rocks are found on the sea floor. 54. Can an earthquake cause a tsunami? If the earthquake originates under the ocean, yes. Near the earthquake's epicenter, the sea floor rises and falls, pushing all the water above it up and down. This motion produces a wave that travels outward in all directions. A tsunami can be massive but remain relatively low in height in deep water. Upon nearing the shore, it is forced up and can reach the height of tall buildings. One in 1964 was triggered in Alaska and swamped the small northern California town of Crescent

City, moving train cars several blocks and killing several people there. Asteroids can cause tsunami , too. 55. Are all tsunamis high waves when they strike a coastline?

Asteroid-generated tsunami No, contrary to many artistic images of tsunamis, most do not result in giant breaking waves. Rather, most tsunamis come onshore more like very strong and fast tides. The water can rise higher than anyone along a given shore area has ever seen, however . [Model of an East Coast tsunami ] 56. How much of the Earth's land surface is desert? About one-third. 57. What's the deepest place in the ocean? The greatest known depth is 36,198 feet (6.9 miles or 11 kilometers) at the Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean well south of Japan near the Mariana Islands. 58. What is the fastest surface wind ever recorded? The fastest "regular" wind that's widely agreed upon was 231 mph (372 kph), recorded at Mount Washington, New Hampshire, on April 12, 1934. But during a May 1999 tornado in Oklahoma, researchers clocked the wind at 318 mph (513 kph). For comparison, Neptune's winds can rage to 900 mph (1,448 kph). 59. How much fresh water is stored in the Earth? More than two million cubic miles of fresh water is stored in the planet, nearly half of it within a half-mile of the surface. Mars, too, appears to have a lot of water near its surface, but what's been detected so far is locked up as ice; nobody has estimated how much might be there. 60. How old is Earth? Our planet is more than 4.5 billion years old, just a shade younger than the Sun. Recent evidence actually shows that Earth was formed much earlier than previously believed, just 10 million years after the birth of the Sun, a stellar event typically put at 4.6 billion years ago. 61. What is the world's largest desert? The Sahara Desert in northern Africa is more than 23 times the size of southern California's Mojave Desert. [Several readers have e-mailed to suggest that arid Antarctica technically tops this category; true, some researchers put it there, but most lists of deserts don't include it.] 62. Which planet has more moons, Earth or Mars? Mars has two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The Earth has only one natural satellite, but it's the Moon. The outer planets have lots of Moon, most of them found fairly recently and leading to the possibility that scientists might one day need to redefine what it means to be a moon. 63. What is the world's deepest lake? Lake Baikal in the south central part of Siberia is 5,712 feet (1.7 kilometers) deep. It's about 20 million years old and contains 20 percent of Earth's fresh liquid water. 64. What is the origin of the word "volcano"? It derives from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire. 65. How many minerals are known to exist? There are roughly 4,000 known minerals, although only about 200 are of major importance. Approximately 50-100 new minerals are described each year. 66. What is the total water supply of the world?

The total water supply of the world is 326 million cubic miles (1 cubic mile of water equals more than 1 trillion gallons). 67. What is the world's largest island? Greenland covers 840,000 square miles (2,176,000 square kilometers). Continents are typically defined as landmasses made of low-density rock that essentially floats on the molten material below. Greenland fits this description, but it's only about one-third the size of Australia. Some scientists call Greenland an island, others say it's a continent.

Moon making 68. Where are most of Earth's volcanoes? The most prominent topographic feature on Earth is the immense volcanic mountain chain that encircles the planet beneath the sea -- the chain is more than 30,000 miles (48,000 kilometers) long and rises an average of 18,000 feet ( 5.5 kilometers) above the seafloor. It is called the midocean ridge and is where Earth's plates spread apart as new crust bubbles up -- volcanic activity. There are more volcanoes here than on land. The spreading, however, leads to scrunching when these plates slam into the continents. The result: More volcanoes and earthquakes in places like California and Japan. 69. What volcano killed the most people? The eruption of Tambora volcano in Indonesia in 1815 is estimated to have killed 90,000 people. Most died from starvation after the eruption, though, because of widespread crop destruction, and from water contamination and disease. 70. Were Earth and the Moon separated at birth? Not quite. But leading theory holds that our favorite satellite was carved partly from Earth shortly after the Earth formed. A Mars-sized object slammed into our fledgling planet. The impactor was destroyed. Stuff flew everywhere and a lot of it went into orbit around Earth. The Moon gathered itself together out of the largely vaporized remains of the collision, while Earth hung in there pretty much intact. 71. How many lightning strikes occur worldwide every second? On average, about 100. Those are just the ones that hit the ground, though. During any given minute, there are more than a thousand thunderstorms around the Earth causing some 6,000 flashes of lightning. A lot of it goes from cloud-to-cloud. 72. Are rivers alive? Not in the traditional sense, of course. But like all living creatures, rivers have a life span. They are born, grow in size, and they age. They can even die during the span of geological time. 73. Can asteroids create islands? Speculation has existed for decades that ancient asteroid impacts might create hot spots of volcanic activity, which could give rise to mountains that poke up through seas that didn't used to be there. There's no firm answer to this question, but a recent computer model suggested Hawaii might have been formed in this manner . 74. Is the state of Louisiana growing or shrinking? Louisiana loses about 30 square miles (78 square kilometers) of land each year to coastal erosion, hurricanes, other natural and human causes and a thing called subsidence, which means sinking. Much of New Orleans actually sits 11 feet ( 3.4 meters) below sea level. Parts of the French quarter have sunk 2 feet in the past six decades. The city is protected by dikes, but all

experts agree that storm tides from a direct hit by a major hurricane would breach the system and swamp much of the city. In 2000, the director of the U.S. Geological Survey, Chip Groat, said: "With the projected rate of subsidence, wetland loss and sea-level rise, New Orleans will likely be on the verge of extinction by this time next century."

Breaking up 75. How much would seas rise if the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted? The Antarctic Ice Sheet holds nearly 90 percent of the world's ice and 70 percent of its fresh water. If the entire ice sheet were to melt, sea level would rise by nearly 220 feet, or the height of a 20-story building. Scientists know there's a melting trend underway. The United Nations has said that in a worst-case scenario -- depending on how much global air temperatures increase -seas could jump 3 feet (1 meter) by 2100. 77. Is ice a mineral? Yes, ice is a mineral and is formally described as such in Dana's System of Mineralogy. 77. What is the softest of all minerals? Talc is the softest of minerals. It is commonly used to make talcum powder. 78. What is the hardest of all minerals? The one that becomes emotionally useless after a divorce but still retains monetary value. 79. How are colors produced in fireworks? Mineral elements taken from Earth provide the colors. Strontium yields deep reds, copper produces blue, sodium yields yellow, and iron filings and charcoal pieces produce gold sparks. Bright flashes and loud bangs come from aluminum powder. 80. Does Earth have the worst weather in the solar system? Right now, it's the worst that most humans I know ever experience. But there's lots of wilder weather elsewhere. Mars can whip up hurricane-like storms four times bigger than Texas. Dust storms on the red planet can obscure the entire globe! Jupiter has a hurricane twice the size our entire planet, and it's lasted for at least three centuries ( another storm on Jupiter is even bigger). Venus is a living hell, and Pluto is routinely more frigid than the coldest place on Earth (though may change one day, and Pluto may in fact become the last oasis for life). 81. Where are the highest tides? In Burntcoat Head, Minas Basin, part of the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, tides can range 38.4 feet (11.7 meters). The bay is funnel shaped -- its bottom slopes upward continuously from the ocean inlet. The result is an extreme "tidal bore," a wave-like phenomenon at the leading edge of the changing tide. Bores in Fundy can travel up feeder rivers at 8 mph (13 kph) and be more than 3 feet (1 meter) tall. 82. Where is the world's only equatorial glacier? Mt. Cotopaxi in Ecuador supports the only glacier on the equator. 83. What is the largest lake in North America? Lake Superior. 84. What's the deadliest hurricane to ever hit the United States? A Category 4 hurricane hit Galveston, Texas in 1900 and killed more than 6,000 people (read about the history of it here). The next closest death toll was less than 1,900 from a 1928 Florida hurricane. 85. What is the longest mountain chain on Earth?

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which splits nearly the entire Atlantic Ocean north to south. Iceland is one place where this submarine mountain chain rises above the sea surface.

Gold rings in surprising places! 86. How much gold has been discovered worldwide to date? More than 193,000 metric tons (425 million pounds). If you stuck it all together, it would make a cube-shaped, seven-story structure that might resemble one of Donald Trump's buildings. First you'd have to find all those rings that have gone down the drain. 87. What are the two major gold-producing countries? South Africa produces 5,300 metric tons per year, and the United States produces more than 3,200 metric tons. 88. What North American plant can live for thousands of years? The creosote bush, which grows in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts, has been shown by radiocarbon dating to have lived since the birth of Christ. Some of these plants may endure 10,000 years, scientists say. If only they could talk. 89. On average, how much water is used worldwide each day? About 400 billion gallons. 90. Is Saturn the only ringed planet? Saturn has the most obvious rings. But Jupiter and Neptune both have subtle ring systems, [as does Uranus, readers reminded me]. And even Earth may once have been a ringed planet, the result of some space rock's glancing blow

TEACHER : What is the chemical formula for water? PAPPU : "HIJKLMNO! "!! TEACHER : What are you talking about? PAPPU : Yesterday you said it's H to O ! *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : PAPPU, go to the map and find North America. PAPPU : Here it is! TEACHER : Correct. Now, class, who discovered America? CLASS : PAPPU! *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : PAPPU, how do you spell "crocodile"? PAPPU : "K-R-O-K-O-D-A-I-L" TEACHER : No, that's wrong PAPPU : Maybe it's wrong, but you asked me how I spell it! *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : PAPPU, give me a sentence starting with "I". PAPPU : I is... TEACHER : No, PAPPU. Always say, "I am."

PAPPU : All right... "I am the ninth letter of the alphabet." *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : "Can anybody give an example of "COINCIDENCE?" PAPPU : "Sir, my Mother and Father got married on the same day, same time." *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : "George Washington not only chopped down his father's Cherry tree, but also admitted doing it. Now do you know why his father didn't punish him?" PAPPU : "Because George still had the axe in his hand?" *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*PAPPU : Daddy, have you ever been to Egypt? FATHER : No. Why do you ask that? PAPPU: Well, where did you get THIS mummy then? *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*TEACHER : What a pair of strange soc ks you are wearing, one is green and one is blue with red spots ! PAPPU: Yes it's really strange. I've got another pair just like that at home. *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-* TEACHER : Now, PAPPU, tell me frankly do you say prayers before eating ? PAPPU: No sir, I don't have to, my mom is a good cook. *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-* TEACHER : PAPPU, your composition on "My Dog" is exactly the same as your brother's. Did you copy his ? PAPPU: No, teacher, it's the same dog ! -*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-* TEACHER : What do you call a person who keeps on talking when people are no longer interested? PAPPU: A teacher

Microwaved Water - See What It Does To Plants

Below is a science fair project. In it she took filtered water and divided it into two parts. The first part she heated to boiling in a pan on the stove, and the second part she heated to boiling in a microwave. Then after cooling she used the water to water two identical plants to see if there

would be any difference in the growth between the normal boiled water and the water boiled in a microwave. She was thinking that the structure or energy of the water may be compromised by microwave. As it turned out, even she was amazed at the difference.

I have known for years that the problem with microwaved anything is not the radiation people used to worry about, It's how it corrupts the DNA in the food so the body can not recognize it. So the body wraps it in fat cells to protect itself from the dead food or it eliminates it fast. Think of all the Mothers heating up milk in these "Safe" appliances. What about the nurse in Canada that warmed up blood for a transfusion patient and accidentally killed them when the blood went in dead. But the makers say it's safe. Never mind then, keep using them. Ask your Doctor I am sure they will say it's safe too. Proof is in the pictures of living plants dying. Remember You are also Living. Take Care. FORENSIC RESEARCH DOCUMENT Prepared By: William P. Kopp A. R. E. C. Research Operations TO61-7R10/10-77F05 RELEASE PRIORITY: CLASS I ROO1a Ten Reasons to Throw out your Microwave Oven From the conclusions of the Swiss, Russian and German scientific clinical studies, we can no

longer ignore the microwave oven sitting in our kitchens. Based on this research, we will conclude this article with the following: 1). Continually eating food processed from a microwave oven causes long term - permanent brain damage by "shorting out" electrical impulses in the brain [de-polarizing or de-magnetizing the brain tissue]. 2). The human body cannot metabolize [break down] the unknown by-products created in microwaved food. 3). Male and female hormone production is shut down and/or altered by continually eating microwaved foods. 4). The effects of microwaved food by-products are residual [long term, permanent] within the human body. 5). Minerals, vitamins, and nutrients of all microwaved food is reduced or altered so that the human body gets little or no benefit, or the human body absorbs altered compounds that cannot be broken down. 6). The minerals in vegetables are altered into cancerous free radicals when cooked in microwave ovens. 7). Microwaved foods cause stomach and intestinal cancerous growths [tumors]. This may explain the rapidly increased rate of colon cancer in America. 8). The prolonged eating of microwaved foods causes cancerous cells to increase in human blood. 9). Continual ingestion of microwaved food causes immune system deficiencies through lymph gland and blood serum alterations. 10). Eating microwaved food causes loss of memory, concentration, emotional instability, and a decrease of intelligence. Have you tossed out your microwave oven yet? After you throw out your microwave you can use a toaster oven as a replacement. It works well for most and is nearly as quick. The use of artificial microwave transmissions for subliminal psychological control, a.k.a. "brainwashing", has also been proven. We're attempting to obtain copies of the 1970's Russian research documents and results written by Drs. Luria and Perov specifying their clinical experiments in this area.

Hi All Once again i m here after watching lots of Killings of innocent childrens and innocent civilians of Iraq, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and now IRAN......... and feel so sad.

Lebnon and may be next one should be

UN (United Nation)........... is a Joke. Basically United Nation form to

support those countries who do killing in other countries innocent people and when some body raise there voices against that killing they VITO them........... What is VITO........ i think it means "SHUT UP AND WE DO MORE THEN THAT WHAT WE ARE DOING..........." and we have full support of UNITED NATION. So all of my brother, sister & friends............... Where these people pushing our world and into what?????????...... Think

Shame on Israel Shame on America Shame on West. Shame on UNO

Israel uses banned weapons against Lebanese civilians

7/17/2006 2:00:00 PM GMT

A statement issued Sunday by Lebanon's Cabinet accused Israel of using banned weapons against Lebanese civilians. "We are facing a real annihilation carried out by Israel," Information Minister Ghazi Aridi said after an emergency cabinet meeting.

(Reuters Photo) A man that was injured in an Israeli attack that destroyed a house in Tyre, Lebanon

"Israel is using internationally prohibited weapons against civilians,"he added, without specifying

the kind of weapons he accused the Israeli army of using. Lebanese media reported earlier that Israel had used phosphorus incendiary bombs and vacuum bombs. But those reports weren't confirmed. Amnesty International called on Israel, the Lebanese governments, and Hezbollah movement to put an end to the current escalation in the Lebanese territories which has so far claimed over 150 lives. "It is vital at this time of rapidly rising tension that all parties observe the requirements of international humanitarian law, and that other governments take all appropriate steps to insist that they do so," the Amnesty said in a statement. "Collective punishment"

"Israel must put an immediate end to attacks against civilians and against civilian infrastructure in Lebanon, which constitute collective punishment. Israel must also respect the principle of proportionality when targeting any military objectives or civilian objectives that may be used for military purposes," said Malcolm Smart, Director of Amnesty International's Middle East Programme. International humanitarian law stipulates that armed forces should distinguish between combatants and civilians, between military objects and civilian objects, and prohibits indiscriminate attacks or attacks that inflict damage disproportionate to the anticipated concrete military advantage, Human Rights Watch said. Amnesty accused the Israeli army of carrying out deliberate attacks throughout Lebanon targeting civilian objects, including Beirut international airport, bridges and an electricity power station. Israeli airstrikes also hit Hezbollah-run Al Manar television station in Beirut and its relay station in Baalbek. The Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits "collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism ..." (Article 33). Article 147 of the Convention states that "extensive destruction ... not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly," hostage-taking and "torture or inhuman treatment" constitute war crimes.

India struggles to catch China

By Rupert Wingfield-Hayes BBC News, Delhi and Beijing

The rapid growth of the Indian and Chinese economies have transformed the two countries in recent years. But this prosperity has also brought other problems. I think it was in 2003, that the world Heavy investment has turned suddenly woke up to China. Beijing into a modern city I am not sure what caused it to happen, what particular event or news story. I just remembered the phone in the BBC's Beijing Bureau started ringing and it has not stopped since. Well now it is happening again and this time it is not China, it is India. Every time you turn on the television or pick up a magazine, it is no longer the rise of China, it is now the rise of China and India. The desire to make comparisons is understandable. Both have more than a billion people. Both are Delhi is an overwhelming growing at 10% a year. experience. It is as if all of There are, I suspect, many who humanity has been squeezed are hoping that India, with its into one city freedom and democracy, will win this new race to become the next economic super power. I am not so sure. I have spent the last eight years living in Beijing, and only four days in Delhi, so comparisons are difficult. But the few days I recently spent in India made me look at China in a new light. 'Shocking experience' Delhi is an overwhelming experience. It is as if all of humanity has been squeezed into one city. Over 15 million people live in The streets groan under the weight Delhi of people. The air is filled with deafening noise and sumptuous smells. Switch on the television and it is the same. Between channels blasting out voluptuous Bollywood love stories and pop videos, an endless stream of news channels dissect the latest political scandals, and debauched lifestyles of the rich and famous. Coming from China it is an almost shocking experience.

But after the initial delight at being in an open society, I started to notice other things. Foreign tourists stared in The hotel was expensive and bad. bewilderment; locals with the In my room I searched for a high resigned look of those used to speed internet connection, a waiting standard feature in any hotel in China. There was not one. Then with the night-time temperature still well above 30C (86F) the power went out. I lay for hours soaked in sweat trying, and failing, to get back to sleep and wishing I was back in Beijing where the lights never go out. But getting back would not be easy. Passenger queues I looked at my plane ticket. Departure time 0315. Surely that could not be right. I called the front desk. "That's correct sir," he said, "the airport is too small so many flights from Delhi leave in the middle of the night." He was not joking. My taxi struggled along the Jaipur road towards the airport. The two-lane road was clogged by an endless convoy of lorries. Finally I arrived at Indira Gandhi International airport. Despite the hour it was teeming with people. The queues snaked around the airport and back to where they had started. Foreign tourists stared in I could not help feeling a bewilderment. Locals with the sense of relief at being back in resigned look of those used to a country where things waiting. work "Is it always like this?" I asked a man in the queue ahead of me. "Pretty much," he sighed. I was finally shepherded aboard the flight to Shanghai. Next to me sat a friendly looking Indian man in shorts and running shoes. "Is this your first trip to China?" he asked me. "No," I replied, "I live there." "Really," he said, his interest piqued, "what should I expect?" "I think," I said, "you should expect to be surprised." Jaw dropping Six hours later, our plane taxied to a halt in front of the soaring glass and steel of Shanghai's Pudong International Airport

As we emerged into the cool silence of the ultra-modern terminal, my new companion's jaw slid towards his belly button. "I was not expecting this," he said, his eyes wide in wonder. "Oh no, I definitely was not expecting this". I also found myself looking at In Delhi I had been shocked China afresh. to see thousands of people Later that day as I drove home sleeping rough on the streets from Beijing airport along the every night, nothing but the few smooth six-lane highway I could not help feeling a sense of relief at rags they slept in to call their own being back in a country where things work. And it was not just the airports and roads. Driving through a village on the edge of Beijing I was struck by how well everyone was dressed. In Delhi, I had been shocked to see thousands of people sleeping rough on the streets every night, nothing but the few rags they slept in to call their own. Even deep in China's countryside that is not something you will see. In Delhi I had been told of the wonders of India's new economy, of the tens of thousands of bright young graduates churning out the world's latest computer software. I thought of China's new economy, of the tens of millions of rural migrants who slave away in factories, making everything from plimsolls to plasma televisions. And of the same rural migrants, heading home to their villages at Chinese New Year festival loaded down with gifts, their pockets stuffed full of cash. China is not a free society, and it has immense problems. But its successes should not be underestimated. They are ones that India, even with its open and democratic society, is still far from matching. From Our Own Correspondent was broadcast on Saturday 22 July, 2006 at 1100 BST on BBC Radio 4. Please check the programme schedules for World Service transmission times.


Find something that you already knew... Alaska More than half of the coastline of the entire United States is in Alaska. Amazon The Amazon rainforest produces more than 20% the world's oxygen supply. The Amazon River pushes so much water into the Atlantic Ocean that, more than one hundred miles at sea off the mouth of the river, one can dip fresh water out of the ocean. The volume of water in the Amazon river is greater than the next eight largest rivers in the world combined and three times the flow of all rivers in the United States. Antarctica Antarctica is the only land on our planet that is not owned by any country. Ninety percent of the world's ice covers Antarctica. This ice also represents seventy percent of all the fresh water in the world. As strange as it sounds, however, Antarctica is essentially a desert. The average yearly total precipitation is about two inches Although covered with ice (all but 0.4% of it, i.e.), Antarctica is the driest place on the planet, with an absolute humidity lower than the Gobi desert. Brazil Brazil got its name from the nut, not the other way around. Canada Canada has more lakes than the rest of the world combined. Canada is an Indian word meaning "Big Village." Chicago Next to Warsaw, Chicago has the largest Polish population in the world.

Detroit Woodward Avenue in Detroit, Michigan, carries the designation M-1, named so because it was the first paved road anywhere. Damascus, Syria Damascus, Syria, was flourishing a couple of thousand years before Rome was founded in 753 BC, making it the oldest continuously inhabited city in existence. Istanbul, Turkey Istanbul, Turkey, is the only city in the world located on two continents. Los Angeles Los Angeles's full name is El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula --and can be abbreviated to 3.63% of its size: L.A. New York City The term "The Big Apple" was coined by touring jazz musicians of the 1930's who used the slang _expression "apple" for any town or city. Therefore, to play New York City is to play the big time - The Big Apple. There are more Irish in New York City than in Dublin, Ireland; more Italians in New York City than in Rome, Italy; and more Jews in New York City than in Tel Aviv, Israel. Ohio There are no natural lakes in the state of Ohio, every one is manmade.

Pitcairn Island The smallest island with country status is Pitcairn in Polynesia, at just 1.75 sq. miles/4,53 sq. km.

Rome The first city to reach a population of 1 million people was Rome, Italy in 133 B.C. There is a city called Rome on every continent. Siberia Siberia contains more than 25% of the world's forests. S.M.O.M.The actual smallest sovereign entity in the world is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta ( S.M.O.M.). It is located in the city of Rome, Italy, has an area of two tennis courts, and as of 2001 has a population of 80, 20 people less than the Vatican. It is a sovereign entity under international law, just as the Vatican is. Sahara Desert
In the Sahara Desert, there is a town named Tidikelt, which did not receive a drop of rain for ten years. Technically though, the driest place on Earth is in the valleys of the Antarctic near Ross Island. There has been no rainfall there for two million years. Spain

Spain literally means 'the land of rabbits'.

St. Paul, Minnesota St.Paul, Minnesota, was originally called Pig's Eye after a man named Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant who set up the first business there. Roads Chances that a road is unpaved in the U.S.A.: 1%, in Canada: 75% The Eisenhower interstate system requires that one-mile in every five must be straight. These straight sections are usable as airstrips in times of war or other emergencies. Texas

The deepest hole ever made in the world is in Texas. It is as deep as 20 empire state buildings but only 3 inches wide. United States Waterfalls The water of Angel Falls (the World's highest) in Venezuela drops 3,212 feet (979 meters). They are 15 times higher than Niagara Falls.

So, didn't it feel good to learn something new today??? It is always said you should learn something new every day. Unfortunately, at our age what we learn today, we sometimes forget tomorrow. But keep in the's good for us.

Protests in UK at Israeli action Thousands of people across the UK have joined demonstrations against Israeli attacks on Lebanon. Eleven rallies were organised by groups such as Stop The War Coalition and the Muslim Association of Britain. The protest in London was one of many in the UK

They were held in towns and cities including Birmingham, Glasgow, London, Manchester, Edinburgh, Exeter and York. The rallies came as the last of the British evacuations from Lebanon took place, making a total of about 4,000 people leaving the country for Cyprus. Ahmed Sheikh Mohamed, president of the Muslim Association of Britain, said: "We need to stop this mad war." Meanwhile, a rally to show solidarity with people in northern Israel - areas of which have been hit by Hezbollah rockets - is being held on Sunday by the Board of Deputies of British Jews. Show of support Its rally - at 1700 BST in Kenton, Middlesex - will have a live video link to northern Israel.

Israel's war in Gaza and Lebanon is escalating into an Organisers of the event, run under the slogan, "Yes to peace, international crisis no to terror", are planning for numbers of around 2,500 to 5,000, said a spokesman. Spokesman for the protest

Howells condemns action The board wanted to show support for Israel's "right to defend Scots protest at Israeli action itself", it added. In pictures: UK protests Henry Grunwald, president of the board, said: "At a time when the situation in the Middle East is extremely precarious, we would like to send a message of support to the people of Israel." Saturday's demonstration in London against Israel's actions included a march past the US embassy and a rally in Hyde Park. Metal barricades Police estimated that 7,000 people took part in the London rally but organisers said more than 20,000 people attended the march from Whitehall to Hyde Park, including families and representatives from various faiths. No arrests were made during the protest. Organisers estimated that there were 2,000 people at the march in Manchester, while the police put the figure at "up to 1,000". In Birmingham around 200 protestors took to the streets, police said there were about 100 people in Sheffield, and there were around 150 in Newcastle.

The London protest grew larger by the time it reached the US The flag of Lebanon was at the embassy, where about 50 uniformed police officers and metal forefront of the London protest barricades also prevented the march from accessing the main door. Marchers shouted slogans at the Grosvenor Square embassy, such as "George Bush, terrorist" and "Down, down, USA." The flag of Lebanon, banners, and a handful of Hezbollah flags, were also waved in the direction of the building. 'Peace for Lebanon' There were also rallies in Kirkcaldy and Norwich, and there was a demonstration in Bristol on Friday.

The Palestine Solidarity Campaign, British Muslim Initiative and Lebanese organisations were also involved in organising demonstrations against what they call Israel's "crimes against humanity". A spokesman for the protests said: "Israel's war in Gaza and Lebanon is escalating into an international crisis which could soon engulf the whole region. "The promise by Bush and Blair, in the lead up to the Iraq war, that their wars would bring freedom and democracy to the Middle East and peace to Palestine have yet again been shown to be lies, just as the anti-war movement has consistently said they were." Casualty numbers Foreign Office Minister Kim Howells said he was pleased with how the evacuation plan had gone. As for anyone who missed Saturday's deadline for evacuation, he said: "If necessary we will have to make arrangements." Israel says its attacks on targets in Lebanon are aimed at securing the release of two Israeli soldiers, who were captured by Hezbollah militants on 12 July, and preventing further Hezbollah rocket attacks. Thousands of civilians are struggling to leave southern Lebanon, as Israel continues air strikes and ground raids. At least 349 Lebanese have been killed in the 11 days of violence, many of them civilians. Thirty-four Israelis have been killed, including 15 civilians killed by rockets fired by Hezbollah into Israel.