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HW7

Due: 11:59pm on Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Parallel Lines of Charge
A
very long uniform line of charge has charge per unit length 4.90
and lies along the x -axis. A second long uniform line
of
charge has charge per unit length -2.30
and is parallel to the x -axis at
= 0.392
.
Part A
What is the magnitude of the net electric field at point
= 0.218
on the y -axis?
=
6.42 ×10 5
Correct
Part B
What is the direction of the net electric field at point
= 0.218
on the y -axis?
-
y -axis
+
y -axis
Correct
Part C
What is the magnitude of the net electric field at point
= 0.614
on the y -axis?
=
4.28 ×10 4
Correct
Part D
What is the direction of the net electric field at point
= 0.614
on the y -axis?
-
y -axis
+
y -axis
Correct
Part E
What is the size of the attractive force, by the positively-charged line, on a one-meter length of the negatively-charged line?
0.517
Correct
Problem 22.48
A
very long, solid cylinder with radius
has positive charge uniformly distributed throughout it, with charge per unit volume
.
Part A
Derive the expression for the electric field inside the volume at a distance
from the axis of the cylinder in terms of the charge
density .
Correct
Part B
What is the electric field at a point outside the volume in terms of the charge per unit length
in the cylinder?
Correct
The Electric Field inside and outside a Charged Insulator
A
slab of insulating material of uniform thickness
, lying between
to
along the x axis, extends infinitely in the y and z
directions, as shown in the figure. The slab has a uniform charge
density
. The electric field is zero in the middle of the slab, at
.
Part A
Which of the following statements is true of the electric field
at the surface of one side of the slab?
The direction of
is constant but its magnitude varies across the surface.
Both the magnitude and the direction of
are constant across the entire surface.
The direction of
varies across the surface but its magnitude is constant.
Both the magnitude and the direction of
vary across the surface.
Correct
Part B
What is the angle
that the field
makes with the surface of the
slab, which is perpendicular to the x direction?
.
= 1.57
Correct
Part C
What is
, the magnitude of the electric field outside the slab?
As implied by the fact that
is not given as a function of
, this magnitude is constant everywhere outside the slab, not just
at the surface.
Hint C.1
How to approach the problem
Hint not displayed
Hint C.2
Gauss's law
Hint not displayed
Hint C.3
A Gaussian surface for this problem
Hint not displayed
Hint C.4
Calculate the enclosed charge
Hint not displayed
Hint C.5
Compute the electric flux
Hint not displayed
,
, and
.
=
Correct
Part D
What is
, the magnitude of the electric field inside the slab as a function of
?
Hint D.1
How to approach the problem
Hint not displayed
Hint D.2
A Gaussian surface for this problem
Hint not displayed
Hint D.3
Calculate the enclosed charge
Hint not displayed
Hint D.4
Compute the flux
Hint not displayed
=
Correct
Basic models of diodes and transistors (which are components used in more complex circuits, like those on computer
chips) treat regions inside them as slabs of charge. In this example you found that the electric field points in opposite
directions on the two sides of
. However, if a slab with negative charge were added behind this slab, i.e., from
to
, you can check that the electric field would be zero in the regions where there is no charge, because
the fields due to the positive and negative charges cancel, and that the electric field in the regions where there is charge is
always in the positive x direction.
Such a setup (usually called a PN junction) can be used as an electric "one-way street," since it supports the flow of
positive charge only in the positive direction, i.e., along the electric field, and severely inhibits the flow of current in the
opposite direction.
The Electric Field inside a Conductor
Learning Goal: To understand how the charges within a conductor respond to an externally applied electric field.
To illustrate the behavior of charge inside conductors, consider a long conducting rod that is suspended by insulating strings (see
the figure). Assume that the rod is initially electrically neutral, and that it remains so for this discussion. The rod is positioned
along the x axis, and an external electric field that points in the positive x direction (to the right) can be applied to the rod and the
surrounding region. The atoms in the rod are composed of positive nuclei (indicated by plus signs) and negative electrons
(indicated by minus signs). Before application of the electric field, these atoms were distributed evenly throughout the rod.
Part A
What is the force felt by the electrons and the nuclei in the rod when the external field described in the problem introduction is
applied? (Ignore internal fields in the rod for the moment.)
Hint A.1
Formula for the force on a charge in an electric field
Hint not displayed
Both electrons and nuclei experience a force to the right.
The nuclei experience a force to the right and the electrons experience a force to the left.
The electrons experience a force to the left but the nuclei experience no force.
The electrons experience no force but the nuclei experience a force to the right.
Correct
Part B
What is the motion of the negative electrons and positive atomic nuclei caused by the external field?
Hint B.1
How to approch this part
Hint not displayed
Hint B.2
Masses and charges of nuclei and electrons
Hint not displayed
Both electrons and nuclei move to the right.
The nuclei move to the right and the electrons move to the left through equal distances.
The electrons move to the left and the nuclei are almost stationary.
The electrons are almost stationary and the nuclei move to the right.
Correct
The nuclei of the atoms of a conducting solid remain almost in their places in the crystal lattice, while the electrons
relatively move a lot. In an insulator, the electrons are constrained to stay with their atoms (or molecules), and at most,
the charge distribution is displaced slightly.
The motion of the electrons due to the external electric field constitutes an electric current. Since the negatively charged
electrons are moving to the left, the current, which is defined as the "flow" of positive charge, moves to the right.
Part C
Imagine that the rightward current flows in the rod for a short time. As a result, what will the net charge on the right and left
ends of the rod become?
Hint C.1
How to approach this part
Remember that the rod as a whole must remain electrically neutral even if the charges are redistributed. This is because
applying an electric field does not change the charge on the rod, only redistributes it.
left end negative and right end positive
left end negative and right end negative
left end negative and right end nearly neutral
left end nearly neutral and right end positive
both ends nearly neutral
Correct
Given that the positively charged nuclei do not move, why does the right end of the rod become positively charged? The
reason is that some electrons have moved to the left end, leaving an excess of stationary nuclei at the right end.
Part D
The charge imbalance that results from this movement of charge will generate an additional electric field near the rod. In what
direction will this field point?
Hint D.1 Direction of the electric field
The electric field point away from positive charges and towards negative ones.
It will point to the right and enhance the initial applied field.
It will point to the left and oppose the initial applied field.
Correct
An electric field that exists in an isolated conductor will cause a current flow. This flow sets up an electric field that
opposes the original electric field, halting the motion of the charges on a nanosecond time scale for meter-sized
conductors. For this reason, an isolated conductor will have no static electric field inside it, and will have a reduced
electric field near it. This conclusion does not apply to a conductor whose ends are connected to an external circuit. In a
circuit, a rod (or wire) can conduct current indefinitely.
Exercise 22.19
Part A
How many excess electrons must be added to an isolated spherical conductor of diameer 34.0
to produce an electric field
of 1125
just outside the surface?
=
2.26 ×10 10
Correct
Exercise 22.22
Part A
At a distance of 0.204
from the center of a charged conducting sphere with radius
, the electric field is 485
. What is the electric field 0.594
from the center of the sphere?
57.2
=
Correct
Part B
At a distance of 0.206
from the axis of a very long charged conducting cylinder with radius
, the electric field is
485
. What is the electric field 0.584
from the axis of the cylinder?
171
=
Correct
Part C
At a distance of 0.192
from a large uniform sheet of charge, the electric field is 485
. What is the electric field 1.22

from the sheet?