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REZUMAT al tezei de doctorat cu titlul Persuasiunea prin artefacte: dimensiuni sociologice i psihologice Autor: Mihaela Liliana Stroe Conductor

tiinific: Prof. univ. dr. Septimiu Chelcea

Indiferent de domeniul n care lucrm (resurse umane, vnzri, relaii cu clienii, turism, administraie, politic, etc.), comunicarea nonverbal este peste tot n jurul nostru. Cunoaterea semnificaiei artefactelor n diverse contexte poate fi considerat un element esenial al interaciunii umane, reprezentnd un barometru subtil al capacitii noastre de persuasiune. Artefactele (obiectele de vestimentaie, accesoriile, machiajul, tatuajele) sunt parte integrant a comunicrii nonverbale, iar studierea acestui domeniu preocup din ce n ce mai mult comunitatea tiinific din toate domeniile sferei socioumanului: sociologie, psihologie, antropologie, neurotiine, etologie i bineneles, comunicare. Din aceast perspectiv, teza i propune s sublinieze existena unui interes real pentru cunoaterea semnificaiilor artefactelor n contextul organizaional i s clarifice direciile care trebuie s fie avute n vedere cnd vorbim despre procedurile de selecie a personalului. n ciuda creterii importanei noilor tehnologii, interviul de selecie continu s fie procedura cheie pentru strngerea de informaii relevante despre aplicani i pentru luarea deciziilor de angajare a personalului n organizaii (publice i private). Dei procedurilor de recrutare li s-a acordat o atenie considerabil n ultimii cincizeci de ani, consider c sunt necesare studii care s examineze felul n care specialitii n resurse umane iau deciziile n timpul interviului de selecie, n special despre cum evalueaz prima impresie i modul n care se mbrac persoanele care doresc s aib o slujb. Exist numeroase exemple n literatura tiinific dedicate managementului impresiei care demonstreaz c indivizii influeneaz opiniile celorlali actori sociali implicai prin strategii verbale i nonverbale n timpul interviului de selecie (C. Fletcher, 1989; R. Gifford i M. Wilkinson, 1985; D. C. Gilmore, C. K. Stevens, G. Harrell-Cook i G. R. Ferris, 1999; C. K. Parsons i R. C. Liden, 1984; R. E. Riggio i B. Throckmorton, 1988).

Tocmai de aceea definirea conceptelor de persuasiune i influen nonverbal constituie substana primului capitol al acestei lucrri, dar i descrierea teoriilor relevante care le nsoesc. Am subliniat disticia dintre diversele definiii date persuasiunii ca proces i cum putem s o deosebim de manipulare i am argumentat necesitatea integrrii unui nou concept, persuasiunea ncorporat (embodied persuasion) n sfera explicativ a influenrii sociale. Am pornit de la ideea conform creia rspunsurile corporale determin persuadarea prin afectarea intensitii proceselor de gndire, mai ales n contextul interviului de selecie. n acest context, candidaii pot ntreprinde diverse ncercri pentru a persuada, fie prin controlul direct al propriului comportament, fie prin modificarea nfirii (haine, postur, stil de coafur), fie prin comportamente publice (cum ar fi de exemplu critic la adresa sinelui). Importana recunoaterii acestor mecanisme psihologice care ne arat cum micrile corpului (i corpul n general) influeneaz atitudinile ne conduce s aflm consecinele pe termen imediat sau lung ale persuasiunii, dar i s contientizm cnd cineva ncearc s ne mint sau s ne manipuleze. Influena nonverbal este un alt concept nou pe care n introduc i pun accentul pe reliefarea importanei artefactelor i a nfirii fizice, prin prezentarea mesajelor nonverbale care in de atracie i similaritate, de manifestri ale statusului i puterii, dar i pe modul cum comunicm la nivel nonverbal ce ateptri avem de la ceilali, mai ales n contextul organizaional. Astfel, am prezentat n ordine cronologic principalele direcii de studiu ale acestui concept i cercetrile care stabilesc paternitatea acestora. Capitolul al doilea este dedicat analizei domeniului comunicrii nonverbale, n special artefactelor, i a urmrit traseul dezvoltrii acestei discipline ncepnd de la gnditorii din Antichitate (Confucius, Cicero, Marcus Fabius Quintilianus i Aristotel), secolul al XVIIlea (Giovani Bonifacio, John Bulwer, Gilbert Austin), secolul al XIX-lea (Andrea de Jorio i Charles Darwin) i pn la cele mai recente cercetri empirice care au evoluat spre observarea n context a semnalelor nonverbale, analizarea lor n grupuri de semnale, descoperirea neuronilor oglind i oglindirea comportamentelor n relaiile interpersonale. Am pus accentul pe definirea comunicrii nonverbale, scond n eviden particularitile acestui domeniu, i pe reliefarea funciilor i formelor sale. Inteligena nonverbal este un nou concept pe care l introduc n aceast lucrare i consider c sunt necesare cercetri viitoare pentru a afla care sunt mecanismele prin care ne dezvoltm acest tip de inteligen i dac este dobndit prin natere sau nvaat prin socializare i educaie.

Am prezentat pe scurt cele zece canele prin care comunicm la nivel nonverbal cu ajutorul unor studii realizate recent i n corelaie cu impactul lor asupra persuasiunii. Dintre cele zece canale ale comunicrii nonverbale (kinezica, proxemica, teritoriul i spaiul personal, expresiile faciale, oculezica, haptica, cronemica, olfactiva, vocalica) am analizat n profunzime impactul artefactelor asupra judecilor fcute de specialitii n resurse umane n contextul interviului de selecie. De ce sunt demne de menionat artefactele n situaia menionat? Pentru c au un rol important n exprimarea statutului, a puterii i dominantei, n persuasiune i manipulare, n minciun i managementul impresiei. Astfel, am expus cercetri din psihologia social care dovedesc c oamenii, n special candidaii care i doresc un loc de munc, dovedesc o nclinaie deosebit de a-i construi i aplica constant (uneori chiar la nivel incontient) strategii de creare a unei imagini pozitive despre sine n relaia cu cei care i intervieveaz. Vestimentaia joac un rol important pentru prezentarea la interviul de selecie, deoarece hainele sunt semne ale statutului social i simboluri ale puterii sociale. Ele influeneaz stima de sine a celor care le poart, dar i modul n care ceilali se comport fa de noi. Modul n care o persoan se mbrac contribuie la ceea ce numim n psihosociologie efectul primei informaii (primacy effect). Interviurile de selecie constituie un context (situaie social) n care efectul primei informaii poate avea un mare impact asupra modului n care un angajat va fi evaluat. Se accepta la scar larg c interviul de selecie este un context important pentru realizarea managementului impresiei (Baron, 1989a, 1989b; Fletcher, 1981, 1989, 1990; Giacalone i Rosenfeld, 1989Gilmore i Ferris, 1989a, 1989b; Ferris i Judge, 1991;Gilmore, Stevens, Harrell- Cook i Ferris, 1999; Rosenfeld, Giacalone i Riordan, 1995). n plus, candidaii caut s influeneze decizia de angajare rspunznd la ntrebrile specialitilor n resurse umane i comportndu-se din punct de vedere al comunicrii nonverbale ntr-un mod prin care cred c vor crea o prim impresie favorabil (Anderson, Silvester, Cunningham-Snell i Haddleton, 1999; Baumeister i Tice, 1986; Leary i Kowalski, 1990; Schlenker, 1980; Stevens i Kristof, 1995). Relaionat acestor cadre, teza a rspuns unor interogaii precum: Cum percep i interpreteaz specialitii n resurse umane comportamentele de management al impresiei ale aplicanilor? Sunt corecte percepiile lor? Ce factori afecteaz acurateea acestor percepii (spre exemplu, tipologia interviului, vestimentaia, personalitatea intervievatorului)? Ce tipuri de

tactici de management al impresiei influeneaz validitatea interviurilor de angajare? Reflect vestimentaia valoarea social a candidailor? Pentru c inuta vestimentar a devenit un aspect important n evaluarea competenei profesionale a persoanelor care i caut un loc de munc. (Eurobarometrul Special, 2009) n capitolul al treilea aduc n discuie trei probleme de cercetare, care au reieit n urma observrilor pe care le-am efectuat de-a lungul experienei mele profesionale n domeniul resurselor umane i consider c cercetarea realizat a rspuns urmtoarelor ntrebri: Specialitii n resurse umane se refer la artefacte ca fiind factori persuasivi n timpul interviului de selecie? Specialitii n resurse umane coreleaz n discursul lor artefactele cu atribuirile de autenticitate, ncredere, competen i credibilitate? Percep specialitii n resurse umane managementul impresiei practicat de aplicani? Cercetarea sociologic realizat a avut dou componente: una cantitativ (aplicarea de chestionare online) i una calitativ (interviu semi-structurat fa n fa). Primul lot pe care am aplicat chestionarele on-line a vizat funcionarii publici permaneni din variate directorate i uniti ale Comisiei Europene i am urmrit nregistrarea percepiilor sociale pe care le au asupra conceptelor cheie ale cercetrii (persuasiune, prima impresie, imaginea profesional, credibilitatea, autenticitatea, competena, ncrederea, managementul propriei persoane, prezentarea sinelui, promovarea sinelui, managementul impresiei, inuta profesional). Al doilea lot supus investigaiei sociologice a fost format din angajai romni care lucreaz n companii naionale i multinaionale i am urmrit, de asemenea, nregistrarea percepiilor sociale pe care le au asupra conceptelor cheie ale cercetrii. Cercetarea calitativ a vizat realizarea de interviuri semi-structurate cu dou loturi: pe de o parte, efi de departamente (head of units sau directors) din diferite departamente ale Comisiei Europene n contextul seleciei funcionarilor publici permaneni pentru poziii de middle-management, i, pe de alt parte, directori de resurse umane din companii naionale i multinaionale romneti n contextul recrutrii de persoane pentru poziii de middle management. Prima problem supus cercetrii, dac specialitii n resurse umane se refer la artefacte ca fiind factori persuasivi n timpul interviului de selecie, este susinut de datele studiului ntreprins. Din interviurile semi-structurate realizate cu efi europeni de departamente de la Comisia European i cu manageri de resurse umane romni reiese c nfisarea profesional este unul dintre elemente pe care ei i bazeaz prima impresie n contextul recrutrii personalului pentru poziii de middle management.

Totodat, aceast afirmaie este n acord i cu importana care este acordat imaginii profesionale atunci cnd specialitii n resurse umane au de ales ntre un candidat care se prezint cu o nfiare profesional adecvat i unul care nu o are. Astfel spus, conform rezultatelor, nfiarea profesional conteaz n funcie de poziia i de departamentul unde candidaii aplic, fapt care este susinut i de afirmaiile respondenilor care acord o greutate destul de mare acesteia n cuantumul evalurii candidatului (un procent care variaz ntre 40-60% dintre rspunsurile obinute la ntrebarea Care este greutatea pe care o acord imaginii profesionale?). O posibil explicaie a acestor rezultate ar putea fi pus pe seama rolului social important pe care aceast poziie de middle management l impune, iar nfiarea profesional are un rol important n exercitarea cu succes a atribuiilor de serviciu. A doua problem pune n discuie dac specialitii n resurse umane coreleaz n discursul lor artefactele cu atribuirile de autenticitate, ncredere, competen i credibilitate. Rezultatele cercetrii arat c respondenii att cei europeni, ct i cei romni coreleaz imaginea profesional cu atribuirile de autenticitate, ncredere i competen. Este posibil s avansm o explicaie legat de faptul c orice relaie interpersonal se bazeaz pe ncredere, iar prin intermediul artefactelor noi comunicm dac se poate avea ncredere n noi. n urma cercetrii observm c preocuparea pentru a te prezenta la interviul de selecie cu o nfiare profesional este echivalent cu o declaraie public dac persoana are sau nu ncredere n sine. Foarte probabil, vestimentaia aleas spune nc de la prima interaciune cu panelul de selecie sau cu specialistul n resurse umane dac persoana are sau nu ncredere n sine, fiind unul dintre primele lucruri pe care cei din jur le remarc, fapt confirmat de rezultate. Un alt rezultat al cercetri se refer la atribuirea de competen i observm c ambele loturi de respondeni au plasat competena pe primul loc n clasamentul elementelor care indic dac acel candidat este compatibil cu poziia de middle management pentru care aplic. Iar rezultatele cercetrii arat clar c vestimentaia pe care o pori i imaginea profesional emanat poate arta dac eti o persoan competent sau nu. Nu a fost confirmat n rspunsurile primite atribuirea de credibilitate. Cu toate acestea, putem considera credibilitatea ca fundament al ncrederii pe care o persoan o are att n ea nsi, ct i altcineva din afar ei n ea. Eti cu att mai credibil cu ct ai o capacitate mai mare de a stimula percepia celor din jur s te considere un om de ncredere, iar aceast capacitate se mai numete i abilitate de influenare. Remarcm la respondenii romni c au inclus abilitile de influenare n rndul elementelor pe care o persoan trebuie s le aib pentru a fi

considerat potrivit poziiei de middle management. n rndul respondenilor de la Comisia European nu am nregistrat nici o remarc cu privire la abilitile de influenare, dei n rndul criteriilor de evaluare a performanelor candidailor se apreciaz n mod expres aceast caracteristic. A treia ntrebare a vizat dac specialitii n resurse umane percep strategiile de management al impresiei practicat de aplicani. Att respondenii europeni ct i cei romni au remarcat modaliti de management al impresiei, att verbale ct i nonverbale. Este de menionat faptul c respondenii romni au indicat mai multe modaliti nonverbale de management a impresiei (gesticulare, inflexiuni ale vocii, inut, oglindire comportamental). Persuadarea celorlali este doar o component a ecuaiei de comunicare, ns n contextul seleciei personalului pentru poziii de middle management este esenial s percepi corect comportamentul nonverbal autentic al candidailor. Consider c dezvoltarea inteligenei nonverbale (prin decodificarea semnalelor nonverbale i emoiilor) constituie o compenent esenial pentru specialitii n resurse umane care sunt implicai n procesul de recrutare, mai ales pentru poziii de middle i top management. Pentru prima oar n Romnia este prezentat o cercetare comparativ ntre percepiile sociale ale funcionarilor europeni permaneni (de diferite naionaliti, printre care i romni) i angajailor romni din companii naionale i multinaionale despre cele 12 concepte cheie ale studiului (persuasiune, prima impresie, imagine profesional, credibilitate, autenticitate, competen, ncredere, managementul propriei persoane, prezentarea sinelui, promovarea sinelui, managementul impresiei, nfiare profesional). Aceste concepte au fost alese pe baza studierii cercetrilor realizate de ali cercettori i ca urmare a experienei mele directe de selecie a personalului. Interesul meu, n prima etap a cercetrii, a fost acela de a prezenta care sunt percepiile sociale ale persoanelor intervievate despre aceste concepte, punnd accent pe diferenele culturale. A reieit c att funcionarii din cadrul Comisiei Europene ct i angajaii romni din companii naionale i multinaionale folosesc aceste concepte n viaa lor de zi cu zi, pe baza cunoaterii lor comune, iar rspunsurile pe care le-am nregistrat scot n eviden att asemnri, ct i deosebiri ntre celelalte culturi i cultura noastr. Un alt element de noutate pentru Comisia European este intervievarea a 25 de efi de departamente care sunt responsabili cu selecia personalului pentru poziii de middle management pentru a afla mecanismele pe care le folosesc n aceast activitate: pe ce i bazeaz prima impresie, ce

importan acord imaginii profesionale, cum depesc gradul de subiectivitate, ce strategii de management al impresiei au observat c sunt folosite de candidai. Pentru c n ultimii ani cultura organizaional a Comisiei Europene a nregistrat o transformare i direcia sa se ndreapt spre o cultur antreprenorial, am considerat necesar i un studiu comparativ cu managerii de resurse umane romni care lucreaz n companii naionale i multinaionale care au la baza o astfel de cultur organizaional. Acetia realizeaz selecia personalului astfel nct profilul candidailor s se potriveasc culturii lor antreprenoriale, iar valorile personale s fie aliniate cu cele organizaionale. Care este profilul candidatului ideal care se caut n cadrul Comisiei Europene pentru o poziie de middle management versus profilul candidatului ideal pentru companii naionale i multinaionale romneti? (Figura 1) Fig. 1. Profilul middle manager-ului care a reieit n urma cercetrii calitative realizate n cadrul Comisiei Europene i n companii romneti

Comisia European Expertiz (16) Competen (14) Aptitudini manageriale (13) Carism/viziune (11) Gndire strategic (10) Motivaie (9) Autentic (8) De ncredere (7) Rezisten la stres (6) Responsabil (6)

Companii romneti Expertiz (17) Competen (16) Abiliti de influenare (14) Atitudine proactiv (14) Carism/viziune (12) Abiliti de leadership (10) Motivaie (9) Autentic (9) De ncredere (8) Responsabil (6)

Exist numeroase similitudini ntre cele dou profile ale middle managerilor (experiena, competena, motivaia, carisma/viziunea, autenticitatea, de ncredere, responsabil), dar i cteva deosebiri: dac n cadrul Comisiei Europene se caut persoane cu aptitudini manageriale, care s gndeasc strategic i s fie rezistente la stres, n mediul antreprenorial din Romnia sunt apreciate persoanele cu abiliti de influenare, de leadership, cu atitudine proactiv i inovative. Potenialul aplicrii rezultatelor acestei cercetri n contextul menionat consider c este substanial, fiind prea puin explorat att n Romnia, ct

i pe plan mondial. Am constatat c exist tendina candidailor de a se prezenta cu o imagine diferit fa de cea real. Cred c poziia pentru care aplic (de manager) nu trebuie s determine modificri comportamentale, devieri de la adevrta personalitate. Oamenii n-ar trebui s-i doreasc poziii pentru care nu sunt potrivii sau competeni sau care contravin convingerilor i adevrurilor lor. Artefactele au ca scop sublinierea unicitii i particularitilor persoanelor care aplic pentru poziii de manager. Care este influena artefactelor n contextul interviului de selecie? n urma acestei cercetrii am ajuns la urmtoarele concluzii: a) Influenarea prin intermediul artefactelor depinde de poziia i profilul pe care l caui; b) Candidaii primesc un credit mai mare n timpul interviului de selecie dac tiu cum s se mbrace ct mai adecvat contextului; c) Imaginea/nfisarea profesional este un adevrat atu dac este susinut de atitudine proactiv i competen; d) Persoanele care fac diferena sunt cele care i prezint ntr-un mod autentic adevrul despre propria persoan (sinele revelat i asumat). Rezultatele obinute n urma cercetrilor realizate i prezentate n aceast lucrare ajut practicienii din domeniul resurselor umane s detecteze mai eficient comportamentele de management a impresiei folosite de candidai (verbale i nonverbale) i s desfoare interviuri de angajare eficiente, detectnd mai uor persoanele care ncearc s i mint i s i manipuleze. Alte cercetarri se pot realiza pentru identificarea tipului de interviu care s permit dezvluirea strategiilor de management a impresiei pe care candidaii sunt tentai s le aplice (spre exemplu, folosirea interviului structurat), mai ales cnd doresc s se angajeze ntr-un mediu multicultural. Este interesat de studiat cum afecteaz diferenele culturale strategiile de management al impresiei. Se pot dezvolta poteniale intervenii de training pentru a ajuta intervievatorii s-i mbunteasc abilitatea de a detecta comportamentele de management al impresiei, n special cele mincinoase prin sporirea inteligenei nonverbale.

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